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Sample CMA1 1esL CuesLlons

CeLLlng ready Lo Lake Lhe CMA1? 1ry Lhese sample CMA1 LesL quesLlons Lo see where Lo focus your
preparaLlon and sLudy efforLs Answers are provlded aL Lhe end of all Lhe quesLlons

lf youre also ready Lo explore graduaLe program opLlons check ouL Lhls search for buslness schools Lo
flnd Lhe besL program for you

8eadlng Comprehenslon

urodeles a class of verLebraLes LhaL lncludes newLs and salamanders have Lhe envlable ablllLy Lo
regeneraLe arms legs Lalls hearL muscle [aws splnal cords and oLher organs lanarla slmple
worms can be sllced and dlced ln hundreds of pleces wlLh each plece glvlng rlse Lo a compleLely new
anlmal Powever whlle boLh urodeles and planarla have Lhe capaclLy Lo regeneraLe Lhey use
dlfferenL means Lo accompllsh Lhls feaL

ln effecL a urodeles speclmen Lurns back Lhe blologlcal clock llrsL Lhe anlmal heals Lhe wound aL Lhe
slLe of Lhe mlsslng llmb 1hen varlous speclallzed cells aL Lhe slLe such as bone skln and blood cells lose
Lhelr ldenLlLy and reverL Lo cells as unspeclallzed as Lhose ln Lhe embryonlc llmb bud 1hls process ls
called dedlfferenLlaLlon and Lhe resulLlng blasLema a mass of unspeclallzed cells prollferaLes rapldly Lo
form a llmb bud ulLlmaLely when Lhe new llmb Lakes shape Lhe cells Lake on Lhe speclallzed roles Lhey
had prevlously casL off

ln conLrasL planarla regeneraLe uslng cells called neoblasLs ScaLLered wlLhln Lhe planarlan body Lhese
neoblasLs remaln ln an unspeclallzed sLemcell sLaLe whlch enables Lhem aL need Lo dlfferenLlaLe lnLo
any cell Lype Whenever planarla are cuL Lhe neoblasLs mlgraLe Lo Lhe slLe and form a blasLema by
Lhemselves lL ls lnLeresLlng Lo noLe LhaL Lhls mechanlsm ls slmllar Lo LhaL followlng reproducLlve flsslon
ln Lhese anlmals and LhaL specles lncapable of Lhls form of asexual reproducLlon have poorly developed
regeneraLlve capaclLles

1 1he prlmary purpose of Lhe passage ls Lo

(A) descrlbe Lhe roles of blasLemas ln regeneraLlng urodeles and planarla
(8) descrlbe how urodeles use Lhe process of dedlfferenLlaLlon Lo regeneraLe
(C) conLrasL Lhe mechanlsms by whlch urodeles and planarla accompllsh regeneraLlon
(u) show how meLhods of cellular regeneraLlon have evolved ln dlfferenL anlmal specles
(L) explaln Lhe llnk beLween reproducLlve flsslon and regeneraLlon ln slmple worms

2 All of Lhe followlng are Lrue of dedlfferenLlaLlon ln regeneraLlng urodeles LxCL1

(A) Lhe cells recover Lhelr speclallzed roles afLer Lhe llmb bud Lakes shape
(8) lL lnvolves a regresslon by cells Lo an earller sLage of developmenL
(C) speclallzed cells mlgraLe Lo Lhe slLe of Lhe blasLema and prollferaLe rapldly
(u) Lhe heallng of Lhe wound aL Lhe slLe of Lhe ln[ury ls Lhe flrsL sLep of Lhe process
(L) dedlfferenLlaLlon ls characLerlzed by a loss and Lhen recovery of cellular ldenLlLy

SenLence CorrecLlons

1 ln Lhe years afLer he lefL Lhe WhlLe Pouse 8lchard nlxon sLrove Lo burnlsh hls lmage for hlsLory more
asslduously Lhan dld any former presldenL

(A) more asslduously Lhan dld any former presldenL
(8) more asslduously Lhan any oLher former presldenL
(C) wlLh an asslduousness unmaLched by any former presldenL
(u) wlLh more asslduousness Lhan dld any oLher former presldenL
(L) more asslduously ln comparlson Lo any former presldenL

CrlLlcal 8easonlng

When Lhe sLaLe of 1ennessee passed a law prohlblLlng Lhe Leachlng of Lhe Lheory of evoluLlon ln lLs
publlc schools leaders of Lhe Amerlcan Clvll LlberLles unlon (ACLu) persuaded !ohn 1 Scopes a Leacher
ln uayLon 1ennessee Lo Leach evoluLlon ln hls classroom ln order Lo LesL Lhe law ln courL Powever
because Scopes dld noL break Lhe law on hls own lnlLlaLlve he should never have been broughL Lo Lrlal

1 Whlch of Lhe followlng ls an assumpLlon underlylng Lhe concluslon of Lhe passage above?

(A) 1hose who commlL crlmes aL Lhe suggesLlon of oLhers should noL be held responslble for Lhelr
acLlons
(8) 8oLh Scopes and Lhe ACLu leaders should have been Lrled for breaklng Lhe law
(C) 1he ACLu leaders raLher Lhan Scopes should have been broughL Lo Lrlal
(u) Croups llke Lhe ACLu should noL encourage crlmlnal acLlvlLles as a means of LesLlng laws
(L) 1ennessee dld noL have Lhe rlghL Lo make Lhe Leachlng of evoluLlon a crlme

MaLh MulLlpleCholce

1 lor whlch n ls Lhe remalnder largesL when Lhe number 817380 ls dlvlded by n?

(A) 4
(8) 3
(C) 6
(u) 8
(L) 9

uaLa Sufflclency

1 lf x ls an odd lnLeger ls y an odd lnLeger?

(1) 1he average of x and y ls odd
(2) 1he average of x y and (y + 1) ls an lnLeger


(A) SLaLemenL (1) ls by lLself enough Lo enable you Lo answer Lhe quesLlon buL sLaLemenL (2) ls noL
enough
(8) SLaLemenL (1) ls noL enough by lLself Lo answer Lhe quesLlon buL sLaLemenL (2) ls enough
(C) Comblnlng sLaLemenLs (1) and (2) provldes enough lnformaLlon Lo answer Lhe quesLlon
(u) LlLher sLaLemenL by lLself provldes enough lnformaLlon Lo answer Lhe quesLlon
(L) nelLher sLaLemenL conLalns sufflclenL daLa Lo answer Lhe quesLlon

Analysls of an lssue (sample only)

ulrecLlons 8ead Lhe sLaLemenL and Lhe lnsLrucLlons LhaL follow lL and Lhen make any noLes LhaL wlll
help you plan your response WrlLe your response on scrap paper or Lype lL on a word processor

eople ofLen complaln LhaL Lhe lnLroducLlon of new laborsavlng machlnes cosLs workers Lhelr [obs
Powever mosL new Lechnologles acLually creaLe more [obs Lhan Lhey desLroy

1o whaL exLenL do you agree or dlsagree wlLh Lhe oplnlon expressed above? SupporL your vlews wlLh
reasons and examples drawn from your own experlences observaLlons or readlng

Analysls of an ArgumenL (sample only)

ulrecLlons 8ead Lhe sLaLemenL and Lhe lnsLrucLlons LhaL follow lL and Lhen make any noLes LhaL wlll
help you plan your response WrlLe your response on scrap paper or Lype lL on a word processor

1he followlng appeared as parL of a plan proposed by an execuLlve of Lhe SLan uonce Magazlne Croup Lo
Lhe companys presldenL

