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MERCHANDISING: The term merchandising is well known to the person specially involved in garments trade.

The term merchandising has been derived from the term merchandise. Merchandise means goods that are bought and sold. The term merchandiser may be defined as the person who merchandises the goods especially for export purposes. Garments merchandising means buying raw materials and accessories, producing required garments, maintaining required quality level and exporting the garments within schedule time frame. 3.2 MAJOR RESPONSIBILITIES OF A MERCHANDISER ARE GIVEN BELOW: 1. Order sourcing/supplies 2. Negotiation 3. Production 4. Calculating Yarn/Fabric consumption 5. Calculating costing of the product 6. Monitoring Quality aspect 7. Product development 8. Liaison with Buyers Customers & Factory 9. Factory Scheduling 4 FUNCTION OF A MERCHANDISER When an nexport order is placed to a merchandiser , he has to schedule the following main function to execute the export order perfectly in time. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Fabric requirement calculatiuons. Accessories requirements calculation Sources of fabrics Possible date of arrivalof fabrics And accessories in the garments factory costing Garments production planning Pre shipment inspection schedule Shipment document

All the main functions , mentioned above are important but the procurement of fabric and accessories are most important as because there are many technical parametes involved, specially in thius area ,in most cases collection of fabric for the garments is a major problem. to procure a fabric, we should clearly specify the technical specification of the fabric during placing a fabric supply order.

3.5 WHAT BUYERS LIKE OR DISLIKE IN A MERCHANDISER? ** What buyers like in a merchandiser? 1. Good presentation: Calculator, Paper, and Scale etc. 2. Manner: Manner should be polite, good Behavior, Smart talking 3. Time Awareness: You should be punctual & sincere 4. Knowledge: About product, your company & about buyers 5. Sensibility To the needs: Lessening, understanding 6. Appearance: Smart Dress, Formal dress, and casual dress ** What buyers dislike? 1. Poor sales presentation 2. Unacceptable manner 3. Time wasting 4. Un smart appearance 5. Poor knowledge

3.6 PURPOSE OF MERCHANDISING: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. To collect order from the buyer. To shipment the order in time. To follow up the working of worker. To determine the actual price of the product. To improve the quality of the product. To increase the goodwill of the textile. To seek new buyers.

3.7 MERCHANDISING MANAGEMENT: Merchandising management constitutes the most significant part of textile companies. A company starts their activities by starting the activities of a merchandiser. When a company receives an email from buyer, then the activities of a merchandiser start and a merchandiser always look after all activities from production to shipment. 1. Receive email of the buyer or buying house 2. Determine the actual price of the product

3. 4. 5. 6.

Send sample of the product Ensure a good quality of product Follow up the production process. Monitoring the payment.

3.8 OBJECTIVES OF MERCHANDISING: Efficient Management of merchandising should ultimately result in the maximization of sales of products. In order to minimize cost Stated differently that the objectives of merchandising management consist of two counter-balancing parts: To maintain merchandising system for efficient and smooth production and sales operations. To maintain a minimum cost to maximize profitability. These two conflicting objectives of merchandising management can also be expressed in terms of cost and benefits associated with inventory. That the industry should minimize cost of product for increasing more sales and more profit. 4.1 THE PRESENT MERCHANDISING SYSTEM OF FOUR KNIT WEAR LIMITED: Merchandising is an important task of a textile company. To complete merchandiser activities successfully a merchandiser has to follow some procedure or sequence that are given below. Fore casting: It is an important term for merchandising. At first a merchandiser have to decide in what type product he will produce. There are various products in textile sector. After deciding the product then he will start for order sourcing. Order Sourcing: Sourcing is a term use to describe the process of determining how and where item will be procedure. It includes the decision on the selecting supplier for material procurement and vendors for apparel production. The stages of sourcing: 1. Internet 2. Business directory (yellow pages) 3. Advertising 4. Buying house

5. All country of Embassy 6. To exhibition Factor for sourcing: Sourcing decision depends on some factors1. Product factor: Style, design, quality standard, price reference, 2. Company/vendor factor: Company goodwill, previous history, minimum order quality, quality standard, and service ability 3. Country factors: Political: The present political stability Economical: financial, banking, insurance etc. facilities or tax free or others opportunities Cultural & language: In time delivery, previous history, morality, religious factor, ability of speaking English education. Geographical: Distance, transport cost. *Checklist for selecting a vendor/factory: Informations: 1. Name and address of the company. 2. Contact number and person 3. Major market of customers (which customer they deal) 4. Major products, (which products they experienced) 5. Capacity (monthly or annually) 6. Physical size of the plan. 7. Number of employees 8. Financial status 9. Location of production 10. Production facilities 11. Quality standard 12. Minimum order quantity. Negotiation: Its not contest. Its opportunity to establish good working relationship. Which obtaining a good deal. Or, negotiation is a stimulating way to arrive at acceptable solution to the need for something whither it is a need to resolve the difficulties or to settle terms. The aim of negotiation/approach Win Win solution Both parties are benefited. The skill for negotiation: 1. Discovering common interest and removal of personal issues. 2. Questioning skill 3. Listening effectively 4. Understanding body language. 5. Observation and judgment. 6. Influencing skills

