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# Page No...

7 USN

## First Semester M.Tech Degree Examination , January/February 2005

Digital Electronics

Linear Algebra
Time: 3 hrs.] Note: 1. Answer any FIVE full questions. 2. All questions carry equal marks. JMax. Marks : 100

1. (a) If V is the vector space over the field F. Prove that the intersection of any family of subspaces of V is a subspace of V. (8 Marks) (b) Prove that the subspace spanned by non empty subset S of a vector space V is the set of all linear combinations of vectors in S. (6 Marks) (c) In the vector space R3(R), let a = (1, 2, 1), (.3 = (3,1, 5) -y = (3,-4,7). Prove that the subspace spanned by S = {a, 0} and T = {a,,3, y} are the same. ( 6 Marks) 2. (a) If Wl and W., are finite dimensional subspaces of a vector space V, then show that Wt + W2 is finite dimensional and dim TV1 + dim W, = dim (W n W,) + (a Marks) dim (Wl + WZ)
j7( F1 he finite riim --inr1al vertrnr --Hart-anri let In. h, rv-1 he an orri

Page No... 2
2 1 0 0 (b) Find the minimum polynomial m(t) of A = 0 2 . 0 0 0 0 -2 4 (c) Let A =

LDE11

(8 Marks)

## 3 ) rind all eigenvalues of A and corresponding eigenvectors and

(6

Marks)

6. (a) Let W1, W2,... W, are subspaces of V and for { wz1, will ...W ini} is a basis of W i f o r i = 1, 2, ...r then V is the direct sum of Wi iff the union B = {w11, ...wlnl, ...wr1, ....wrnr} is a basis of V. (a Marks)

(b) Let T : V -p V be linear, suppose for V E V, Tk(v) = 0 but Tk-1(v) f- 0 prove i) the set s = {v,T(v), Tk-1(v)} is linearly independent ii) The subspace W generated by S is T - invariant. iii) The restriction t of T to W is nil potent of index k. (6 Marks) (c) Determine all possible Jordan cannonical forms for a linear operator T : V -. V whose characterestic polynomial is At = (t - 2)3 (t - 5)2 . (6 Marks) 7. (a) Prove that every inner product vector space is a normed vector space . (a marks) (b) An orthonormal set {u1, u,, ...Ur} is linearly independent and for any v E V, show that, the vector.

., kr) be a vector space and let )31 i Q,, ....13,E be any vectors in W. Let T : V - W defined by T(ai) = ;3i i = 1, 2,...n. Prove that T is linear transformation from V to W and is unique. ( 6 Marks)

(c) Prove that the set S = {(1, 2, 1, (2, 1, 0), (1, -1, 2)} forms a basis for V3 (F).
(6 Marks)

3. (a) Define rank and nullity of linear transformation T : V(F) -. W(F). and V is finite dimensional. Prove that Rankin + Nullity (T) = dim V ( 8 Marks) (b) Let V and W be vector spaces over the field F and let T : V -i W be linear transformation. If T is i n vertible then the inverse function T-1 : W - V Is
a linear transformation. ( 6 Marks)

(c) If T : R3 ^ R3 is a linear transformation defined by T(x, y, z) = (x - 3y 2z, x - 4z, z) is invertible find T- 1. (6 Marks) 4. (a) State and prove Cayley-Hamilton theorem. ( 8 Marks) (b) Find all eigenualues and a basis of each eigen space of the operator T : R3 -- R3 defined by T(x, y, z) = (2x + y, y - z, 2y+ 4z) (6 Marks)

5. (a) Show that a linear operator T : V - V has a diagonal matrix representation iff its minimal polynomial m(t) is a product of distinct linear polynomials.
(8 Marks!
r^ra .