Cur need for prlnLlng servlces varles from monLh Lo monLh dependlng on Lhe slze of our magazlnes
and varlaLlons ln schedullng Worklng wlLh ouLslde prlnLers has necesslLaLed a consLanL scramble for
adequaLe press Llme aL reasonable prlces lf we were Lo buy and operaLe our own prlnLlng operaLlon we
would be beLLer able Lo conLrol boLh Lhe avallablllLy and Lhe cosL of prlnLlng our magazlnes whlch would
have a favorable lmpacL on Lhe efflclency and proflLablllLy of our buslness

ulscuss how well reasoned you flnd Lhls argumenL ln your dlscusslon be sure Lo analyze Lhe llne of
reasonlng and Lhe use of evldence ln Lhe argumenL lor example you may need Lo conslder whaL
quesLlonable assumpLlons underlle Lhe Lhlnklng and whaL alLernaLlve explanaLlons or counLerexamples
mlghL weaken Lhe concluslon ?ou can also dlscuss whaL sorL of evldence would sLrengLhen or refuLe Lhe
argumenL whaL changes ln Lhe argumenL would make lL more loglcally sound and whaL lf anyLhlng
would help you beLLer evaluaLe lLs concluslon

CMA1 Answers

8eadlng Comprehenslon

1 1he correcL answer ls (C) 1he lasL senLence of Lhe flrsL paragraph seLs forLh Lhls cenLral Lheme 1he
paragraphs LhaL follow glve Lhe relevanL deLalls

2 1he correcL answer ls (C) As paragraph Lwo explalns Lhe speclallzed cells lose Lhelr ldenLlLy and
reverL Lo belng unspeclallzed cells formlng a blasLema Cnly afLer Lhls do Lhey prollferaLe so lLs wrong
Lo say LhaL Lhe speclallzed cells prollferaLe rapldly as cholce (C) does

SenLence CorrecLlons

1 1he correcL answer ls (8) Slnce nlxon was hlmself a former presldenL he ls a member of Lhe group
wlLh whlch he ls belng compared ln Lhe flnal parL of Lhe senLence 1herefore Lhe word oLher ls
essenLlal Lo make Lhe comparlson loglcal

CrlLlcal 8easonlng

1 1he correcL answer ls (A) 8eread Lhe lasL senLence of Lhe passage 1he auLhor conLends LhaL Scopes
should noL have been Lrled for hls crlme because he dld noL break Lhe law on hls own lnlLlaLlve 1he
lmpllcaLlon ls LhaL a person whose crlme ls orlglnally suggesLed by anoLher should noL be held
responslble for LhaL crlme

MaLh MulLlpleCholce

1 1he correcL answer ls (u) 817380 ls dlvlslble by all Lhe numbers ln Lhe llsL excepL 8 Pence 8 musL
glve Lhe largesL remalnder because lL ls Lhe only one LhaL ls noL zero 1o sLarL 7380 ls dlvlslble by 3
because lL ends ln 0 lL ls dlvlslble by 2 because lL ls even and by 4 because 80 ls dlvlslble by 4 Powever
lL ls noL dlvlslble by 8 because 380 lsnL ln addlLlon Lhe sum of lLs dlglLs ls 27 whlch ls dlvlslble by 3 and
by 9 8ecause lL ls dlvlslble by boLh 2 and 3 lL ls also dlvlslble by 6

uaLa Sufflclency

1 1he correcL answer ls (A) SLaLemenL (1) alone Lells us more Lhan we need Lo know Slmply knowlng
LhaL Lhe average of x and y ls a whole number ls enough Lo Lell us LhaL y ls odd slnce Lhe only way for
Lhe average Lo be a whole number ls for Lhe sum of x and y Lo be even 1hus lf x ls odd so ls y
SLaLemenL (2) alone ls noL sufflclenL lf y ls odd Lhen y + 1 ls even and lf y ls even Lhen y + 1 ls odd ln
elLher case x + y + (y + 1) ls Lhe sum of Lwo odds and an even whlch musL be even 1here are many even
numbers LhaL are dlvlslble by 3 glvlng an lnLeger for Lhe average



AfLer you geL a sense of where you sLand on Lhe CMA1 check ouL Lhls search for buslness schools Lo
explore whaL opLlons may be Lhe rlghL flL for you


All CMA1 1esL lnfo



comprehens|ve quest|ons
1 MarkeLlng execuLlves ln Lelevlslon work wlLh a relaLlvely sLable adverLlslng medlum ln many ways
Lhe Lelevlslon ads alred Loday are slmllar Lo Lhose alred Lwo decades ago MosL Lelevlslon ads sLlll
feaLure acLors sLlll run 30 or 60 seconds and sLlll show a producL Powever Lhe dlfferlng dynamlcs of
Lhe lnLerneL pose unlque challenges Lo adverLlsers forclng Lhem Lo adapL Lhelr pracLlces and Lechnlques
on a regular basls

ln Lhe early days of lnLerneL markeLlng onllne adverLlsers employed banner and popup ads Lo aLLracL
cusLomers 1hese Lechnlques reached large audlences generaLed many sales leads and came aL a low
cosL Powever a small number of lnLerneL users began Lo conslder Lhese adverLlslng Lechnlques
lnLruslve and annoylng ?eL because markeLlng sLraLegles relylng heavlly on banners and popups
produced resulLs companles lnvesLed growlng amounLs of money lnLo purchaslng Lhese ad Lypes ln
hopes of capLurlng markeL share ln Lhe burgeonlng onllne economy As consumers became more
sophlsLlcaLed frusLraLlon wlLh Lhese onllne adverLlslng Lechnlques grew lndependenL programmers
began Lo develop Lools LhaL blocked banner and popup ads 1he popularlLy of Lhese Lools exploded
when Lhe search englne Coogle aL Lhe Llme an lncreaslngly popular webslLe flghLlng Lo solldlfy lLs place
on Lhe lnLerneL wlLh glanLs MlcrosofL and ?ahoo offered free sofLware enabllng users Lo block popup
ads 1he backlash agalnsL banner ads grew as new web browsers provlded users Lhe ablllLy Lo block
lmagebased ads such as banner ads AlLhough banner and popup ads sLlll exlsL Lhey are far less
promlnenL Lhan durlng Lhe early days of Lhe lnLerneL

A ma[or developmenL ln onllne markeLlng came wlLh Lhe lnLroducLlon of paypercllck ads unllke
banner or popup ads whlch orlglnally requlred companles Lo pay every Llme a webslLe vlslLor saw an
ad paypercllck ads allowed companles Lo pay only when an lnLeresLed poLenLlal cusLomer cllcked on
an ad More lmporLanLly however Lhese ads clrcumvenLed Lhe popup and banner blockers As a resulL
of Lhese advanLages and Lhe lncredlble growLh ln Lhe use of search englnes whlch provlde excellenL
venues for paypercllck adverLlslng companles began Lurnlng Lo paypercllck markeLlng ln droves
Powever as wlLh Lhe banner and popup ads LhaL preceded Lhem paypercllck ads came wlLh Lhelr
drawbacks When companles began pourlng bllllons of dollars lnLo Lhls emerglng medlum onllne
adverLlslng speclallsLs sLarLed Lo noLlce Lhe presence of whaL would laLer be called cllck fraud
represenLaLlves of a company wlLh no lnLeresL ln Lhe producL adverLlsed by a compeLlLor cllck on Lhe
compeLlLors ads slmply Lo lncrease Lhe markeLlng cosL of Lhe compeLlLor Cllck fraud grew so rapldly
LhaL markeLers soughL Lo dlverslfy Lhelr onllne poslLlons away from paypercllck markeLlng Lhrough new
medlums

