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Hydrocarbon management

HM 58 Guidelines for determination of flare quantities from upstream oil and gas facilities

HYDROCARBON MANAGEMENT

HM 58 GUIDELINES FOR DETERMINATION OF FLARE QUANTITIES FROM UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS FACILITIES

May 2008

Published by ENERGY INSTITUTE, LONDON The Energy Institute is a professional membership body incorporated by Royal Charter 2003 Registered charity number 1097899

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Copyright 2008 by the Energy Institute, London: The Energy Institute is a professional membership body incorporated by Royal Charter 2003. Registered charity number 1097899, England All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced by any means, or transmitted or translated into a machine language without the written permission of the publisher. ISBN 978 0 85293 517 0 Published by the Energy Institute The information contained in this publication is provided as guidance only and while every reasonable care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of its contents, the Energy Institute cannot accept any responsibility for any action taken, or not taken, on the basis of this information. The Energy Institute shall not be liable to any person for any loss or damage which may arise from the use of any of the information contained in any of its publications.

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HM 58 GUIDELINES FOR DETERMINATION OF FLARE QUANTITIES FROM UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS FACILITIES

CONTENTS

Page Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi 1 2 3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Flare consents scheme (UK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 EU emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Categorisation by tier level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2 Fall-back approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operational considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 High- and low-pressure flare systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Temperature considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Gas composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Acid gas flares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Flare categorisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determination of flare quantity (flow rate) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Indirect determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.1 'By-difference' method to determine total flare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.2 Inventory calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Direct determination of flare quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 Dedicated flare meter approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2 Distributed metering approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Combination of direct and indirect determination of flare quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 3 4 6 7 7 7 8 8 8

11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13

Flare composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6.1 EU ETS emission factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Flare metering technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 Flow meter selection criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Flow meter installation considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.1 Ultrasonic transit time meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.2 Thermal mass flow meters (TMFs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.3 Optical flow meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 18 19 19 20 22

Determination of flare composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 8.1 Indirect determination of flare composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Direct determination of flare composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 Manual gas sampling and offline analysis by gas chromatograph . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2 Automatic gas sampling and offline analysis by gas chromatograph . . . . . . . 24 24 25 25

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Contents Cont...

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8.2.3 Online gas chromatographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 8.2.4 Optical spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 8.3 Determining molecular weight from speed of sound measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 9 Flow meter installation considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1 Installation effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1 Use of CFD techniques to determine flow meter installation error . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Effect of Reynolds number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.1 Laminar/turbulent flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.2 Roughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 36 36 37 38 38 38 39 40 41 43 43 46 46 46 46 47 47 48 48 49 49

10 Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1 Sources of uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.1 Basic meter uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.2 Pipe diameter, D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.3 Flow-related sources of uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.4 Environmental sources of uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.5 Secondary instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.6 Uncertainty in the calculation of Z . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.7 Data acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 Sources of uncertainty in flare quantity using ultrasonic flare gas meters . . . . . . . 10.2.1 Metrology contributions (D, L & x) for ultrasonic flare gas meters . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.2 Flow-related sources of uncertainty for ultrasonic flare gas meters . . . . . . . . . 10.2.3 Uncertainty in ultrasonic flare gas meters owing to environmental effects . . . 10.2.4 Uncertainty in the calculation of Z and M for ultrasonic meters . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 Sources of uncertainty in flare gas quantity using thermal mass flow meters . . . . 10.4 Sources of uncertainty in flare gas quantity using optical flare gas meters . . . . . . 10.5 Uncertainty in flared quantity calculated using the by-difference technique . . . . . 10.6 Sources of uncertainty in the determination of fe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.6.1 Uncertainty in fe obtained by gas sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Calibration and verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1 Laboratory calibration of flare gas meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.2 Meters installed in situ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 In situ calibration of flare gas meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.1 Insertion probe techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.2 Gas tracer techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3 In situ verification of flare meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.1 Ultrasonic transit time meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.2 Thermal mass probes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.3 Optical meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Annex A Sample investigation into installation effect on an ultrasonic flare gas meter using CFD analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Symbols and abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Annex B

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HM 58 GUIDELINES FOR DETERMINATION OF FLARE QUANTITIES FROM UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS FACILITIES

