Sample CMA1 1esL CuesLlons

CeLLlng ready Lo Lake Lhe CMA1? 1ry Lhese sample CMA1 LesL quesLlons Lo see where Lo focus your
preparaLlon and sLudy efforLsŦ Answers are provlded aL Lhe end of all Lhe quesLlonsŦ

lf youƌre also ready Lo explore graduaLe program opLlonsţ check ouL Lhls search for buslness schools Lo
flnd Lhe besL program for youŦ

8eadlng Comprehenslon

ƍurodelesţƍ a class of verLebraLes LhaL lncludes newLs and salamandersţ have Lhe envlable ablllLy Lo
regeneraLe armsţ legsţ Lallsţ hearL muscleţ [awsţ splnal cordsţ and oLher organsŦ ƍÞlanarlaţƍ slmple
wormsţ can be sllced and dlced ln hundreds of plecesţ wlLh each plece glvlng rlse Lo a compleLely new
anlmalŦ Poweverţ whlle boLh ƍurodelesƍ and ƍplanarlaƍ have Lhe capaclLy Lo regeneraLeţ Lhey use
dlfferenL means Lo accompllsh Lhls feaLŦ

ln effecLţ a ƍurodelesƍ speclmen Lurns back Lhe blologlcal clockŦ llrsLţ Lhe anlmal heals Lhe wound aL Lhe
slLe of Lhe mlsslng llmbŦ 1hen varlous speclallzed cells aL Lhe slLeţ such as boneţ sklnţ and blood cellsţ lose
Lhelr ldenLlLy and reverL Lo cells as unspeclallzed as Lhose ln Lhe embryonlc llmb budŦ 1hls process ls
called dedlfferenLlaLlonţ and Lhe resulLlng blasLemaţ a mass of unspeclallzed cellsţ prollferaLes rapldly Lo
form a llmb budŦ ulLlmaLelyţ when Lhe new llmb Lakes shapeţ Lhe cells Lake on Lhe speclallzed roles Lhey
had prevlously casL offŦ

ln conLrasLţ ƍplanarlaƍ regeneraLe uslng cells called neoblasLsŦ ScaLLered wlLhln Lhe planarlan bodyţ Lhese
neoblasLs remaln ln an unspeclallzedţ sLemŴcell sLaLeţ whlch enables Lhem aL need Lo dlfferenLlaLe lnLo
any cell LypeŦ Whenever ƍplanarlƍa are cuLţ Lhe neoblasLs mlgraLe Lo Lhe slLe and form a blasLema by
LhemselvesŦ lL ls lnLeresLlng Lo noLe LhaL Lhls mechanlsm ls slmllar Lo LhaL followlng reproducLlve flsslon
ln Lhese anlmalsţ and LhaL specles lncapable of Lhls form of asexual reproducLlon have poorly developed
regeneraLlve capaclLlesŦ

1Ŧ 1he prlmary purpose of Lhe passage ls Loť

(A) descrlbe Lhe roles of blasLemas ln regeneraLlng ƍurodelesƍ and ƍplanarlaŦƍ
(8) descrlbe how ƍurodelesƍ use Lhe process of dedlfferenLlaLlon Lo regeneraLeŦ
(C) conLrasL Lhe mechanlsms by whlch ƍurodelesƍ and ƍplanarlaƍ accompllsh regeneraLlonŦ
(u) show how meLhods of cellular regeneraLlon have evolved ln dlfferenL anlmal speclesŦ
(L) explaln Lhe llnk beLween reproducLlve flsslon and regeneraLlon ln slmple wormsŦ

2Ŧ All of Lhe followlng are Lrue of dedlfferenLlaLlon ln regeneraLlng ƍurodelesƍ LxCLÞ1ť

(A) Lhe cells recover Lhelr speclallzed roles afLer Lhe llmb bud Lakes shapeŦ
(8) lL lnvolves a regresslon by cells Lo an earller sLage of developmenLŦ
(C) speclallzed cells mlgraLe Lo Lhe slLe of Lhe blasLema and prollferaLe rapldlyŦ
(u) Lhe heallng of Lhe wound aL Lhe slLe of Lhe ln[ury ls Lhe flrsL sLep of Lhe processŦ
(L) dedlfferenLlaLlon ls characLerlzed by a lossţ and Lhen recoveryţ of cellular ldenLlLyŦ

SenLence CorrecLlons

1Ŧ ln Lhe years afLer he lefL Lhe WhlLe Pouseţ 8lchard nlxon sLrove Lo burnlsh hls lmage for hlsLory more
asslduously Lhan dld any former presldenLŦ

(A) more asslduously Lhan dld any former presldenLŦ
(8) more asslduously Lhan any oLher former presldenLŦ
(C) wlLh an asslduousness unmaLched by any former presldenLŦ
(u) wlLh more asslduousness Lhan dld any oLher former presldenLŦ
(L) more asslduously ln comparlson Lo any former presldenLŦ

CrlLlcal 8easonlng

When Lhe sLaLe of 1ennessee passed a law prohlblLlng Lhe Leachlng of Lhe Lheory of evoluLlon ln lLs
publlc schoolsţ leaders of Lhe Amerlcan Clvll LlberLles unlon (ACLu) persuaded !ohn 1Ŧ Scopesţ a Leacher
ln uayLonţ 1ennesseeţ Lo Leach evoluLlon ln hls classroom ln order Lo LesL Lhe law ln courLŦ Poweverţ
because Scopes dld noL break Lhe law on hls own lnlLlaLlveţ he should never have been broughL Lo LrlalŦ

1Ŧ Whlch of Lhe followlng ls an assumpLlon underlylng Lhe concluslon of Lhe passage above?

(A) 1hose who commlL crlmes aL Lhe suggesLlon of oLhers should noL be held responslble for Lhelr
acLlonsŦ
(8) 8oLh Scopes and Lhe ACLu leaders should have been Lrled for breaklng Lhe lawŦ
(C) 1he ACLu leadersţ raLher Lhan Scopesţ should have been broughL Lo LrlalŦ
(u) Croups llke Lhe ACLu should noL encourage crlmlnal acLlvlLles as a means of LesLlng lawsŦ
(L) 1ennessee dld noL have Lhe rlghL Lo make Lhe Leachlng of evoluLlon a crlmeŦ

MaLh MulLlpleŴCholce

1Ŧ lor whlch n ls Lhe remalnder largesL when Lhe number 817ţ380 ls dlvlded by n?

(A) 4
(8) 3
(C) 6
(u) 8
(L) 9

uaLa Sufflclency

1Ŧ lf x ls an odd lnLegerţ ls y an odd lnLeger?

(1) 1he average of x and y ls oddŦ
(2) 1he average of xţ yţ and (y + 1) ls an lnLegerŦ


(A) SLaLemenL (1) lsţ by lLselfţ enough Lo enable you Lo answer Lhe quesLlonţ buL sLaLemenL (2) ls noL
enoughŦ
(8) SLaLemenL (1) ls noL enoughţ by lLselfţ Lo answer Lhe quesLlonţ buL sLaLemenL (2) ls enoughŦ
(C) Comblnlng sLaLemenLs (1) and (2) provldes enough lnformaLlon Lo answer Lhe quesLlonŦ
(u) LlLher sLaLemenLţ by lLselfţ provldes enough lnformaLlon Lo answer Lhe quesLlonŦ
(L) nelLher sLaLemenL conLalns sufflclenL daLa Lo answer Lhe quesLlonŦ

Analysls of an lssue (sample only)

ulrecLlonsť 8ead Lhe sLaLemenL and Lhe lnsLrucLlons LhaL follow lLţ and Lhen make any noLes LhaL wlll
help you plan your responseŦ WrlLe your response on scrap paper or Lype lL on a word processorŦ

ƍÞeople ofLen complaln LhaL Lhe lnLroducLlon of new laborŴsavlng machlnes cosLs workers Lhelr [obsŦ
Poweverţ mosL new Lechnologles acLually creaLe more [obs Lhan Lhey desLroyŦƍ

1o whaL exLenL do you agree or dlsagree wlLh Lhe oplnlon expressed above? SupporL your vlews wlLh
reasons and examples drawn from your own experlencesţ observaLlonsţ or readlngŦ

Analysls of an ArgumenL (sample only)

ulrecLlonsť 8ead Lhe sLaLemenL and Lhe lnsLrucLlons LhaL follow lLţ and Lhen make any noLes LhaL wlll
help you plan your responseŦ WrlLe your response on scrap paper or Lype lL on a word processorŦ

1he followlng appeared as parL of a plan proposed by an execuLlve of Lhe SLan uonce Magazlne Croup Lo
Lhe companyƌs presldenLŦ

ƍCur need for prlnLlng servlces varles from monLh Lo monLhţ dependlng on Lhe slze of our magazlnes
and varlaLlons ln schedullngŦ Worklng wlLh ouLslde prlnLers has necesslLaLed a consLanL scramble for
adequaLe press Llme aL reasonable prlcesŦ lf we were Lo buy and operaLe our own prlnLlng operaLlonţ we
would be beLLer able Lo conLrol boLh Lhe avallablllLy and Lhe cosL of prlnLlng our magazlnesţ whlch would
have a favorable lmpacL on Lhe efflclency and proflLablllLy of our buslnessŦƍ

ulscuss how well reasoned you flnd Lhls argumenLŦ ln your dlscusslonţ be sure Lo analyze Lhe llne of
reasonlng and Lhe use of evldence ln Lhe argumenLŦ lor exampleţ you may need Lo conslder whaL
quesLlonable assumpLlons underlle Lhe Lhlnklng and whaL alLernaLlve explanaLlons or counLerexamples
mlghL weaken Lhe concluslonŦ ?ou can also dlscuss whaL sorL of evldence would sLrengLhen or refuLe Lhe
argumenLţ whaL changes ln Lhe argumenL would make lL more loglcally soundţ and whaLţ lf anyLhlngţ
would help you beLLer evaluaLe lLs concluslonŦ

CMA1 Answers

8eadlng Comprehenslon

1Ŧ 1he correcL answer ls (C)Ŧ 1he lasL senLence of Lhe flrsL paragraph seLs forLh Lhls cenLral LhemeŦ 1he
paragraphs LhaL follow glve Lhe relevanL deLallsŦ

2Ŧ 1he correcL answer ls (C)Ŧ As paragraph Lwo explalnsţ Lhe speclallzed cells ƍlose Lhelr ldenLlLy and
reverLƍ Lo belng unspeclallzed cellsţ formlng a blasLemaŦ Cnly afLer Lhls do Lhey prollferaLeŤ so lLƌs wrong
Lo say LhaL Lhe ƍspeclallzed cells Ŧ Ŧ Ŧ prollferaLe rapldlyţƍ as cholce (C) doesŦ

SenLence CorrecLlons

1Ŧ 1he correcL answer ls (8)Ŧ Slnce nlxon was hlmself a former presldenLţ he ls a member of Lhe group
wlLh whlch he ls belng compared ln Lhe flnal parL of Lhe senLenceŦ 1hereforeţ Lhe word ƍoLherƍ ls
essenLlal Lo make Lhe comparlson loglcalŦ

CrlLlcal 8easonlng

1Ŧ 1he correcL answer ls (A)Ŧ 8eread Lhe lasL senLence of Lhe passageŦ 1he auLhor conLends LhaL Scopes
should noL have been Lrled for hls ƍcrlmeƍ because he ƍdld noL break Lhe law on hls own lnlLlaLlveŦƍ 1he
lmpllcaLlon ls LhaL a person whose crlme ls orlglnally suggesLed by anoLher should noL be held
responslble for LhaL crlmeŦ

MaLh MulLlpleŴCholce

1Ŧ 1he correcL answer ls (u)Ŧ 817ţ380 ls dlvlslble by all Lhe numbers ln Lhe llsL excepL 8Ŧ Penceţ 8 musL
glve Lhe largesL remalnder because lL ls Lhe only one LhaL ls noL zeroŦ 1o sLarLţ 7ţ380 ls dlvlslble by 3
because lL ends ln 0Ŧ lL ls dlvlslble by 2 because lL ls even and by 4 because 80 ls dlvlslble by 4Ŧ Poweverţ
lL ls noL dlvlslble by 8 because 380 lsnƌLŦ ln addlLlonţ Lhe sum of lLs dlglLs ls 27ţ whlch ls dlvlslble by 3 and
by 9Ŧ 8ecause lL ls dlvlslble by boLh 2 and 3ţ lL ls also dlvlslble by 6Ŧ

uaLa Sufflclency

1Ŧ 1he correcL answer ls (A)Ŧ SLaLemenL (1) alone Lells us more Lhan we need Lo knowŦ Slmply knowlng
LhaL Lhe average of x and y ls a whole number ls enough Lo Lell us LhaL y ls oddţ slnce Lhe only way for
Lhe average Lo be a whole number ls for Lhe sum of x and y Lo be evenŦ 1husţ lf x ls oddţ so ls yŦ
SLaLemenL (2) alone ls noL sufflclenLŦ lf y ls oddţ Lhen y + 1 ls evenŤ and lf y ls evenţ Lhen y + 1 ls oddŦ ln
elLher caseţ x + y + (y + 1) ls Lhe sum of Lwo odds and an evenţ whlch musL be evenŦ 1here are many even
numbers LhaL are dlvlslble by 3ţ glvlng an lnLeger for Lhe averageŦ



AfLer you geL a sense of where you sLand on Lhe CMA1ţ check ouL Lhls search for buslness schools Lo
explore whaL opLlons may be Lhe rlghL flL for youŦ


All CMA1 1esL lnfo



comprehens|ve quest|ons
1Ŧ MarkeLlng execuLlves ln Lelevlslon work wlLh a relaLlvely sLable adverLlslng medlumŦ ln many waysţ
Lhe Lelevlslon ads alred Loday are slmllar Lo Lhose alred Lwo decades agoŦ MosL Lelevlslon ads sLlll
feaLure acLorsţ sLlll run 30 or 60 secondsţ and sLlll show a producLŦ Poweverţ Lhe dlfferlng dynamlcs of
Lhe lnLerneL pose unlque challenges Lo adverLlsersţ forclng Lhem Lo adapL Lhelr pracLlces and Lechnlques
on a regular baslsŦ

ln Lhe early days of lnLerneL markeLlngţ onllne adverLlsers employed banner and popŴup ads Lo aLLracL
cusLomersŦ 1hese Lechnlques reached large audlencesţ generaLed many sales leadsţ and came aL a low
cosLŦ Poweverţ a small number of lnLerneL users began Lo conslder Lhese adverLlslng Lechnlques
lnLruslve and annoylngŦ ?eL because markeLlng sLraLegles relylng heavlly on banners and popŴups
produced resulLsţ companles lnvesLed growlng amounLs of money lnLo purchaslng Lhese ad Lypes ln
hopes of capLurlng markeL share ln Lhe burgeonlng onllne economyŦ As consumers became more
sophlsLlcaLedţ frusLraLlon wlLh Lhese onllne adverLlslng Lechnlques grewŦ lndependenL programmers
began Lo develop Lools LhaL blocked banner and popŴup adsŦ 1he popularlLy of Lhese Lools exploded
when Lhe search englne Coogleţ aL Lhe Llme an lncreaslngly popular webslLe flghLlng Lo solldlfy lLs place
on Lhe lnLerneL wlLh glanLs MlcrosofL and ?ahooţ offered free sofLware enabllng users Lo block popŴup
adsŦ 1he backlash agalnsL banner ads grew as new web browsers provlded users Lhe ablllLy Lo block
lmageŴbased ads such as banner adsŦ AlLhough banner and popŴup ads sLlll exlsLţ Lhey are far less
promlnenL Lhan durlng Lhe early days of Lhe lnLerneLŦ

A ma[or developmenL ln onllne markeLlng came wlLh Lhe lnLroducLlon of payŴperŴcllck adsŦ unllke
banner or popŴup adsţ whlch orlglnally requlred companles Lo pay every Llme a webslLe vlslLor saw an
adţ payŴperŴcllck ads allowed companles Lo pay only when an lnLeresLed poLenLlal cusLomer cllcked on
an adŦ More lmporLanLlyţ howeverţ Lhese ads clrcumvenLed Lhe popŴup and banner blockersŦ As a resulL
of Lhese advanLages and Lhe lncredlble growLh ln Lhe use of search englnesţ whlch provlde excellenL
venues for payŴperŴcllck adverLlslngţ companles began Lurnlng Lo payŴperŴcllck markeLlng ln drovesŦ
Poweverţ as wlLh Lhe banner and popŴup ads LhaL preceded Lhemţ payŴperŴcllck ads came wlLh Lhelr
drawbacksŦ When companles began pourlng bllllons of dollars lnLo Lhls emerglng medlumţ onllne
adverLlslng speclallsLs sLarLed Lo noLlce Lhe presence of whaL would laLer be called cllck fraudť
represenLaLlves of a company wlLh no lnLeresL ln Lhe producL adverLlsed by a compeLlLor cllck on Lhe
compeLlLorƌs ads slmply Lo lncrease Lhe markeLlng cosL of Lhe compeLlLorŦ Cllck fraud grew so rapldly
LhaL markeLers soughL Lo dlverslfy Lhelr onllne poslLlons away from payŴperŴcllck markeLlng Lhrough new
medlumsŦ

AlLhough payŴperŴcllck adverLlslng remalns a common and effecLlve adverLlslng Loolţ markeLers adapLed
yeL agaln Lo Lhe changlng dynamlcs of Lhe lnLerneL by adopLlng new Lechnlques such as payŴperŴ
performance adverLlslngţ search englne opLlmlzaLlonţ and afflllaLe markeLlngŦ As Lhe pace of Lhe
lnLerneLƌs evoluLlon lncreasesţ lL seems all Lhe more llkely LhaL adverLlslng successfully on Lhe lnLerneL
wlll requlre a sLraLegy LhaL shuns consLancy and embraces changeŦ
1he auLhor lmplles whaL abouL Lhe fuLure of payŴperŴperformance adverLlslng?
A) AlLhough lL lmproves on payŴperŴcllck adverLlslngţ lL ls sLlll vulnerable Lo cllck fraud
8) lL wlll one day become exLlncL as lnLerneL users dlscover drawbacks wlLh lL
C) lnLerneL users wlll develop free sofLware Lo block lLs effecLlveness
u) lL wlll evenLually become less popular wlLh adverLlsers as Lhe lnLerneL evolves and drawbacks
emerge
L) lL wlll noL face drawbacks due Lo lLs dlfferlng approach Lo onllne markeLlng
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť u

2Ŧ MarkeLlng execuLlves ln Lelevlslon work wlLh a relaLlvely sLable adverLlslng medlumŦ ln many waysţ
Lhe Lelevlslon ads alred Loday are slmllar Lo Lhose alred Lwo decades agoŦ MosL Lelevlslon ads sLlll
feaLure acLorsţ sLlll run 30 or 60 secondsţ and sLlll show a producLŦ Poweverţ Lhe dlfferlng dynamlcs of
Lhe lnLerneL pose unlque challenges Lo adverLlsersţ forclng Lhem Lo adapL Lhelr pracLlces and Lechnlques
on a regular baslsŦ

ln Lhe early days of lnLerneL markeLlngţ onllne adverLlsers employed banner and popŴup ads Lo aLLracL
cusLomersŦ 1hese Lechnlques reached large audlencesţ generaLed many sales leadsţ and came aL a low
cosLŦ Poweverţ a small number of lnLerneL users began Lo conslder Lhese adverLlslng Lechnlques
lnLruslve and annoylngŦ ?eL because markeLlng sLraLegles relylng heavlly on banners and popŴups
produced resulLsţ companles lnvesLed growlng amounLs of money lnLo purchaslng Lhese ad Lypes ln
hopes of capLurlng markeL share ln Lhe burgeonlng onllne economyŦ As consumers became more
sophlsLlcaLedţ frusLraLlon wlLh Lhese onllne adverLlslng Lechnlques grewŦ lndependenL programmers
began Lo develop Lools LhaL blocked banner and popŴup adsŦ 1he popularlLy of Lhese Lools exploded
when Lhe search englne Coogleţ aL Lhe Llme an lncreaslngly popular webslLe flghLlng Lo solldlfy lLs place
on Lhe lnLerneL wlLh glanLs MlcrosofL and ?ahooţ offered free sofLware enabllng users Lo block popŴup
adsŦ 1he backlash agalnsL banner ads grew as new web browsers provlded users Lhe ablllLy Lo block
lmageŴbased ads such as banner adsŦ AlLhough banner and popŴup ads sLlll exlsLţ Lhey are far less
promlnenL Lhan durlng Lhe early days of Lhe lnLerneLŦ

A ma[or developmenL ln onllne markeLlng came wlLh Lhe lnLroducLlon of payŴperŴcllck adsŦ unllke
banner or popŴup adsţ whlch orlglnally requlred companles Lo pay every Llme a webslLe vlslLor saw an
adţ payŴperŴcllck ads allowed companles Lo pay only when an lnLeresLed poLenLlal cusLomer cllcked on
an adŦ More lmporLanLlyţ howeverţ Lhese ads clrcumvenLed Lhe popŴup and banner blockersŦ As a resulL
of Lhese advanLages and Lhe lncredlble growLh ln Lhe use of search englnesţ whlch provlde excellenL
venues for payŴperŴcllck adverLlslngţ companles began Lurnlng Lo payŴperŴcllck markeLlng ln drovesŦ
Poweverţ as wlLh Lhe banner and popŴup ads LhaL preceded Lhemţ payŴperŴcllck ads came wlLh Lhelr
drawbacksŦ When companles began pourlng bllllons of dollars lnLo Lhls emerglng medlumţ onllne
adverLlslng speclallsLs sLarLed Lo noLlce Lhe presence of whaL would laLer be called cllck fraudť
represenLaLlves of a company wlLh no lnLeresL ln Lhe producL adverLlsed by a compeLlLor cllck on Lhe
compeLlLorƌs ads slmply Lo lncrease Lhe markeLlng cosL of Lhe compeLlLorŦ Cllck fraud grew so rapldly
LhaL markeLers soughL Lo dlverslfy Lhelr onllne poslLlons away from payŴperŴcllck markeLlng Lhrough new
medlumsŦ