AlLhough paypercllck adverLlslng remalns a common and effecLlve adverLlslng Lool markeLers adapLed
yeL agaln Lo Lhe changlng dynamlcs of Lhe lnLerneL by adopLlng new Lechnlques such as payper
performance adverLlslng search englne opLlmlzaLlon and afflllaLe markeLlng As Lhe pace of Lhe
lnLerneLs evoluLlon lncreases lL seems all Lhe more llkely LhaL adverLlslng successfully on Lhe lnLerneL
wlll requlre a sLraLegy LhaL shuns consLancy and embraces change
1he auLhor lmplles whaL abouL Lhe fuLure of payperperformance adverLlslng?
A) AlLhough lL lmproves on paypercllck adverLlslng lL ls sLlll vulnerable Lo cllck fraud
8) lL wlll one day become exLlncL as lnLerneL users dlscover drawbacks wlLh lL
C) lnLerneL users wlll develop free sofLware Lo block lLs effecLlveness
u) lL wlll evenLually become less popular wlLh adverLlsers as Lhe lnLerneL evolves and drawbacks
emerge
L) lL wlll noL face drawbacks due Lo lLs dlfferlng approach Lo onllne markeLlng
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer u

2 MarkeLlng execuLlves ln Lelevlslon work wlLh a relaLlvely sLable adverLlslng medlum ln many ways
Lhe Lelevlslon ads alred Loday are slmllar Lo Lhose alred Lwo decades ago MosL Lelevlslon ads sLlll
feaLure acLors sLlll run 30 or 60 seconds and sLlll show a producL Powever Lhe dlfferlng dynamlcs of
Lhe lnLerneL pose unlque challenges Lo adverLlsers forclng Lhem Lo adapL Lhelr pracLlces and Lechnlques
on a regular basls

ln Lhe early days of lnLerneL markeLlng onllne adverLlsers employed banner and popup ads Lo aLLracL
cusLomers 1hese Lechnlques reached large audlences generaLed many sales leads and came aL a low
cosL Powever a small number of lnLerneL users began Lo conslder Lhese adverLlslng Lechnlques
lnLruslve and annoylng ?eL because markeLlng sLraLegles relylng heavlly on banners and popups
produced resulLs companles lnvesLed growlng amounLs of money lnLo purchaslng Lhese ad Lypes ln
hopes of capLurlng markeL share ln Lhe burgeonlng onllne economy As consumers became more
sophlsLlcaLed frusLraLlon wlLh Lhese onllne adverLlslng Lechnlques grew lndependenL programmers
began Lo develop Lools LhaL blocked banner and popup ads 1he popularlLy of Lhese Lools exploded
when Lhe search englne Coogle aL Lhe Llme an lncreaslngly popular webslLe flghLlng Lo solldlfy lLs place
on Lhe lnLerneL wlLh glanLs MlcrosofL and ?ahoo offered free sofLware enabllng users Lo block popup
ads 1he backlash agalnsL banner ads grew as new web browsers provlded users Lhe ablllLy Lo block
lmagebased ads such as banner ads AlLhough banner and popup ads sLlll exlsL Lhey are far less
promlnenL Lhan durlng Lhe early days of Lhe lnLerneL

A ma[or developmenL ln onllne markeLlng came wlLh Lhe lnLroducLlon of paypercllck ads unllke
banner or popup ads whlch orlglnally requlred companles Lo pay every Llme a webslLe vlslLor saw an
ad paypercllck ads allowed companles Lo pay only when an lnLeresLed poLenLlal cusLomer cllcked on
an ad More lmporLanLly however Lhese ads clrcumvenLed Lhe popup and banner blockers As a resulL
of Lhese advanLages and Lhe lncredlble growLh ln Lhe use of search englnes whlch provlde excellenL
venues for paypercllck adverLlslng companles began Lurnlng Lo paypercllck markeLlng ln droves
Powever as wlLh Lhe banner and popup ads LhaL preceded Lhem paypercllck ads came wlLh Lhelr
drawbacks When companles began pourlng bllllons of dollars lnLo Lhls emerglng medlum onllne
adverLlslng speclallsLs sLarLed Lo noLlce Lhe presence of whaL would laLer be called cllck fraud
represenLaLlves of a company wlLh no lnLeresL ln Lhe producL adverLlsed by a compeLlLor cllck on Lhe
compeLlLors ads slmply Lo lncrease Lhe markeLlng cosL of Lhe compeLlLor Cllck fraud grew so rapldly
LhaL markeLers soughL Lo dlverslfy Lhelr onllne poslLlons away from paypercllck markeLlng Lhrough new
medlums

AlLhough paypercllck adverLlslng remalns a common and effecLlve adverLlslng Lool markeLers adapLed
yeL agaln Lo Lhe changlng dynamlcs of Lhe lnLerneL by adopLlng new Lechnlques such as payper
performance adverLlslng search englne opLlmlzaLlon and afflllaLe markeLlng As Lhe pace of Lhe
lnLerneLs evoluLlon lncreases lL seems all Lhe more llkely LhaL adverLlslng successfully on Lhe lnLerneL
wlll requlre a sLraLegy LhaL shuns consLancy and embraces change

Whlch of Lhe followlng mosL accuraLely sLaLes Lhe maln ldea of Lhe passage?
A) AlLhough paypercllck adverLlslng remalns a wldespread and effecLlve onllne adverLlslng
medlum lLs popularlLy ls llkely Lo dlmlnlsh as Lhe lnLerneL evolves
8) lnLerneL adverLlslng ls noL well recelved by lnLerneL users causlng lndependenL programmers Lo
subverL adverLlsers
C) unllke Lhe Lelevlslon Lhe lnLerneL has experlenced dramaLlc changes ln shorL perlods of Llme
u) unllke Lhe Lelevlslon Lhe lnLerneL has evolved rapldly forclng onllne markeLers Lo develop new
adverLlslng sLraLegles and medlums
L) 1he pace of Lhe lnLerneL's evoluLlon ls lncreaslng and wlll only lncrease ln Lhe fuLure
Show Answer
onllne adverLlslng Lechnlques grew lndependenL programmers began Lo develop Lools LhaL blocked
banner and popup ads 1he popularlLy of Lhese Lools exploded when Lhe search englne Coogle aL Lhe
Llme an lncreaslngly popular webslLe flghLlng Lo solldlfy lLs place on Lhe lnLerneL wlLh glanLs MlcrosofL
and ?ahoo offered free sofLware enabllng users Lo block popup ads 1he backlash agalnsL banner ads
grew as new web browsers provlded users Lhe ablllLy Lo block lmagebased ads such as banner ads
AlLhough banner and popup ads sLlll exlsL Lhey are far less promlnenL Lhan durlng Lhe early days of Lhe
lnLerneL

A ma[or developmenL ln onllne markeLlng came wlLh Lhe lnLroducLlon of paypercllck ads unllke
banner or popup ads whlch orlglnally requlred companles Lo pay every Llme a webslLe vlslLor saw an
ad paypercllck ads allowed companles Lo pay only when an lnLeresLed poLenLlal cusLomer cllcked on
an ad More lmporLanLly however Lhese ads clrcumvenLed Lhe popup and banner blockers As a resulL
of Lhese advanLages and Lhe lncredlble growLh ln Lhe use of search englnes whlch provlde excellenL
venues for paypercllck adverLlslng companles began Lurnlng Lo paypercllck markeLlng ln droves
Powever as wlLh Lhe banner and popup ads LhaL preceded Lhem paypercllck ads came wlLh Lhelr
drawbacks When companles began pourlng bllllons of dollars lnLo Lhls emerglng medlum onllne
adverLlslng speclallsLs sLarLed Lo noLlce Lhe presence of whaL would laLer be called cllck fraud
represenLaLlves of a company wlLh no lnLeresL ln Lhe producL adverLlsed by a compeLlLor cllck on Lhe
compeLlLors ads slmply Lo lncrease Lhe markeLlng cosL of Lhe compeLlLor Cllck fraud grew so rapldly
LhaL markeLers soughL Lo dlverslfy Lhelr onllne poslLlons away from paypercllck markeLlng Lhrough new
medlums