W - o k u, U) u 1

u, w2 I u2...... t u, u.r i

-..1

(c) Let the basis of Euclidean space R3 is {v1 = (1,1,1), v2 = (0,1,1), v3 = (0, 0, 1)} use Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process to transform {vi} into an orthonormal basis {ui}. ( 6 Marks) 1 1 1 8. (a) Determine the inverse of the matrix 4 3 -1 by using partition method 3 5 3

x1+x2+x3=1

## 4x1+3x2-x3=6 3x1 + 5x2 + 3x3 = 4 (8 Marks)

(b) Solve the system of equations using Gauss - Seidel iteration method so as to get the solution accurate upto three decimal places. 10x1 + 2x2 + x3 = 9 2x1 + 20x2 - 2x3 = -44 -2x1 + 3x2 + 10x3 = 22 (6 Marks)

(c) Find all the eigen values and eigen vectors of the matrix using Jacobi method. 1
A

2
3 (6 Marks)

2 v 1

** * **

05EC046

NEW SCHEME

## First Semester M.Tech. Degree Examination , Dec.06 /Jan. 07 Linear Algebra

Time: 3 hrs.] [Max. Marks: 100 Note : Answer any FIVE questions. 1 a. If A and B are m x n matrices, show that B is row equivalent to A if and only if B = PA, where P in the product of m x m elementary matrices. (06 Marks) b. If A = A, A2 ... Ak where each Ai is an n x n square matrix, show that A is invertible

## if and only if each A; is invertible . H 1 2 1 01

(06

Marks)

c. If A= -1 0 3 5
1 -2 1 1

## , find the row equivalent echelon matrix R to A and an

invertible matrix P. Such that R = PA. (08 Marks) 2 a. Let P be an n x n invertible matrix. Let V be an n - dimensional vector space and B an

ordered basis for V. Show that there is a unique ordered basis B' of V such that [a]B=P[a]B. and
[a ]B' = P'' [a ]B . ( 06 Marks) b. If W, and W2 are finite dimensional subspaces of V, then show that W, + W2 is finite dimensional and dim W, + dim W2 = dim (W, + W2) + dim (W, n W2). (06 Marks) c. If (-1, 0, 0), (4, 2, 0), (5, -3, 8) are basis vectors in B', express the vector (x,, x2, x3) with respect to the basis B'. Hence express (1, 2, 3) with respect to B'. (08 Marks) 3 a. Let V be an n - dimensional vector space and let W be an n - dimensional vector space over F. Show that the space L (V, W) of linear transformations has dimension mn. (06 Marks) b. Let V and W be n - dimensional vector spaces over F. Let B and B' be ordered bases for V and W respectively. For each linear transformation T : V --+ W, show that there is anm x n matrix A such that [ T a ] B' = a [a ]B . (06 Marks) c. If a, = (1, 2 ), a2 = (3, 4) are bases for R2 and Ta, _ (3,2,1), Tae = (6,5,4). Represent T in the matrix for m where T is a linear transformation from R2 -> R3. (08 Marks) 4 a. Let V be a finite dimensional vector space. Let B = ( a,, a2, ....., a) be a basis of V. Show that there is a unique dual basis B* = { f,, f2, ..., f } for VO such that f, (aj) = Bij. Show also that for each linear functional f on V. f= n f(ai)a.i and for each vector a in V a= fi(a^ei (06 Marks) i=1 i=1 b. Define the transpose T` of a linear transformation T with the usual notation, if A is the matrix of linear transformation of T from V to W relative to the bases B and B1, and BM is the matrix of the transpose T` of T relative to B. , B the dual bases, show that BUM =Aji . Where BM =[BiM (06 Marks)

JJ

Contd...

Page No ... 2

05EC046

## c. Find the dual basis of B = ((1, -1, 3),(0,1,-1),(0 ,3,-2) }.

(08 Marks)