AlLhough payŴperŴcllck adverLlslng remalns a common and effecLlve adverLlslng Loolţ markeLers adapLed
yeL agaln Lo Lhe changlng dynamlcs of Lhe lnLerneL by adopLlng new Lechnlques such as payŴperŴ
performance adverLlslngţ search englne opLlmlzaLlonţ and afflllaLe markeLlngŦ As Lhe pace of Lhe
lnLerneLƌs evoluLlon lncreasesţ lL seems all Lhe more llkely LhaL adverLlslng successfully on Lhe lnLerneL
wlll requlre a sLraLegy LhaL shuns consLancy and embraces changeŦ

Whlch of Lhe followlng mosL accuraLely sLaLes Lhe maln ldea of Lhe passage?
A) AlLhough payŴperŴcllck adverLlslng remalns a wldeŴspread and effecLlve onllne adverLlslng
medlumţ lLs popularlLy ls llkely Lo dlmlnlsh as Lhe lnLerneL evolvesŦ
8) lnLerneL adverLlslng ls noL well recelved by lnLerneL usersţ causlng lndependenL programmers Lo
subverL adverLlsersŦ
C) unllke Lhe Lelevlslonţ Lhe lnLerneL has experlenced dramaLlc changes ln shorL perlods of LlmeŦ
u) unllke Lhe Lelevlslonţ Lhe lnLerneL has evolved rapldlyţ forclng onllne markeLers Lo develop new
adverLlslng sLraLegles and medlumsŦ
L) 1he pace of Lhe lnLerneL's evoluLlon ls lncreaslng and wlll only lncrease ln Lhe fuLureŦ
Show Answer
onllne adverLlslng Lechnlques grewŦ lndependenL programmers began Lo develop Lools LhaL blocked
banner and popŴup adsŦ 1he popularlLy of Lhese Lools exploded when Lhe search englne Coogleţ aL Lhe
Llme an lncreaslngly popular webslLe flghLlng Lo solldlfy lLs place on Lhe lnLerneL wlLh glanLs MlcrosofL
and ?ahooţ offered free sofLware enabllng users Lo block popŴup adsŦ 1he backlash agalnsL banner ads
grew as new web browsers provlded users Lhe ablllLy Lo block lmageŴbased ads such as banner adsŦ
AlLhough banner and popŴup ads sLlll exlsLţ Lhey are far less promlnenL Lhan durlng Lhe early days of Lhe
lnLerneLŦ

A ma[or developmenL ln onllne markeLlng came wlLh Lhe lnLroducLlon of payŴperŴcllck adsŦ unllke
banner or popŴup adsţ whlch orlglnally requlred companles Lo pay every Llme a webslLe vlslLor saw an
adţ payŴperŴcllck ads allowed companles Lo pay only when an lnLeresLed poLenLlal cusLomer cllcked on
an adŦ More lmporLanLlyţ howeverţ Lhese ads clrcumvenLed Lhe popŴup and banner blockersŦ As a resulL
of Lhese advanLages and Lhe lncredlble growLh ln Lhe use of search englnesţ whlch provlde excellenL
venues for payŴperŴcllck adverLlslngţ companles began Lurnlng Lo payŴperŴcllck markeLlng ln drovesŦ
Poweverţ as wlLh Lhe banner and popŴup ads LhaL preceded Lhemţ payŴperŴcllck ads came wlLh Lhelr
drawbacksŦ When companles began pourlng bllllons of dollars lnLo Lhls emerglng medlumţ onllne
adverLlslng speclallsLs sLarLed Lo noLlce Lhe presence of whaL would laLer be called cllck fraudť
represenLaLlves of a company wlLh no lnLeresL ln Lhe producL adverLlsed by a compeLlLor cllck on Lhe
compeLlLorƌs ads slmply Lo lncrease Lhe markeLlng cosL of Lhe compeLlLorŦ Cllck fraud grew so rapldly
LhaL markeLers soughL Lo dlverslfy Lhelr onllne poslLlons away from payŴperŴcllck markeLlng Lhrough new
medlumsŦ

AlLhough payŴperŴcllck adverLlslng remalns a common and effecLlve adverLlslng Loolţ markeLers adapLed
yeL agaln Lo Lhe changlng dynamlcs of Lhe lnLerneL by adopLlng new Lechnlques such as payŴperŴ
performance adverLlslngţ search englne opLlmlzaLlonţ and afflllaLe markeLlngŦ As Lhe pace of Lhe
lnLerneLƌs evoluLlon lncreasesţ lL seems all Lhe more llkely LhaL adverLlslng successfully on Lhe lnLerneL
wlll requlre a sLraLegy LhaL shuns consLancy and embraces changeŦ

Whlch of Lhe followlng mosL accuraLely sLaLes Lhe maln ldea of Lhe passage?
A) AlLhough payŴperŴcllck adverLlslng remalns a wldeŴspread and effecLlve onllne adverLlslng
medlumţ lLs popularlLy ls llkely Lo dlmlnlsh as Lhe lnLerneL evolvesŦ
8) lnLerneL adverLlslng ls noL well recelved by lnLerneL usersţ causlng lndependenL programmers Lo
subverL adverLlsersŦ
C) unllke Lhe Lelevlslonţ Lhe lnLerneL has experlenced dramaLlc changes ln shorL perlods of LlmeŦ
u) unllke Lhe Lelevlslonţ Lhe lnLerneL has evolved rapldlyţ forclng onllne markeLers Lo develop new
adverLlslng sLraLegles and medlumsŦ
L) 1he pace of Lhe lnLerneL's evoluLlon ls lncreaslng and wlll only lncrease ln Lhe fuLureŦ
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť u

MarkeLlng execuLlves ln Lelevlslon work wlLh a relaLlvely sLable adverLlslng medlumŦ ln many waysţ Lhe
Lelevlslon ads alred Loday are slmllar Lo Lhose alred Lwo decades agoŦ MosL Lelevlslon ads sLlll feaLure
acLorsţ sLlll run 30 or 60 secondsţ and sLlll show a producLŦ Poweverţ Lhe dlfferlng dynamlcs of Lhe
lnLerneL pose unlque challenges Lo adverLlsersţ forclng Lhem Lo adapL Lhelr pracLlces and Lechnlques on
a regular baslsŦ

ln Lhe early days of lnLerneL markeLlngţ onllne adverLlsers employed banner and popŴup ads Lo aLLracL
cusLomersŦ 1hese Lechnlques reached large audlencesţ generaLed many sales leadsţ and came aL a low
cosLŦ Poweverţ a small number of lnLerneL users began Lo conslder Lhese adverLlslng Lechnlques
lnLruslve and annoylngŦ ?eL because markeLlng sLraLegles relylng heavlly on banners and popŴups
produced resulLsţ companles lnvesLed growlng amounLs of money lnLo purchaslng Lhese ad Lypes ln
hopes of capLurlng markeL share ln Lhe burgeonlng onllne economyŦ As consumers became more
sophlsLlcaLedţ frusLraLlon wlLh Lhese onllne adverLlslng Lechnlques grewŦ lndependenL programmers
began Lo develop Lools LhaL blocked banner and popŴup adsŦ 1he popularlLy of Lhese Lools exploded
when Lhe search englne Coogleţ aL Lhe Llme an lncreaslngly popular webslLe flghLlng Lo solldlfy lLs place
on Lhe lnLerneL wlLh glanLs MlcrosofL and ?ahooţ offered free sofLware enabllng users Lo block popŴup
adsŦ 1he backlash agalnsL banner ads grew as new web browsers provlded users Lhe ablllLy Lo block
lmageŴbased ads such as banner adsŦ AlLhough banner and popŴup ads sLlll exlsLţ Lhey are far less
promlnenL Lhan durlng Lhe early days of Lhe lnLerneLŦ

A ma[or developmenL ln onllne markeLlng came wlLh Lhe lnLroducLlon of payŴperŴcllck adsŦ unllke
banner or popŴup adsţ whlch orlglnally requlred companles Lo pay every Llme a webslLe vlslLor saw an
adţ payŴperŴcllck ads allowed companles Lo pay only when an lnLeresLed poLenLlal cusLomer cllcked on
an adŦ More lmporLanLlyţ howeverţ Lhese ads clrcumvenLed Lhe popŴup and banner blockersŦ As a resulL
of Lhese advanLages and Lhe lncredlble growLh ln Lhe use of search englnesţ whlch provlde excellenL
venues for payŴperŴcllck adverLlslngţ companles began Lurnlng Lo payŴperŴcllck markeLlng ln drovesŦ
Poweverţ as wlLh Lhe banner and popŴup ads LhaL preceded Lhemţ payŴperŴcllck ads came wlLh Lhelr
drawbacksŦ When companles began pourlng bllllons of dollars lnLo Lhls emerglng medlumţ onllne
adverLlslng speclallsLs sLarLed Lo noLlce Lhe presence of whaL would laLer be called cllck fraudť
represenLaLlves of a company wlLh no lnLeresL ln Lhe producL adverLlsed by a compeLlLor cllck on Lhe
compeLlLorƌs ads slmply Lo lncrease Lhe markeLlng cosL of Lhe compeLlLorŦ Cllck fraud grew so rapldly
LhaL markeLers soughL Lo dlverslfy Lhelr onllne poslLlons away from payŴperŴcllck markeLlng Lhrough new
medlumsŦ

AlLhough payŴperŴcllck adverLlslng remalns a common and effecLlve adverLlslng Loolţ markeLers adapLed
yeL agaln Lo Lhe changlng dynamlcs of Lhe lnLerneL by adopLlng new Lechnlques such as payŴperŴ
performance adverLlslngţ search englne opLlmlzaLlonţ and afflllaLe markeLlngŦ As Lhe pace of Lhe
lnLerneLƌs evoluLlon lncreasesţ lL seems all Lhe more llkely LhaL adverLlslng successfully on Lhe lnLerneL
wlll requlre a sLraLegy LhaL shuns consLancy and embraces changeŦ

Accordlng Lo Lhe passageţ whlch of Lhe followlng besL descrlbes Lhe currenL sLaLus of popŴup ads?
A) Wldely used
8) Less popular now Lhan aL earller Llmes
C) A frequenL LargeL of cllck fraud
u) nonŴexlsLenL due Lo popŴup blockers
L) lncreaslngly popular due Lo search englnes
Show Answer
CorrecL Answerť 8

MarkeLlng execuLlves ln Lelevlslon work wlLh a relaLlvely sLable adverLlslng medlumŦ ln many waysţ Lhe
Lelevlslon ads alred Loday are slmllar Lo Lhose alred Lwo decades agoŦ MosL Lelevlslon ads sLlll feaLure
acLorsţ sLlll run 30 or 60 secondsţ and sLlll show a producLŦ Poweverţ Lhe dlfferlng dynamlcs of Lhe
lnLerneL pose unlque challenges Lo adverLlsersţ forclng Lhem Lo adapL Lhelr pracLlces and Lechnlques on
a regular baslsŦ

ln Lhe early days of lnLerneL markeLlngţ onllne adverLlsers employed banner and popŴup ads Lo aLLracL
cusLomersŦ 1hese Lechnlques reached large audlencesţ generaLed many sales leadsţ and came aL a low
cosLŦ Poweverţ a small number of lnLerneL users began Lo conslder Lhese adverLlslng Lechnlques
lnLruslve and annoylngŦ ?eL because markeLlng sLraLegles relylng heavlly on banners and popŴups
produced resulLsţ companles lnvesLed growlng amounLs of money lnLo purchaslng Lhese ad Lypes ln
hopes of capLurlng markeL share ln Lhe burgeonlng onllne economyŦ As consumers became more
sophlsLlcaLedţ frusLraLlon wlLh Lhese onllne adverLlslng Lechnlques grewŦ lndependenL programmers
began Lo develop Lools LhaL blocked banner and popŴup adsŦ 1he popularlLy of Lhese Lools exploded
when Lhe search englne Coogleţ aL Lhe Llme an lncreaslngly popular webslLe flghLlng Lo solldlfy lLs place
on Lhe lnLerneL wlLh glanLs MlcrosofL and ?ahooţ offered free sofLware enabllng users Lo block popŴup
adsŦ 1he backlash agalnsL banner ads grew as new web browsers provlded users Lhe ablllLy Lo block
lmageŴbased ads such as banner adsŦ AlLhough banner and popŴup ads sLlll exlsLţ Lhey are far less
promlnenL Lhan durlng Lhe early days of Lhe lnLerneLŦ

A ma[or developmenL ln onllne markeLlng came wlLh Lhe lnLroducLlon of payŴperŴcllck adsŦ unllke
banner or popŴup adsţ whlch orlglnally requlred companles Lo pay every Llme a webslLe vlslLor saw an
adţ payŴperŴcllck ads allowed companles Lo pay only when an lnLeresLed poLenLlal cusLomer cllcked on
an adŦ More lmporLanLlyţ howeverţ Lhese ads clrcumvenLed Lhe popŴup and banner blockersŦ As a resulL
of Lhese advanLages and Lhe lncredlble growLh ln Lhe use of search englnesţ whlch provlde excellenL
venues for payŴperŴcllck adverLlslngţ companles began Lurnlng Lo payŴperŴcllck markeLlng ln drovesŦ
Poweverţ as wlLh Lhe banner and popŴup ads LhaL preceded Lhemţ payŴperŴcllck ads came wlLh Lhelr
drawbacksŦ When companles began pourlng bllllons of dollars lnLo Lhls emerglng medlumţ onllne
adverLlslng speclallsLs sLarLed Lo noLlce Lhe presence of whaL would laLer be called cllck fraudť
represenLaLlves of a company wlLh no lnLeresL ln Lhe producL adverLlsed by a compeLlLor cllck on Lhe
compeLlLorƌs ads slmply Lo lncrease Lhe markeLlng cosL of Lhe compeLlLorŦ Cllck fraud grew so rapldly
LhaL markeLers soughL Lo dlverslfy Lhelr onllne poslLlons away from payŴperŴcllck markeLlng Lhrough new
medlumsŦ

AlLhough payŴperŴcllck adverLlslng remalns a common and effecLlve adverLlslng Loolţ markeLers adapLed
yeL agaln Lo Lhe changlng dynamlcs of Lhe lnLerneL by adopLlng new Lechnlques such as payŴperŴ
performance adverLlslngţ search englne opLlmlzaLlonţ and afflllaLe markeLlngŦ As Lhe pace of Lhe
lnLerneLƌs evoluLlon lncreasesţ lL seems all Lhe more llkely LhaL adverLlslng successfully on Lhe lnLerneL
wlll requlre a sLraLegy LhaL shuns consLancy and embraces changeŦ

Accordlng Lo Lhe passageţ whlch of Lhe followlng besL descrlbes Lhe pracLlce of cllck fraud?
A) Cllcklng on Lhe banner adverLlsemenLs of rlval companles
8) uslng sofLware Lo block adverLlsemenLs
C) uLlllzlng search englne opLlmlzaLlon Lo vlslL Lhe pages of compeLlLors
u) lraudulenLly purchaslng producLs onllne
L) Cllcklng on Lhe payŴperŴcllck ads of compeLlLors
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť L
MarkeLlng execuLlves ln Lelevlslon work wlLh a relaLlvely sLable adverLlslng medlumŦ ln many waysţ Lhe
Lelevlslon ads alred Loday are slmllar Lo Lhose alred Lwo decades agoŦ MosL Lelevlslon ads sLlll feaLure
acLorsţ sLlll run 30 or 60 secondsţ and sLlll show a producLŦ Poweverţ Lhe dlfferlng dynamlcs of Lhe
lnLerneL pose unlque challenges Lo adverLlsersţ forclng Lhem Lo adapL Lhelr pracLlces and Lechnlques on
a regular baslsŦ

ln Lhe early days of lnLerneL markeLlngţ onllne adverLlsers employed banner and popŴup ads Lo aLLracL
cusLomersŦ 1hese Lechnlques reached large audlencesţ generaLed many sales leadsţ and came aL a low
cosLŦ Poweverţ a small number of lnLerneL users began Lo conslder Lhese adverLlslng Lechnlques
lnLruslve and annoylngŦ ?eL because markeLlng sLraLegles relylng heavlly on banners and popŴups
produced resulLsţ companles lnvesLed growlng amounLs of money lnLo purchaslng Lhese ad Lypes ln
hopes of capLurlng markeL share ln Lhe burgeonlng onllne economyŦ As consumers became more
sophlsLlcaLedţ frusLraLlon wlLh Lhese onllne adverLlslng Lechnlques grewŦ lndependenL programmers
began Lo develop Lools LhaL blocked banner and popŴup adsŦ 1he popularlLy of Lhese Lools exploded
when Lhe search englne Coogleţ aL Lhe Llme an lncreaslngly popular webslLe flghLlng Lo solldlfy lLs place
on Lhe lnLerneL wlLh glanLs MlcrosofL and ?ahooţ offered free sofLware enabllng users Lo block popŴup
adsŦ 1he backlash agalnsL banner ads grew as new web browsers provlded users Lhe ablllLy Lo block
lmageŴbased ads such as banner adsŦ AlLhough banner and popŴup ads sLlll exlsLţ Lhey are far less
promlnenL Lhan durlng Lhe early days of Lhe lnLerneLŦ

A ma[or developmenL ln onllne markeLlng came wlLh Lhe lnLroducLlon of payŴperŴcllck adsŦ unllke
banner or popŴup adsţ whlch orlglnally requlred companles Lo pay every Llme a webslLe vlslLor saw an
adţ payŴperŴcllck ads allowed companles Lo pay only when an lnLeresLed poLenLlal cusLomer cllcked on
an adŦ More lmporLanLlyţ howeverţ Lhese ads clrcumvenLed Lhe popŴup and banner blockersŦ As a resulL
of Lhese advanLages and Lhe lncredlble growLh ln Lhe use of search englnesţ whlch provlde excellenL
venues for payŴperŴcllck adverLlslngţ companles began Lurnlng Lo payŴperŴcllck markeLlng ln drovesŦ
Poweverţ as wlLh Lhe banner and popŴup ads LhaL preceded Lhemţ payŴperŴcllck ads came wlLh Lhelr
drawbacksŦ When companles began pourlng bllllons of dollars lnLo Lhls emerglng medlumţ onllne
adverLlslng speclallsLs sLarLed Lo noLlce Lhe presence of whaL would laLer be called cllck fraudť
represenLaLlves of a company wlLh no lnLeresL ln Lhe producL adverLlsed by a compeLlLor cllck on Lhe
compeLlLorƌs ads slmply Lo lncrease Lhe markeLlng cosL of Lhe compeLlLorŦ Cllck fraud grew so rapldly
LhaL markeLers soughL Lo dlverslfy Lhelr onllne poslLlons away from payŴperŴcllck markeLlng Lhrough new
medlumsŦ

AlLhough payŴperŴcllck adverLlslng remalns a common and effecLlve adverLlslng Loolţ markeLers adapLed
yeL agaln Lo Lhe changlng dynamlcs of Lhe lnLerneL by adopLlng new Lechnlques such as payŴperŴ
performance adverLlslngţ search englne opLlmlzaLlonţ and afflllaLe markeLlngŦ As Lhe pace of Lhe
lnLerneLƌs evoluLlon lncreasesţ lL seems all Lhe more llkely LhaL adverLlslng successfully on Lhe lnLerneL
wlll requlre a sLraLegy LhaL shuns consLancy and embraces changeŦ

Accordlng Lo Lhe passageţ Lhe largesL polnL aL whlch Lhe Lelevlslon and lnLerneL dlffer as an adverLlslng
medlum lsť
A) 1he Lype of lndlvldual each medlum reaches
8) WheLher Lhe medlum ls lnLeracLlve
C) 1he pace aL whlch Lhe medlum evolves
u) 1he cosL of adverLlslng wlLh each medlum
L) WheLher each medlum conLalns drawbacks
MarkeLlng execuLlves ln Lelevlslon work wlLh a relaLlvely sLable adverLlslng medlumŦ ln many waysţ Lhe
Lelevlslon ads alred Loday are slmllar Lo Lhose alred Lwo decades agoŦ MosL Lelevlslon ads sLlll feaLure
acLorsţ sLlll run 30 or 60 secondsţ and sLlll show a producLŦ Poweverţ Lhe dlfferlng dynamlcs of Lhe
lnLerneL pose unlque challenges Lo adverLlsersţ forclng Lhem Lo adapL Lhelr pracLlces and Lechnlques on
a regular baslsŦ

ln Lhe early days of lnLerneL markeLlngţ onllne adverLlsers employed banner and popŴup ads Lo aLLracL
cusLomersŦ 1hese Lechnlques reached large audlencesţ generaLed many sales leadsţ and came aL a low
cosLŦ Poweverţ a small number of lnLerneL users began Lo conslder Lhese adverLlslng Lechnlques
lnLruslve and annoylngŦ ?eL because markeLlng sLraLegles relylng heavlly on banners and popŴups
produced resulLsţ companles lnvesLed growlng amounLs of money lnLo purchaslng Lhese ad Lypes ln
hopes of capLurlng markeL share ln Lhe burgeonlng onllne economyŦ As consumers became more
sophlsLlcaLedţ frusLraLlon wlLh Lhese onllne adverLlslng Lechnlques grewŦ lndependenL programmers
began Lo develop Lools LhaL blocked banner and popŴup adsŦ 1he popularlLy of Lhese Lools exploded
when Lhe search englne Coogleţ aL Lhe Llme an lncreaslngly popular webslLe flghLlng Lo solldlfy lLs place
on Lhe lnLerneL wlLh glanLs MlcrosofL and ?ahooţ offered free sofLware enabllng users Lo block popŴup
adsŦ 1he backlash agalnsL banner ads grew as new web browsers provlded users Lhe ablllLy Lo block
lmageŴbased ads such as banner adsŦ AlLhough banner and popŴup ads sLlll exlsLţ Lhey are far less
promlnenL Lhan durlng Lhe early days of Lhe lnLerneLŦ