AlLhough paypercllck adverLlslng remalns a common and effecLlve adverLlslng Lool markeLers adapLed
yeL agaln Lo Lhe changlng dynamlcs of Lhe lnLerneL by adopLlng new Lechnlques such as payper
performance adverLlslng search englne opLlmlzaLlon and afflllaLe markeLlng As Lhe pace of Lhe
lnLerneLs evoluLlon lncreases lL seems all Lhe more llkely LhaL adverLlslng successfully on Lhe lnLerneL
wlll requlre a sLraLegy LhaL shuns consLancy and embraces change

Whlch of Lhe followlng mosL accuraLely sLaLes Lhe maln ldea of Lhe passage?
A) AlLhough paypercllck adverLlslng remalns a wldespread and effecLlve onllne adverLlslng
medlum lLs popularlLy ls llkely Lo dlmlnlsh as Lhe lnLerneL evolves
8) lnLerneL adverLlslng ls noL well recelved by lnLerneL users causlng lndependenL programmers Lo
subverL adverLlsers
C) unllke Lhe Lelevlslon Lhe lnLerneL has experlenced dramaLlc changes ln shorL perlods of Llme
u) unllke Lhe Lelevlslon Lhe lnLerneL has evolved rapldly forclng onllne markeLers Lo develop new
adverLlslng sLraLegles and medlums
L) 1he pace of Lhe lnLerneL's evoluLlon ls lncreaslng and wlll only lncrease ln Lhe fuLure
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer u

MarkeLlng execuLlves ln Lelevlslon work wlLh a relaLlvely sLable adverLlslng medlum ln many ways Lhe
Lelevlslon ads alred Loday are slmllar Lo Lhose alred Lwo decades ago MosL Lelevlslon ads sLlll feaLure
acLors sLlll run 30 or 60 seconds and sLlll show a producL Powever Lhe dlfferlng dynamlcs of Lhe
lnLerneL pose unlque challenges Lo adverLlsers forclng Lhem Lo adapL Lhelr pracLlces and Lechnlques on
a regular basls

ln Lhe early days of lnLerneL markeLlng onllne adverLlsers employed banner and popup ads Lo aLLracL
cusLomers 1hese Lechnlques reached large audlences generaLed many sales leads and came aL a low
cosL Powever a small number of lnLerneL users began Lo conslder Lhese adverLlslng Lechnlques
lnLruslve and annoylng ?eL because markeLlng sLraLegles relylng heavlly on banners and popups
produced resulLs companles lnvesLed growlng amounLs of money lnLo purchaslng Lhese ad Lypes ln
hopes of capLurlng markeL share ln Lhe burgeonlng onllne economy As consumers became more
sophlsLlcaLed frusLraLlon wlLh Lhese onllne adverLlslng Lechnlques grew lndependenL programmers
began Lo develop Lools LhaL blocked banner and popup ads 1he popularlLy of Lhese Lools exploded
when Lhe search englne Coogle aL Lhe Llme an lncreaslngly popular webslLe flghLlng Lo solldlfy lLs place
on Lhe lnLerneL wlLh glanLs MlcrosofL and ?ahoo offered free sofLware enabllng users Lo block popup
ads 1he backlash agalnsL banner ads grew as new web browsers provlded users Lhe ablllLy Lo block
lmagebased ads such as banner ads AlLhough banner and popup ads sLlll exlsL Lhey are far less
promlnenL Lhan durlng Lhe early days of Lhe lnLerneL

A ma[or developmenL ln onllne markeLlng came wlLh Lhe lnLroducLlon of paypercllck ads unllke
banner or popup ads whlch orlglnally requlred companles Lo pay every Llme a webslLe vlslLor saw an
ad paypercllck ads allowed companles Lo pay only when an lnLeresLed poLenLlal cusLomer cllcked on
an ad More lmporLanLly however Lhese ads clrcumvenLed Lhe popup and banner blockers As a resulL
of Lhese advanLages and Lhe lncredlble growLh ln Lhe use of search englnes whlch provlde excellenL
venues for paypercllck adverLlslng companles began Lurnlng Lo paypercllck markeLlng ln droves
Powever as wlLh Lhe banner and popup ads LhaL preceded Lhem paypercllck ads came wlLh Lhelr
drawbacks When companles began pourlng bllllons of dollars lnLo Lhls emerglng medlum onllne
adverLlslng speclallsLs sLarLed Lo noLlce Lhe presence of whaL would laLer be called cllck fraud
represenLaLlves of a company wlLh no lnLeresL ln Lhe producL adverLlsed by a compeLlLor cllck on Lhe
compeLlLors ads slmply Lo lncrease Lhe markeLlng cosL of Lhe compeLlLor Cllck fraud grew so rapldly
LhaL markeLers soughL Lo dlverslfy Lhelr onllne poslLlons away from paypercllck markeLlng Lhrough new
medlums

AlLhough paypercllck adverLlslng remalns a common and effecLlve adverLlslng Lool markeLers adapLed
yeL agaln Lo Lhe changlng dynamlcs of Lhe lnLerneL by adopLlng new Lechnlques such as payper
performance adverLlslng search englne opLlmlzaLlon and afflllaLe markeLlng As Lhe pace of Lhe
lnLerneLs evoluLlon lncreases lL seems all Lhe more llkely LhaL adverLlslng successfully on Lhe lnLerneL
wlll requlre a sLraLegy LhaL shuns consLancy and embraces change

Accordlng Lo Lhe passage whlch of Lhe followlng besL descrlbes Lhe currenL sLaLus of popup ads?
A) Wldely used
8) Less popular now Lhan aL earller Llmes
C) A frequenL LargeL of cllck fraud
u) nonexlsLenL due Lo popup blockers
L) lncreaslngly popular due Lo search englnes
Show Answer
CorrecL Answer 8

MarkeLlng execuLlves ln Lelevlslon work wlLh a relaLlvely sLable adverLlslng medlum ln many ways Lhe
Lelevlslon ads alred Loday are slmllar Lo Lhose alred Lwo decades ago MosL Lelevlslon ads sLlll feaLure
acLors sLlll run 30 or 60 seconds and sLlll show a producL Powever Lhe dlfferlng dynamlcs of Lhe
lnLerneL pose unlque challenges Lo adverLlsers forclng Lhem Lo adapL Lhelr pracLlces and Lechnlques on
a regular basls

ln Lhe early days of lnLerneL markeLlng onllne adverLlsers employed banner and popup ads Lo aLLracL
cusLomers 1hese Lechnlques reached large audlences generaLed many sales leads and came aL a low
cosL Powever a small number of lnLerneL users began Lo conslder Lhese adverLlslng Lechnlques
lnLruslve and annoylng ?eL because markeLlng sLraLegles relylng heavlly on banners and popups
produced resulLs companles lnvesLed growlng amounLs of money lnLo purchaslng Lhese ad Lypes ln
hopes of capLurlng markeL share ln Lhe burgeonlng onllne economy As consumers became more
sophlsLlcaLed frusLraLlon wlLh Lhese onllne adverLlslng Lechnlques grew lndependenL programmers
began Lo develop Lools LhaL blocked banner and popup ads 1he popularlLy of Lhese Lools exploded
when Lhe search englne Coogle aL Lhe Llme an lncreaslngly popular webslLe flghLlng Lo solldlfy lLs place
on Lhe lnLerneL wlLh glanLs MlcrosofL and ?ahoo offered free sofLware enabllng users Lo block popup
ads 1he backlash agalnsL banner ads grew as new web browsers provlded users Lhe ablllLy Lo block
lmagebased ads such as banner ads AlLhough banner and popup ads sLlll exlsL Lhey are far less
promlnenL Lhan durlng Lhe early days of Lhe lnLerneL