5 a. Prove the Cayley - Hamilton theorem : A square matrix of order n satisfies its own characteristics polynomial. ( 06 Marks) b. Show that an n x n matrix is diagonalizable if and only if A has n linearly independent (06 Marks) eigen vectors . ^1 3 3 c. Diagonalize the matrix A = -3 -5 -3 using D = P"1 AP and finding P. 3 3 1 (08 Marks) 6 a. Explain Gram - Schmidt process of orthogonalisation. 3 -2 4 b. Orthogonally diagonalize the matrix a given by A = -2 6 2 4 2 3 c. Find the least square solution of AX = b. 1 3 5 3 Where A = 1 1 0 1 1 2 1 3 3 7
(07 Marks) (06 Marks)

and b =

5 7 -3

(07 Marks)

a. Convert the quadratic form Q(x)=x? -8x1x2 -5x2 into a quadratic form with no cross product term . Verify that both will have the same value at a point (xi, x2). (06 Marks) b. Find the maximum and minimum values of Q(x) = 9x^ +4x2 +3x3 . Subject to the constraint XT X = I. (07 Marks) 5 9 c. If A = 13 7 1 5 , find QR factorization of A. (07 Marks)

8 Explain the following and illustrate the same with an example. a. Characteristics polynomial b. Annihilating polynomial c. Minimal polynomial d. Principal decomposition ( Primary decomposition ).

(20 Marks)

## M.Tech Degree Examination , May / June 2006 Linear Algebra

Time: 3 hrs.] Note : 1. Answer any FIVE J411 questions. 2 1 a. Determine Scalar K such that (KA)T(KA) = 1, where A = 1 . Is the value unique? [Max. Mark s:100

-1
(05 Marks)

## b. Solve for the s yste m of equ ation s, y - 4z = 8; 2x - 3y + 4z =1 ;

5x - 8y + 7z = 1 .

(05 Marks)

## {V,, V2, V,)

where

5 -3
,V2= -4 ,V3= 1 and Y=

F- 4 3 K
(10 Marks)

-7 0
3 -6 3 2 a. Find LU factorization of matrix, A = 6 -7 2

(10 Marks)

-1 7 0
b. Diagonalize the matrix B =

1 l (10 Marks)

i 0

3 a. Let T be a linear Transformation from R5 to R4 be defined as T(x, x2x3x4x5 ) _ (x, - x3 +3x4 -x5,x2 +x4 - x,,2x2 -x3 +5x4 Find a basis and dimension by Im T Find a basis and dimension of Ker T. X (10

- x5,- x3 +x4)

Marks)

b. Let

0 0

W=[W

## Find the matrix representation

I Vand Was V,= 0 1

0 V2= and V3 =
Contd.... 2

## What is the new representation ?

Page No... 2 0 0 -2

05EC046

4 a. Given the symmetric matrix, A = 0 -2 0 diagonalize this. ( 10 Marks) -2 0 3 1 -1 -1 0 b. Find QR factorization of matrix, A = 1 01 0 (10 Marks) 0 1 -1 5 a. Let T : P2 -+P2 be a linear transformation as defined by T(at2+bt+c) = (a+2b)t + (b+c) i) Is -4t2+2t-2 in Ker T? ii) Is t2+2t+1 in Range T? iii) Is T one to one? iv) Is T onto? v) Find basis and dimension of Im T. vi) Find basis and dimension of Ker T. vii) Varify Rank Nullity Theorem . (15 Marks) b. Let W be the subspace of IR4 with basis W1 and W2 where Wl = (1 1 0 1) and W2 = (0 -1 1 1). Find a basis for W. (05 Marks) 6 a. Let U and W be the following subspaces by IR4 : U = {(a, b, c, d) : b + c + d = Oland W = {(a, b, c, d) : a + b = 0, c = 2d). Find the basis and dimension of
i) U ii) W iii)

U f1

iv)

U U W

(10 Marks)

2 1 0 0
b. let A = 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 5
(10 Marks)

## Find characteristic polynomial, minimal polynomial of this.

7 a. Determine all possible Jordan Canonical forms of a matrix of order 6 whose minimal
polynomial is m(2) = (A - 2)2. ( 10 Marks) 2 -4 b. Determine the Invariant subspaces of A = 5 -21 viewed as linear operator on i) IR2 ii) C`' (10 Marks)

8 a. By using orthogonal projection determine the least square solution to this system of 1 -6 -1 1 -2 2 equation Ax = b when A = I I , b= I . 1 7 6 (05 Marks)

b. Verify the above result by computing least square inverse of A and using it. (05 Marks) c. Find singular value decomposition of matrix,

A=

(10 Marks)