A ma[or developmenL ln onllne markeLlng came wlLh Lhe lnLroducLlon of payŴperŴcllck adsŦ unllke
banner or popŴup adsţ whlch orlglnally requlred companles Lo pay every Llme a webslLe vlslLor saw an
adţ payŴperŴcllck ads allowed companles Lo pay only when an lnLeresLed poLenLlal cusLomer cllcked on
an adŦ More lmporLanLlyţ howeverţ Lhese ads clrcumvenLed Lhe popŴup and banner blockersŦ As a resulL
of Lhese advanLages and Lhe lncredlble growLh ln Lhe use of search englnesţ whlch provlde excellenL
venues for payŴperŴcllck adverLlslngţ companles began Lurnlng Lo payŴperŴcllck markeLlng ln drovesŦ
Poweverţ as wlLh Lhe banner and popŴup ads LhaL preceded Lhemţ payŴperŴcllck ads came wlLh Lhelr
drawbacksŦ When companles began pourlng bllllons of dollars lnLo Lhls emerglng medlumţ onllne
adverLlslng speclallsLs sLarLed Lo noLlce Lhe presence of whaL would laLer be called cllck fraudť
represenLaLlves of a company wlLh no lnLeresL ln Lhe producL adverLlsed by a compeLlLor cllck on Lhe
compeLlLorƌs ads slmply Lo lncrease Lhe markeLlng cosL of Lhe compeLlLorŦ Cllck fraud grew so rapldly
LhaL markeLers soughL Lo dlverslfy Lhelr onllne poslLlons away from payŴperŴcllck markeLlng Lhrough new
medlumsŦ

AlLhough payŴperŴcllck adverLlslng remalns a common and effecLlve adverLlslng Loolţ markeLers adapLed
yeL agaln Lo Lhe changlng dynamlcs of Lhe lnLerneL by adopLlng new Lechnlques such as payŴperŴ
performance adverLlslngţ search englne opLlmlzaLlonţ and afflllaLe markeLlngŦ As Lhe pace of Lhe
lnLerneLƌs evoluLlon lncreasesţ lL seems all Lhe more llkely LhaL adverLlslng successfully on Lhe lnLerneL
wlll requlre a sLraLegy LhaL shuns consLancy and embraces changeŦ

Accordlng Lo Lhe passageţ Lhe largesL polnL aL whlch Lhe Lelevlslon and lnLerneL dlffer as an adverLlslng
medlum lsť
A) 1he Lype of lndlvldual each medlum reaches
8) WheLher Lhe medlum ls lnLeracLlve
C) 1he pace aL whlch Lhe medlum evolves
u) 1he cosL of adverLlslng wlLh each medlum
L) WheLher each medlum conLalns drawbacks
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť C

MarkeLlng execuLlves ln Lelevlslon work wlLh a relaLlvely sLable adverLlslng medlumŦ ln many waysţ Lhe
Lelevlslon ads alred Loday are slmllar Lo Lhose alred Lwo decades agoŦ MosL Lelevlslon ads sLlll feaLure
acLorsţ sLlll run 30 or 60 secondsţ and sLlll show a producLŦ Poweverţ Lhe dlfferlng dynamlcs of Lhe
lnLerneL pose unlque challenges Lo adverLlsersţ forclng Lhem Lo adapL Lhelr pracLlces and Lechnlques on
a regular baslsŦ

ln Lhe early days of lnLerneL markeLlngţ onllne adverLlsers employed banner and popŴup ads Lo aLLracL
cusLomersŦ 1hese Lechnlques reached large audlencesţ generaLed many sales leadsţ and came aL a low
cosLŦ Poweverţ a small number of lnLerneL users began Lo conslder Lhese adverLlslng Lechnlques
lnLruslve and annoylngŦ ?eL because markeLlng sLraLegles relylng heavlly on banners and popŴups
produced resulLsţ companles lnvesLed growlng amounLs of money lnLo purchaslng Lhese ad Lypes ln
hopes of capLurlng markeL share ln Lhe burgeonlng onllne economyŦ As consumers became more
sophlsLlcaLedţ frusLraLlon wlLh Lhese onllne adverLlslng Lechnlques grewŦ lndependenL programmers
began Lo develop Lools LhaL blocked banner and popŴup adsŦ 1he popularlLy of Lhese Lools exploded
when Lhe search englne Coogleţ aL Lhe Llme an lncreaslngly popular webslLe flghLlng Lo solldlfy lLs place
on Lhe lnLerneL wlLh glanLs MlcrosofL and ?ahooţ offered free sofLware enabllng users Lo block popŴup
adsŦ 1he backlash agalnsL banner ads grew as new web browsers provlded users Lhe ablllLy Lo block
lmageŴbased ads such as banner adsŦ AlLhough banner and popŴup ads sLlll exlsLţ Lhey are far less
promlnenL Lhan durlng Lhe early days of Lhe lnLerneLŦ

A ma[or developmenL ln onllne markeLlng came wlLh Lhe lnLroducLlon of payŴperŴcllck adsŦ unllke
banner or popŴup adsţ whlch orlglnally requlred companles Lo pay every Llme a webslLe vlslLor saw an
adţ payŴperŴcllck ads allowed companles Lo pay only when an lnLeresLed poLenLlal cusLomer cllcked on
an adŦ More lmporLanLlyţ howeverţ Lhese ads clrcumvenLed Lhe popŴup and banner blockersŦ As a resulL
of Lhese advanLages and Lhe lncredlble growLh ln Lhe use of search englnesţ whlch provlde excellenL
venues for payŴperŴcllck adverLlslngţ companles began Lurnlng Lo payŴperŴcllck markeLlng ln drovesŦ
Poweverţ as wlLh Lhe banner and popŴup ads LhaL preceded Lhemţ payŴperŴcllck ads came wlLh Lhelr
drawbacksŦ When companles began pourlng bllllons of dollars lnLo Lhls emerglng medlumţ onllne
adverLlslng speclallsLs sLarLed Lo noLlce Lhe presence of whaL would laLer be called cllck fraudť
represenLaLlves of a company wlLh no lnLeresL ln Lhe producL adverLlsed by a compeLlLor cllck on Lhe
compeLlLorƌs ads slmply Lo lncrease Lhe markeLlng cosL of Lhe compeLlLorŦ Cllck fraud grew so rapldly
LhaL markeLers soughL Lo dlverslfy Lhelr onllne poslLlons away from payŴperŴcllck markeLlng Lhrough new
medlumsŦ

AlLhough payŴperŴcllck adverLlslng remalns a common and effecLlve adverLlslng Loolţ markeLers adapLed
yeL agaln Lo Lhe changlng dynamlcs of Lhe lnLerneL by adopLlng new Lechnlques such as payŴperŴ
performance adverLlslngţ search englne opLlmlzaLlonţ and afflllaLe markeLlngŦ As Lhe pace of Lhe
lnLerneLƌs evoluLlon lncreasesţ lL seems all Lhe more llkely LhaL adverLlslng successfully on Lhe lnLerneL
wlll requlre a sLraLegy LhaL shuns consLancy and embraces changeŦ

Accordlng Lo Lhe passageţ Lhe largesL polnL aL whlch Lhe Lelevlslon and lnLerneL dlffer as an adverLlslng
medlum lsť
A) 1he Lype of lndlvldual each medlum reaches
8) WheLher Lhe medlum ls lnLeracLlve
C) 1he pace aL whlch Lhe medlum evolves
u) 1he cosL of adverLlslng wlLh each medlum
L) WheLher each medlum conLalns drawbacks
CorrecL Answerť C
MarkeLlng execuLlves ln Lelevlslon work wlLh a relaLlvely sLable adverLlslng medlumŦ ln many waysţ Lhe
Lelevlslon ads alred Loday are slmllar Lo Lhose alred Lwo decades agoŦ MosL Lelevlslon ads sLlll feaLure
acLorsţ sLlll run 30 or 60 secondsţ and sLlll show a producLŦ Poweverţ Lhe dlfferlng dynamlcs of Lhe
lnLerneL pose unlque challenges Lo adverLlsersţ forclng Lhem Lo adapL Lhelr pracLlces and Lechnlques on
a regular baslsŦ

ln Lhe early days of lnLerneL markeLlngţ onllne adverLlsers employed banner and popŴup ads Lo aLLracL
cusLomersŦ 1hese Lechnlques reached large audlencesţ generaLed many sales leadsţ and came aL a low
cosLŦ Poweverţ a small number of lnLerneL users began Lo conslder Lhese adverLlslng Lechnlques
lnLruslve and annoylngŦ ?eL because markeLlng sLraLegles relylng heavlly on banners and popŴups
produced resulLsţ companles lnvesLed growlng amounLs of money lnLo purchaslng Lhese ad Lypes ln
hopes of capLurlng markeL share ln Lhe burgeonlng onllne economyŦ As consumers became more
sophlsLlcaLedţ frusLraLlon wlLh Lhese onllne adverLlslng Lechnlques grewŦ lndependenL programmers
began Lo develop Lools LhaL blocked banner and popŴup adsŦ 1he popularlLy of Lhese Lools exploded
when Lhe search englne Coogleţ aL Lhe Llme an lncreaslngly popular webslLe flghLlng Lo solldlfy lLs place
on Lhe lnLerneL wlLh glanLs MlcrosofL and ?ahooţ offered free sofLware enabllng users Lo block popŴup
adsŦ 1he backlash agalnsL banner ads grew as new web browsers provlded users Lhe ablllLy Lo block
lmageŴbased ads such as banner adsŦ AlLhough banner and popŴup ads sLlll exlsLţ Lhey are far less
promlnenL Lhan durlng Lhe early days of Lhe lnLerneLŦ

A ma[or developmenL ln onllne markeLlng came wlLh Lhe lnLroducLlon of payŴperŴcllck adsŦ unllke
banner or popŴup adsţ whlch orlglnally requlred companles Lo pay every Llme a webslLe vlslLor saw an
adţ payŴperŴcllck ads allowed companles Lo pay only when an lnLeresLed poLenLlal cusLomer cllcked on
an adŦ More lmporLanLlyţ howeverţ Lhese ads clrcumvenLed Lhe popŴup and banner blockersŦ As a resulL
of Lhese advanLages and Lhe lncredlble growLh ln Lhe use of search englnesţ whlch provlde excellenL
venues for payŴperŴcllck adverLlslngţ companles began Lurnlng Lo payŴperŴcllck markeLlng ln drovesŦ
Poweverţ as wlLh Lhe banner and popŴup ads LhaL preceded Lhemţ payŴperŴcllck ads came wlLh Lhelr
drawbacksŦ When companles began pourlng bllllons of dollars lnLo Lhls emerglng medlumţ onllne
adverLlslng speclallsLs sLarLed Lo noLlce Lhe presence of whaL would laLer be called cllck fraudť
represenLaLlves of a company wlLh no lnLeresL ln Lhe producL adverLlsed by a compeLlLor cllck on Lhe
compeLlLorƌs ads slmply Lo lncrease Lhe markeLlng cosL of Lhe compeLlLorŦ Cllck fraud grew so rapldly
LhaL markeLers soughL Lo dlverslfy Lhelr onllne poslLlons away from payŴperŴcllck markeLlng Lhrough new
medlumsŦ

AlLhough payŴperŴcllck adverLlslng remalns a common and effecLlve adverLlslng Loolţ markeLers adapLed
yeL agaln Lo Lhe changlng dynamlcs of Lhe lnLerneL by adopLlng new Lechnlques such as payŴperŴ
performance adverLlslngţ search englne opLlmlzaLlonţ and afflllaLe markeLlngŦ As Lhe pace of Lhe
lnLerneLƌs evoluLlon lncreasesţ lL seems all Lhe more llkely LhaL adverLlslng successfully on Lhe lnLerneL
wlll requlre a sLraLegy LhaL shuns consLancy and embraces changeŦ

1he passage lmplles LhaL whlch of Lhe followlng aLLrlbuLes wlll be Lhe mosL lmporLanL for fuLure success
ln onllne adverLlslngť
A) llexlble creaLlvlLy
8) ulsclpllned paLlence
C) unlform approach
u) 8uLhless LenaclLy
L) LclecLlc approach
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť A
MarkeLlng execuLlves ln Lelevlslon work wlLh a relaLlvely sLable adverLlslng medlumŦ ln many waysţ Lhe
Lelevlslon ads alred Loday are slmllar Lo Lhose alred Lwo decades agoŦ MosL Lelevlslon ads sLlll feaLure
acLorsţ sLlll run 30 or 60 secondsţ and sLlll show a producLŦ Poweverţ Lhe dlfferlng dynamlcs of Lhe
lnLerneL pose unlque challenges Lo adverLlsersţ forclng Lhem Lo adapL Lhelr pracLlces and Lechnlques on
a regular baslsŦ

ln Lhe early days of lnLerneL markeLlngţ onllne adverLlsers employed banner and popŴup ads Lo aLLracL
cusLomersŦ 1hese Lechnlques reached large audlencesţ generaLed many sales leadsţ and came aL a low
cosLŦ Poweverţ a small number of lnLerneL users began Lo conslder Lhese adverLlslng Lechnlques
lnLruslve and annoylngŦ ?eL because markeLlng sLraLegles relylng heavlly on banners and popŴups
produced resulLsţ companles lnvesLed growlng amounLs of money lnLo purchaslng Lhese ad Lypes ln
hopes of capLurlng markeL share ln Lhe burgeonlng onllne economyŦ As consumers became more
sophlsLlcaLedţ frusLraLlon wlLh Lhese onllne adverLlslng Lechnlques grewŦ lndependenL programmers
began Lo develop Lools LhaL blocked banner and popŴup adsŦ 1he popularlLy of Lhese Lools exploded
when Lhe search englne Coogleţ aL Lhe Llme an lncreaslngly popular webslLe flghLlng Lo solldlfy lLs place
on Lhe lnLerneL wlLh glanLs MlcrosofL and ?ahooţ offered free sofLware enabllng users Lo block popŴup
adsŦ 1he backlash agalnsL banner ads grew as new web browsers provlded users Lhe ablllLy Lo block
lmageŴbased ads such as banner adsŦ AlLhough banner and popŴup ads sLlll exlsLţ Lhey are far less
promlnenL Lhan durlng Lhe early days of Lhe lnLerneLŦ

A ma[or developmenL ln onllne markeLlng came wlLh Lhe lnLroducLlon of payŴperŴcllck adsŦ unllke
banner or popŴup adsţ whlch orlglnally requlred companles Lo pay every Llme a webslLe vlslLor saw an
adţ payŴperŴcllck ads allowed companles Lo pay only when an lnLeresLed poLenLlal cusLomer cllcked on
an adŦ More lmporLanLlyţ howeverţ Lhese ads clrcumvenLed Lhe popŴup and banner blockersŦ As a resulL
of Lhese advanLages and Lhe lncredlble growLh ln Lhe use of search englnesţ whlch provlde excellenL
venues for payŴperŴcllck adverLlslngţ companles began Lurnlng Lo payŴperŴcllck markeLlng ln drovesŦ
Poweverţ as wlLh Lhe banner and popŴup ads LhaL preceded Lhemţ payŴperŴcllck ads came wlLh Lhelr
drawbacksŦ When companles began pourlng bllllons of dollars lnLo Lhls emerglng medlumţ onllne
adverLlslng speclallsLs sLarLed Lo noLlce Lhe presence of whaL would laLer be called cllck fraudť
represenLaLlves of a company wlLh no lnLeresL ln Lhe producL adverLlsed by a compeLlLor cllck on Lhe
compeLlLorƌs ads slmply Lo lncrease Lhe markeLlng cosL of Lhe compeLlLorŦ Cllck fraud grew so rapldly
LhaL markeLers soughL Lo dlverslfy Lhelr onllne poslLlons away from payŴperŴcllck markeLlng Lhrough new
medlumsŦ

AlLhough payŴperŴcllck adverLlslng remalns a common and effecLlve adverLlslng Loolţ markeLers adapLed
yeL agaln Lo Lhe changlng dynamlcs of Lhe lnLerneL by adopLlng new Lechnlques such as payŴperŴ
performance adverLlslngţ search englne opLlmlzaLlonţ and afflllaLe markeLlngŦ As Lhe pace of Lhe
lnLerneLƌs evoluLlon lncreasesţ lL seems all Lhe more llkely LhaL adverLlslng successfully on Lhe lnLerneL
wlll requlre a sLraLegy LhaL shuns consLancy and embraces changeŦ

Whlch of Lhe followlng words besL descrlbes Lhe auLhor's Lone ln Lhe passage?
A) CrlLlcal
8) AnalyLlcal
C) lrusLraLed
u) 8lased
L) Surprlsed
Show Answer
CorrecL Answerť 8
ShorLly afLer SepLember 11ţ 2001ţ Lhe unlLed SLaLes began requesLlng addlLlonal flnanclal lnformaLlon
abouL persons of lnLeresL by subpoenalng records locaLed aL Lhe SWll1 banklng consorLlumŦ SWll1ţ
whlch rouLes Lrllllons of dollars a dayţ faced an eLhlcal dllemmať flghL Lhe subpoenas ln order Lo proLecL
member prlvacy and Lhe groupƌs repuLaLlon for Lhe hlghesL level of confldenLlallLyţ orţ comply and
provlde lnformaLlon abouL Lhousands of flnanclal communlcaLlons ln Lhe hope LhaL llves wlll be savedŦ
SWll1 declded Lo comply ln secreLţ buL ln laLe !une 2006ţ four ma[or uŦSŦ newspapers dlsclosed SWll1ƌs
compllanceŦ 1hls sparked a heaLed publlc debaLe over Lhe eLhlcs of SWll1ƌs declslon Lo reveal osLenslbly
confldenLlal flnanclal communlcaLlonsŦ

Analyzlng Lhe slLuaLlon ln hlndslghLţ Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons exlsLed for noL complylng wlLh Lhe
1reasury ueparLmenLƌs requesLsŦ llrsLţ SWll1 needed Lo uphold lLs longŴsLandlng values of
confldenLlallLyţ nonŴdlsclosureţ and lnsLlLuLlonal LrusLŦ 1he second eLhlcal reason agalnsL SWll1ƌs
lnvolvemenL came wlLh lnadequaLe governmenL overslghL as Lhe 1reasury ueparLmenL falled Lo
consLrucL necessary safeguards Lo ensure Lhe prlvacy of Lhe daLaŦ 1hlrdţ lnLernaLlonal law musL be
upheld and one could argue qulLe sLrongly LhaL Lhe governmenLƌs use of daLa breached some parLs of
lnLernaLlonal lawŦ

AlLhough SWll1 execuLlves undoubLedly consldered Lhe aforemenLloned reasons for re[ecLlng Lhe
governmenLƌs subpoenaţ Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons for complylng exlsLedŦ llrsLţ lL could be argued LhaL
Lhe program was legal because Lhe unlLed SLaLes governmenL possesses Lhe auLhorlLy Lo subpoena
records sLored wlLhln lLs LerrlLory and SWll1 malnLalned many of lLs records ln vlrglnlaŦ Secondţ lL ls
enLlrely posslble LhaL complylng wlLh Lhe governmenLƌs subpoena LhwarLed anoLher caLasLrophlc
LerrorlsL aLLack LhaL would have cosL llves and dollarsŦ 1hlrdţ cooperaLlng wlLh Lhe governmenL dld noL
expllclLly vlolaLe any SWll1 pollcles due Lo Lhe presence of a valld subpoenaŦ Poweverţ Lhe exLenL of
cooperaLlon cerLalnly surprlsed many flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons and sparked some ouLrage and debaLe wlLhln
Lhe flnanclal communlLyŦ

Whlle SWll1 had compelllng argumenLs boLh for agreelng and refuslng Lo cooperaLe wlLh Lhe uŦSŦ
governmenL programţ even ln hlndslghLţ lL ls lmposslble Lo [udge wlLh cerLlLude Lhe wlsdom and eLhlcs
of SWll1ƌs declslon Lo cooperaLe as we sLlll lack answers Lo lmporLanL quesLlons such asť whaL
lnformaLlon dld Lhe governmenL wanL? WhaL promlses dld Lhe governmenL make abouL daLa
confldenLlally? WhaLţ lf anyţ poLenLlally lmpendlng LhreaLs dld Lhe governmenL presenL Lo [usLlfy lLs need
for daLa?

