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KEY FIGURES

June 2011

Market Observatory for Energy

KEY FIGURES

Content
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
ENERGY IN THE WORLD EU ENERGY DEPENDENCY EU ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY FUEL EU FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION EU ENERGY PRODUCTION EU ELECTRICITY GENERATION EU ENERGY TARGETS: 20-20-20 BY 2020 ENERGY PRICES SOME CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS

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KEY FIGURES

1. Energy in the world


World energy demand is on the rise.

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1. ENERGY IN THE WORLD

Oil, coal and gas account for more than 80% of the world energy production
Energy production in the world (2008)
Renew ables 13% Coal 28% Nuclear 6%

Gas 21%

Oil 33%

Total 12 369 Mtoe

Source: IEA World Energy Outlook 2010 Market Observatory for Energy 4

KEY FIGURES

2. EU Energy dependency
The EU produces 48% of its energy needs...
Production, net imports and consumption of energy in the EU in 2009

1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Energy production 818 Mtoe Net energy im ports 944 Mtoe

Energy gross inland consum ption 1 703 Mtoe

Source: Eurostat May 2011. Energy production includes primary energy production and recovered products. Market Observatory for Energy 5

2. EU ENERGY DEPENDENCY

EU dependency on imports is increasing for all fossil fuels. Dependency on oil imports reached 83.5% in 2009 and 64.2% for gas.
EU-27 Energy import dependency

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Total Import dependency Coal * Oil Gas 1990 2009

Source: Eurostat May 2011- * Coal and other solid fuels

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2. EU ENERGY DEPENDENCY

The EU depends on a few suppliers for its oil and gas supplies. Diversification of routes and sources is a strategic priority for the EU.

EU imports of gas, by country of origin - 2009


Other 9% Egypt 2% Nigeria 2% Libya 3% Qatar 5% Russian Federation 34%

EU imports of crude oil, by country of origin 2009


Azerbaijan 4% Kazakhstan 5% Other 8%

OPEC 35%

Norw ay 15%

Algeria 14%

Norw ay 31%

Russian Federation 33%

Source: Eurostat May 2011- Intra-EU trade excluded

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2. EU ENERGY DEPENDENCY Energy dependency strongly differs among Member States: Denmark is the only net energy exporter while Malta is entirely dependent on energy imports.
Energy Import dependency in Member States in 2009
MT LU CY IE IT PT ES BE GR SK AT DE LV HU FI FR LT SI BG SE NL PL CZ UK EE RO DK

-40%

-20%

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

120%
8

Values over 100% are possible due to changes in stocks. Source: Eurostat May 2011

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2. EU ENERGY DEPENDENCY In 2009, Denmark was the sole net exporter of oil among the EU-27 Member States and the United-Kingdom had the lowest oil dependency rate (8.6%).
Oil Import dependency in Member States in 2009
MT SE BG LU CY LV IE ES FI SI PT PL FR NL GR CZ DE BE IT AT LT SK HU EE RO UK DK

-80%

-60%

-40%

-20%

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

120%
9

Values over 100% are possible due to changes in stocks. Source: Eurostat May 2011

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2. EU ENERGY DEPENDENCY In 2009, Denmark and the Netherlands were the only gas exporting countries among the EU-27.
Gas Import dependency in Member States in 2009
LV SK CZ PT FR LT LU FI EE GR SI BE ES BG SE IE IT DE HU AT PL UK RO NL DK

-150%

-100%

-50%

0%

50%

100%

150%

Values over 100% are possible due to changes in stocks. Source: Eurostat May 2011

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KEY FIGURES

3. EU energy consumption by fuel


Fossil fuels represent three quarters of our energy mix today. Renewables are on the rise but there is still some way to go before reaching the 20% target by 2020.

