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Libra 11: A professor peering over his glasses

The descends word from p ro fe ssor at le a s t

I n d o - E u r o p e a n ( IE ) r o o t s . T h e p r e f i x , p r o -, d e s c e n d s f r o m t h e r o o t p er1 w h i c h is the b a se of many and p re p o si t i o n s with the general meaning of T h e Am e ri c a n H e rit a ge D i c t i on a ry o f t he p r e v e r b s, p re f i x e s,

forward, first, and through.

E n gl i s h L an gu a ge l i s t s o v e r 1 2 0 d e r i v a t i v e s o f p e r1 i n c l u d i n g a f f o rd, a p p roa c h , a pp ro ve, f i rs t , f o rt h , f ro m , p ri de , p rie s t, p ro ve , p ri m e, p ri n ce, p ro b e, p ro t o n, p ro o f , a n d p ro pe rt y .


T h e s e c o n d IE r o ot i s bh a -2 w hi c h m e a n s t o s p e a k a n d f r o m w h i c h a l s o d e s c e n d f a b le, f a b u l o u s, f a i ry, fa t e, f a y, a f f a b le , in e f f a b le , in f a nt ,

i n f a nt ry, p re f a c e, p ro p h et , b a n, ba n a l, a ba n do n, ban i s h, c o n t rab an d, b a n dit , b o on , bee , f a m e, famous, e u p h e m i s m, p ho n e ti c , a nt h e m, s ym p h o n y, t h e s uf f i x p h o n y, t h e p r e f i x p ho n o -, c on f e s s, b la m e, a n d b l a sp h e m e. 1


T h e w o r d p e e ri n g d e s c e n d s f r o m t h e M i d d l e E n g l i s h aperen , t h e O ld F r e n c h aparoir , a n d u l t i m a t e l y f r o m t h e L a t i n p r e f i x ad- p l u s t h e b a se

parere , t o s h o w . 2
T h e w o r d o v er d e sc e n d s f r o m t h e I E ro o t u p er w h i c h m e a n s o ve r a n d f r o m w h i c h a l s o d e s c e n d t he w o r d s s o ve re i gn , s u p er, s u pe r - , s u p ra -,

s u p e rb, s up e ri o r, su p re m e, s u r - , si rl oi n , s u p e rn a l, s u m , s u m m i t , s o p ran o,
a n d s o m e rs a u lt . 3

1 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, p. 7 2 http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/appear 3 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, p. 94 Starling Hunter 2011 1

T h e w o r d g l a ss d e sc e n d s f r o m t h e I E ro o t g he l - 2 w hi c h me a n s t o s h i n e . 4 I t s p a r o n ym s i n c l u d e t h e p r e f i x c h l o ro - , c h o le ra, gl a d, go l d,

gl a re , gl an c e, gl e em , gl e e, gl i m me r, gl o a t , a n d ye l l o w .
TH EMES : T w o s e ma n t i c r e l a t i o n s hi p s a r e i m m e di a t e l y e v i d e n t a m on g t h e a b o v e k e y w o r d s , r o o t s, a n d d e r i va t i v e s. F i r s t l y, n ot e t h e n u m b e r o f a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e e s s e n t i a l t o t h e I NS TRUCTIO N & RE SEA RCH , t h e d u a l w o r k o f p r o f e s s o r s s h o wi n g, p ro vi n g , ap p ro vin g , a n d s pe a ki n g . A n o t he r c o m m o n t h e me c o n c e r n s RU LE RS . Re ca l l t h a t a m o n g t h e p a r o n y m s o f ov er i s t h e w o r d s ove re i gn . A s a n o u n i t m e a n s a ki n g , q u e e n , o r o t h e r n o b le p e r s o n w h o s e r v e s a s c h i e f o f s t a t e ; a r u l e r or m o n a r c h . 5 A m o n g t h e p a r o n y m s o f t he p r e fi x p ro - i s t h e w o r d p ri n c e i s, a m a n w h o i s a r u l e r o f a p r i n c i p a li t y a n d a h e r e d i t a r y m a l e r u l e r . 6 A r u l e r i s a ls o a s t ra i g h t e n e d st r i p o f wood or metal used for drawing straight l i n e s, m e a s u r i n g le n g t h s , a n d o n o c c a s i o n d i s c i p li n i n g u n r u l y s t u d e n t s .

4 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, p. 29 5 http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/sovereign 6 http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/prince Starling Hunter 2011 2