Whlch of Lhe followlng can be lnferred from Lhe passage?
A) no clear cuL answer as Lo Lhe legallLy of SWll1ƌs cooperaLlon exlsLed
8) SWll1 falled Lo adequaLely consulL lLs legal sLaff before decldlng Lo cooperaLe
C) 1he volume of money rouLed Lhrough SWll1 decllned afLer lLs cooperaLlon became publlc
u) uŦSŦ auLhorlLles LhreaLened crlmlnal charges lf SWll1 refused Lhelr subpoenas
L) 1reasury ueparLmenL offlclals ob[ecLed Lo Lhe publlcaLlon of lnformaLlon abouL lLs classlfled
program
Show Answer
CorrecL Answerť A

ShorLly afLer SepLember 11ţ 2001ţ Lhe unlLed SLaLes began requesLlng addlLlonal flnanclal lnformaLlon
abouL persons of lnLeresL by subpoenalng records locaLed aL Lhe SWll1 banklng consorLlumŦ SWll1ţ
whlch rouLes Lrllllons of dollars a dayţ faced an eLhlcal dllemmať flghL Lhe subpoenas ln order Lo proLecL
member prlvacy and Lhe groupƌs repuLaLlon for Lhe hlghesL level of confldenLlallLyţ orţ comply and
provlde lnformaLlon abouL Lhousands of flnanclal communlcaLlons ln Lhe hope LhaL llves wlll be savedŦ
SWll1 declded Lo comply ln secreLţ buL ln laLe !une 2006ţ four ma[or uŦSŦ newspapers dlsclosed SWll1ƌs
compllanceŦ 1hls sparked a heaLed publlc debaLe over Lhe eLhlcs of SWll1ƌs declslon Lo reveal osLenslbly
confldenLlal flnanclal communlcaLlonsŦ

Analyzlng Lhe slLuaLlon ln hlndslghLţ Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons exlsLed for noL complylng wlLh Lhe
1reasury ueparLmenLƌs requesLsŦ llrsLţ SWll1 needed Lo uphold lLs longŴsLandlng values of
confldenLlallLyţ nonŴdlsclosureţ and lnsLlLuLlonal LrusLŦ 1he second eLhlcal reason agalnsL SWll1ƌs
lnvolvemenL came wlLh lnadequaLe governmenL overslghL as Lhe 1reasury ueparLmenL falled Lo
consLrucL necessary safeguards Lo ensure Lhe prlvacy of Lhe daLaŦ 1hlrdţ lnLernaLlonal law musL be
upheld and one could argue qulLe sLrongly LhaL Lhe governmenLƌs use of daLa breached some parLs of
lnLernaLlonal lawŦ

AlLhough SWll1 execuLlves undoubLedly consldered Lhe aforemenLloned reasons for re[ecLlng Lhe
governmenLƌs subpoenaţ Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons for complylng exlsLedŦ llrsLţ lL could be argued LhaL
Lhe program was legal because Lhe unlLed SLaLes governmenL possesses Lhe auLhorlLy Lo subpoena
records sLored wlLhln lLs LerrlLory and SWll1 malnLalned many of lLs records ln vlrglnlaŦ Secondţ lL ls
enLlrely posslble LhaL complylng wlLh Lhe governmenLƌs subpoena LhwarLed anoLher caLasLrophlc
LerrorlsL aLLack LhaL would have cosL llves and dollarsŦ 1hlrdţ cooperaLlng wlLh Lhe governmenL dld noL
expllclLly vlolaLe any SWll1 pollcles due Lo Lhe presence of a valld subpoenaŦ Poweverţ Lhe exLenL of
cooperaLlon cerLalnly surprlsed many flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons and sparked some ouLrage and debaLe wlLhln
Lhe flnanclal communlLyŦ

Whlle SWll1 had compelllng argumenLs boLh for agreelng and refuslng Lo cooperaLe wlLh Lhe uŦSŦ
governmenL programţ even ln hlndslghLţ lL ls lmposslble Lo [udge wlLh cerLlLude Lhe wlsdom and eLhlcs
of SWll1ƌs declslon Lo cooperaLe as we sLlll lack answers Lo lmporLanL quesLlons such asť whaL
lnformaLlon dld Lhe governmenL wanL? WhaL promlses dld Lhe governmenL make abouL daLa
confldenLlally? WhaLţ lf anyţ poLenLlally lmpendlng LhreaLs dld Lhe governmenL presenL Lo [usLlfy lLs need
for daLa?

lnferrlng from Lhe passageţ whlch of Lhe followlng consLlLuLed an eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlon for SWll1
complylng wlLh Lhe governmenL?
A) 1he uŦSŦ governmenL can subpoena lnformaLlon LhaL perLalns Lo lLs clLlzens
8) SWll1 execuLlves belleved anoLher caLasLrophlc aLLack was lmmlnenL
C) Þrovldlng daLa Lo Lhe governmenL based upon a valld subpoena dld noL expllclLly vlolaLe SWll1
pollcy
u) uesplLe osLenslbly poor overslghLţ senlor 1reasury ueparLmenL offlclals assured SWll1 LhaL daLa
would be kepL confldenLlal
L) uŦSŦ offlclals Lold SWll1 offlclals exacLly why 1reasury needed Lhe lnformaLlon
Show Answer
CorrecL Answerť C
ShorLly afLer SepLember 11ţ 2001ţ Lhe unlLed SLaLes began requesLlng addlLlonal flnanclal lnformaLlon
abouL persons of lnLeresL by subpoenalng records locaLed aL Lhe SWll1 banklng consorLlumŦ SWll1ţ
whlch rouLes Lrllllons of dollars a dayţ faced an eLhlcal dllemmať flghL Lhe subpoenas ln order Lo proLecL
member prlvacy and Lhe groupƌs repuLaLlon for Lhe hlghesL level of confldenLlallLyţ orţ comply and
provlde lnformaLlon abouL Lhousands of flnanclal communlcaLlons ln Lhe hope LhaL llves wlll be savedŦ
SWll1 declded Lo comply ln secreLţ buL ln laLe !une 2006ţ four ma[or uŦSŦ newspapers dlsclosed SWll1ƌs
compllanceŦ 1hls sparked a heaLed publlc debaLe over Lhe eLhlcs of SWll1ƌs declslon Lo reveal osLenslbly
confldenLlal flnanclal communlcaLlonsŦ

Analyzlng Lhe slLuaLlon ln hlndslghLţ Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons exlsLed for noL complylng wlLh Lhe
1reasury ueparLmenLƌs requesLsŦ llrsLţ SWll1 needed Lo uphold lLs longŴsLandlng values of
confldenLlallLyţ nonŴdlsclosureţ and lnsLlLuLlonal LrusLŦ 1he second eLhlcal reason agalnsL SWll1ƌs
lnvolvemenL came wlLh lnadequaLe governmenL overslghL as Lhe 1reasury ueparLmenL falled Lo
consLrucL necessary safeguards Lo ensure Lhe prlvacy of Lhe daLaŦ 1hlrdţ lnLernaLlonal law musL be
upheld and one could argue qulLe sLrongly LhaL Lhe governmenLƌs use of daLa breached some parLs of
lnLernaLlonal lawŦ

AlLhough SWll1 execuLlves undoubLedly consldered Lhe aforemenLloned reasons for re[ecLlng Lhe
governmenLƌs subpoenaţ Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons for complylng exlsLedŦ llrsLţ lL could be argued LhaL
Lhe program was legal because Lhe unlLed SLaLes governmenL possesses Lhe auLhorlLy Lo subpoena
records sLored wlLhln lLs LerrlLory and SWll1 malnLalned many of lLs records ln vlrglnlaŦ Secondţ lL ls
enLlrely posslble LhaL complylng wlLh Lhe governmenLƌs subpoena LhwarLed anoLher caLasLrophlc
LerrorlsL aLLack LhaL would have cosL llves and dollarsŦ 1hlrdţ cooperaLlng wlLh Lhe governmenL dld noL
expllclLly vlolaLe any SWll1 pollcles due Lo Lhe presence of a valld subpoenaŦ Poweverţ Lhe exLenL of
cooperaLlon cerLalnly surprlsed many flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons and sparked some ouLrage and debaLe wlLhln
Lhe flnanclal communlLyŦ

Whlle SWll1 had compelllng argumenLs boLh for agreelng and refuslng Lo cooperaLe wlLh Lhe uŦSŦ
governmenL programţ even ln hlndslghLţ lL ls lmposslble Lo [udge wlLh cerLlLude Lhe wlsdom and eLhlcs
of SWll1ƌs declslon Lo cooperaLe as we sLlll lack answers Lo lmporLanL quesLlons such asť whaL
lnformaLlon dld Lhe governmenL wanL? WhaL promlses dld Lhe governmenL make abouL daLa
confldenLlally? WhaLţ lf anyţ poLenLlally lmpendlng LhreaLs dld Lhe governmenL presenL Lo [usLlfy lLs need
for daLa?

1he auLhor suggesLs whlch of Lhe followlng ls Lhe mosL approprlaLe concluslon of an analysls of Lhe
eLhlcs of SWll1ƌs declslon?
A) SWll1 acLed lnapproprlaLely as lL compromlsed lLs longŴsLandlng values of lnLegrlLyţ prlvacyţ and
confldenLlallLy
8) SWll1ƌs acLlons cannoL be [udged wlLh persplculLy as answers Lo lmporLanL quesLlons are sLlll
unknown
C) SWll1 acLed properly as lL complled wlLh Lhe requesLs of a soverelgn governmenL ln an aLLempL
Lo save llves
u) SWll1ƌs acLlons endangered Lhe flow of commerce by sparklng publlc ouLrage aL an lmporLanL
lnsLlLuLlon
L) SWll1ƌs acLlons were approprlaLe lnlLlallyţ yeL should have been dlsconLlnued prlor Lo !une 2006
Show Answer
CorrecL Answerť 8

ShorLly afLer SepLember 11ţ 2001ţ Lhe unlLed SLaLes began requesLlng addlLlonal flnanclal lnformaLlon
abouL persons of lnLeresL by subpoenalng records locaLed aL Lhe SWll1 banklng consorLlumŦ SWll1ţ
whlch rouLes Lrllllons of dollars a dayţ faced an eLhlcal dllemmať flghL Lhe subpoenas ln order Lo proLecL
member prlvacy and Lhe groupƌs repuLaLlon for Lhe hlghesL level of confldenLlallLyţ orţ comply and
provlde lnformaLlon abouL Lhousands of flnanclal communlcaLlons ln Lhe hope LhaL llves wlll be savedŦ
SWll1 declded Lo comply ln secreLţ buL ln laLe !une 2006ţ four ma[or uŦSŦ newspapers dlsclosed SWll1ƌs
compllanceŦ 1hls sparked a heaLed publlc debaLe over Lhe eLhlcs of SWll1ƌs declslon Lo reveal osLenslbly
confldenLlal flnanclal communlcaLlonsŦ

Analyzlng Lhe slLuaLlon ln hlndslghLţ Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons exlsLed for noL complylng wlLh Lhe
1reasury ueparLmenLƌs requesLsŦ llrsLţ SWll1 needed Lo uphold lLs longŴsLandlng values of
confldenLlallLyţ nonŴdlsclosureţ and lnsLlLuLlonal LrusLŦ 1he second eLhlcal reason agalnsL SWll1ƌs
lnvolvemenL came wlLh lnadequaLe governmenL overslghL as Lhe 1reasury ueparLmenL falled Lo
consLrucL necessary safeguards Lo ensure Lhe prlvacy of Lhe daLaŦ 1hlrdţ lnLernaLlonal law musL be
upheld and one could argue qulLe sLrongly LhaL Lhe governmenLƌs use of daLa breached some parLs of
lnLernaLlonal lawŦ

AlLhough SWll1 execuLlves undoubLedly consldered Lhe aforemenLloned reasons for re[ecLlng Lhe
governmenLƌs subpoenaţ Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons for complylng exlsLedŦ llrsLţ lL could be argued LhaL
Lhe program was legal because Lhe unlLed SLaLes governmenL possesses Lhe auLhorlLy Lo subpoena
records sLored wlLhln lLs LerrlLory and SWll1 malnLalned many of lLs records ln vlrglnlaŦ Secondţ lL ls
enLlrely posslble LhaL complylng wlLh Lhe governmenLƌs subpoena LhwarLed anoLher caLasLrophlc
LerrorlsL aLLack LhaL would have cosL llves and dollarsŦ 1hlrdţ cooperaLlng wlLh Lhe governmenL dld noL
expllclLly vlolaLe any SWll1 pollcles due Lo Lhe presence of a valld subpoenaŦ Poweverţ Lhe exLenL of
cooperaLlon cerLalnly surprlsed many flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons and sparked some ouLrage and debaLe wlLhln
Lhe flnanclal communlLyŦ

Whlle SWll1 had compelllng argumenLs boLh for agreelng and refuslng Lo cooperaLe wlLh Lhe uŦSŦ
governmenL programţ even ln hlndslghLţ lL ls lmposslble Lo [udge wlLh cerLlLude Lhe wlsdom and eLhlcs
of SWll1ƌs declslon Lo cooperaLe as we sLlll lack answers Lo lmporLanL quesLlons such asť whaL
lnformaLlon dld Lhe governmenL wanL? WhaL promlses dld Lhe governmenL make abouL daLa
confldenLlally? WhaLţ lf anyţ poLenLlally lmpendlng LhreaLs dld Lhe governmenL presenL Lo [usLlfy lLs need
for daLa?

Accordlng Lo Lhe passageţ each of Lhe followlng descrlbes SWll1 LxCLÞ1ť
A) Pad daLa sLored ln vlrglnla
8) valued confldenLlallLy and nonŴdlsclosure
C) 8ouLes Lrllllons of dollars a day
u) Composed of a consorLlum of banks
L) AfLer over a monLh of dellberaLlonţ complled wlLh Lhe governmenLƌs subpoena
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť L
ShorLly afLer SepLember 11ţ 2001ţ Lhe unlLed SLaLes began requesLlng addlLlonal flnanclal lnformaLlon
abouL persons of lnLeresL by subpoenalng records locaLed aL Lhe SWll1 banklng consorLlumŦ SWll1ţ
whlch rouLes Lrllllons of dollars a dayţ faced an eLhlcal dllemmať flghL Lhe subpoenas ln order Lo proLecL
member prlvacy and Lhe groupƌs repuLaLlon for Lhe hlghesL level of confldenLlallLyţ orţ comply and
provlde lnformaLlon abouL Lhousands of flnanclal communlcaLlons ln Lhe hope LhaL llves wlll be savedŦ
SWll1 declded Lo comply ln secreLţ buL ln laLe !une 2006ţ four ma[or uŦSŦ newspapers dlsclosed SWll1ƌs
compllanceŦ 1hls sparked a heaLed publlc debaLe over Lhe eLhlcs of SWll1ƌs declslon Lo reveal osLenslbly
confldenLlal flnanclal communlcaLlonsŦ

Analyzlng Lhe slLuaLlon ln hlndslghLţ Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons exlsLed for noL complylng wlLh Lhe
1reasury ueparLmenLƌs requesLsŦ llrsLţ SWll1 needed Lo uphold lLs longŴsLandlng values of
confldenLlallLyţ nonŴdlsclosureţ and lnsLlLuLlonal LrusLŦ 1he second eLhlcal reason agalnsL SWll1ƌs
lnvolvemenL came wlLh lnadequaLe governmenL overslghL as Lhe 1reasury ueparLmenL falled Lo
consLrucL necessary safeguards Lo ensure Lhe prlvacy of Lhe daLaŦ 1hlrdţ lnLernaLlonal law musL be
upheld and one could argue qulLe sLrongly LhaL Lhe governmenLƌs use of daLa breached some parLs of
lnLernaLlonal lawŦ

AlLhough SWll1 execuLlves undoubLedly consldered Lhe aforemenLloned reasons for re[ecLlng Lhe
governmenLƌs subpoenaţ Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons for complylng exlsLedŦ llrsLţ lL could be argued LhaL
Lhe program was legal because Lhe unlLed SLaLes governmenL possesses Lhe auLhorlLy Lo subpoena
records sLored wlLhln lLs LerrlLory and SWll1 malnLalned many of lLs records ln vlrglnlaŦ Secondţ lL ls
enLlrely posslble LhaL complylng wlLh Lhe governmenLƌs subpoena LhwarLed anoLher caLasLrophlc
LerrorlsL aLLack LhaL would have cosL llves and dollarsŦ 1hlrdţ cooperaLlng wlLh Lhe governmenL dld noL
expllclLly vlolaLe any SWll1 pollcles due Lo Lhe presence of a valld subpoenaŦ Poweverţ Lhe exLenL of
cooperaLlon cerLalnly surprlsed many flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons and sparked some ouLrage and debaLe wlLhln
Lhe flnanclal communlLyŦ

Whlle SWll1 had compelllng argumenLs boLh for agreelng and refuslng Lo cooperaLe wlLh Lhe uŦSŦ
governmenL programţ even ln hlndslghLţ lL ls lmposslble Lo [udge wlLh cerLlLude Lhe wlsdom and eLhlcs
of SWll1ƌs declslon Lo cooperaLe as we sLlll lack answers Lo lmporLanL quesLlons such asť whaL
lnformaLlon dld Lhe governmenL wanL? WhaL promlses dld Lhe governmenL make abouL daLa
confldenLlally? WhaLţ lf anyţ poLenLlally lmpendlng LhreaLs dld Lhe governmenL presenL Lo [usLlfy lLs need
for daLa?

1he auLhor lmplles LhaL whlch of Lhe followlng mosL llkely occurred as a resulL of Lhe news sLorles LhaL
ran ln !une 2006ť
A) uŦSŦ governmenL offlclals decrled Lhe leaklng of classlfled lnformaLlon
8) SWll1 execuLlves conducLed a Lhorough lnLernal revlew Lo assess Lhe legallLy of SWll1ƌs acLlons
C) Some forelgn members of Lhe SWll1 consorLlum demanded answers from SWll1ƌs execuLlves
u) Many members of Lhe publlc and flnanclal communlLy debaLed SWll1ƌs declslon
L) llnanclal daLa and LransacLlons slowed as a resulL of Lhe publlcaLlon of SWll1ƌs cooperaLlon
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť u
ShorLly afLer SepLember 11ţ 2001ţ Lhe unlLed SLaLes began requesLlng addlLlonal flnanclal lnformaLlon
abouL persons of lnLeresL by subpoenalng records locaLed aL Lhe SWll1 banklng consorLlumŦ SWll1ţ
whlch rouLes Lrllllons of dollars a dayţ faced an eLhlcal dllemmať flghL Lhe subpoenas ln order Lo proLecL
member prlvacy and Lhe groupƌs repuLaLlon for Lhe hlghesL level of confldenLlallLyţ orţ comply and
provlde lnformaLlon abouL Lhousands of flnanclal communlcaLlons ln Lhe hope LhaL llves wlll be savedŦ
SWll1 declded Lo comply ln secreLţ buL ln laLe !une 2006ţ four ma[or uŦSŦ newspapers dlsclosed SWll1ƌs
compllanceŦ 1hls sparked a heaLed publlc debaLe over Lhe eLhlcs of SWll1ƌs declslon Lo reveal osLenslbly
confldenLlal flnanclal communlcaLlonsŦ

Analyzlng Lhe slLuaLlon ln hlndslghLţ Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons exlsLed for noL complylng wlLh Lhe
1reasury ueparLmenLƌs requesLsŦ llrsLţ SWll1 needed Lo uphold lLs longŴsLandlng values of
confldenLlallLyţ nonŴdlsclosureţ and lnsLlLuLlonal LrusLŦ 1he second eLhlcal reason agalnsL SWll1ƌs
lnvolvemenL came wlLh lnadequaLe governmenL overslghL as Lhe 1reasury ueparLmenL falled Lo
consLrucL necessary safeguards Lo ensure Lhe prlvacy of Lhe daLaŦ 1hlrdţ lnLernaLlonal law musL be
upheld and one could argue qulLe sLrongly LhaL Lhe governmenLƌs use of daLa breached some parLs of
lnLernaLlonal lawŦ

AlLhough SWll1 execuLlves undoubLedly consldered Lhe aforemenLloned reasons for re[ecLlng Lhe
governmenLƌs subpoenaţ Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons for complylng exlsLedŦ llrsLţ lL could be argued LhaL
Lhe program was legal because Lhe unlLed SLaLes governmenL possesses Lhe auLhorlLy Lo subpoena
records sLored wlLhln lLs LerrlLory and SWll1 malnLalned many of lLs records ln vlrglnlaŦ Secondţ lL ls
enLlrely posslble LhaL complylng wlLh Lhe governmenLƌs subpoena LhwarLed anoLher caLasLrophlc
LerrorlsL aLLack LhaL would have cosL llves and dollarsŦ 1hlrdţ cooperaLlng wlLh Lhe governmenL dld noL
expllclLly vlolaLe any SWll1 pollcles due Lo Lhe presence of a valld subpoenaŦ Poweverţ Lhe exLenL of
cooperaLlon cerLalnly surprlsed many flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons and sparked some ouLrage and debaLe wlLhln
Lhe flnanclal communlLyŦ

Whlle SWll1 had compelllng argumenLs boLh for agreelng and refuslng Lo cooperaLe wlLh Lhe uŦSŦ
governmenL programţ even ln hlndslghLţ lL ls lmposslble Lo [udge wlLh cerLlLude Lhe wlsdom and eLhlcs
of SWll1ƌs declslon Lo cooperaLe as we sLlll lack answers Lo lmporLanL quesLlons such asť whaL
lnformaLlon dld Lhe governmenL wanL? WhaL promlses dld Lhe governmenL make abouL daLa
confldenLlally? WhaLţ lf anyţ poLenLlally lmpendlng LhreaLs dld Lhe governmenL presenL Lo [usLlfy lLs need
for daLa?

1he prlmary purpose of Lhe passage ls Loť
A) Lxplaln Lhe exLenL of SWll1ƌs cooperaLlon wlLh Lhe uŦSŦ governmenL ln Lracklng flnanclal
LransacLlons
8) 1race Lhe orlgln of publlc ouLrageţ especlally among lnLernaLlonal flnanclal lnsLlLuLlonsţ over
SWll1ƌs cooperaLlon wlLh uŦSŦ auLhorlLles
C) Argue LhaL Lhe absence of lnformaLlon and Lhe presence of eLhlcal complexlLles make [udglng
SWll1ƌs declslon dlfflculL aL besL
u) Argue LhaL SWll1ƌs declslon amounLed Lo a compromlse of SWll1ƌs prlnclples
L) Þrovlde hlsLorlcal background on a dlfflculL eLhlcal dllemma
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť C
ShorLly afLer SepLember 11ţ 2001ţ Lhe unlLed SLaLes began requesLlng addlLlonal flnanclal lnformaLlon
abouL persons of lnLeresL by subpoenalng records locaLed aL Lhe SWll1 banklng consorLlumŦ SWll1ţ
whlch rouLes Lrllllons of dollars a dayţ faced an eLhlcal dllemmať flghL Lhe subpoenas ln order Lo proLecL
member prlvacy and Lhe groupƌs repuLaLlon for Lhe hlghesL level of confldenLlallLyţ orţ comply and
provlde lnformaLlon abouL Lhousands of flnanclal communlcaLlons ln Lhe hope LhaL llves wlll be savedŦ
SWll1 declded Lo comply ln secreLţ buL ln laLe !une 2006ţ four ma[or uŦSŦ newspapers dlsclosed SWll1ƌs
compllanceŦ 1hls sparked a heaLed publlc debaLe over Lhe eLhlcs of SWll1ƌs declslon Lo reveal osLenslbly
confldenLlal flnanclal communlcaLlonsŦ

Analyzlng Lhe slLuaLlon ln hlndslghLţ Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons exlsLed for noL complylng wlLh Lhe
1reasury ueparLmenLƌs requesLsŦ llrsLţ SWll1 needed Lo uphold lLs longŴsLandlng values of
confldenLlallLyţ nonŴdlsclosureţ and lnsLlLuLlonal LrusLŦ 1he second eLhlcal reason agalnsL SWll1ƌs
lnvolvemenL came wlLh lnadequaLe governmenL overslghL as Lhe 1reasury ueparLmenL falled Lo
consLrucL necessary safeguards Lo ensure Lhe prlvacy of Lhe daLaŦ 1hlrdţ lnLernaLlonal law musL be
upheld and one could argue qulLe sLrongly LhaL Lhe governmenLƌs use of daLa breached some parLs of
lnLernaLlonal lawŦ

AlLhough SWll1 execuLlves undoubLedly consldered Lhe aforemenLloned reasons for re[ecLlng Lhe
governmenLƌs subpoenaţ Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons for complylng exlsLedŦ llrsLţ lL could be argued LhaL
Lhe program was legal because Lhe unlLed SLaLes governmenL possesses Lhe auLhorlLy Lo subpoena
records sLored wlLhln lLs LerrlLory and SWll1 malnLalned many of lLs records ln vlrglnlaŦ Secondţ lL ls
enLlrely posslble LhaL complylng wlLh Lhe governmenLƌs subpoena LhwarLed anoLher caLasLrophlc
LerrorlsL aLLack LhaL would have cosL llves and dollarsŦ 1hlrdţ cooperaLlng wlLh Lhe governmenL dld noL
expllclLly vlolaLe any SWll1 pollcles due Lo Lhe presence of a valld subpoenaŦ Poweverţ Lhe exLenL of
cooperaLlon cerLalnly surprlsed many flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons and sparked some ouLrage and debaLe wlLhln
Lhe flnanclal communlLyŦ

Whlle SWll1 had compelllng argumenLs boLh for agreelng and refuslng Lo cooperaLe wlLh Lhe uŦSŦ
governmenL programţ even ln hlndslghLţ lL ls lmposslble Lo [udge wlLh cerLlLude Lhe wlsdom and eLhlcs
of SWll1ƌs declslon Lo cooperaLe as we sLlll lack answers Lo lmporLanL quesLlons such asť whaL
lnformaLlon dld Lhe governmenL wanL? WhaL promlses dld Lhe governmenL make abouL daLa
confldenLlally? WhaLţ lf anyţ poLenLlally lmpendlng LhreaLs dld Lhe governmenL presenL Lo [usLlfy lLs need
for daLa?