A ma[or developmenL ln onllne markeLlng came wlLh Lhe lnLroducLlon of paypercllck ads unllke
banner or popup ads whlch orlglnally requlred companles Lo pay every Llme a webslLe vlslLor saw an
ad paypercllck ads allowed companles Lo pay only when an lnLeresLed poLenLlal cusLomer cllcked on
an ad More lmporLanLly however Lhese ads clrcumvenLed Lhe popup and banner blockers As a resulL
of Lhese advanLages and Lhe lncredlble growLh ln Lhe use of search englnes whlch provlde excellenL
venues for paypercllck adverLlslng companles began Lurnlng Lo paypercllck markeLlng ln droves
Powever as wlLh Lhe banner and popup ads LhaL preceded Lhem paypercllck ads came wlLh Lhelr
drawbacks When companles began pourlng bllllons of dollars lnLo Lhls emerglng medlum onllne
adverLlslng speclallsLs sLarLed Lo noLlce Lhe presence of whaL would laLer be called cllck fraud
represenLaLlves of a company wlLh no lnLeresL ln Lhe producL adverLlsed by a compeLlLor cllck on Lhe
compeLlLors ads slmply Lo lncrease Lhe markeLlng cosL of Lhe compeLlLor Cllck fraud grew so rapldly
LhaL markeLers soughL Lo dlverslfy Lhelr onllne poslLlons away from paypercllck markeLlng Lhrough new
medlums

AlLhough paypercllck adverLlslng remalns a common and effecLlve adverLlslng Lool markeLers adapLed
yeL agaln Lo Lhe changlng dynamlcs of Lhe lnLerneL by adopLlng new Lechnlques such as payper
performance adverLlslng search englne opLlmlzaLlon and afflllaLe markeLlng As Lhe pace of Lhe
lnLerneLs evoluLlon lncreases lL seems all Lhe more llkely LhaL adverLlslng successfully on Lhe lnLerneL
wlll requlre a sLraLegy LhaL shuns consLancy and embraces change

Accordlng Lo Lhe passage whlch of Lhe followlng besL descrlbes Lhe pracLlce of cllck fraud?
A) Cllcklng on Lhe banner adverLlsemenLs of rlval companles
8) uslng sofLware Lo block adverLlsemenLs
C) uLlllzlng search englne opLlmlzaLlon Lo vlslL Lhe pages of compeLlLors
u) lraudulenLly purchaslng producLs onllne
L) Cllcklng on Lhe paypercllck ads of compeLlLors
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer L
MarkeLlng execuLlves ln Lelevlslon work wlLh a relaLlvely sLable adverLlslng medlum ln many ways Lhe
Lelevlslon ads alred Loday are slmllar Lo Lhose alred Lwo decades ago MosL Lelevlslon ads sLlll feaLure
acLors sLlll run 30 or 60 seconds and sLlll show a producL Powever Lhe dlfferlng dynamlcs of Lhe
lnLerneL pose unlque challenges Lo adverLlsers forclng Lhem Lo adapL Lhelr pracLlces and Lechnlques on
a regular basls

ln Lhe early days of lnLerneL markeLlng onllne adverLlsers employed banner and popup ads Lo aLLracL
cusLomers 1hese Lechnlques reached large audlences generaLed many sales leads and came aL a low
cosL Powever a small number of lnLerneL users began Lo conslder Lhese adverLlslng Lechnlques
lnLruslve and annoylng ?eL because markeLlng sLraLegles relylng heavlly on banners and popups
produced resulLs companles lnvesLed growlng amounLs of money lnLo purchaslng Lhese ad Lypes ln
hopes of capLurlng markeL share ln Lhe burgeonlng onllne economy As consumers became more
sophlsLlcaLed frusLraLlon wlLh Lhese onllne adverLlslng Lechnlques grew lndependenL programmers
began Lo develop Lools LhaL blocked banner and popup ads 1he popularlLy of Lhese Lools exploded
when Lhe search englne Coogle aL Lhe Llme an lncreaslngly popular webslLe flghLlng Lo solldlfy lLs place
on Lhe lnLerneL wlLh glanLs MlcrosofL and ?ahoo offered free sofLware enabllng users Lo block popup
ads 1he backlash agalnsL banner ads grew as new web browsers provlded users Lhe ablllLy Lo block
lmagebased ads such as banner ads AlLhough banner and popup ads sLlll exlsL Lhey are far less
promlnenL Lhan durlng Lhe early days of Lhe lnLerneL

A ma[or developmenL ln onllne markeLlng came wlLh Lhe lnLroducLlon of paypercllck ads unllke
banner or popup ads whlch orlglnally requlred companles Lo pay every Llme a webslLe vlslLor saw an
ad paypercllck ads allowed companles Lo pay only when an lnLeresLed poLenLlal cusLomer cllcked on
an ad More lmporLanLly however Lhese ads clrcumvenLed Lhe popup and banner blockers As a resulL
of Lhese advanLages and Lhe lncredlble growLh ln Lhe use of search englnes whlch provlde excellenL
venues for paypercllck adverLlslng companles began Lurnlng Lo paypercllck markeLlng ln droves
Powever as wlLh Lhe banner and popup ads LhaL preceded Lhem paypercllck ads came wlLh Lhelr
drawbacks When companles began pourlng bllllons of dollars lnLo Lhls emerglng medlum onllne
adverLlslng speclallsLs sLarLed Lo noLlce Lhe presence of whaL would laLer be called cllck fraud
represenLaLlves of a company wlLh no lnLeresL ln Lhe producL adverLlsed by a compeLlLor cllck on Lhe
compeLlLors ads slmply Lo lncrease Lhe markeLlng cosL of Lhe compeLlLor Cllck fraud grew so rapldly
LhaL markeLers soughL Lo dlverslfy Lhelr onllne poslLlons away from paypercllck markeLlng Lhrough new
medlums

AlLhough paypercllck adverLlslng remalns a common and effecLlve adverLlslng Lool markeLers adapLed
yeL agaln Lo Lhe changlng dynamlcs of Lhe lnLerneL by adopLlng new Lechnlques such as payper
performance adverLlslng search englne opLlmlzaLlon and afflllaLe markeLlng As Lhe pace of Lhe
lnLerneLs evoluLlon lncreases lL seems all Lhe more llkely LhaL adverLlslng successfully on Lhe lnLerneL
wlll requlre a sLraLegy LhaL shuns consLancy and embraces change