Introducing: Actually merchandiser activities started by introducing with the buyers. Introducing may occur by two ways 1. Buyer to seller 2. Buyer to buying house and buying house to seller. Generally they communicate with them by email and telephone or mobile. Enquiry: At the time of introducing the buyer send their requirements, which include which types products, he needs. They also provide sample size, sample photo; style etc.

Source Fabric: After receiving the enquiry a merchandiser have to find from where fabric can be found as per buyers requirement. There are two sources of fabric. 1. Local source 2. Foreign source. Both local and foreign it needs to open a L/C. In textile sector generally back-to-back L/C is used to collect Fabrics. Prepare Lab Dipping: It is an important part of sampling. If buyer wants color size product then he need to send them for proper coloring. After that lab test is send to the buyer for approve. For an example Letter that is send to lab is given below: Gets approval Lab dipping: Lab Dip confirmation & may be fitting & workmanship changes: 1. Start with dyeing the fabric (if necessary start tests bulk) 2. Sending preproduction samples or size set in original fabric with all already Confirmed details. After checking & necessary changes, the confirmation of labels, print. . Start of label, print, and patch production. Order Bulk Fabric Production: Dyeing: After the buyer approves lab test, and then sample is sent for dyeing. Fabric Printing: Fabric printing is the process that applies a single or multi colored/design on a white of dyed background fabric, using textile dyes. If there is any need of print, then it is sent for print.

Source Prepare Trims & Accessories: for preparing a product a company need various types of trims and accessories. These are very much important for textile product. Such as tag, pin, scope tape etc. so it is the duty of a merchandiser to sourcing accessories before start production. Develop a Sample: Sample is the physical form of buyers specification or style/design. After draw a cache a sample is prepared for the buyers and sends to the buyers. Sampling may be in two ways. 1. Sampling after confirmation price. 2. Sampling before confirmation price. For sampling a merchandiser need Fabrics, yarn, level, etc. Types of sample/Stages of sample: 1st pattern: The first physical version of any garment as per the artwork done by designer and/or developer. 2. 2nd pattern: Usually designer/ developer always asks for some changes to the first pattern. Second pattern is made as per comments. Sales man sample: Sample is made when PRICE is confirmed and orders are on speculation, usually in L size in all color combinations of expected or Production: It is a reference to the buyer that the bulk is being produced as per specification. Buyer wants to be assured that correct material is sourced and line workmanship confirm to the quality. Marketing/Developing sample: Counter sample (Based on buyer requirement,) Where first pattern is made on designers artwork, Counter sample is to make not on designers artwork, has to follow another sample given by the merchandiser 6. Fit sample/red tag sample/ Proto type sample: Samples are made with actual color and material to be worn by the models on the event of SHOOTING for catalog. 7. Approval sample: In any discrete period of time, whenever it required any revision in the sample, a new sample is made (some times mock-up is workable too) as per new specification. It is sent to buyer for his APPROVAL of the conformity that- the revision is done correctly.

8. Preproduction sample/size set sample/ production sample: When material for bulk production arrived, factory makes a sample with the actual material and sends to buyer.

9. Shipping sample: A sample is kept from every Pre Shipping inspection to be referred, if required, after the order has been delivered. Usually for any disputes (e.g. Claim) shipping sample is important.

10. Mock up sample: Any part of the garment to make for particular purpose, not complete garment. Sometimes it is necessary to send to the buyer any part of the garments, such as sleeve, collar, neck etc and some accessories. SWATCH: Swatch is a presentation of all the materials is (Fabric & Accessories) used for any specific style/order. Usually small piece of fabric and each piece of accessories are attached in board paper in a systematic manner. Swatch is very important for production line to make the correct construction of a garment and QC department ensures it. Pricing: It is the most important factor for a merchandiser. A merchandiser is the person who fix or determining the price of the product. Deals will be done or not is totally depend on the price of the product. Yarn price Knitting price Dyeing price Stander Fabric cost 8.84 Cm Accessories Print Embroidery Flat knit collar and cuffs Lycra Bank charge75% Commission 0% FOB 3.10/kg .14/kg 1.32/kg 4.56/dozen 3.00/ dozen 2.50/ dozen 2.00/dozen