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3. EU ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY FUEL The quasi-stability of energy consumption in the EU (it increased by only 2% between 1990 and 2009) hides a strong decline in coal consumption (-41%) while the consumption of renewables and gas grew by 116% and 41% respectively .
Gross inland e nergy consumption (Mtoe)
760 660 560 460 360 260 160 60

Coal*

19 95 19 96 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04 20 05 20 06 20 07 20 08 20 09
Oil Gas Nuclear Renew ables

90

91

92

19 9

19

19

19

19

94

Market Observatory for Energy Source: Eurostat May 2011; * Coal and other solid fuels

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3. EU ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY FUEL The picture of the energy mix strongly varies among Member States. For instance Malta energy consumption is 100% dependant on oil, while oil accounts for less than 20% of the energy consumption in Estonia.
Energy mix in Member States in 2009 (distribution of gross inland consumption by product)
UK SK SI SE RO PT PL NL MT LV LU LT IT IE HU GR FR FI ES EE DK DE CZ CY BG BE AT

0%

10%

20%
Oil

30%
Gas

40%

50%
Coal*

60%
Nuclear

70%

80%

90%

100%

Renewables

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Source: Eurostat May 2011; * Coal and other solid fuels

KEY FIGURES

4. EU final energy consumption


Transport and industry consume more than half of the total final energy in the EU, while a quarter of final energy is consumed by households.
Final energy consumption by sector (2009)
Agriculture 2%

Services 13% Industry 24%

Households 27%

Transport 33%

Source: Eurostat May 2011

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4. EU FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION

Final energy consumed by transport has strongly increased in the last 2 decades (+31%) even though the economic crisis has slightly reversed the curb in 2009.
Final energy consumption (Mtoe) by sector
400 350 300 250 200 150 100 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Industry

Transport

Households

Services

Source: Eurostat May 2011

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KEY FIGURES

5. EU energy production
The EU energy production decreased by 13% over the last 20 years, mainly due to the large reduction in coal and other solid fuels production (-55%)

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5. EU ENERGY PRODUCTION

By contrast production of energy from renewable sources rose by 111% between 1990 and 2009.
Energy production in the EU 27
400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Coal*

Oil

Gas

Nuclear

Renew ables

Source: Eurostat May 2011; * Coal and other solid fuels Market Observatory for Energy 17

5. EU ENERGY PRODUCTION 2/3 of the total primary energy production in the EU comes from 5 Member States...
Main producers of energy in the EU in 2009 (in Mtoe)

180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 UK FR DE PL NL CZ SE ES RO IT DK total Oil Gas Nuclear Renewables Coal*

Source: Eurostat May 2011; * Coal and other solid fuels Market Observatory for Energy 18

KEY FIGURES

6. EU electricity generation
Gas and renewables are more and more contributing to the electricity generation in the EU, just after nuclear and coal.

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6. EU ELECTRICITY GENERATION In Austria, 68% of electricity generation was provided by renewable energy sources in 2009 while the EU average was of 18%...
Share of Renewables in national Electricity Generation in 2009 (in %)

LT CZ PL BE EE UK LU HU BG NL FR GR IE DE SK IT ES RO DK SI FI PT SE LV AT

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

Source: Eurostat May 2011

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6. EU ELECTRICITY GENERATION In 2009, 15 Member States produced electricity from nuclear energy, with the highest share in France (76%).
Share of Nuclear in national Electricity Generation in 2009 (in %)

NL ES UK RO DE FI CZ SI BG SE HU BE SK LT FR

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

Source: Eurostat May 2011

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6. EU ELECTRICITY GENERATION Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Ireland and Italy produced more than 50% of their electricity from gas.
Share of gas in National Electricity Generation in 2009 (in %)
SE SI PL FR CZ BG EE SK RO LT FI DE GR DK AT HU PT BE LV ES UK IT IE NL LU

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

Source: Eurostat May 2011

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6. EU ELECTRICITY GENERATION Electricity generation from coal remains particularly high in Poland and Estonia.
Share of Coal (and other solid fuels) in National Electricity Generation in 2009 (in %)