Accordlng Lo Lhe passage Lhe largesL polnL aL whlch Lhe Lelevlslon and lnLerneL dlffer as an adverLlslng
medlum ls
A) 1he Lype of lndlvldual each medlum reaches
8) WheLher Lhe medlum ls lnLeracLlve
C) 1he pace aL whlch Lhe medlum evolves
u) 1he cosL of adverLlslng wlLh each medlum
L) WheLher each medlum conLalns drawbacks
MarkeLlng execuLlves ln Lelevlslon work wlLh a relaLlvely sLable adverLlslng medlum ln many ways Lhe
Lelevlslon ads alred Loday are slmllar Lo Lhose alred Lwo decades ago MosL Lelevlslon ads sLlll feaLure
acLors sLlll run 30 or 60 seconds and sLlll show a producL Powever Lhe dlfferlng dynamlcs of Lhe
lnLerneL pose unlque challenges Lo adverLlsers forclng Lhem Lo adapL Lhelr pracLlces and Lechnlques on
a regular basls

ln Lhe early days of lnLerneL markeLlng onllne adverLlsers employed banner and popup ads Lo aLLracL
cusLomers 1hese Lechnlques reached large audlences generaLed many sales leads and came aL a low
cosL Powever a small number of lnLerneL users began Lo conslder Lhese adverLlslng Lechnlques
lnLruslve and annoylng ?eL because markeLlng sLraLegles relylng heavlly on banners and popups
produced resulLs companles lnvesLed growlng amounLs of money lnLo purchaslng Lhese ad Lypes ln
hopes of capLurlng markeL share ln Lhe burgeonlng onllne economy As consumers became more
sophlsLlcaLed frusLraLlon wlLh Lhese onllne adverLlslng Lechnlques grew lndependenL programmers
began Lo develop Lools LhaL blocked banner and popup ads 1he popularlLy of Lhese Lools exploded
when Lhe search englne Coogle aL Lhe Llme an lncreaslngly popular webslLe flghLlng Lo solldlfy lLs place
on Lhe lnLerneL wlLh glanLs MlcrosofL and ?ahoo offered free sofLware enabllng users Lo block popup
ads 1he backlash agalnsL banner ads grew as new web browsers provlded users Lhe ablllLy Lo block
lmagebased ads such as banner ads AlLhough banner and popup ads sLlll exlsL Lhey are far less
promlnenL Lhan durlng Lhe early days of Lhe lnLerneL

A ma[or developmenL ln onllne markeLlng came wlLh Lhe lnLroducLlon of paypercllck ads unllke
banner or popup ads whlch orlglnally requlred companles Lo pay every Llme a webslLe vlslLor saw an
ad paypercllck ads allowed companles Lo pay only when an lnLeresLed poLenLlal cusLomer cllcked on
an ad More lmporLanLly however Lhese ads clrcumvenLed Lhe popup and banner blockers As a resulL
of Lhese advanLages and Lhe lncredlble growLh ln Lhe use of search englnes whlch provlde excellenL
venues for paypercllck adverLlslng companles began Lurnlng Lo paypercllck markeLlng ln droves
Powever as wlLh Lhe banner and popup ads LhaL preceded Lhem paypercllck ads came wlLh Lhelr
drawbacks When companles began pourlng bllllons of dollars lnLo Lhls emerglng medlum onllne
adverLlslng speclallsLs sLarLed Lo noLlce Lhe presence of whaL would laLer be called cllck fraud
represenLaLlves of a company wlLh no lnLeresL ln Lhe producL adverLlsed by a compeLlLor cllck on Lhe
compeLlLors ads slmply Lo lncrease Lhe markeLlng cosL of Lhe compeLlLor Cllck fraud grew so rapldly
LhaL markeLers soughL Lo dlverslfy Lhelr onllne poslLlons away from paypercllck markeLlng Lhrough new
medlums

AlLhough paypercllck adverLlslng remalns a common and effecLlve adverLlslng Lool markeLers adapLed
yeL agaln Lo Lhe changlng dynamlcs of Lhe lnLerneL by adopLlng new Lechnlques such as payper
performance adverLlslng search englne opLlmlzaLlon and afflllaLe markeLlng As Lhe pace of Lhe
lnLerneLs evoluLlon lncreases lL seems all Lhe more llkely LhaL adverLlslng successfully on Lhe lnLerneL
wlll requlre a sLraLegy LhaL shuns consLancy and embraces change

Accordlng Lo Lhe passage Lhe largesL polnL aL whlch Lhe Lelevlslon and lnLerneL dlffer as an adverLlslng
medlum ls
A) 1he Lype of lndlvldual each medlum reaches
8) WheLher Lhe medlum ls lnLeracLlve
C) 1he pace aL whlch Lhe medlum evolves
u) 1he cosL of adverLlslng wlLh each medlum
L) WheLher each medlum conLalns drawbacks
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer C

MarkeLlng execuLlves ln Lelevlslon work wlLh a relaLlvely sLable adverLlslng medlum ln many ways Lhe
Lelevlslon ads alred Loday are slmllar Lo Lhose alred Lwo decades ago MosL Lelevlslon ads sLlll feaLure
acLors sLlll run 30 or 60 seconds and sLlll show a producL Powever Lhe dlfferlng dynamlcs of Lhe
lnLerneL pose unlque challenges Lo adverLlsers forclng Lhem Lo adapL Lhelr pracLlces and Lechnlques on
a regular basls

ln Lhe early days of lnLerneL markeLlng onllne adverLlsers employed banner and popup ads Lo aLLracL
cusLomers 1hese Lechnlques reached large audlences generaLed many sales leads and came aL a low
cosL Powever a small number of lnLerneL users began Lo conslder Lhese adverLlslng Lechnlques
lnLruslve and annoylng ?eL because markeLlng sLraLegles relylng heavlly on banners and popups
produced resulLs companles lnvesLed growlng amounLs of money lnLo purchaslng Lhese ad Lypes ln
hopes of capLurlng markeL share ln Lhe burgeonlng onllne economy As consumers became more
sophlsLlcaLed frusLraLlon wlLh Lhese onllne adverLlslng Lechnlques grew lndependenL programmers
began Lo develop Lools LhaL blocked banner and popup ads 1he popularlLy of Lhese Lools exploded
when Lhe search englne Coogle aL Lhe Llme an lncreaslngly popular webslLe flghLlng Lo solldlfy lLs place
on Lhe lnLerneL wlLh glanLs MlcrosofL and ?ahoo offered free sofLware enabllng users Lo block popup
ads 1he backlash agalnsL banner ads grew as new web browsers provlded users Lhe ablllLy Lo block
lmagebased ads such as banner ads AlLhough banner and popup ads sLlll exlsL Lhey are far less
promlnenL Lhan durlng Lhe early days of Lhe lnLerneL

A ma[or developmenL ln onllne markeLlng came wlLh Lhe lnLroducLlon of paypercllck ads unllke
banner or popup ads whlch orlglnally requlred companles Lo pay every Llme a webslLe vlslLor saw an
ad paypercllck ads allowed companles Lo pay only when an lnLeresLed poLenLlal cusLomer cllcked on
an ad More lmporLanLly however Lhese ads clrcumvenLed Lhe popup and banner blockers As a resulL
of Lhese advanLages and Lhe lncredlble growLh ln Lhe use of search englnes whlch provlde excellenL
venues for paypercllck adverLlslng companles began Lurnlng Lo paypercllck markeLlng ln droves
Powever as wlLh Lhe banner and popup ads LhaL preceded Lhem paypercllck ads came wlLh Lhelr
drawbacks When companles began pourlng bllllons of dollars lnLo Lhls emerglng medlum onllne
adverLlslng speclallsLs sLarLed Lo noLlce Lhe presence of whaL would laLer be called cllck fraud
represenLaLlves of a company wlLh no lnLeresL ln Lhe producL adverLlsed by a compeLlLor cllck on Lhe
compeLlLors ads slmply Lo lncrease Lhe markeLlng cosL of Lhe compeLlLor Cllck fraud grew so rapldly
LhaL markeLers soughL Lo dlverslfy Lhelr onllne poslLlons away from paypercllck markeLlng Lhrough new
medlums