FOREWORD
The EI Hydrocarbon Management Committee is responsible for the production and maintenance of Standards and Guidelines covering various aspects of static and dynamic measurement of petroleum and hydrocarbon gases. This document has been instigated and managed by the Energy Institutes Upstream Hydrocarbon Management Committee, HMC 7 which deals with measurement applicable to the upstream sector of the industry which includes measurement for fiscal reporting, product allocation and streams associated with emissions trading. The action of gas venting and flaring from offshore installations and terminals is an operating feature for the purposes of maintaining process safety and for operation of production equipment. It is controlled and regulated in the UK by BERR Licensing, Exploration and Development Unit in Aberdeen by the issuing of consent licences. Offshore flaring was included in Phase II of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) from January 2008 which means that the quantities of gas discharged by flaring will need to be measured using methodologies that are compliant with the requirements stipulated by Directive 2007/589/EC. The measurement technologies applied will need to be capable of providing data with acceptable ranges of uncertainty for a wide range of flow rates from the maximum (emergency blowdown event) to the minimum during normal stable operation (background purge rates or zero, where a flare recovery system is in operation). This publication provides guidance on the application of measurement techniques and principles needed to comply with the EU ETS requirements for the trading of flared quantities discharged from facilities involved in the upstream oil and gas industry. Funding for the development of the document was provided out of the DIUS Engineering and Flow Programme administered by TUV NEL Ltd. This document will be a useful aid to measurement specialists, environmental personnel and operations management principally within the UK upstream oil and gas industry. It will also be a valuable aid to similar personnel from other countries where controls on discharges from flares are being enforced. Whilst reasonable care has been taken to ensure the accuracy and relevance of its contents, the Energy Institute, its sponsoring companies, the document writer and the Working Group members listed in the Acknowledgements who have contributed to its preparation, cannot accept any responsibility for any action taken, or not taken on the basis of this information. The Energy Institute shall not be liable to any person for any loss or damage which may arise from the use of any of the information contained in any of its publications. This Guideline may be reviewed from time to time and it would be of considerable assistance for any future revision if users would send comments or suggestions for improvements to: The Technical Department, Energy Institute, 61 New Cavendish Street, London W1G 7AR email: technical@energyinst.org.uk

HM 58 GUIDELINES FOR DETERMINATION OF FLARE QUANTITIES FROM UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS FACILITIES

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The Institute wishes to record its appreciation of the work carried out by the following individuals: Jeff Gibson of TUV NEL for the preparation of these Guidelines. Members of the HMC 7 Flare Measurement Working Group who have assisted with steering the project and for providing valuable expertise: Rod Bisset David Geach Douglas Griffin Keith Hart Sandy Hay Jason Laidlaw Gordon Mackie Walter Macdonald Denis Pinto Eddie Spearman David Stewart Gilbert Tonner Justin Walter Britannia Operator Limited ConocoPhillips (Chairman of HMC 7) BERR Energy Institute (HM58 Chairman) BP Exploration Operating Company METCO Services Ltd GE Sensing (Panametrics) SREL Intertek Caledonian Flow Systems Limited CNR International Kelton Flow Measurement Consultants Kelton Flow Measurement Consultants Metco Services Limited

The Energy Institute also wishes to acknowledge contributions made by the following personnel: Michael Almeida Lynn Hunter Steve Milford Mark Roscoe Amerada Hess Limited TUV NEL Limited Emissions Club Manager Endress & Houser Flowtech AG TUV NEL Limited Project Manager

During the development of this publication, other members of HMC 7 and other industry personnel were provided with copies for reference and were advised of progress.

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INTRODUCTION
With climate change regulations becoming more demanding there is increased focus on the measurement and determination of gas emissions from installations with regulation imposed via permits and consents oil and gas facilities being no exception. Current legislation focuses on CO2 emissions, but it is likely this will be widened in the future to include other greenhouse gases such as CH4, N2O and SO2. Activities such as the burning of produced gas as fuel for power generation, and the safe evacuation of excess gas through emergency flaring, comprise the major sources of CO2 emissions from upstream oil and gas facilities. Both the quantity of gas delivered to flare and its composition are needed to determine the mass of CO2 released to atmosphere for EU ETS reporting purposes. Molecular weight is required in order to calculate the total mass of gas flared for BERR reporting purposes; this can also be determined from the gas composition or directly using online measurement instrumentation. The units of the figures reported to BERR (i.e. tonnes of gas flared) should not be confused with those reported to the EU ETS (tonnes of CO 2 produced by flaring). Flare gas contributes about 20% to CO2 emissions from upstream oil and gas [1] facilities , the majority of the remaining emissions being attributed to the burning of gas as fuel for compressors (export gas and gas lift systems) and the burning of gas/diesel for heaters and other equipment on the platform. Gas flaring and venting in the UK is controlled and regulated by the BERR Licensing, Exploration and Development Unit in Aberdeen. Offshore flaring is now included in Phase II of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme which started in January 2008.

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HM 58 GUIDELINES FOR DETERMINATION OF FLARE QUANTITIES FROM UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS FACILITIES

SCOPE
This document has been written to provide guidance on the determination of flare gas quantity for environmental reporting purposes. It covers upstream oil and gas installations, including offshore facilities and onshore terminals located in the UK and on the UKCS. It is not intended to be a prescriptive document. It is expected that the guiding principles contained within this document may also be relevant to downstream oil and gas facilities (i.e. refineries) and to regions outside of the UK where appropriate. This document is aimed explicitly at oil and gas duty holders, who have a requirement to monitor and report CO2 emissions to the competent authority, and implicitly at contractors, verifiers, regulators, governmental bodies and measurement specialists. The purpose of the guidance contained within is to provide a top-level common industry approach to determining flare gas quantity, taking into account requirements for compliance with both domestic and international regulatory schemes. It is recognised that a number of methods for determining flare quantity (incorporating both flow rate and gas composition) exist utilising both direct (measured) and indirect (inferred) techniques. The intention of this document is to specify the key methods used to determine flare quantity and the means of identifying the principal sources of uncertainty in these methods. The intention is not to advocate any one method or technology over another, whilst recognising the minimum requirements to comply with operational, metrological and safety constraints.

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