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# Structures & Tall Buildings Data Page 1

## A. REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN FORMULAE (For f

cu
s 40 MPa)
(Based on Hong Kong Code of Practice for the Structural Use of Concrete 2004, and moment
redistribution < 10%)
A1. Lever Arm (Singly reinforced section)

(

+ =
9 . 0
25 . 0 5 . 0
k
d z

A2. Bending Reinforcement
,
2
cu
f bd
M
K =
z f
M
A
y
s
87 . 0
=

For d/x < 0.43, compressive stress in steel = 0.87f
y

For K > 0.156, compression steel required.

( )
( )
,
' 87 . 0
156 . 0
'
2
d d f
f bd K
A
y
cu
s

= d z A
z f
bd f
A
s
y
cu
s
775 . 0 and '
87 . 0
156 . 0
2
= + =

Min. 18 . 0
100
=
bh
A
s
for b
w
/ b < 0.4
Min. 13 . 0
100
=
bh
A
s
for b
w
/ b > 0.4
Max. 0 . 4
100
=
bh
A
s

Min. 2 . 0
' 100
=
bh
A
s
, Max. 0 . 4
' 100
=
bh
A
s

A3.1 Bending Moments for Two-way Spanning Simply Supported Slabs

2 2
and ,
x sy sy x sx sx
l n m l n m = = o o
A3.2 Bending Moments for Restrained Two-way Spanning Solid Slabs
and
2
x sx sx
l n m = |
2
x sy sy
l n m = |
A3.3 Loads on Supporting Beams of Restrained Two-way Slabs
and
x vx sx
l n V = |
x vy sy
l n V = |
Structures & Tall Buildings Data Page 2

A4. Deflection

b prov s
req s y
s
s
t
A
A f
f
bd
M
f
m
|
1
3
2
, 2
9 . 0 120
477
55 . 0
,
,
2
= s
|
.
|

\
|
+

+ =
5 . 1
' 100
3
' 100
1
,
,
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
bd
A
bd
A
m
prov s
prov s
c

A5.1 Shear Reinforcement for Beam & Slab

( )
yv v
sv
yv
c
v
sv
f
b
s
A
f
v v b
s
A
87 . 0
4 . 0
,
87 . 0
=

= ,

A5.2 Punching Shear Reinforcement for Slab
( )

>
c
yv
c
sv
v v
f
ud v v
A 6 . 1 e wher
87 . 0
sino
or
( )

s <

>
c c
yv
c
sv
v v v
f
ud v v
A 2 1.6 e wher
87 . 0
7 . 0 5
sino
in either case

>
87 . 0
4 . 0
sin
yv
sv
f
ud
A o

m
s
c
d bd
A
v

4 / 1 3 / 1
400 100
79 . 0
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ,
m
= 1.25;

bd
A
s
100
should not be taken as greater than 3;

d
400
should not be less than 0.67 for members without shear reinforcement,

d
400
should not be less than 1 for members with shear reinforcement providing minimum links.

For characteristic concrete strengths greater than 25 N/mm
2
, the values of v
c
may be multiplied by (f
cu
/
25)
1/3
. The value of f
cu
should not be taken as greater than 80.

Note: All the terms and symbols bear their usual meanings.

Structures & Tall Buildings Data Page 3
Table 1: Lever Arm Factor (
|b

>
0.9)

K= M/bd
2
f
cu

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.10

0.11

0.12

0.13

0.14

0.15

s 0.043 >0.156

0.950 0.775 0.941

0.928

0.915

0.901

0.887

0.873

0.857

0.842

0.825

0.807

0.789

l
a
= z/d

Table 2 Area of Steel Reinforcement
Steel Reinforcement

Bar Size Area of one Bar (mm
2
)
8 50.3
10 78.5
12 113
16 201
20 314
25 491
32 804
40 1257

Table 3 Area of Steel Reinforcement Per Meter
Table 4 A
sv
/ s
v
Steel Reinforcement - Area per one meter (mm
2
/m)
Bar Spacing
in mm

Bar
Size
100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 350
8 503 402 335 287 251 223 201 183 168 144
10 785 628 524 449 393 349 314 286 262 224
12 1131 905 754 646 565 503 452 411 377 323
16 2011 1608 1340 1149 1005 894 804 731 670 574
20 3142 2513 2094 1795 1571 1396 1257 1142 1047 898
25 4909 3927 3273 2805 2454 2182 1964 1785 1636 1403
32 8042 6434 5362 4596 4021 3574 3217 2925 2681 2298
40 12566 10053 8378 7181 6283 5585 5027 4570 4189 3590