1he auLhor mosL llkely used Lhe word ƍosLenslblyƍ near Lhe end of Lhe flrsL paragraph Lo emphaslze LhaLť
A) 1he eLhlcal declslon faclng SWll1 seemed complex
8) 1he uŦSŦ governmenL saw no problems ln Lhe requesL lL made
C) lour ma[or uŦSŦ newspapers LhoughL on Lhe surface LhaL Lhe declslon Lo publlsh Lhe sLory was
slmple
u) users of SWll1 belleved Lhelr flnanclal daLa and communlcaLlons were prlvaLe
L) Members of Lhe publlc reacLed wlLh anger upon learnlng of SWll1's cooperaLlon
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť u
AlLhough webslLes such as lacebook and MySpace experlenced exponenLlal growLh durlng Lhe mlddle of
Lhe flrsL decade of Lhe 21sL cenLuryţ some users remaln obllvlous Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhe lnformaLlon Lhey
posL onllne can come back Lo haunL LhemŦ llrsLţ employers can monlLor employees who malnLaln a blogţ
phoLo dlaryţ or webslLeŦ Lmployers can look for conLroverslal employee oplnlonsţ senslLlve lnformaLlon
dlsclosuresţ or wlldly lnapproprlaLe conducLŦ lor exampleţ a norLh Carollna newspaper flred one of lLs
feaLures wrlLers afLer she creaLed a blog on whlch she anonymously wroLe abouL Lhe ldlosyncrasles of
her [ob and coworkersŦ

1he second unlnLended use of lnformaLlon from soclal neLworklng webslLes ls employers who check on
prospecLlve employeesŦ A !une 11ţ 2006 new ?ork 1lmes arLlcle reporLed LhaL many companles
recrulLlng on college campuses use search englnes and soclal neLworklng webslLes such as MySpaceţ
xangaţ and lacebook Lo conducL background checksŦ AlLhough Lhe use of MySpace or Coogle Lo
scruLlnlze a sLudenL's background ls somewhaL unseLLllng Lo many undergraduaLesţ Lhe 1lmes noLed LhaL
Lhe uLlllzaLlon of lacebook ls especlally shocklng Lo sLudenLs who belleve LhaL lacebook ls llmlLed Lo
currenL sLudenLs and recenL alumnlŦ

CorporaLe recrulLers and prospecLlve employers are noL Lhe only people lnLeresLed ln college sLudenLs'
llvesŦ 1he Lhlrd unlnLended use of soclal neLworklng webslLes ls college admlnlsLraLors who monlLor Lhe
lnLerneLŸespeclally lacebookŸfor sLudenL mlsconducLŦ lor exampleţ a college ln 8osLon's 8ack 8ay
expelled lLs sLudenL CovernmenL AssoclaLlon ÞresldenL for [olnlng a lacebook group hlghly crlLlcal of a
campus pollce sergeanLŦ ln addlLlonţ flfLeen sLudenLs aL a sLaLe unlverslLy ln norLh Carollna faced
charges ln courL for underage drlnklng because of phoLos LhaL appeared on lacebookŦ

AlLhough more users of webslLes such as lacebook are becomlng aware of Lhe poLenLlal plLfalls of onllne
ldenLlLlesţ many regular users sLlll fall Lo Lake Lhree baslc securlLy precauLlonsŦ llrsLţ only make your
lnformaLlon avallable Lo a speclflc llsL of lndlvlduals whom you approveŦ Secondţ regularly search for
poLenLlally harmful lnformaLlon abouL yourself LhaL may have been posLed by mlsLake or by a
dlsgrunLled former assoclaLeŦ 1hlrdţ never posL blaLanLly offenslve maLerlal under your name or on your
page asţ desplLe Lhe besL precauLlonsţ Lhls maLerlal wlll llkely make lLs way Lo Lhe wlder worldŦ 8y Laklng
Lhese slmple sLepsţ members of Lhe dlglLal world can reallze Lhe many beneflLs of eŴcommunlLy wlLhouL
experlenclng some of Lhe damaglng unlnLended consequencesŦ

8ased upon Lhe passageţ Lhe auLhor lmplles whlch of Lhe followlngť
A) lnformaLlon obLalned unwllllngly from Lhe lnLerneL ls permlsslble ln courL
8) lL ls lmposslble Lo proLecL yourself from unlnLended uses of lnformaLlon onllne
C) Maklng lnformaLlon avallable only Lo people whom you LrusL compromlses your onllne
communlLy
u) Lven lf you resLrlcL who can vlew your daLaţ Lhe governmenL may sLlll access lL
L) uone properlyţ posLlng prurlenL lnformaLlon abouL oneself poses no subsLanLlal rlsk
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť A
AlLhough webslLes such as lacebook and MySpace experlenced exponenLlal growLh durlng Lhe mlddle of
Lhe flrsL decade of Lhe 21sL cenLuryţ some users remaln obllvlous Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhe lnformaLlon Lhey
posL onllne can come back Lo haunL LhemŦ llrsLţ employers can monlLor employees who malnLaln a blogţ
phoLo dlaryţ or webslLeŦ Lmployers can look for conLroverslal employee oplnlonsţ senslLlve lnformaLlon
dlsclosuresţ or wlldly lnapproprlaLe conducLŦ lor exampleţ a norLh Carollna newspaper flred one of lLs
feaLures wrlLers afLer she creaLed a blog on whlch she anonymously wroLe abouL Lhe ldlosyncrasles of
her [ob and coworkersŦ

1he second unlnLended use of lnformaLlon from soclal neLworklng webslLes ls employers who check on
prospecLlve employeesŦ A !une 11ţ 2006 new ?ork 1lmes arLlcle reporLed LhaL many companles
recrulLlng on college campuses use search englnes and soclal neLworklng webslLes such as MySpaceţ
xangaţ and lacebook Lo conducL background checksŦ AlLhough Lhe use of MySpace or Coogle Lo
scruLlnlze a sLudenL's background ls somewhaL unseLLllng Lo many undergraduaLesţ Lhe 1lmes noLed LhaL
Lhe uLlllzaLlon of lacebook ls especlally shocklng Lo sLudenLs who belleve LhaL lacebook ls llmlLed Lo
currenL sLudenLs and recenL alumnlŦ

CorporaLe recrulLers and prospecLlve employers are noL Lhe only people lnLeresLed ln college sLudenLs'
llvesŦ 1he Lhlrd unlnLended use of soclal neLworklng webslLes ls college admlnlsLraLors who monlLor Lhe
lnLerneLŸespeclally lacebookŸfor sLudenL mlsconducLŦ lor exampleţ a college ln 8osLon's 8ack 8ay
expelled lLs sLudenL CovernmenL AssoclaLlon ÞresldenL for [olnlng a lacebook group hlghly crlLlcal of a
campus pollce sergeanLŦ ln addlLlonţ flfLeen sLudenLs aL a sLaLe unlverslLy ln norLh Carollna faced
charges ln courL for underage drlnklng because of phoLos LhaL appeared on lacebookŦ

AlLhough more users of webslLes such as lacebook are becomlng aware of Lhe poLenLlal plLfalls of onllne
ldenLlLlesţ many regular users sLlll fall Lo Lake Lhree baslc securlLy precauLlonsŦ llrsLţ only make your
lnformaLlon avallable Lo a speclflc llsL of lndlvlduals whom you approveŦ Secondţ regularly search for
poLenLlally harmful lnformaLlon abouL yourself LhaL may have been posLed by mlsLake or by a
dlsgrunLled former assoclaLeŦ 1hlrdţ never posL blaLanLly offenslve maLerlal under your name or on your
page asţ desplLe Lhe besL precauLlonsţ Lhls maLerlal wlll llkely make lLs way Lo Lhe wlder worldŦ 8y Laklng
Lhese slmple sLepsţ members of Lhe dlglLal world can reallze Lhe many beneflLs of eŴcommunlLy wlLhouL
experlenclng some of Lhe damaglng unlnLended consequencesŦ

1he auLhor lmplles LhaL users should Lake all of Lhe followlng acLlons Lo proLecL Lhelr onllne prlvacy
LxCLÞ1ť
A) know Lo whom you make your onllne lnformaLlon avallable
8) AcLlvely hunL for mlslnformaLlon or damaglng lnformaLlon posLed abouL you or under your
name
C) Speak wlLh recrulLers Lo lnform Lhem of any mlslnformaLlon publlshed abouL you
u) Carefully selecL and llmlL who can vlew your elecLronlc proflle
L) Avold uploadlng lnformaLlon LhaL would be exceedlngly damaglng lf lL were dlscovered
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť C
AlLhough webslLes such as lacebook and MySpace experlenced exponenLlal growLh durlng Lhe mlddle of
Lhe flrsL decade of Lhe 21sL cenLuryţ some users remaln obllvlous Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhe lnformaLlon Lhey
posL onllne can come back Lo haunL LhemŦ llrsLţ employers can monlLor employees who malnLaln a blogţ
phoLo dlaryţ or webslLeŦ Lmployers can look for conLroverslal employee oplnlonsţ senslLlve lnformaLlon
dlsclosuresţ or wlldly lnapproprlaLe conducLŦ lor exampleţ a norLh Carollna newspaper flred one of lLs
feaLures wrlLers afLer she creaLed a blog on whlch she anonymously wroLe abouL Lhe ldlosyncrasles of
her [ob and coworkersŦ

1he second unlnLended use of lnformaLlon from soclal neLworklng webslLes ls employers who check on
prospecLlve employeesŦ A !une 11ţ 2006 new ?ork 1lmes arLlcle reporLed LhaL many companles
recrulLlng on college campuses use search englnes and soclal neLworklng webslLes such as MySpaceţ
xangaţ and lacebook Lo conducL background checksŦ AlLhough Lhe use of MySpace or Coogle Lo
scruLlnlze a sLudenL's background ls somewhaL unseLLllng Lo many undergraduaLesţ Lhe 1lmes noLed LhaL
Lhe uLlllzaLlon of lacebook ls especlally shocklng Lo sLudenLs who belleve LhaL lacebook ls llmlLed Lo
currenL sLudenLs and recenL alumnlŦ

CorporaLe recrulLers and prospecLlve employers are noL Lhe only people lnLeresLed ln college sLudenLs'
llvesŦ 1he Lhlrd unlnLended use of soclal neLworklng webslLes ls college admlnlsLraLors who monlLor Lhe
lnLerneLŸespeclally lacebookŸfor sLudenL mlsconducLŦ lor exampleţ a college ln 8osLon's 8ack 8ay
expelled lLs sLudenL CovernmenL AssoclaLlon ÞresldenL for [olnlng a lacebook group hlghly crlLlcal of a
campus pollce sergeanLŦ ln addlLlonţ flfLeen sLudenLs aL a sLaLe unlverslLy ln norLh Carollna faced
charges ln courL for underage drlnklng because of phoLos LhaL appeared on lacebookŦ

AlLhough more users of webslLes such as lacebook are becomlng aware of Lhe poLenLlal plLfalls of onllne
ldenLlLlesţ many regular users sLlll fall Lo Lake Lhree baslc securlLy precauLlonsŦ llrsLţ only make your
lnformaLlon avallable Lo a speclflc llsL of lndlvlduals whom you approveŦ Secondţ regularly search for
poLenLlally harmful lnformaLlon abouL yourself LhaL may have been posLed by mlsLake or by a
dlsgrunLled former assoclaLeŦ 1hlrdţ never posL blaLanLly offenslve maLerlal under your name or on your
page asţ desplLe Lhe besL precauLlonsţ Lhls maLerlal wlll llkely make lLs way Lo Lhe wlder worldŦ 8y Laklng
Lhese slmple sLepsţ members of Lhe dlglLal world can reallze Lhe many beneflLs of eŴcommunlLy wlLhouL
experlenclng some of Lhe damaglng unlnLended consequencesŦ

1he Lone of Lhe passage suggesLs LhaL Lhe auLhorƌs vlew Loward eŴcommunlLy and Lhe dlglLal world can
besL be descrlbed asť
A) Largely ÞesslmlsLlc
8) lrusLraLed
C) Cuardedly CpLlmlsLlc
u) ulsLressed
L) SLrongly CpLlmlsLlc
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť C
AlLhough webslLes such as lacebook and MySpace experlenced exponenLlal growLh durlng Lhe mlddle of
Lhe flrsL decade of Lhe 21sL cenLuryţ some users remaln obllvlous Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhe lnformaLlon Lhey
posL onllne can come back Lo haunL LhemŦ llrsLţ employers can monlLor employees who malnLaln a blogţ
phoLo dlaryţ or webslLeŦ Lmployers can look for conLroverslal employee oplnlonsţ senslLlve lnformaLlon
dlsclosuresţ or wlldly lnapproprlaLe conducLŦ lor exampleţ a norLh Carollna newspaper flred one of lLs
feaLures wrlLers afLer she creaLed a blog on whlch she anonymously wroLe abouL Lhe ldlosyncrasles of
her [ob and coworkersŦ

1he second unlnLended use of lnformaLlon from soclal neLworklng webslLes ls employers who check on
prospecLlve employeesŦ A !une 11ţ 2006 new ?ork 1lmes arLlcle reporLed LhaL many companles
recrulLlng on college campuses use search englnes and soclal neLworklng webslLes such as MySpaceţ
xangaţ and lacebook Lo conducL background checksŦ AlLhough Lhe use of MySpace or Coogle Lo
scruLlnlze a sLudenL's background ls somewhaL unseLLllng Lo many undergraduaLesţ Lhe 1lmes noLed LhaL
Lhe uLlllzaLlon of lacebook ls especlally shocklng Lo sLudenLs who belleve LhaL lacebook ls llmlLed Lo
currenL sLudenLs and recenL alumnlŦ

CorporaLe recrulLers and prospecLlve employers are noL Lhe only people lnLeresLed ln college sLudenLs'
llvesŦ 1he Lhlrd unlnLended use of soclal neLworklng webslLes ls college admlnlsLraLors who monlLor Lhe
lnLerneLŸespeclally lacebookŸfor sLudenL mlsconducLŦ lor exampleţ a college ln 8osLon's 8ack 8ay
expelled lLs sLudenL CovernmenL AssoclaLlon ÞresldenL for [olnlng a lacebook group hlghly crlLlcal of a
campus pollce sergeanLŦ ln addlLlonţ flfLeen sLudenLs aL a sLaLe unlverslLy ln norLh Carollna faced
charges ln courL for underage drlnklng because of phoLos LhaL appeared on lacebookŦ

AlLhough more users of webslLes such as lacebook are becomlng aware of Lhe poLenLlal plLfalls of onllne
ldenLlLlesţ many regular users sLlll fall Lo Lake Lhree baslc securlLy precauLlonsŦ llrsLţ only make your
lnformaLlon avallable Lo a speclflc llsL of lndlvlduals whom you approveŦ Secondţ regularly search for
poLenLlally harmful lnformaLlon abouL yourself LhaL may have been posLed by mlsLake or by a
dlsgrunLled former assoclaLeŦ 1hlrdţ never posL blaLanLly offenslve maLerlal under your name or on your
page asţ desplLe Lhe besL precauLlonsţ Lhls maLerlal wlll llkely make lLs way Lo Lhe wlder worldŦ 8y Laklng
Lhese slmple sLepsţ members of Lhe dlglLal world can reallze Lhe many beneflLs of eŴcommunlLy wlLhouL
experlenclng some of Lhe damaglng unlnLended consequencesŦ

Accordlng Lo Lhe passageţ all of Lhe followlng represenL a posslble LhreaL Lo prlvacy or an unlnLended
use of daLa LxCLÞ1ť
A) ulsgrunLled pasL assoclaLes posLlng damaglng lnformaLlon onllne
8) Colleges or unlverslLles dlsclpllnlng sLudenLs for expresslng pollLlcally lncorrecL or lnsLlLuLlonally
dlsowned oplnlons
C) CovernmenL offlclals uslng onllne lnformaLlonţ obLalned agalnsL one's wlllţ Lo brlng legal
proceedlngs
u) ÞoLenLlal employers conducLlng unauLhorlzed and poLenLlally lnvaslve background checks vla
Coogle or lacebook
L) Mallclous users lmpersonaLlng oneƌs ldenLlLy Lo commlL ldenLlLy fraud
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť L
AlLhough webslLes such as lacebook and MySpace experlenced exponenLlal growLh durlng Lhe mlddle of
Lhe flrsL decade of Lhe 21sL cenLuryţ some users remaln obllvlous Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhe lnformaLlon Lhey
posL onllne can come back Lo haunL LhemŦ llrsLţ employers can monlLor employees who malnLaln a blogţ
phoLo dlaryţ or webslLeŦ Lmployers can look for conLroverslal employee oplnlonsţ senslLlve lnformaLlon
dlsclosuresţ or wlldly lnapproprlaLe conducLŦ lor exampleţ a norLh Carollna newspaper flred one of lLs
feaLures wrlLers afLer she creaLed a blog on whlch she anonymously wroLe abouL Lhe ldlosyncrasles of
her [ob and coworkersŦ

1he second unlnLended use of lnformaLlon from soclal neLworklng webslLes ls employers who check on
prospecLlve employeesŦ A !une 11ţ 2006 new ?ork 1lmes arLlcle reporLed LhaL many companles
recrulLlng on college campuses use search englnes and soclal neLworklng webslLes such as MySpaceţ
xangaţ and lacebook Lo conducL background checksŦ AlLhough Lhe use of MySpace or Coogle Lo
scruLlnlze a sLudenL's background ls somewhaL unseLLllng Lo many undergraduaLesţ Lhe 1lmes noLed LhaL
Lhe uLlllzaLlon of lacebook ls especlally shocklng Lo sLudenLs who belleve LhaL lacebook ls llmlLed Lo
currenL sLudenLs and recenL alumnlŦ

CorporaLe recrulLers and prospecLlve employers are noL Lhe only people lnLeresLed ln college sLudenLs'
llvesŦ 1he Lhlrd unlnLended use of soclal neLworklng webslLes ls college admlnlsLraLors who monlLor Lhe
lnLerneLŸespeclally lacebookŸfor sLudenL mlsconducLŦ lor exampleţ a college ln 8osLon's 8ack 8ay
expelled lLs sLudenL CovernmenL AssoclaLlon ÞresldenL for [olnlng a lacebook group hlghly crlLlcal of a
campus pollce sergeanLŦ ln addlLlonţ flfLeen sLudenLs aL a sLaLe unlverslLy ln norLh Carollna faced
charges ln courL for underage drlnklng because of phoLos LhaL appeared on lacebookŦ

AlLhough more users of webslLes such as lacebook are becomlng aware of Lhe poLenLlal plLfalls of onllne
ldenLlLlesţ many regular users sLlll fall Lo Lake Lhree baslc securlLy precauLlonsŦ llrsLţ only make your
lnformaLlon avallable Lo a speclflc llsL of lndlvlduals whom you approveŦ Secondţ regularly search for
poLenLlally harmful lnformaLlon abouL yourself LhaL may have been posLed by mlsLake or by a
dlsgrunLled former assoclaLeŦ 1hlrdţ never posL blaLanLly offenslve maLerlal under your name or on your
page asţ desplLe Lhe besL precauLlonsţ Lhls maLerlal wlll llkely make lLs way Lo Lhe wlder worldŦ 8y Laklng
Lhese slmple sLepsţ members of Lhe dlglLal world can reallze Lhe many beneflLs of eŴcommunlLy wlLhouL
experlenclng some of Lhe damaglng unlnLended consequencesŦ

