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L i b ra 30 : Th re e mou nds o f know le dg e o n a phi loso phe r 's h ea d T h e w o r d t h re e d e sc e n d s f r o m t h e I n d o E u r o p e a n ( I E ) r o o t t r ei - w hi c h m e a n s t h r e e .

1 I t s p a r o n y m s i n c l u d e th ri c e , t h i rte e n, t hirt y, t re y,

t ra m m e l , t e rce l ( a m a l e h a w k u s e d i n f a l c o n r y ) , t ri b e, t ri o , t rip l e, tri m , te s t a me nt , t e st i c l e, te s t, t e s ti f y, te ap o y, si ta r , a n d ri di n g ( a n


a d m i n i st r a t i ve o r e l e c t o r a l d i v i s i o n i n C a n a d a ) . 2 T h e o r i g i n o f t h e wo r d moun d i s un c e r t a i n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e O n l i n e Et ym o l o gi c a l D i c t i on a ry i t i s c o m m on l y s u p p o s e d t o b e f r o m O ld E n g l i s h m un d ( ha n d , p r o t e c t i on , g u a r d i a n s h i p ) b u t t h i s i s n ot c e r t a i n . P e r h a p s ( i t i s) a co n f u s i o n o f t h e M i d d l e D u t c h m o n d ( p r ot e c t i o n ) u s e d i n mi l i t a r y s e n s e f o r f o r t i f i c a t i o n s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s , i n c l u di n g e a r t h w o r k s, a n d i n f l e c t i o n o f m o u n t . 3 T h e w or d m o u n t d e s c e n d s f r o m t h e I E r o ot me n - 2 w h i c h m e a n s t o p r oj e c t . 4 I t s p a r on y m s i n c l u d e a m e na b l e, a m o un t , de m e an ,

e m i n en t, i m mi n en t, m e na c e, m o u nt , m o u t h , p ro m e na de , p ro m i ne n t , a n d m e n t a l ( o f o r r e l a t i n g t o t he c h i n ) .
T h e w o r d k n owl edg e i s a d e ri v a t i ve of t h e I E r o ot g no - w h i c h m e a n s t o k n o w. 5 P a r o n ym s i n c l u d e a c kn o wl e dge , c an , c o n, c un n i n g, c o u t h,

n o t i ce , n o ti f y, n ot io n , a c q u ai n t, c o gnit i o n, re c o gni ze, gno m e , gn os i s, gn o s t i c, n ot e, an n ot a t e, c on n o te , n o rm , n o rm a l, a n d a bno rm a l .


T h e w o r d p hi loso ph er i s a c la s s i ca l co m p o u n d w h i c h d e s c e n d s f r o m t h e G r e e k p h i l o s o p h o s . T h e fi r s t ha l f o f t h e w o r d , p h i l o - , i s G r e e k f o r l o v e a n d
the second half is related to sophos, the Greek for

knowledge, learning.6

1 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, p. 93 2 http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/riding_2 3 http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=mound 4 http://web.archive.org/web/20080211183126/www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE321.html 5 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, pp.32 6 http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/philosopher Starling Hunter 2011 1

T h e w o r d h e a d d e sc e n d s f r o m t h e I E ro o t k a put - ( he a d ) , a s d o t h e w o r d s c a p ri c e, a c hi e ve, bi c ep s , c a ddie , ca de t, c ap i ta l , c ap i t o l, ca p it u l a te ,

c a p ta i n, ca t t le , c hap t e r, c h e f, c h ie f , c orp o ra l , ke r c h i e f, a n d m i s c h ie f . 7
TH EMES : T h e m o s t o b v i o u s t h e m e h e r e c o n c e r n s t he h ea d o r b r a i n , t h e m in d , t he a s s oc i a t e d me n ta l p r o c e s s e s, t h e on e t ha t t h i n k s, a n d t he r e s u l t s o f t hi n k i n g . T h e h ea d i s t h e u p p e r m o st o r f o r w a r d - m o s t p a r t o f t h e b o d y o f a v e r t e b r a t e , c on t a i n i n g t h e b r a i n a n d t h e e y e s , e a r s, n o se , m o u t h , a n d j a w s . 8 T h e w o r d s h e a d a n d b r a i n a r e a l s o s yn o n y m s . 9 A m o n g t h e d e r i v a t i v e s o f t h e r o ot g no - i s c o gn i ti o n , t h e m e n t a l p r o ce s s o f k n o w i n g a n d t h a t w h i c h c o m e s t o b e k n o w n o r si m p l y kn o wl e dge . 10 The word mental has two meaningsof or relating to the chin and m o u t h a n d o f o r r e l a t i o n t o t h e m i n d o r b r a i n . T h e f o r me r d e s c e n d s f r o m t h e r o o t me n -2 , a s s h o w n a b o v e . T h e l a t t e r d e s c e n d s f r o m t h e r o o t me n 1 , w h i c h me a n s t o t h i n k a n d m a n y o f i t s d e r i v a t i v e s r e f e r t o v a r i o us q u a l i t i e s a n d st a t e s o f m i n d a n d t h o ug h t . 11 F i n a l l y , w e s h o u l d r e c a l l t h a t t he k e y w o r d p hi losoph er d e s c e n d s f r om t w o G r e e k r o o t s ph i lo w h i c h m e a n s l o v e a n d so phos w h i c h m e a n s kn o wl e dge , le a r n i n g . T hi s i s s y mb o l o f C O GNIT IO N, INTE LL I GE NCE , a n d MI ND .

7 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, p. 37 8 http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/head 9 http://thesaurus.com/browse/head 10 http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/cognition 11 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, p. 54 Starling Hunter 2011 2

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