.12/ dozen 16.46/ dozen 1.37/ piece

Pre-production Sample Approval Order collect: If the buyers are satisfied to see the sample of the. Then he goes into productions. Order Follow Up Procedure Just after the placement of the order a merchandiser has to study the requirement laid down in the order sheet: 1. Classification of test *Study order Specification Details *Order details/Style details * Quantity * Trims/Accessories * Delivery terms & Conditions. 2. Monitoring of contract: *Opening and maintaining files * Distribute the order specification to the relevant dept. * Sample controlling. * Sourcing of supplies. 3. Monitoring Import procedures * Banking procedures * Customs procedure * Warehouse arrangement 4. Arrival of purchased Materials * Completion of custom procedures * Inspection/Identification * Storing of clothing materials 5. Factory production: * Execution of order * Meeting the Quality standards * Checking work in progress 6. Co-Ordination with Buying Agents * Liaison with buying office personnel for related manufacturing issues 7. Logistical and distribution Arrangements * Freights forwarding (sea/air) 8. Financial Transactions * Follow up Final payment

** Confirmation of the production. 1. Only if all confirmation has been given, the production can start 2. Pay attention & special care to all further production instruction from the buyer. 3. Send pre-shipment production to buyer. 4. Before shipment inspect the production by buyers nominee 5. Ship the goods within shipment date. Production Execution Tracking: A. Cutting the Fabrics: After confirmation of production and approve of the cutting the fabrics from the buyer, the cutting muster started to cut the fabrics. B. Sewing: In swing section the finish fabrics are sewing. There are various types of sewing machine that are given below: Follow- up Export Procedures: A merchandiser must follow the export procedures by himself.

4.2 PAYMENT MONITORING: After getting order from buyer A L/C have to open by the buyer .L/C means Letter of Credit. It is a conditional undertaking of payment. It is a document issued by a bank on behalf of an applicant undertaking to make payment to a beneficial up to a stated amount of moneys within a prescribed time limit and design stipulated documents. Types of L/C: 1. Revocable L/C: This type of credit can be amendment or cancel by the applicant without only prior notice to the beneficial. Here all risks are involves for the seller but buyer has more flexible. 2. Irrevocable L/C: This type of credit ca be amendment or cancel only to the agreement of all parties concern. 3. Irrevocable & Confirmed L/C: This type of credit involves the undertaking of the advising bank in addition to that of issuing bank .It means that issuing bank request a 2nd bank to add its own confirmation to the credit .So that the confirmation bank is responsible to make payment if the issuing bank to pay the beneficiary. 4. Transferable L/C: This type of L/C that is transferable as per the need.

5. Back-to-Back L/C: This type of L/C can be against a valid expert L/C. Master L/C. It is so much popular in textile area. ** If we open a L/C then need some things that are given below: 1. Trade license 2. Memorandum Certificate 3. Membership certificate 4. IRC 5. TIN 6. Bond license 7. Insurance 8. Factory Insurance 9. Agreement with the house owner ** L/C Export Document: 1. C.O 2. Inspection Certificate 3. U .D 4. G.S.P **Benefits of L/C Sellers End: 1. Without having cash payment 2. Guaranteed business without investing any cash involvement 3. Risk free Buyers end: 1. Guaranteed business without investing any cash involvement 2. Without having cash payment 3. Risk free 4. Same with quality product. The buyer should be ensured that he would get the quality product.


Todays garments fully depend on merchandising. A good merchandiser can develop the quality of product and increase the sales of the product. Merchandising is a big job and is a complex one. It is so much important in our textile industry. The study Merchandising system Four Knit Wear Ltd. revealed that Textile of Bangladesh is fully depending on merchandising. . It may an honorable professional for educated persons. For developing garment sector merchandising management system will have to focuses on modern system. For the development of merchandising there are many factors involved. Merchandising plays an important role. The result of the study showing that there is lot of step for Four Knitwear Ltd. to improve their merchandising management have certain implications for the business community as well as national merchandising planners. The study Merchandising Management of Four Knitwear Ltd. revealed that Merchandiser is most valuable human resources for the progress of the organization. For the development of these valuable resources there are many factors involved. To increase the productivity of an organization effectively, efficient merchandiser will have to develop. Preparation of future business managers should provide for the development of managerial skills relating to merchandiser function. Colleges and universities offering business administration curriculum would do well to evaluate their courses as they relate to the findings of this study. This direct study indicates the potential utility that could be derived from undertaking more comprehensive investigations covering only merchandising management of Four Knitwear Ltd. There are consequent developments of newer knowledge can definitely contribute to increase the efficiency of business management and this, in turn, will increase the satisfaction of all interested buyer parties, which will be the ultimate goal of business.