1he prlmary purpose of Lhe passage ls Loť
A) Lxplaln Lhe growLh of Lhe dlglLal world Lhrough Lhe lens of prlvacy
8) ulscuss Lhe rlsks of Lhe dlglLal world and suggesL ways Lo proLecL yourself
C) LvaluaLe Lhe pros and cons of acLlve parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe dlglLal world
u) Þropose sLeps lacebookţ MySpaceţ and Coogle can Lake Lo proLecL user prlvacy
L) lllusLraLe poLenLlal unlnLended uses of prlvaLe lnformaLlon
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť 8
AlLhough webslLes such as lacebook and MySpace experlenced exponenLlal growLh durlng Lhe mlddle of
Lhe flrsL decade of Lhe 21sL cenLuryţ some users remaln obllvlous Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhe lnformaLlon Lhey
posL onllne can come back Lo haunL LhemŦ llrsLţ employers can monlLor employees who malnLaln a blogţ
phoLo dlaryţ or webslLeŦ Lmployers can look for conLroverslal employee oplnlonsţ senslLlve lnformaLlon
dlsclosuresţ or wlldly lnapproprlaLe conducLŦ lor exampleţ a norLh Carollna newspaper flred one of lLs
feaLures wrlLers afLer she creaLed a blog on whlch she anonymously wroLe abouL Lhe ldlosyncrasles of
her [ob and coworkersŦ

1he second unlnLended use of lnformaLlon from soclal neLworklng webslLes ls employers who check on
prospecLlve employeesŦ A !une 11ţ 2006 new ?ork 1lmes arLlcle reporLed LhaL many companles
recrulLlng on college campuses use search englnes and soclal neLworklng webslLes such as MySpaceţ
xangaţ and lacebook Lo conducL background checksŦ AlLhough Lhe use of MySpace or Coogle Lo
scruLlnlze a sLudenL's background ls somewhaL unseLLllng Lo many undergraduaLesţ Lhe 1lmes noLed LhaL
Lhe uLlllzaLlon of lacebook ls especlally shocklng Lo sLudenLs who belleve LhaL lacebook ls llmlLed Lo
currenL sLudenLs and recenL alumnlŦ

CorporaLe recrulLers and prospecLlve employers are noL Lhe only people lnLeresLed ln college sLudenLs'
llvesŦ 1he Lhlrd unlnLended use of soclal neLworklng webslLes ls college admlnlsLraLors who monlLor Lhe
lnLerneLŸespeclally lacebookŸfor sLudenL mlsconducLŦ lor exampleţ a college ln 8osLon's 8ack 8ay
expelled lLs sLudenL CovernmenL AssoclaLlon ÞresldenL for [olnlng a lacebook group hlghly crlLlcal of a
campus pollce sergeanLŦ ln addlLlonţ flfLeen sLudenLs aL a sLaLe unlverslLy ln norLh Carollna faced
charges ln courL for underage drlnklng because of phoLos LhaL appeared on lacebookŦ

AlLhough more users of webslLes such as lacebook are becomlng aware of Lhe poLenLlal plLfalls of onllne
ldenLlLlesţ many regular users sLlll fall Lo Lake Lhree baslc securlLy precauLlonsŦ llrsLţ only make your
lnformaLlon avallable Lo a speclflc llsL of lndlvlduals whom you approveŦ Secondţ regularly search for
poLenLlally harmful lnformaLlon abouL yourself LhaL may have been posLed by mlsLake or by a
dlsgrunLled former assoclaLeŦ 1hlrdţ never posL blaLanLly offenslve maLerlal under your name or on your
page asţ desplLe Lhe besL precauLlonsţ Lhls maLerlal wlll llkely make lLs way Lo Lhe wlder worldŦ 8y Laklng
Lhese slmple sLepsţ members of Lhe dlglLal world can reallze Lhe many beneflLs of eŴcommunlLy wlLhouL
experlenclng some of Lhe damaglng unlnLended consequencesŦ

Whlch of Lhe followlng besL descrlbes Lhe relaLlonshlp of Lhe fourLh paragraph Lo Lhe remalnder of Lhe
passage?
A) lL offers deLalled examples Lo supporL prevlous asserLlons
8) lL provldes suggesLlons Lo amelloraLe Lhe prevlously menLloned problems
C) lL summarlzes Lhe polnLs of Lhe precedlng paragraphs
u) lL offers counLer evldence and an alLernaLlve polnL of vlew Lo Lhe clalms made earller ln Lhe
passage
L) lL reconclles confllcLlng clalms
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť 8
AlLhough Luropean declslons durlng Lhe 16Lh and 17Lh cenLurles Lo exploreţ Lrade wlLhţ and colonlze
large porLlons of Lhe world broughL Lremendous economlc wealLh and vasL geographlc lnfluenceţ Lhe
enormous success of Luropean marlLlme venLures durlng Lhe age of exploraLlon also engendered a
llLany of unlnLended consequences for mosL of Lhe naLlons wlLh whlch Lurope lnLeracLedŦ uue Lo Lhelr
lncredlble mlllLary forceţ rellglous zealţ and uncompromlslng goal of proflLţ Luropeans ofLen lmposed
Lhelr LradlLlonsţ valuesţ and cusLoms on Lhe people wlLh whom Lhey LradedŦ 1hey frequenLly acLed
wlLhouL regard Lo Lhe longŴLerm welfare of oLhers as Lhelr prlnclpal concern was shorLŴLerm economlc
galnŦ Slnce many naLlons LhaL Lraded wlLh Lurope placed hlgh value on Lhelr hlsLorlcal cusLomsţ some
naLlves became deeply dlsconcerLed by Lhe changes LhaL occurred as a resulL of Luropean powerŦ 1hese
facLorsţ coupled wlLh perennlal domesLlc pollLlcal lnsLablllLyţ caused numerous counLrles Lo grow
lncreaslngly reslsLanL Lo Luropean lnfluenceŦ

Cne poLenL example of Lhls ldeologlcal shlfL can be seen ln Lhe acLlons of Lhe 1okugawa governmenL of
!apanŦ ln lLs Secluslon LdlcL of 1636ţ Lhe governmenL aLLempLed Lo exLrlcaLe culLural lnLeracLlons wlLh
Lurope from Lhe lnLlmaLe fabrlc of !apanese socleLyŦ 1he LdlcL aLLempLed Lo accompllsh Lhls by focuslng
on Lhree areasŦ llrsLţ lL soughL Lo curb culLural exchange by ellmlnaLlng people brlnglng Luropean ldeas
lnLo !apanŦ 1he LdlcL sLaLedţ ƍ!apanese shlps shall by no means be senL abroadŧŦAll !apanese resldlng
abroad shall be puL Lo deaLh when Lhey reLurn homeŦƍ Secondţ Lhe LdlcL focused on llmlLlng LradeŦ
ArLlcles 11 Lhrough 17 of Lhe LdlcL lmposed sLrlngenL regulaLlons on Lrade and commerceŦ 1hlrdţ Lhe
governmenL banned ChrlsLlanlLyţ whlch lL saw as an lmporL from Lurope LhaL challenged Lhe longŴ
esLabllshed and wellŴenshrlned rellglous LradlLlons of !apanŦ 1he governmenL wenL Lo conslderable
lengLhs Lo proLecL lLs culLureŦ ArLlcle elghL of Lhe LdlcL sLaLedţ ƍLven shlps shall noL be lefL unLouched ln
Lhe maLLer of exLermlnaLlng ChrlsLlansŦƍ

WlLh Lhe example of !apan and Lhe examples of oLher counLrles LhaL chose a dlfferenL response Lo
Luropean lnfluenceţ lL ls perhaps noL Loo far of a sLreLch Lo conclude LhaL !apan made Lhe rlghL declslon
ln pursulng a paLh of relaLlve lsolaLlonlsmŦ As hlsLory unfolded durlng Lhe nexL 400 yearsţ ln generalţ
counLrles LhaL embraced Luropean hegemonyţ wheLher by cholce or by forceţ Lended Lo suffer from
pernlclous wealLh lnequallLyţ perennlal pollLlcal lnsLablllLyţ and proLracLed underdevelopmenLŦ

lL can besL be lnferred from Lhe passage LhaL ln 1636ţ Lhe !apanese governmenLť
A) Saw lLs clLlzens llvlng abroad as poLenLlal LhreaLs
8) Consldered all forelgn rellglons a danger
C) ulsagreed wlLh Lhe Luropean phllosophy LhaL Lrade broughL wealLh
u) loresaw Lhe economlc dangers of Luropean Lrade and lmperlallsm
L) 8elleved LhaL ldeas comlng lnLo !apan vla forelgn lnLeracLlons provlded no poslLlve lmpacL Lo
!apanese socleLy
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť A

AlLhough Luropean declslons durlng Lhe 16Lh and 17Lh cenLurles Lo exploreţ Lrade wlLhţ and colonlze
large porLlons of Lhe world broughL Lremendous economlc wealLh and vasL geographlc lnfluenceţ Lhe
enormous success of Luropean marlLlme venLures durlng Lhe age of exploraLlon also engendered a
llLany of unlnLended consequences for mosL of Lhe naLlons wlLh whlch Lurope lnLeracLedŦ uue Lo Lhelr
lncredlble mlllLary forceţ rellglous zealţ and uncompromlslng goal of proflLţ Luropeans ofLen lmposed
Lhelr LradlLlonsţ valuesţ and cusLoms on Lhe people wlLh whom Lhey LradedŦ 1hey frequenLly acLed
wlLhouL regard Lo Lhe longŴLerm welfare of oLhers as Lhelr prlnclpal concern was shorLŴLerm economlc
galnŦ Slnce many naLlons LhaL Lraded wlLh Lurope placed hlgh value on Lhelr hlsLorlcal cusLomsţ some
naLlves became deeply dlsconcerLed by Lhe changes LhaL occurred as a resulL of Luropean powerŦ 1hese
facLorsţ coupled wlLh perennlal domesLlc pollLlcal lnsLablllLyţ caused numerous counLrles Lo grow
lncreaslngly reslsLanL Lo Luropean lnfluenceŦ

Cne poLenL example of Lhls ldeologlcal shlfL can be seen ln Lhe acLlons of Lhe 1okugawa governmenL of
!apanŦ ln lLs Secluslon LdlcL of 1636ţ Lhe governmenL aLLempLed Lo exLrlcaLe culLural lnLeracLlons wlLh
Lurope from Lhe lnLlmaLe fabrlc of !apanese socleLyŦ 1he LdlcL aLLempLed Lo accompllsh Lhls by focuslng
on Lhree areasŦ llrsLţ lL soughL Lo curb culLural exchange by ellmlnaLlng people brlnglng Luropean ldeas
lnLo !apanŦ 1he LdlcL sLaLedţ ƍ!apanese shlps shall by no means be senL abroadŧŦAll !apanese resldlng
abroad shall be puL Lo deaLh when Lhey reLurn homeŦƍ Secondţ Lhe LdlcL focused on llmlLlng LradeŦ
ArLlcles 11 Lhrough 17 of Lhe LdlcL lmposed sLrlngenL regulaLlons on Lrade and commerceŦ 1hlrdţ Lhe
governmenL banned ChrlsLlanlLyţ whlch lL saw as an lmporL from Lurope LhaL challenged Lhe longŴ
esLabllshed and wellŴenshrlned rellglous LradlLlons of !apanŦ 1he governmenL wenL Lo conslderable
lengLhs Lo proLecL lLs culLureŦ ArLlcle elghL of Lhe LdlcL sLaLedţ ƍLven shlps shall noL be lefL unLouched ln
Lhe maLLer of exLermlnaLlng ChrlsLlansŦƍ

WlLh Lhe example of !apan and Lhe examples of oLher counLrles LhaL chose a dlfferenL response Lo
Luropean lnfluenceţ lL ls perhaps noL Loo far of a sLreLch Lo conclude LhaL !apan made Lhe rlghL declslon
ln pursulng a paLh of relaLlve lsolaLlonlsmŦ As hlsLory unfolded durlng Lhe nexL 400 yearsţ ln generalţ
counLrles LhaL embraced Luropean hegemonyţ wheLher by cholce or by forceţ Lended Lo suffer from
pernlclous wealLh lnequallLyţ perennlal pollLlcal lnsLablllLyţ and proLracLed underdevelopmenLŦ

Whlch of Lhe followlng besL characLerlzes Lhe mosL slgnlflcanL moLlvaLlon for Luropeƌs behavlor wlLh
!apan durlng Lhe 17Lh cenLury?
A) 8ellglous zeal
8) LongŴLerm pollLlcal concerns
C) ShorLŴLerm economlc selfŴlnLeresL
u) CulLural lmperlallsm
L) 1errlLorlal aggrandlzemenL
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť C
AlLhough Luropean declslons durlng Lhe 16Lh and 17Lh cenLurles Lo exploreţ Lrade wlLhţ and colonlze
large porLlons of Lhe world broughL Lremendous economlc wealLh and vasL geographlc lnfluenceţ Lhe
enormous success of Luropean marlLlme venLures durlng Lhe age of exploraLlon also engendered a
llLany of unlnLended consequences for mosL of Lhe naLlons wlLh whlch Lurope lnLeracLedŦ uue Lo Lhelr
lncredlble mlllLary forceţ rellglous zealţ and uncompromlslng goal of proflLţ Luropeans ofLen lmposed
Lhelr LradlLlonsţ valuesţ and cusLoms on Lhe people wlLh whom Lhey LradedŦ 1hey frequenLly acLed
wlLhouL regard Lo Lhe longŴLerm welfare of oLhers as Lhelr prlnclpal concern was shorLŴLerm economlc
galnŦ Slnce many naLlons LhaL Lraded wlLh Lurope placed hlgh value on Lhelr hlsLorlcal cusLomsţ some
naLlves became deeply dlsconcerLed by Lhe changes LhaL occurred as a resulL of Luropean powerŦ 1hese
facLorsţ coupled wlLh perennlal domesLlc pollLlcal lnsLablllLyţ caused numerous counLrles Lo grow
lncreaslngly reslsLanL Lo Luropean lnfluenceŦ

Cne poLenL example of Lhls ldeologlcal shlfL can be seen ln Lhe acLlons of Lhe 1okugawa governmenL of
!apanŦ ln lLs Secluslon LdlcL of 1636ţ Lhe governmenL aLLempLed Lo exLrlcaLe culLural lnLeracLlons wlLh
Lurope from Lhe lnLlmaLe fabrlc of !apanese socleLyŦ 1he LdlcL aLLempLed Lo accompllsh Lhls by focuslng
on Lhree areasŦ llrsLţ lL soughL Lo curb culLural exchange by ellmlnaLlng people brlnglng Luropean ldeas
lnLo !apanŦ 1he LdlcL sLaLedţ ƍ!apanese shlps shall by no means be senL abroadŧŦAll !apanese resldlng
abroad shall be puL Lo deaLh when Lhey reLurn homeŦƍ Secondţ Lhe LdlcL focused on llmlLlng LradeŦ
ArLlcles 11 Lhrough 17 of Lhe LdlcL lmposed sLrlngenL regulaLlons on Lrade and commerceŦ 1hlrdţ Lhe
governmenL banned ChrlsLlanlLyţ whlch lL saw as an lmporL from Lurope LhaL challenged Lhe longŴ
esLabllshed and wellŴenshrlned rellglous LradlLlons of !apanŦ 1he governmenL wenL Lo conslderable
lengLhs Lo proLecL lLs culLureŦ ArLlcle elghL of Lhe LdlcL sLaLedţ ƍLven shlps shall noL be lefL unLouched ln
Lhe maLLer of exLermlnaLlng ChrlsLlansŦƍ

WlLh Lhe example of !apan and Lhe examples of oLher counLrles LhaL chose a dlfferenL response Lo
Luropean lnfluenceţ lL ls perhaps noL Loo far of a sLreLch Lo conclude LhaL !apan made Lhe rlghL declslon
ln pursulng a paLh of relaLlve lsolaLlonlsmŦ As hlsLory unfolded durlng Lhe nexL 400 yearsţ ln generalţ
counLrles LhaL embraced Luropean hegemonyţ wheLher by cholce or by forceţ Lended Lo suffer from
pernlclous wealLh lnequallLyţ perennlal pollLlcal lnsLablllLyţ and proLracLed underdevelopmenLŦ

1he auLhor mosL llkely lncluded Lhe quoLaLlon from ArLlcle LlghL of Lhe LdlcL aL Lhe end of Lhe second
paragraph Loť
A) PlghllghL Lhe venomous anger many !apanese leaders felL Loward Lhe lmporLaLlon of forelgn
rellglons
8) Lmphaslze Lhe deLermlnaLlon of Lhe !apanese governmenL Lo proLecL lLself from forelgn
lnfluences lL saw as damaglng
C) lllusLraLe how pervaslve forelgn rellglous lnfluence had become ln !apanese socleLy
u) Lmphaslze LhaL Luropean economlc lnfluence offered no [usLlflcaLlon for Lhe LdlcL and Lhe
governmenL relled lnsLead on forelgn rellglous lnfluence Lo [usLlfy Lhe LdlcL
L) Þrovlde an example of !apanƌs efforL Lo curb culLural and economlc exchange
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť 8
AlLhough Luropean declslons durlng Lhe 16Lh and 17Lh cenLurles Lo exploreţ Lrade wlLhţ and colonlze
large porLlons of Lhe world broughL Lremendous economlc wealLh and vasL geographlc lnfluenceţ Lhe
enormous success of Luropean marlLlme venLures durlng Lhe age of exploraLlon also engendered a
llLany of unlnLended consequences for mosL of Lhe naLlons wlLh whlch Lurope lnLeracLedŦ uue Lo Lhelr
lncredlble mlllLary forceţ rellglous zealţ and uncompromlslng goal of proflLţ Luropeans ofLen lmposed
Lhelr LradlLlonsţ valuesţ and cusLoms on Lhe people wlLh whom Lhey LradedŦ 1hey frequenLly acLed
wlLhouL regard Lo Lhe longŴLerm welfare of oLhers as Lhelr prlnclpal concern was shorLŴLerm economlc
galnŦ Slnce many naLlons LhaL Lraded wlLh Lurope placed hlgh value on Lhelr hlsLorlcal cusLomsţ some
naLlves became deeply dlsconcerLed by Lhe changes LhaL occurred as a resulL of Luropean powerŦ 1hese
facLorsţ coupled wlLh perennlal domesLlc pollLlcal lnsLablllLyţ caused numerous counLrles Lo grow
lncreaslngly reslsLanL Lo Luropean lnfluenceŦ

Cne poLenL example of Lhls ldeologlcal shlfL can be seen ln Lhe acLlons of Lhe 1okugawa governmenL of
!apanŦ ln lLs Secluslon LdlcL of 1636ţ Lhe governmenL aLLempLed Lo exLrlcaLe culLural lnLeracLlons wlLh
Lurope from Lhe lnLlmaLe fabrlc of !apanese socleLyŦ 1he LdlcL aLLempLed Lo accompllsh Lhls by focuslng
on Lhree areasŦ llrsLţ lL soughL Lo curb culLural exchange by ellmlnaLlng people brlnglng Luropean ldeas
lnLo !apanŦ 1he LdlcL sLaLedţ ƍ!apanese shlps shall by no means be senL abroadŧŦAll !apanese resldlng
abroad shall be puL Lo deaLh when Lhey reLurn homeŦƍ Secondţ Lhe LdlcL focused on llmlLlng LradeŦ
ArLlcles 11 Lhrough 17 of Lhe LdlcL lmposed sLrlngenL regulaLlons on Lrade and commerceŦ 1hlrdţ Lhe
governmenL banned ChrlsLlanlLyţ whlch lL saw as an lmporL from Lurope LhaL challenged Lhe longŴ
esLabllshed and wellŴenshrlned rellglous LradlLlons of !apanŦ 1he governmenL wenL Lo conslderable
lengLhs Lo proLecL lLs culLureŦ ArLlcle elghL of Lhe LdlcL sLaLedţ ƍLven shlps shall noL be lefL unLouched ln
Lhe maLLer of exLermlnaLlng ChrlsLlansŦƍ

WlLh Lhe example of !apan and Lhe examples of oLher counLrles LhaL chose a dlfferenL response Lo
Luropean lnfluenceţ lL ls perhaps noL Loo far of a sLreLch Lo conclude LhaL !apan made Lhe rlghL declslon
ln pursulng a paLh of relaLlve lsolaLlonlsmŦ As hlsLory unfolded durlng Lhe nexL 400 yearsţ ln generalţ
counLrles LhaL embraced Luropean hegemonyţ wheLher by cholce or by forceţ Lended Lo suffer from
pernlclous wealLh lnequallLyţ perennlal pollLlcal lnsLablllLyţ and proLracLed underdevelopmenLŦ

8ased upon Lhe passageţ Lhe auLhor would llkely agree mosL sLrongly wlLh whlch of Lhe followlng
sLaLemenLsť
A) Luropean declslons made durlng Lhe 16Lh and 17Lh cenLurles ln deallng wlLh !apan represenL an
aberraLlon from Lhe Lyplcal paLLern of Luropean declslons
8) !apanese rulers who responded wlLh feroclLy Lo Luropean lnfluence bear parL of Lhe
responslblllLy for Lhe causLlc LuropeanŴ!apanese relaLlonshlp LhaL ensued
C) WlLh Lhe hlndslghL of hlsLoryţ !apan llkely made Lhe approprlaLe declslon ln exLrlcaLlng lLself
from Luropean lnfluence
u) Luropean rellglous and culLural values confllcLed wlLh Luropean economlc behavlor Loward
!apan
L) 1he wldLh and breadLh of !apanƌs culLural fabrlc suffered from lLs secluslonlsL pollcles
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť C
AlLhough Luropean declslons durlng Lhe 16Lh and 17Lh cenLurles Lo exploreţ Lrade wlLhţ and colonlze
large porLlons of Lhe world broughL Lremendous economlc wealLh and vasL geographlc lnfluenceţ Lhe
enormous success of Luropean marlLlme venLures durlng Lhe age of exploraLlon also engendered a
llLany of unlnLended consequences for mosL of Lhe naLlons wlLh whlch Lurope lnLeracLedŦ uue Lo Lhelr
lncredlble mlllLary forceţ rellglous zealţ and uncompromlslng goal of proflLţ Luropeans ofLen lmposed
Lhelr LradlLlonsţ valuesţ and cusLoms on Lhe people wlLh whom Lhey LradedŦ 1hey frequenLly acLed
wlLhouL regard Lo Lhe longŴLerm welfare of oLhers as Lhelr prlnclpal concern was shorLŴLerm economlc
galnŦ Slnce many naLlons LhaL Lraded wlLh Lurope placed hlgh value on Lhelr hlsLorlcal cusLomsţ some
naLlves became deeply dlsconcerLed by Lhe changes LhaL occurred as a resulL of Luropean powerŦ 1hese
facLorsţ coupled wlLh perennlal domesLlc pollLlcal lnsLablllLyţ caused numerous counLrles Lo grow
lncreaslngly reslsLanL Lo Luropean lnfluenceŦ