SE FR AT BE ES IT SK HU NL FI IE PT UK SI RO DE DK BG GR CZ EE PL

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

Source: Eurostat May 2011

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6. EU ELECTRICITY GENERATION Electricity generation in Malta and Cyprus is quasi exclusively dependent on oil.
Share of Oil in National Electricity Generation in 2009 (in %) EE SE BE FI BG FR UK NL DE AT HU RO PL SK DK IE LT ES PT IT GR MT CY 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120%

Source: Eurostat May 2011

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KEY FIGURES

7. EU ENERGY TARGETS: 20-20-20 BY 2020


Reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions by 20% compared to 1990
Energy industries are responsible for 35% of CO2 emissions. Transport comes just after with 30% of CO2 emissions.
CO2 emissions by sector in 2009

Residential 11%

Other 7%

Energy Indus tries 35%

Transport 30% Indus try and Construction 18%

Source: Eurostat May 2011

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7. EU Energy targets 20-20-20 by 2020

Greenhouse gas emissions, by Member States (Mt/CO2 eq)


1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 AT BE BG CY CZ DK EE FI FR DE GR HU IE IT LV LT LU MT NL PL PT RO SK SI ES SE UK Non-energy related GHG emissions Energy related GHG emissions

Source: EEA 2010

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7. EU Energy targets 20-20-20 by 2020

The EU is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by at least 20% from 1990 levels by 2020. Member States have set themselves specific targets.
2020 Greenhouse gas emissions targets (compared to 2005 levels) 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

CY CZ DE DK

EE ES

-5%

-10% -15% -20% -25%


Source: European Commission Europe 2020 targets. The 20% reduction target for the EU is compared to 1990 level. Market Observatory for Energy 27

S I S K U EU K 27

FI FR G R HU IE IT LT LU LV M T NL PL P T RO

AT BE BG

SE

7. EU Energy targets 20-20-20 by 2020

Increase the share of renewable energy sources in energy consumption


to 20%

Source: Eurostat and European Commission

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7. EU Energy targets 20-20-20 by 2020

Solar, wind and biomass are the technologies progressing most rapidly. Solar and wind develop for electricity generation while biomass remains dominant for the heating sector.

Source: European Commission

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7. EU Energy targets 20-20-20 by 2020

In 2009, investment in renewable energy fell in the EU by 10% in the context of the economic crisis, while it increased by more than 50% in China Investment in renewable energy at global level

Source: International Energy Agency

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7. EU Energy targets 20-20-20 by 2020

20% increase in energy efficiency


In spite of progress, significant additional efforts are needed to achieve the -20% energy consumption target.

Source: European Commission

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7. EU Energy targets 20-20-20 by 2020

National projections vary to the base year against savings are estimated

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KEY FIGURES

8. ENERGY PRICES

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8. Energy prices

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8. Energy prices

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8. Energy prices

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8. Energy prices

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8. Energy prices

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8. Energy prices

Consumer prices of petroleum products (Inclusive of duties and taxes) The following maps are refreshed on a monthly basis and are available here, along with the underlying data:
Automotive Gas oil (Diesel Oil) Euro-Super 95 Total Taxation Share in the end consumer price for Euro-Super 95 and Diesel Oil
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KEY FIGURES

9. Some concepts and definitions


Gross inland consumption is the quantity of energy consumed within the borders
of a country. It includes deliveries to the energy transformation sector and to the energy industries themselves.

Final energy consumption is the energy finally consumed in the transport,


industrial, commercial, agricultural, public and household sectors. It excludes deliveries to the energy transformation sector and to the energy industries themselves.

Primary energy production is the extraction of energy from a natural source. Energy import dependency shows the extent to which a country relies upon
imports in order to meet its energy needs. Formula: net imports / (gross inland consumption+bunkers) (bunkers = quantities supplied to sea-going ships)

Renewable energy includes hydroelectricity, biomass, wind, solar, tidal and


geothermal energies.

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