A
sv
/s
v
Ratio for Shear Link (2 legs)
80 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350
8
1.257 1.005 0.804 0.670 0.574 0.503 0.447 0.402 0.366 0.335 0.309 0.287
10
1.964 1.571 1.257 1.047 0.898 0.785 0.698 0.628 0.571 0.524 0.483 0.449
12
2.827 2.262 1.810 1.508 1.293 1.131 1.005 0.905 0.823 0.754 0.696 0.646
16
5.027 4.021 3.217 2.681 2.298 2.011 1.787 1.608 1.462 1.340 1.237 1.149
Structures & Tall Buildings Data Page 4
Shear

Reproduced from Hong Kong Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete (2004)
Structures & Tall Buildings Data Page 5
Deflection:

Reproduced from Hong Kong Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete (2004)
Structures & Tall Buildings Data Page 6
Deflection:

Effective Flange Width
Structures & Tall Buildings Data Page 7

Force Coefficients:

Table 6.5 Bending moment coefficients for slabs spanning in two directions at right
angles, simply supported on four sides
l
y
/ l
x

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.75 2.0
o
sx

0.062 0.074 0.084 0.093 0.099 0.104 0.113 0.118
o
sy

0.062 0.061 0.059 0.055 0.051 0.046 0.037 0.029

Reproduced from Hong Kong Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete (2004)

Structures & Tall Buildings Data Page 8

Two-Way Spanning Slabs:

Reproduced from Hong Kong Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete (2004)
Structures & Tall Buildings Data Page 9
Two-Way Spanning Slabs:

Reproduced from Hong Kong Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete (2004)
Structures & Tall Buildings Data Page 10
B. Design Formulae for Prestressed Concrete Structures
B1.1 Concrete Stresses at transfer:
'
min
f
t
Z
i
M
t
Z
e
i
P
c
A
i
P
> +
o o
and
'
max
f
b
Z
i
M
b
Z
e
i
P
c
A
i
P
s +
o o

B1.2 Concrete stresses at service:
max
f
t
Z
s
M
t
Z
e
i
P
c
A
i
P
s +
| |
and
min
f
b
Z
s
M
b
Z
e
i
P
c
A
i
P
> +
| |

B2. Section modulus:
min
'
max
f f
i
M
s
M
t
Z
| o
| o

> and
min
max
' f f
i
M
s
M
b
Z
o |
| o

>

B3. Prestressing force based on allowable stresses:
)
min
'
max
'
(
t
Z
b
Z
f
t
Z f
b
Z
c
A
i
P
+
+
=
o
or )
min
max
(
t
Z
b
Z
f
b
Z f
t
Z
c
A
i
P
+
+
=
|

The greater value of P
i
obtained from the above equations should be used.

B4. Prestressing force and eccentricity:
) / (
min
'
e
c
A
t
Z
i
M f
t
Z
i
P

>
o

i
P
i
M f Z
i
P
c
A
t
Z
e
t
o
o )
min
' ( +
s
) / (
max
'
e
c
A
b
Z
i
M f
b
Z
i
P
+
+
s
o

i
P
i
M f Z
i
P
c
A
b
Z
e
b
o
o )
max
' ( + +
s
) / (
max
e
c
A
t
Z
s
M f
t
Z
i
P

s
|

i
P
s
M f Z
i
P
c
A
t
Z
e
t
|
| )
max
( +
>
) / (
min
e
c
A
b
Z
s
M f
b
Z
i
P
+
+
>
|

i
P
s
M f Z
i
P
c
A
b
Z
e
b
|
| )
min
( + +
>
Structures & Tall Buildings Data Page 11

B5. Prestress Loss:

B5.1 Relaxation:
Loss of prestress =
1000 hr
relaxation
x
relaxation
factor
x
initial prestress
in steel

Table 1 Relaxation Factor
Wires and strands
Class 1 Class 2 Bars
Normal Relaxation Low Relaxation
Pre-tensioning 1.5 1.2 -
Post-tensioning 2.0 1.5 2.0

B5.2 Elastic Deformation:

I
e M
r
e
A
A
m
f
f
i
ps
c
pi
co

(
(
(
(

+
+
=
) 1 (
2
2
at mid-span
Loss = m f
co
for pre-tensioned member
Loss = m f
co
for post-tensioned member with sequential tensioning

B5.3 Shrinkage:

A
CS
= C
s
k
L
k
C
k
e
k
j
in microstrains
Loss of prestress =
CS
A E
s

B5.4 Creep:
|
28
E
f
c
cc
= A
| = k
L
k
m
k
c
k
e
k
j
Loss of prestress = A
cc
E
s

B5.5 Anchorage Draw-in:

p
A
A E
x =

Structures & Tall Buildings Data Page 12

B5.6 Friction due to Curvature and 'Wobble' effect:

) (
0
Kx
R
x
x
e P P
+
=

or )] ( 1 [
0
Kx
R
x
P P
x
+ =

R = L
2
/ 8 d
r
where d
r
is the drape

B6. Moment Capacity:
Neutral axis depth trial: ' = (1 + 2
c
s
F
F
) /3
Strain in steel: 0.0035/x = cp/(d-x)

B7. For unbonded tendons in rectangular section or flanged section in which stress block lies within
the flange.

