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TELECOMMUNICATIONS TEL-380

Bachelor of Science in Information Technology

T. Ch d T Chadza Department of Electrical Engineering University of Malawi - Polytechnic y y tchadza@poly.ac.mw

Goal
To introduce the properties of various transmission media available to digital network systems.

Objectives j
understand the major properties of various transmission media make informed choice of an appropriate transmission media for practical application

Outline
Data Communications Carriers T1 And T-Carrier System y Analog Vs. Digital Transmission The Open Systems Interconnect Model Baseband Vs. Broadband The Telephone Network Computer To Telephony Integration Line Vs. Trunks Vs

Outline
Packet Switching Technologies g g Fiber Distributed Data Interface Frame Relay ISDN ATM Voice Characteristics Voice Processing g

Data Communications
transfer of digital information from a transmitter to a receiver. Information t I f ti transfer is th f i through bit (a h bits ( smallest unit of information that can be processed or t d transported over a circuit). t d i it) A byte is a set of eight bits equivalent to an octet or character. t t h t

Data is a representation of facts, facts concepts or instructions in a formalized manner suitable for communication communication, interpretation or processing by human beings or automated means means. Information is a message received and understood d t d

Communication System Model


The f d Th fundamental purpose of data t l fd t communication is exchanging information between t b t two agents. t A simple communication system model consists of a source, transmitter, transmission system, receiver and destination.

Source device that generates data to be transmitted e.g. telephone,computer.

Transmitter device that encodes data to be transmitted in such a way as t create t itt d i h to t electromagnetic signals matching characteristics of a transmission system e.g. modem y Transmission System physical medium that carries signals produced by the transmitter. It can be a single wire connecting t i l i ti two t l h telephones or a vast network connecting thousands of computers. e g microwave satellite computers e.g. microwave,satellite.

Receiver R i device that accepts a signal from the transmission system and converts it into a usable form for the destination device e.g. modem. g Destination accepts a signal from the receiver e.g. p g g telephone, computer or network switch. It usually processes data in some way so that is th t it i usable b a h bl by human user or a program running on the device.

Data Transmission D t T i i There are basically two data formats: serial and parallel parallel. Parallel All bits in a single character are transmitted simultaneously simultaneously. It is applied for connections within a computer. p It has shorter distance limitations. Printer connections typically use p yp y parallel data transmission to send data at once.

Consider for instance a byte 10101110 being transmitted over a single channel:

each bit has its own transmission line and it is faster than serial serial. implementation to accomplish this is complex as each bit requires its own transmission line. Serial bits of data are transmitted bit by bit over as gec a e single channel. normally used for long distances and is slower than parallel. implementation is quite simple.

It is used between two computers, from computer to external devices Local Area devices, Networks (LANs) and Wide Area Networks (WANs). ( )

Forms Of Serial Transmission


a. Asynchronous
Data is sent one byte at a time as it is ready and start and stop signals are placed either side of each character.

simple and cheap technique. Synchronisation i established f each S h i ti is t bli h d for h and every byte. It requires an overhead of two to three bits per character. There is cumulation of timing errors when a block is large hence not efficient for large blocks.

Synchronous S h
Data is collected in a storage area called buffer d is b ff and i sent i bl k with a start t in blocks ith t t and stop bits at each end of the block.