Cne poLenL example of Lhls ldeologlcal shlfL can be seen ln Lhe acLlons of Lhe 1okugawa governmenL of
!apanŦ ln lLs Secluslon LdlcL of 1636ţ Lhe governmenL aLLempLed Lo exLrlcaLe culLural lnLeracLlons wlLh
Lurope from Lhe lnLlmaLe fabrlc of !apanese socleLyŦ 1he LdlcL aLLempLed Lo accompllsh Lhls by focuslng
on Lhree areasŦ llrsLţ lL soughL Lo curb culLural exchange by ellmlnaLlng people brlnglng Luropean ldeas
lnLo !apanŦ 1he LdlcL sLaLedţ ƍ!apanese shlps shall by no means be senL abroadŧŦAll !apanese resldlng
abroad shall be puL Lo deaLh when Lhey reLurn homeŦƍ Secondţ Lhe LdlcL focused on llmlLlng LradeŦ
ArLlcles 11 Lhrough 17 of Lhe LdlcL lmposed sLrlngenL regulaLlons on Lrade and commerceŦ 1hlrdţ Lhe
governmenL banned ChrlsLlanlLyţ whlch lL saw as an lmporL from Lurope LhaL challenged Lhe longŴ
esLabllshed and wellŴenshrlned rellglous LradlLlons of !apanŦ 1he governmenL wenL Lo conslderable
lengLhs Lo proLecL lLs culLureŦ ArLlcle elghL of Lhe LdlcL sLaLedţ ƍLven shlps shall noL be lefL unLouched ln
Lhe maLLer of exLermlnaLlng ChrlsLlansŦƍ

WlLh Lhe example of !apan and Lhe examples of oLher counLrles LhaL chose a dlfferenL response Lo
Luropean lnfluenceţ lL ls perhaps noL Loo far of a sLreLch Lo conclude LhaL !apan made Lhe rlghL declslon
ln pursulng a paLh of relaLlve lsolaLlonlsmŦ As hlsLory unfolded durlng Lhe nexL 400 yearsţ ln generalţ
counLrles LhaL embraced Luropean hegemonyţ wheLher by cholce or by forceţ Lended Lo suffer from
pernlclous wealLh lnequallLyţ perennlal pollLlcal lnsLablllLyţ and proLracLed underdevelopmenLŦ

Accordlng Lo Lhe passageţ whlch of Lhe followlng consLlLuLed Lhe blggesL reason for Lhe Secluslon LdlcL
of 1636?
A) !apanese economlc poLenLlal would be hampered ln Lhe longŴLerm
8) Luropean Lrade amounLed Lo a dlsproporLlonaLe Lransfer of wealLh
C) WlLh growlng Luropean lnfluenceţ Lhe poLenLlal for Luropean mlllLary acLlon agalnsL Lhe
!apanese governmenL became Loo large
u) 1radlLlonal !apanese culLure and way of llfe were LhreaLened by Luropean lnfluence
L) !apanese rulers feared Lhe arrlval of addlLlonal Lraders and culLural lmperlallsLs
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť u
AlLhough Luropean declslons durlng Lhe 16Lh and 17Lh cenLurles Lo exploreţ Lrade wlLhţ and colonlze
large porLlons of Lhe world broughL Lremendous economlc wealLh and vasL geographlc lnfluenceţ Lhe
enormous success of Luropean marlLlme venLures durlng Lhe age of exploraLlon also engendered a
llLany of unlnLended consequences for mosL of Lhe naLlons wlLh whlch Lurope lnLeracLedŦ uue Lo Lhelr
lncredlble mlllLary forceţ rellglous zealţ and uncompromlslng goal of proflLţ Luropeans ofLen lmposed
Lhelr LradlLlonsţ valuesţ and cusLoms on Lhe people wlLh whom Lhey LradedŦ 1hey frequenLly acLed
wlLhouL regard Lo Lhe longŴLerm welfare of oLhers as Lhelr prlnclpal concern was shorLŴLerm economlc
galnŦ Slnce many naLlons LhaL Lraded wlLh Lurope placed hlgh value on Lhelr hlsLorlcal cusLomsţ some
naLlves became deeply dlsconcerLed by Lhe changes LhaL occurred as a resulL of Luropean powerŦ 1hese
facLorsţ coupled wlLh perennlal domesLlc pollLlcal lnsLablllLyţ caused numerous counLrles Lo grow
lncreaslngly reslsLanL Lo Luropean lnfluenceŦ

Cne poLenL example of Lhls ldeologlcal shlfL can be seen ln Lhe acLlons of Lhe 1okugawa governmenL of
!apanŦ ln lLs Secluslon LdlcL of 1636ţ Lhe governmenL aLLempLed Lo exLrlcaLe culLural lnLeracLlons wlLh
Lurope from Lhe lnLlmaLe fabrlc of !apanese socleLyŦ 1he LdlcL aLLempLed Lo accompllsh Lhls by focuslng
on Lhree areasŦ llrsLţ lL soughL Lo curb culLural exchange by ellmlnaLlng people brlnglng Luropean ldeas
lnLo !apanŦ 1he LdlcL sLaLedţ ƍ!apanese shlps shall by no means be senL abroadŧŦAll !apanese resldlng
abroad shall be puL Lo deaLh when Lhey reLurn homeŦƍ Secondţ Lhe LdlcL focused on llmlLlng LradeŦ
ArLlcles 11 Lhrough 17 of Lhe LdlcL lmposed sLrlngenL regulaLlons on Lrade and commerceŦ 1hlrdţ Lhe
governmenL banned ChrlsLlanlLyţ whlch lL saw as an lmporL from Lurope LhaL challenged Lhe longŴ
esLabllshed and wellŴenshrlned rellglous LradlLlons of !apanŦ 1he governmenL wenL Lo conslderable
lengLhs Lo proLecL lLs culLureŦ ArLlcle elghL of Lhe LdlcL sLaLedţ ƍLven shlps shall noL be lefL unLouched ln
Lhe maLLer of exLermlnaLlng ChrlsLlansŦƍ

WlLh Lhe example of !apan and Lhe examples of oLher counLrles LhaL chose a dlfferenL response Lo
Luropean lnfluenceţ lL ls perhaps noL Loo far of a sLreLch Lo conclude LhaL !apan made Lhe rlghL declslon
ln pursulng a paLh of relaLlve lsolaLlonlsmŦ As hlsLory unfolded durlng Lhe nexL 400 yearsţ ln generalţ
counLrles LhaL embraced Luropean hegemonyţ wheLher by cholce or by forceţ Lended Lo suffer from
pernlclous wealLh lnequallLyţ perennlal pollLlcal lnsLablllLyţ and proLracLed underdevelopmenLŦ

Accordlng Lo Lhe passageţ Lhe !apanese governmenL Look all of Lhe followlng acLlons ln an aLLempL Lo
proLecL !apanese culLure and way of llfe LxCLÞ1ť
A) ÞrohlblL !apanese from vlslLlng oLher counLrlesţ even Lo see famlly
8) LxecuLe !apanese clLlzens who seLLled ln oLher counLrles buL laLer declded Lo reLurn Lo !apan
C) Peavlly regulaLe forelgn economlc Lrade
u) uesLroy all remnanLs of ChrlsLlanlLy
L) ÞrohlblL crlLlclsm of Lhe feudal shogun sysLem of governmenL
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť L
Þrlor Lo Lhe fall of Lhe unlon of SovleL SoclallsL 8epubllcs (uSS8)ţ Mlkhall Corbachevţ seelng a counLry
falllng behlnd lLs WesLern rlval and a people lncreaslngly clamorlng for changeţ addressed Lhe growlng
lnLernal unresL ln Lhe summer of 1987 by lnLroduclng a serles of reforms known as peresLrolka (llLerallyţ
resLrucLurlng)Ŧ ln ÞeresLrolkať new 1hlnklng for Cur CounLry and Lhe Worldţ Mlkhall Corbachev
dlscussed hls analysls of Lhe problems faclng Lhe uSS8 and hls plans Lo solve LhemŦ

Þerhaps Lhe mosL presslng and vlslble problem faclng Lhe uSS8 ln Lhe lasL 1980s came ln Lhe form of Lhe
counLry's conslsLenLly medlocre economlc performanceţ desplLe lLs vasL naLural resource wealLh and
large labor forceŦ Corbachev flaLly admlLLed LhaL economlc fallures were lncreaslng and currenL pollcles
were falllng Lo offer a susLalnable remedyŦ lalllng Lo Lake advanLage of Lhe numerous sclenLlflc and
Lechnologlcal advancemenLs avallableţ Lhe uSS8 relled on lnefflclenL and ouLdaLed buslness modelsŦ As a
resulLţ Corbachev saldţ ƍln Lhe lasL flfLeen years Lhe naLlonal lncome growLh raLes had decllned by more
Lhan a half and by Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe elghLles had fallen Lo a level close Lo economlc sLagnaLlonŦƍ WlLh
buslness execuLlves focused on uslng more resources (ln order Lo employ more people) lnsLead of
becomlng more efflclenLţ Lhe counLry produced poor quallLy producLs unable Lo compeLe ln a global
economyŦ lurLherţ Lhls lnefflclency led Lo shorLagesť ƍLhe SovleL unlonţ Lhe world's blggesL producer of
sLeelţ raw maLerlalsţ fuel and energyţ has shorLfalls ln Lhem due Lo wasLeful or lnefflclenL useŦƍ

1he decreplL economy engendered soclal unresL and woe LhaL only compounded economlc dlfflculLles
and socleLal mlseryŦ Corbachev wroLe of ƍa gradual eroslon of Lhe ldeologlcal and moral values of our
peopleƍ and noLed Lhe conslderable growLh ln ƍalcohollsmţ drug addlcLlon and crlmeŦƍ AccenLuaLlng
Lhese dlfflculLlesţ Lhe CommunlsL governmenL ofLen lgnored Lhe needs of Lhe average clLlzenţ causlng
dlsLrusL and resenLmenLŦ Þerhaps Lhe mosL desLrucLlve elemenL of Lhe soclal unravellng and lnadequaLe
governmenL response was Lhe medlocre educaLlon sysLemŦ Corbachev saldţ ƍCreaLlve Lhlnklng was
drlven ouL from Lhe soclal sclencesţ and superfluous and volunLarlsL assessmenLs and [udgmenLs were
declared lndlspuLable LruLhsŦƍ

AlLhough Corbachev also oplned abouL Lhe growlng publlc dlsbellef ln Lhe conLenL of Lhe lmmense
governmenL propaganda campalgnsţ Lhe exLenL Lo whlch economlc underdevelopmenL and soclal
devlance grlpped SovleL culLure made Lhe collapse of Lhe uSS8 vlrLually lnevlLable ln Lhe mlnds of many
observersŦ When comblned wlLh glasnosL (llLerallyţ openness)ţ Corbachev's plan LhaL allowed greaLer
Lransparencyţ peresLrolka acLually served Lo hasLen Lhe collapse of Lhe uSS8Ŧ ConLrary Lo lLs purposeţ
peresLrolka ensured LhaL Lhe fall of Lhe uSS8 would occur sooner raLher Lhan laLerŦ Cnly a few years
afLer Corbachev lmplemenLed changes LhaL would have been unLhlnkable and anLlLheLlcal Lo Lhe
phllosophy of prevlous leaders llke Lenlnţ SLallnţ and khrushchevţ Lhe uSS8 fellŦ

Whlch of Lhe followlng besL descrlbes Lhe prlmary ob[ecLlve of Lhe passage?
A) Argue LhaL Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of peresLrolka caused Lhe fall of Lhe SovleL unlon
8) Lxplaln peresLrolka along wlLh lLs rooLs and consequences
C) Analyze Lhe pros and cons of Mlkhall Corbachevƌs declslon Lo lmplemenL peresLrolka
u) Lxplaln Lhe shorLŴfalls of a communlsL sysLem and offer remedles
L) ulscuss Lhe role of Mlkhall Corbachev ln propelllng Lhe uSS8 Lowards ceaslng Lo exlsL
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť 8
Cn Lhe surfaceţ Lhe conquesL of Lhe AzLec emplre by Perman CorLes ls one of Lhe mosL amazlng mlllLary
accompllshmenLs ln hlsLoryŦ WlLh a small flghLlng force numberlng ln Lhe hundredsţ CorLes led Lhe
Spanlsh explorers lnLo vlcLory agalnsL an AzLec populaLlon LhaL many belleve Lopped 21 mllllonŦ ln llghL
of such a seemlngly lmposslble vlcLoryţ Lhe obvlous quesLlon lsť how dld a small group of forelgn flghLers
manage Lo Lopple one of Lhe worldƌs sLrongesLţ wealLhlesLţ and mosL successful mlllLary emplres?

Several facLors led Lo CorLesƌ successŦ llrsLţ Lhe Spanlsh explolLed anlmoslLy Loward Lhe AzLecs among
rlval groups and convlnced Lhousands of locals Lo flghLŦ ln one accounL of a baLLleţ lL ls recorded LhaL aL
leasL 200ţ000 naLlves foughL wlLh CorLesŦ nexLţ Lhe Spanlsh possessed superlor mlllLary equlpmenL ln Lhe
form of Luropean cannonsţ gunsţ and crossbowsţ leadlng Lo effecLlve and efflclenL dlsposal of AzLec
defensesŦ lor exampleţ Spanlsh cannons qulckly defeaLed large AzLec walls LhaL had proLecLed Lhe
emplre agalnsL blg and less Lechnlcally advanced armlesŦ

uesplLe Lhe Spanlsh advanLagesţ Lhe AzLecs probably could have succeeded ln defendlng Lhelr caplLal
clLy of 1enochLlLlan had Lhey leveraged Lhelr lncredlble populaLlon base Lo lncrease Lhelr armyƌs slze and
ensured LhaL no rogue clLles would ally wlLh CorLesŦ ln order Lo accompllsh Lhls laLer goalţ AzLec leader
MoLecuhzoma needed Lo send envoys Lo nelghborlng clLles Lelllng Lhelr lnhablLanLs abouL Lhe horrors of
Spanlsh conquesL and Lhe lnevlLablllLy of Spanlsh beLrayalŦ

ln addlLlonţ Lhe AzLecs should have explolLed Lhe facL LhaL Lhe baLLle was Laklng place on Lhelr LerrlLoryŦ
no reason exlsLed for Lhe AzLecs Lo consenL Lo a convenLlonal baLLleţ whlch heavlly favored Lhe SpanlshŦ
MoLecuhzomaƌs forces should have LhoughL ouLslde Lhe box and allowed CorLes lnLo Lhe clLyţ only Lo
subsequenLly use hundreds of Lhousands of flghLers Lo prevenL escape and proceed ln surprlse ƍdoorŴLoŴ
doorƍ combaLŦ WlLh Lhls Lype of baLLleţ Lhe AzLecs would have largely LhwarLed Spanlsh Lechnologlcal
supremacyŦ Poweverţ ln Lhe endţ Lhe superlor weaponry of Lhe Spanlshţ Lhe penLŴup resenLmenL of
AzLec rlvalsţ Lhe fallure of AzLec dlplomacyţ and Lhe lack of an unconvenLlonal AzLec war plan led Lo one
of Lhe mosL surprlslng mlllLary ouLcomes ln Lhe pasL one Lhousand yearsŦ

1he passage lmplles LhaL whlch of Lhe followlng consLlLuLed Lhe reason for CorLesƌ success seemlng so
lmpresslve?
A) uLlllzaLlon of Lechnologlcal supremacy
8) AblllLy Lo form a coallLlon of local Lrlbes Lo flghL Lhe AzLecs
C) 1he vasL quanLlLles of gold and oLher preclous meLals obLalned ln conquesL
u) 1he large dlsparlLy ln Lhe slze of Lhe AzLec and Spanlsh mlllLarles
L) Spanlsh speed and bruLallLy ln baLLle
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answerť u

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%  ¾    ° °n .

 n°¾   @ n nf°¾ ¾% % °n -°f¾¯¾ €f€¯ ½ ¾ °  ¾f¯ ¯ € –½ n ¾ °–n¯½f ° €°f½f€ ¾ ° °n @  €      ¾ ¾¾ °f¯f  n¯½f¾°–nf   .

f.½ .nf f¾°°–   @ n nf°¾ ¾%%   f  f¾¾ ° °n € ½f¾¾f– @ fn° ° ¾fn½ ¾ ¾ °f  ° €¾ n¯  nf¾    °  f f°¾°°f @  ¯½nf°¾ff½ ¾°¾ n¯ ¾–°f¾–– ¾  f° ¾ °     ¾½°¾  €fn¯   .

n    @ n nf°¾ ¾%%  ¾ ¾   f °¯ ¾° ¾ n ½  °n ¯¾ –  f– ¾ ¯f°  nf¾ ¾ °° f¾°  @¾f  ¾ ¾    nf¾  ° ¾° ¾ ¾    nf¾ ¾  °f°   nf¾ ¾ ¾        ¾° ¾    nf¾ ¾°  °f °  ¾¯€¾ –¾¾ n¾ ¾   f°    nf¾ ¾ ¾    f°  ¾f¾ ¾      ff€€n °n  .

f °–  n ¾°  ¾°f f ¾f  f  ¾°–¯ ¯ °¯f°f¾     ¾°f ¾f  ff ¾¯f¾ f  nf ¾f– .¾  ¾°f ¾¾ € f fn¾ ¾°¾ n° ¾ f° ¾¾f½ n      €€ °– °f¯n¾€  ° ° ½¾ ° nf °– ¾f  ¾ ¾ €n°– ¯f f½ ½fnn ¾f°  n° ¾ °f –f f¾¾   °  f f¾€° ° ¯f °– °° f  ¾ ¾ ¯½  f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾ffn n¾¯ ¾ @ ¾  n° ¾ fn f– f  °n ¾ – ° f ¯f°¾f ¾ f ¾ f° nf¯ ff n¾    f¾¯f°¯ €° ° ¾ ¾ –f°n°¾  ¾ f  ¾°– n° ¾ °¾ f° f°°°–   nf¾ ¯f °–¾f – ¾ °– f° f°° ¾f° ½½ ½¾ ½ n  ¾¾ n¯½f° ¾° ¾ –°–f¯°¾€¯° °½nf¾°– ¾ f ½ ¾° ½ ¾€nf½°–¯f ¾f °  – °°–°°  n°¯ ¾n°¾¯ ¾ nf¯ ¯  ¾½¾nf €¾f° ¾ °° f  ¾°– n° ¾–  ° ½ ° °½–f¯¯ ¾ –f°  ½¾f n  f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾ @ ½½f€ ¾ ¾ ½   ° ¾ fn °–° – f ¯ f°°n f¾°–½½f ¾ €–°–¾ €¾½fn  . @ n nf°¾ ¾%% f ¯ °%%f°  ¾¾¯ f° ° ° ¯½°°– f f f– €f° ¾f °¯ ¾ °– ¾f¾ ¾°n  °f€  f f–  f °¯ ¾€ ¾¯€f°    ° @¾ €¾ ¾¾  f ¯ °%%f° ¾°¾€€n ° €¾  °+¾  ° f° €¾  °  °+¾ °  nf¾ ++%+%¾ ¾¯€ ¾f° f°  ° n¯¾   ° @  f ¯f°  ° °¯ ¾ff  ¾    –°–f°° – € f f–     € – f¾ °¾ €  ¾f° ° .@ n n¾¾ fn€ ¾° ¾¾¾n¾ ½ f½°¾¯f  –€€    .@@ ¾°€    n¯½  °¾  ¾°¾  .

 ¯½f°     ¾ f ¾nn¯ °  ½½ ½f°  f°°  n ¾ ¾f ¾ € ¾ f f°f– ¾f°  °n   –° ¾ €¾ fn °–° ¾ n½  n  °  ° ¾€½f ½  nnf  ¾°– n¯½f° ¾ –f°°°–½f ½  nn¯f °–°  ¾     f¾  f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾f½ n  ¯ ½f ½  nnf ¾nf¯   f fn¾ J °n¯½f° ¾ –f°½°– °¾€ f¾°¾ ¯ –°–¯ ¯ °°  f  ¾°–¾½ nf¾¾¾f °n  ½ ¾ °n €f f  nf nn€f   ½ ¾ °f ¾€fn¯½f°°°  ¾° ½ nf  ¾  fn¯½ nn°  n¯½  ¾f ¾¾¯½°n f¾  ¯f °–n¾€ n¯½  .n¾€f° f €€  € ¾€f  °f °–¾ ¾ n½½ ½ f ¾ @  fnf¾f–f°¾ f°° f ¾– f¾°   ¾ ¾½ ¾ ¾ f  n ¯f– f¾ f ¾¾nf¾ f°° f ¾ – f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾¾ ¾  f €f ¾¾ ½¯° °f° °–  f f¾€ ° °    ¯f©  ½¯ °°°° ¯f °–nf¯  ° n°€½f ½  nnf ¾ D°  f°° ½½ ½f ¾ n–°f  n¯½f° ¾½f  ¯ f ¾ ¾¾ff° f ½f ½  nnf ¾f n¯½f° ¾½f° °f°°  ¾ ½ °fn¾¯ nn ° f°f .° ° ° –f°¾.

n€f – ¾f½  f¯f  ¾¾–  ¾€ °° ½¾°¾ff€¯½f ½  nn¯f °––°  ¯ ¯¾   –½f ½  nnf  ¾°– ¯f°¾fn¯¯°f°  €€ n f  ¾°– ¯f  ¾f f½   f–f° nf°–°– °f¯n¾€ ° °  f ½°–°  n° ¾¾nf¾½f ½  ½ €¯f°n f  ¾°– ¾ fn °–° ½¯f° f° f€€f ¯f °– ¾ ½fn €  ° °  ¾ °°n f¾ ¾ ¾ ¯¾f ¯  ff  ¾°–¾nn ¾¾€° ° °    f¾f –f¾°¾n°¾f°nf°  ¯ fn ¾nf°–  @ f¯½ ¾ff  € €½f ½  ½ €¯f°n f  ¾°–" % % .