AlLhough paypercllck adverLlslng remalns a common and effecLlve adverLlslng Lool markeLers adapLed
yeL agaln Lo Lhe changlng dynamlcs of Lhe lnLerneL by adopLlng new Lechnlques such as payper
performance adverLlslng search englne opLlmlzaLlon and afflllaLe markeLlng As Lhe pace of Lhe
lnLerneLs evoluLlon lncreases lL seems all Lhe more llkely LhaL adverLlslng successfully on Lhe lnLerneL
wlll requlre a sLraLegy LhaL shuns consLancy and embraces change

Accordlng Lo Lhe passage Lhe largesL polnL aL whlch Lhe Lelevlslon and lnLerneL dlffer as an adverLlslng
medlum ls
A) 1he Lype of lndlvldual each medlum reaches
8) WheLher Lhe medlum ls lnLeracLlve
C) 1he pace aL whlch Lhe medlum evolves
u) 1he cosL of adverLlslng wlLh each medlum
L) WheLher each medlum conLalns drawbacks
CorrecL Answer C
MarkeLlng execuLlves ln Lelevlslon work wlLh a relaLlvely sLable adverLlslng medlum ln many ways Lhe
Lelevlslon ads alred Loday are slmllar Lo Lhose alred Lwo decades ago MosL Lelevlslon ads sLlll feaLure
acLors sLlll run 30 or 60 seconds and sLlll show a producL Powever Lhe dlfferlng dynamlcs of Lhe
lnLerneL pose unlque challenges Lo adverLlsers forclng Lhem Lo adapL Lhelr pracLlces and Lechnlques on
a regular basls

ln Lhe early days of lnLerneL markeLlng onllne adverLlsers employed banner and popup ads Lo aLLracL
cusLomers 1hese Lechnlques reached large audlences generaLed many sales leads and came aL a low
cosL Powever a small number of lnLerneL users began Lo conslder Lhese adverLlslng Lechnlques
lnLruslve and annoylng ?eL because markeLlng sLraLegles relylng heavlly on banners and popups
produced resulLs companles lnvesLed growlng amounLs of money lnLo purchaslng Lhese ad Lypes ln
hopes of capLurlng markeL share ln Lhe burgeonlng onllne economy As consumers became more
sophlsLlcaLed frusLraLlon wlLh Lhese onllne adverLlslng Lechnlques grew lndependenL programmers
began Lo develop Lools LhaL blocked banner and popup ads 1he popularlLy of Lhese Lools exploded
when Lhe search englne Coogle aL Lhe Llme an lncreaslngly popular webslLe flghLlng Lo solldlfy lLs place
on Lhe lnLerneL wlLh glanLs MlcrosofL and ?ahoo offered free sofLware enabllng users Lo block popup
ads 1he backlash agalnsL banner ads grew as new web browsers provlded users Lhe ablllLy Lo block
lmagebased ads such as banner ads AlLhough banner and popup ads sLlll exlsL Lhey are far less
promlnenL Lhan durlng Lhe early days of Lhe lnLerneL

A ma[or developmenL ln onllne markeLlng came wlLh Lhe lnLroducLlon of paypercllck ads unllke
banner or popup ads whlch orlglnally requlred companles Lo pay every Llme a webslLe vlslLor saw an
ad paypercllck ads allowed companles Lo pay only when an lnLeresLed poLenLlal cusLomer cllcked on
an ad More lmporLanLly however Lhese ads clrcumvenLed Lhe popup and banner blockers As a resulL
of Lhese advanLages and Lhe lncredlble growLh ln Lhe use of search englnes whlch provlde excellenL
venues for paypercllck adverLlslng companles began Lurnlng Lo paypercllck markeLlng ln droves
Powever as wlLh Lhe banner and popup ads LhaL preceded Lhem paypercllck ads came wlLh Lhelr
drawbacks When companles began pourlng bllllons of dollars lnLo Lhls emerglng medlum onllne
adverLlslng speclallsLs sLarLed Lo noLlce Lhe presence of whaL would laLer be called cllck fraud
represenLaLlves of a company wlLh no lnLeresL ln Lhe producL adverLlsed by a compeLlLor cllck on Lhe
compeLlLors ads slmply Lo lncrease Lhe markeLlng cosL of Lhe compeLlLor Cllck fraud grew so rapldly
LhaL markeLers soughL Lo dlverslfy Lhelr onllne poslLlons away from paypercllck markeLlng Lhrough new
medlums

AlLhough paypercllck adverLlslng remalns a common and effecLlve adverLlslng Lool markeLers adapLed
yeL agaln Lo Lhe changlng dynamlcs of Lhe lnLerneL by adopLlng new Lechnlques such as payper
performance adverLlslng search englne opLlmlzaLlon and afflllaLe markeLlng As Lhe pace of Lhe
lnLerneLs evoluLlon lncreases lL seems all Lhe more llkely LhaL adverLlslng successfully on Lhe lnLerneL
wlll requlre a sLraLegy LhaL shuns consLancy and embraces change

1he passage lmplles LhaL whlch of Lhe followlng aLLrlbuLes wlll be Lhe mosL lmporLanL for fuLure success
ln onllne adverLlslng
A) llexlble creaLlvlLy
8) ulsclpllned paLlence
C) unlform approach
u) 8uLhless LenaclLy
L) LclecLlc approach
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer A
MarkeLlng execuLlves ln Lelevlslon work wlLh a relaLlvely sLable adverLlslng medlum ln many ways Lhe
Lelevlslon ads alred Loday are slmllar Lo Lhose alred Lwo decades ago MosL Lelevlslon ads sLlll feaLure
acLors sLlll run 30 or 60 seconds and sLlll show a producL Powever Lhe dlfferlng dynamlcs of Lhe
lnLerneL pose unlque challenges Lo adverLlsers forclng Lhem Lo adapL Lhelr pracLlces and Lechnlques on
a regular basls

ln Lhe early days of lnLerneL markeLlng onllne adverLlsers employed banner and popup ads Lo aLLracL
cusLomers 1hese Lechnlques reached large audlences generaLed many sales leads and came aL a low
cosL Powever a small number of lnLerneL users began Lo conslder Lhese adverLlslng Lechnlques
lnLruslve and annoylng ?eL because markeLlng sLraLegles relylng heavlly on banners and popups
produced resulLs companles lnvesLed growlng amounLs of money lnLo purchaslng Lhese ad Lypes ln
hopes of capLurlng markeL share ln Lhe burgeonlng onllne economy As consumers became more
sophlsLlcaLed frusLraLlon wlLh Lhese onllne adverLlslng Lechnlques grew lndependenL programmers
began Lo develop Lools LhaL blocked banner and popup ads 1he popularlLy of Lhese Lools exploded
when Lhe search englne Coogle aL Lhe Llme an lncreaslngly popular webslLe flghLlng Lo solldlfy lLs place
on Lhe lnLerneL wlLh glanLs MlcrosofL and ?ahoo offered free sofLware enabllng users Lo block popup
ads 1he backlash agalnsL banner ads grew as new web browsers provlded users Lhe ablllLy Lo block
lmagebased ads such as banner ads AlLhough banner and popup ads sLlll exlsL Lhey are far less
promlnenL Lhan durlng Lhe early days of Lhe lnLerneL