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
bd f
A f
d
l
f f
cu
ps pu
pe pb
7 . 1 1
7000

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= d
f
f
bd f
A f
x
pu
pb
cu
ps pu
47 . 2

B8. Shear Resistance

Uncracked Shear resistance:
t cp
2
t v co
f 0.8f f h 0.67b V + = where f
t
= 0.24\ f
cu

Cracked Shear resistance:
cu v
0
v c
pu
pe
cr
f d 0.1b than less not but V
M
M
d b )v
f
f
0.55 (1 V + =
M
o
=

0.8 [f
pt
I/y]

d ) (0.87f
V - V
s
A
yv
c
v
sv
= if V - V
c
> 0.4 b d
Structures & Tall Buildings Data Page 13
B9. Deflection
Deflection due to uniformly distributed load :
EI
wL
y
4
384
5
=
Deflection due to prestress force from straight tendon :
EI
PeL
y
8
2
=

Deflection due to prestress force from symmetrical parabolic tendon profile:

( )
EI
L Pe
y
c
2
48
5
=

Table 2 Short Term Elastic Modulus of Concrete (Hong Kong)

Characteristic Strength Modulus of
at Age Considered (N/mm
2
) Elasticity (N/mm
2
)
20 18900
25 20200
30 21700
40 24000
45 26000
50 27400
55 28800
60 30200

Note: All the terms and symbols bear their usual meanings.
Structures & Tall Buildings Data Page 14

C. Design Formulae for Water Retaining Structures

C1. Allowable steel stresses in direct or flexural tension for SLS (Table 3.1 of BS 8007)

Design crack width Allowable stress (N/mm
2
)
(mm) Plain bars Deformed bars
0.1 85 100
0.2 115 130

C2 Elastic design

Depth of neutral axis:
d x
e
e

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = 1
2
1
o
o
Level Arm
3
x
d z =
Moment of resistance z f bx z f A M
cb s s r
= = 5 . 0

C3.1 Crack width calculations (direct tension)
Steel:
y s
s
y
s
f f
E
f
8 . 0 or
8 . 0
< < c

Average strain
2 1
c c c =
m
and
s s
E A
T
=
1
c
For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.2 mm:

s s
t
A E
h b
3
2
2
= c

For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.1 mm:

2
s s
t
A E
h b
= c
The design surface crack width
m cr
a w c 3 =

Structures & Tall Buildings Data Page 15
C3.2 Crack width calculations (flexure)
Concrete:
cu cb
f f 45 . 0 <
Steel:
y s
s
y
s
f f
E
f
8 . 0 or
8 . 0
< < c
Average strain
2 1
c c c =
m
and
( )
( )
s
s
E
f
x d
x h

=
1
c
For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.2 mm:

( )( )
( ) x d A E
x a x h b
s s
t

=
3
'
2
c

For a limiting design surface crack width of 0.1 mm:

( )( )
( )
( )( )
( ) x d A E
x a x h b
x d A E
x a x h b
s s
t
s s
t

=
2
'
or
3
' 5 . 1
2 2
c c

The design surface crack width
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
x h
c a
a
w
cr
m cr
min
2 1
3 c

Where
2 2 2
2 2
| |
|
.
|

\
|
+ + |
.
|

\
|
= c
s
a
cr

C3.3 Crack width calculations (Temperature and moisture effects)
Crack width ( )
max 2 1
s T T R w + = o

C4. Critical Steel:
y
ct
crit
crit
s
f
f
bh
A
= = |
.
|

\
|

C5. Maximum crack spacing:
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
c b
ct
f
f
s s

|
2
2
max

For Type 2 deformed bar,
b
ct
f
f
=
3
2

Note: All the terms and symbols bear their usual meanings.
Structures & Tall Buildings Data Page 16

Typical value of T
1
( C ) for Hong Kong condition

Cement content
(kg/m
3
)
Steel Formwork 18 mm Plywood
Formwork
Winter Summer Winter Summer
300 12 18 20 28
350 15 23 27 35
400 17 27 32 43

T
2
= 20C in summer and 10C in winter

Restraint Factor R

Restraint condition Restraint Factor
R
External : Base cast onto blinding 0.2
Edge restraint in box type
deck cast in stages
0.5
Wall cast onto base 0.6
Edge element cast onto slab 0.8
Infill bays 1.0

Internal : 0.5