% –¯½ ¾°½f ½  nnf  ¾°– ¾¾° f  nn€f  °  f n¯  °nf¾° ° ¾ ¾ ¾n  f fn¾ ° ° ¾ ¾  ½€ ¾€f  n¾ €€ n ° ¾¾ %   °f n¯  ¾¾½½ff  ¾ ¾f¾ ° °   ¾f°  f fn¾ ¯ –  % °€fn  f fn¾  ¾ €€ °–f½½fn°° ¯f °–  °¾  .

 n°¾   .

¾  ¾°f ¾¾ € f fn¾ ¾°¾ n° ¾ f° ¾¾f½ n      €€ °– °f¯n¾€  ° ° ½¾ ° nf °– ¾f  ¾ ¾ €n°– ¯f f½ ½fnn ¾f°  n° ¾ °f –f f¾¾   °  f f¾€° ° ¯f °– °° f  ¾ ¾ ¯½  f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾ffn n¾¯ ¾ @ ¾  n° ¾ fn f– f  °n ¾ – ° f ¯f°¾f ¾ f ¾ f° nf¯ ff n¾    f¾¯f°¯ €° ° ¾ ¾ –f°n°¾  ¾ f  ¾°– n° ¾ °¾ f° f°°°–   nf¾ ¯f °–¾f – ¾ °– f° f°° ¾f° ½½ ½¾ ½ n  ¾¾ n¯½f° ¾° ¾ –°–f¯°¾€¯° °½nf¾°– ¾ f ½ ¾° ½ ¾€nf½°–¯f ¾f °  – °°–°°  n°¯ ¾n°¾¯ ¾ nf¯ ¯  ¾½¾nf €¾f° ¾ °° f  ¾°– n° ¾–  ° ½ ° °½–f¯¯ ¾ –f°  ½¾f n  f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾ @ ½½f€ ¾ ¾ ½   ° ¾ fn °–° – f ¯ f°°n f¾°–½½f ¾ €–°–¾ €¾½fn  ° ° ° –f°¾.n¾€f° f €€  € ¾€f  °f °–¾ ¾ n½½ ½ f ¾ @  fnf¾f–f°¾ f°° f ¾– f¾°   ¾ ¾½ ¾ ¾ f  n ¯f– f¾ f ¾¾nf¾ f°° f ¾ – f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾¾ ¾  f €f ¾¾ ½¯° °f° °–  f f¾€ ° °    ¯f©  ½¯ °°°° ¯f °–nf¯  ° n°€½f ½  nnf ¾ D°  f°° ½½ ½f ¾ n–°f  n¯½f° ¾½f  ¯ f ¾ ¾¾ff° f ½f ½  nnf ¾f n¯½f° ¾½f° °f°°  ¾ ½ °fn¾¯ nn ° f°f . ¯½f°     ¾ f ¾nn¯ °  ½½ ½f°  f°°  n ¾ ¾f ¾ € ¾ f f°f– ¾f°  °n   –° ¾ €¾ fn °–° ¾ n½  n  °  ° ¾€½f ½  nnf  ¾°– n¯½f° ¾ –f°°°–½f ½  nn¯f °–°  ¾     f¾  f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾f½ n  ¯ ½f ½  nnf ¾nf¯   f fn¾ J °n¯½f° ¾ –f°½°– °¾€ f¾°¾ ¯ –°–¯ ¯ °°  f  ¾°–¾½ nf¾¾¾f °n  ½ ¾ °n €f f  nf nn€f   ½ ¾ °f ¾€fn¯½f°°°  ¾° ½ nf  ¾  fn¯½ nn°  n¯½  ¾f ¾¾¯½°n f¾  ¯f °–n¾€ n¯½  .f °–  n ¾°  ¾°f f ¾f  f  ¾°–¯ ¯ °¯f°f¾     ¾°f ¾f  ff ¾¯f¾ f  nf ¾f– .  .

n€f – ¾f½  f¯f  ¾¾–  ¾€ °° ½¾°¾ff€¯½f ½  nn¯f °––°  ¯ ¯¾   –½f ½  nnf  ¾°– ¯f°¾fn¯¯°f°  €€ n f  ¾°– ¯f  ¾f f½   f–f° nf°–°– °f¯n¾€ ° °  f ½°–°  n° ¾¾nf¾½f ½  .

½ €¯f°n f  ¾°– ¾ fn °–° ½¯f° f° f€€f ¯f °– ¾ ½fn €  ° °  ¾ °°n f¾ ¾ ¾ ¯¾f ¯  ff  ¾°–¾nn ¾¾€° ° °    f¾f –f¾°¾n°¾f°nf°  ¯ fn ¾nf°–    Jn€ €°–¯¾fnnf ¾f ¾ ¯f° f€ ½f¾¾f– " % –½f ½  nnf  ¾°– ¯f°¾f ¾½ f f°  €€ n °° f  ¾°– ¯ ¯ ¾½½f¾  ¯°¾f¾ ° °   ¾  % ° ° f  ¾°–¾°  n   ° ° ¾ ¾ nf¾°–° ½ ° °½–f¯¯ ¾ ¾  f  ¾ ¾  .

n¾€ f° f €€  € ¾€f  °f °–¾ ¾ n½½ ½f ¾ @  fnf¾f–f°¾ f°° f ¾ – f¾°   ¾ ¾½ ¾ ¾ f  n¯f– f¾ f ¾¾nf¾ f°° f ¾  – f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾¾ ¾  f €f ¾¾½¯° °f° °–  f f¾€  ° °    ¯f©  ½¯ °°°° ¯f °–nf¯  ° n°€½f ½  nnf ¾ D°  f°° ½½ ½f ¾ n–°f  n¯½f° ¾½f  ¯ f ¾ ¾¾ff° f ½f ½  nnf ¾f n¯½f° ¾½f° °f°°  ¾ ½ °fn¾¯ nn ° f°f .% D°    ¾°  ° ° f¾ ½  °n  f¯fnnf°– ¾°¾½  ¾€¯  % D°    ¾°  ° ° f¾  f½  €n°–°° ¯f  ¾  ½°  f  ¾°–¾f – ¾f° ¯ ¯¾  % @ ½fn € ° ° #¾ °¾°n f¾°–f° °°n f¾ ° €  °¾  °° f  ¾°– n° ¾–  ° ½ ° °½–f¯¯ ¾ –f°  ½¾f n  f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾ @ ½½f€ ¾ ¾ ½  ° ¾ fn °–° – f  ¯ f°°n f¾°–½½f ¾ €–°–¾ €¾½fn ° ° ° –f°¾. ¯½f°     ¾ f ¾nn¯ °  ½½ ½f°  f°°  n ¾ ¾f ¾ € ¾ f f°f– ¾f°  °n   –° ¾ €¾ fn °–° ¾ n½  n  °  ° ¾€½f ½  nnf  ¾°– n¯½f° ¾ –f°°°–½f ½  nn¯f °–°  ¾     f¾  f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾f½ n  ¯ ½f ½  nnf ¾nf¯   f fn¾ J °n¯½f° ¾ –f°½°– °¾€ f¾°¾ ¯ –°–¯ ¯ °°  f  ¾°–¾½ nf¾¾¾f °n  ½ ¾ °n €f f  nf nn€f   ½ ¾ °f ¾€fn¯½f°°°  ¾° ½ nf  ¾  fn¯½ nn°  n¯½  ¾f ¾¾¯½°n f¾  ¯f °–n¾€ n¯½  .

n€f – ¾f½  .

f¯f  ¾¾–  ¾€ °° ½¾°¾ff€¯½f ½  nn¯f °––°  ¯ ¯¾   –½f ½  nnf  ¾°– ¯f°¾fn¯¯°f°  €€ n f  ¾°– ¯f  ¾f f½   f–f° nf°–°– °f¯n¾€ ° °  f ½°–°  n° ¾¾nf¾½f ½  ½ €¯f°n f  ¾°– ¾ fn °–° ½¯f° f° f€€f ¯f °– ¾ ½fn €  ° °  ¾ °°n f¾ ¾ ¾ ¯¾f ¯  ff  ¾°–¾nn ¾¾€° ° °    f¾f –f¾°¾n°¾f°nf°  ¯ fn ¾nf°–    Jn€ €°–¯¾fnnf ¾f ¾ ¯f° f€ ½f¾¾f– " % –½f ½  nnf  ¾°– ¯f°¾f ¾½ f f°  €€ n °° f  ¾°– ¯ ¯ ¾½½f¾  ¯°¾f¾ ° °   ¾  % ° ° f  ¾°–¾°  n   ° ° ¾ ¾ nf¾°–° ½ ° °½–f¯¯ ¾ ¾  f  ¾ ¾  .

% D°    ¾°  ° ° f¾ ½  °n  f¯fnnf°– ¾°¾½  ¾€¯  % D°    ¾°  ° ° f¾  f½  €n°–°° ¯f  ¾  ½°  f  ¾°–¾f – ¾f° ¯ ¯¾  % @ ½fn € ° ° #¾ °¾°n f¾°–f° °°n f¾ ° €   °¾  .

 n°¾    .f °–  n ¾°  ¾°f f ¾f  f  ¾°–¯ ¯ °¯f°f¾     ¾°f ¾f  ff ¾¯f¾ f  nf ¾f– .¾  ¾°f ¾¾€ f  fn¾ ¾°¾ n° ¾ f° ¾¾f½ n      €€ °– °f¯n¾€  ° ° ½¾ ° nf °– ¾f  ¾ ¾ €n°– ¯f f½ ½fnn ¾f°  n° ¾° f –f f¾¾   °  f f¾€° ° ¯f °– °° f  ¾ ¾ ¯½  f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾ffn n¾¯ ¾ @ ¾  n° ¾ fn f– f  °n ¾ – ° f ¯f°¾f ¾ f ¾ f° nf¯ ff n¾    f¾¯f°¯ €° ° ¾ ¾ –f°n°¾  ¾ f  ¾°– n° ¾ °¾ f° f°°°–   nf¾ ¯f °–¾f – ¾ °– f° f°° ¾f° ½½ ½¾ ½ n  ¾¾ n¯½f° ¾° ¾ –°–f¯°¾€¯° °½nf¾°– ¾ f ½ ¾° .

 ¯½f°     ¾ f ¾nn¯ °  ½½ ½f°  f°°  n ¾ ¾f ¾ € ¾ f f°f– ¾f°  °n   –° ¾ €¾ fn °–° ¾ n½  n  °  ° ¾€½f ½  nnf  ¾°– n¯½f° ¾ –f°°°–½f ½  nn¯f °–°  ¾     f¾  f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾f½ n  ¯ ½f ½  nnf ¾nf¯   f fn¾ J °n¯½f° ¾ –f°½°– °¾€ f¾°¾ ¯ –°–¯ ¯ °°  f  ¾°–¾½ nf¾¾¾f °n  ½ ¾ °n €f f  nf nn€f   ½ ¾ °f ¾€fn¯½f°°°  ¾° ½ nf  ¾  fn¯½ nn°  n¯½  ¾f ¾¾¯½°n f¾  ¯f °–n¾€ n¯½  .n¾€f° f €€  € ¾€f  °f °–¾ ¾ n½½ ½ f ¾ @  fnf¾f–f°¾ f°° f ¾– f¾°   ¾ ¾½ ¾ ¾ f  n ¯f– f¾ f ¾¾nf¾ f°° f ¾ – f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾¾ ¾  f €f ¾¾ ½¯° °f° °–  f f¾€ ° °    ¯f©  ½¯ °°°° ¯f °–nf¯  ° n°€½f ½  nnf ¾ D°  f°° ½½ ½f ¾ n–°f  n¯½f° ¾½f  ¯ f ¾ ¾¾ff° f ½f ½  nnf ¾f n¯½f° ¾½f° °f°°  ¾ ½ °fn¾¯ nn ° f°f .½ ¾€nf½°–¯f ¾f °  – °°–°°  n°¯ ¾n°¾¯ ¾ nf¯ ¯  ¾½¾nf €¾f° ¾ °° f  ¾°– n° ¾–  ° ½ ° °½–f¯¯ ¾ –f°  ½¾f n  f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾ @ ½½f€ ¾ ¾ ½   ° ¾ fn °–° – f ¯ f°°n f¾°–½½f ¾ €–°–¾ €¾½fn  ° ° ° –f°¾.

n€f – ¾f½  f¯f  ¾¾–  ¾€ °° ½¾°¾ff€¯½f ½  nn¯f °––°  ¯ ¯¾   –½f ½  nnf  ¾°– ¯f°¾fn¯¯°f°  €€ n f  ¾°– ¯f  ¾f f½   f–f° nf°–°– °f¯n¾€ ° °  f ½°–°  n° ¾¾nf¾½f ½  ½ €¯f°n f  ¾°– ¾ fn °–° ½¯f° f° f€€f ¯f °– ¾ ½fn €  ° °  ¾ °°n f¾ ¾ ¾ ¯¾f ¯  ff  ¾°–¾nn ¾¾€° ° °    f¾f –f¾°¾n°¾f°nf°  ¯ fn ¾nf°–    nn °– ½f¾¾f– n€ €°– ¾ ¾n ¾ n °¾f¾€½½ ½f ¾" % % .

% % J ¾   ¾¾½½f°f°f f ¯ ¾ €  °f– €nn€f  -° ¾ °  ½½ ½ n ¾ .

% °n f¾°–½½f  ¾ fn °–° ¾ °¾  .

f °–  n ¾°  ¾°f f ¾f  f  ¾°–¯ ¯ °¯f°f¾     ¾°f ¾f  ff ¾¯f¾ f  nf ¾f– . ¯½f°     ¾ f ¾nn¯ °  ½½ ½f°  f°°  n ¾ ¾f ¾ € ¾ f f°f– ¾f°  °n   –° ¾ €¾ fn °–° ¾ n½  n  °  ° ¾€½f ½  nnf  ¾°– n¯½f° ¾ –f°°°–½f ½  nn¯f °–°  ¾     f¾  f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾f½ n  ¯ ½f ½  nnf ¾nf¯   f fn¾ J °n¯½f° ¾ –f°½°– °¾€ f¾°¾ ¯ –°–¯ ¯ °°  f  ¾°–¾½ nf¾¾¾f °n  ½ ¾ °n €f f  nf nn€f   ½ ¾ °f ¾€fn¯½f°°°  ¾° ½ nf  ¾  fn¯½ nn°  n¯½  ¾f ¾¾¯½°n f¾  ¯f °–n¾€ n¯½  .n¾€f° f €€  € ¾€f  °f °–¾ ¾ n½½ ½ f ¾ @  fnf¾f–f°¾ f°° f ¾– f¾°   ¾ ¾½ ¾ ¾ f  n ¯f– f¾ f ¾¾nf¾ f°° f ¾ – f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾¾ ¾  f €f ¾¾ ½¯° °f° °–  f f¾€ ° °    ¯f©  ½¯ °°°° ¯f °–nf¯  ° n°€½f ½  nnf ¾ D°  f°° ½½ ½f ¾ n–°f  n¯½f° ¾½f  ¯ f ¾ ¾¾ff° f ½f ½  nnf ¾f n¯½f° ¾½f° °f°°  ¾ ½ °fn¾¯ nn ° f°f .¾  ¾°f ¾¾€ f  fn¾ ¾°¾ n° ¾ f° ¾¾f½ n      €€ °– °f¯n¾€  ° ° ½¾ ° nf °– ¾f  ¾ ¾ €n°– ¯f f½ ½fnn ¾f°  n° ¾° f –f f¾¾   °  f f¾€° ° ¯f °– °° f  ¾ ¾ ¯½  f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾ffn n¾¯ ¾ @ ¾  n° ¾ fn f– f  °n ¾ – ° f ¯f°¾f ¾ f ¾ f° nf¯ ff n¾    f¾¯f°¯ €° ° ¾ ¾ –f°n°¾  ¾ f  ¾°– n° ¾ °¾ f° f°°°–   nf¾ ¯f °–¾f – ¾ °– f° f°° ¾f° ½½ ½¾ ½ n  ¾¾ n¯½f° ¾° ¾ –°–f¯°¾€¯° °½nf¾°– ¾ f ½ ¾° ½ ¾€nf½°–¯f ¾f °  – °°–°°  n°¯ ¾n°¾¯ ¾ nf¯ ¯  ¾½¾nf €¾f° ¾ °° f  ¾°– n° ¾–  ° ½ ° °½–f¯¯ ¾ –f°  ½¾f n  f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾ @ ½½f€ ¾ ¾ ½   ° ¾ fn °–° – f ¯ f°°n f¾°–½½f ¾ €–°–¾ €¾½fn  ° ° ° –f°¾. n°¾     .

n€f – ¾f½  .

f¯f  ¾¾–  ¾€ °° ½¾°¾ff€¯½f ½  nn¯f °––°  ¯ ¯¾   –½f ½  nnf  ¾°– ¯f°¾fn¯¯°f°  €€ n f  ¾°– ¯f  ¾f f½   f–f° nf°–°– °f¯n¾€ ° °  f ½°–°  n° ¾¾nf¾½f ½  ½ €¯f°n f  ¾°– ¾ fn °–° ½¯f° f° f€€f ¯f °– ¾ ½fn €  ° °  ¾ °°n f¾ ¾ ¾ ¯¾f ¯  ff  ¾°–¾nn ¾¾€° ° °    f¾f –f¾°¾n°¾f°nf°  ¯ fn ¾nf°–    nn °– ½f¾¾f– n€ €°– ¾ ¾n ¾ ½fnn €nn€f " % % .

% % % .

n°–°  f°° f  ¾ ¯ °¾€fn¯½f° ¾ D¾°–¾€f  nf  ¾ ¯ °¾ D°–¾ fn °–° ½¯f°¾ ½f– ¾€n¯½ ¾ f  °½nf¾°–½ n¾°°  .

n°–° ½f ½  nnf ¾€n¯½ ¾  °¾  .

f °–  n ¾°  ¾°f f ¾f  f  ¾°–¯ ¯ °¯f°f¾     ¾°f ¾f  ff ¾¯f¾ f  nf ¾f– .¾  ¾°f ¾¾€ f  fn¾ ¾°¾ n° ¾ f° ¾¾f½ n      €€ °– °f¯n¾€  ° ° ½¾ ° nf °– ¾f  ¾ ¾ €n°– ¯f f½ ½fnn ¾f°  n° ¾° f –f f¾¾   °  f f¾€° ° ¯f °– °° f  ¾ ¾ ¯½  f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾ffn n¾¯ ¾ @ ¾  n° ¾ fn f– f  °n ¾ – ° f ¯f°¾f ¾ f ¾ f° nf¯ ff n¾    f¾¯f°¯ €° ° ¾ ¾ –f°n°¾  ¾ f  ¾°– n° ¾ °¾ f° f°°°–   nf¾ ¯f °–¾f – ¾ °– f° f°° ¾f° ½½ ½¾ ½ n  ¾¾ n¯½f° ¾° ¾ –°–f¯°¾€¯° °½nf¾°– ¾ f ½ ¾° ½ ¾€nf½°–¯f ¾f °  – °°–°°  n°¯ ¾n°¾¯ ¾ nf¯ ¯  ¾½¾nf €¾f° ¾ °° f  ¾°– n° ¾–  ° ½ ° °½–f¯¯ ¾ –f°  ½¾f n  f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾ @ ½½f€ ¾ ¾ ½   ° ¾ fn °–° – f ¯ f°°n f¾°–½½f ¾ €–°–¾ €¾½fn  ° ° ° –f°¾. n°¾   .n¾€f° f €€  € ¾€f  °f °–¾ ¾ n½½ ½ .

f ¾ @  fnf¾f–f°¾ f°° f ¾– f¾°   ¾ ¾½ ¾ ¾ f  n ¯f– f¾ f ¾¾nf¾ f°° f ¾ – f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾¾ ¾  f €f ¾¾ ½¯° °f° °–  f f¾€ ° °    ¯f©  ½¯ °°°° ¯f °–nf¯  ° n°€½f ½  nnf ¾ D°  f°° ½½ ½f ¾ n–°f  n¯½f° ¾½f  ¯ f ¾ ¾¾ff° f ½f ½  nnf ¾f n¯½f° ¾½f° °f°°  ¾ ½ °fn¾¯ nn ° f°f . ¯½f°     ¾ f ¾nn¯ °  ½½ ½f°  f°°  n ¾ ¾f ¾ € ¾ f f°f– ¾f°  °n   –° ¾ €¾ fn °–° ¾ n½  n  °  ° ¾€½f ½  nnf  ¾°– n¯½f° ¾ –f°°°–½f ½  nn¯f °–°  ¾     f¾  f°° f° ½½ ½f ¾f½ n  ¯ ½f ½  nnf ¾nf¯   f fn¾ J °n¯½f° ¾ –f°½°– °¾€ f¾°¾ ¯ –°–¯ ¯ °°  f  ¾°–¾½ nf¾¾¾f °n  ½ ¾ °n €f f  nf nn€f   ½ ¾ °f ¾€fn¯½f°°°  ¾° ½ nf  ¾  fn¯½ nn°  n¯½  ¾f ¾¾¯½°n f¾  ¯f °–n¾€ n¯½  .

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% % % @ ½ €°  f fn¯ ¯ fn ¾ J   ¯ ¯¾° fn  @ ½fn fn ¯ ¯  ¾ @ n¾€f  ¾°– fn¯ ¯ J   fn¯ ¯n°f°¾ f fn¾ .

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nf °fnf ¾f  f¾  ½¾  °¾  .

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f°f° ¾½f½ € ° €¾ .

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% % % ½f° –€  –f –  °¾€½fn ¾n¾¾ ¾¾€  –f f° ¾–– ¾f¾½ n¾ € ff  ½¾f° n°¾€fn ½fn½f°°  –f  9½¾ ¾ ½¾fn  .½fn f° – nf°f ½ n¾ ½fn ¾f ½ °f°° ° ¾ ¾€½f °€¯f° .

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% % %  –¾ f °–  ¯½nfn°n °¾   ¯ n°¯n¾ € °  ¾ .

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