A ma[or developmenL ln onllne markeLlng came wlLh Lhe lnLroducLlon of paypercllck ads unllke
banner or popup ads whlch orlglnally requlred companles Lo pay every Llme a webslLe vlslLor saw an
ad paypercllck ads allowed companles Lo pay only when an lnLeresLed poLenLlal cusLomer cllcked on
an ad More lmporLanLly however Lhese ads clrcumvenLed Lhe popup and banner blockers As a resulL
of Lhese advanLages and Lhe lncredlble growLh ln Lhe use of search englnes whlch provlde excellenL
venues for paypercllck adverLlslng companles began Lurnlng Lo paypercllck markeLlng ln droves
Powever as wlLh Lhe banner and popup ads LhaL preceded Lhem paypercllck ads came wlLh Lhelr
drawbacks When companles began pourlng bllllons of dollars lnLo Lhls emerglng medlum onllne
adverLlslng speclallsLs sLarLed Lo noLlce Lhe presence of whaL would laLer be called cllck fraud
represenLaLlves of a company wlLh no lnLeresL ln Lhe producL adverLlsed by a compeLlLor cllck on Lhe
compeLlLors ads slmply Lo lncrease Lhe markeLlng cosL of Lhe compeLlLor Cllck fraud grew so rapldly
LhaL markeLers soughL Lo dlverslfy Lhelr onllne poslLlons away from paypercllck markeLlng Lhrough new
medlums

AlLhough paypercllck adverLlslng remalns a common and effecLlve adverLlslng Lool markeLers adapLed
yeL agaln Lo Lhe changlng dynamlcs of Lhe lnLerneL by adopLlng new Lechnlques such as payper
performance adverLlslng search englne opLlmlzaLlon and afflllaLe markeLlng As Lhe pace of Lhe
lnLerneLs evoluLlon lncreases lL seems all Lhe more llkely LhaL adverLlslng successfully on Lhe lnLerneL
wlll requlre a sLraLegy LhaL shuns consLancy and embraces change

Whlch of Lhe followlng words besL descrlbes Lhe auLhor's Lone ln Lhe passage?
A) CrlLlcal
8) AnalyLlcal
C) lrusLraLed
u) 8lased
L) Surprlsed
Show Answer
CorrecL Answer 8
ShorLly afLer SepLember 11 2001 Lhe unlLed SLaLes began requesLlng addlLlonal flnanclal lnformaLlon
abouL persons of lnLeresL by subpoenalng records locaLed aL Lhe SWll1 banklng consorLlum SWll1
whlch rouLes Lrllllons of dollars a day faced an eLhlcal dllemma flghL Lhe subpoenas ln order Lo proLecL
member prlvacy and Lhe groups repuLaLlon for Lhe hlghesL level of confldenLlallLy or comply and
provlde lnformaLlon abouL Lhousands of flnanclal communlcaLlons ln Lhe hope LhaL llves wlll be saved
SWll1 declded Lo comply ln secreL buL ln laLe !une 2006 four ma[or uS newspapers dlsclosed SWll1s
compllance 1hls sparked a heaLed publlc debaLe over Lhe eLhlcs of SWll1s declslon Lo reveal osLenslbly
confldenLlal flnanclal communlcaLlons

Analyzlng Lhe slLuaLlon ln hlndslghL Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons exlsLed for noL complylng wlLh Lhe
1reasury ueparLmenLs requesLs llrsL SWll1 needed Lo uphold lLs longsLandlng values of
confldenLlallLy nondlsclosure and lnsLlLuLlonal LrusL 1he second eLhlcal reason agalnsL SWll1s
lnvolvemenL came wlLh lnadequaLe governmenL overslghL as Lhe 1reasury ueparLmenL falled Lo
consLrucL necessary safeguards Lo ensure Lhe prlvacy of Lhe daLa 1hlrd lnLernaLlonal law musL be
upheld and one could argue qulLe sLrongly LhaL Lhe governmenLs use of daLa breached some parLs of
lnLernaLlonal law

AlLhough SWll1 execuLlves undoubLedly consldered Lhe aforemenLloned reasons for re[ecLlng Lhe
governmenLs subpoena Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons for complylng exlsLed llrsL lL could be argued LhaL
Lhe program was legal because Lhe unlLed SLaLes governmenL possesses Lhe auLhorlLy Lo subpoena
records sLored wlLhln lLs LerrlLory and SWll1 malnLalned many of lLs records ln vlrglnla Second lL ls
enLlrely posslble LhaL complylng wlLh Lhe governmenLs subpoena LhwarLed anoLher caLasLrophlc
LerrorlsL aLLack LhaL would have cosL llves and dollars 1hlrd cooperaLlng wlLh Lhe governmenL dld noL
expllclLly vlolaLe any SWll1 pollcles due Lo Lhe presence of a valld subpoena Powever Lhe exLenL of
cooperaLlon cerLalnly surprlsed many flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons and sparked some ouLrage and debaLe wlLhln
Lhe flnanclal communlLy

Whlle SWll1 had compelllng argumenLs boLh for agreelng and refuslng Lo cooperaLe wlLh Lhe uS
governmenL program even ln hlndslghL lL ls lmposslble Lo [udge wlLh cerLlLude Lhe wlsdom and eLhlcs
of SWll1s declslon Lo cooperaLe as we sLlll lack answers Lo lmporLanL quesLlons such as whaL
lnformaLlon dld Lhe governmenL wanL? WhaL promlses dld Lhe governmenL make abouL daLa
confldenLlally? WhaL lf any poLenLlally lmpendlng LhreaLs dld Lhe governmenL presenL Lo [usLlfy lLs need
for daLa?

Whlch of Lhe followlng can be lnferred from Lhe passage?
A) no clear cuL answer as Lo Lhe legallLy of SWll1s cooperaLlon exlsLed
8) SWll1 falled Lo adequaLely consulL lLs legal sLaff before decldlng Lo cooperaLe
C) 1he volume of money rouLed Lhrough SWll1 decllned afLer lLs cooperaLlon became publlc
u) uS auLhorlLles LhreaLened crlmlnal charges lf SWll1 refused Lhelr subpoenas
L) 1reasury ueparLmenL offlclals ob[ecLed Lo Lhe publlcaLlon of lnformaLlon abouL lLs classlfled
program
Show Answer
CorrecL Answer A

ShorLly afLer SepLember 11 2001 Lhe unlLed SLaLes began requesLlng addlLlonal flnanclal lnformaLlon
abouL persons of lnLeresL by subpoenalng records locaLed aL Lhe SWll1 banklng consorLlum SWll1
whlch rouLes Lrllllons of dollars a day faced an eLhlcal dllemma flghL Lhe subpoenas ln order Lo proLecL
member prlvacy and Lhe groups repuLaLlon for Lhe hlghesL level of confldenLlallLy or comply and
provlde lnformaLlon abouL Lhousands of flnanclal communlcaLlons ln Lhe hope LhaL llves wlll be saved
SWll1 declded Lo comply ln secreL buL ln laLe !une 2006 four ma[or uS newspapers dlsclosed SWll1s
compllance 1hls sparked a heaLed publlc debaLe over Lhe eLhlcs of SWll1s declslon Lo reveal osLenslbly
confldenLlal flnanclal communlcaLlons

Analyzlng Lhe slLuaLlon ln hlndslghL Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons exlsLed for noL complylng wlLh Lhe
1reasury ueparLmenLs requesLs llrsL SWll1 needed Lo uphold lLs longsLandlng values of
confldenLlallLy nondlsclosure and lnsLlLuLlonal LrusL 1he second eLhlcal reason agalnsL SWll1s
lnvolvemenL came wlLh lnadequaLe governmenL overslghL as Lhe 1reasury ueparLmenL falled Lo
consLrucL necessary safeguards Lo ensure Lhe prlvacy of Lhe daLa 1hlrd lnLernaLlonal law musL be
upheld and one could argue qulLe sLrongly LhaL Lhe governmenLs use of daLa breached some parLs of
lnLernaLlonal law

AlLhough SWll1 execuLlves undoubLedly consldered Lhe aforemenLloned reasons for re[ecLlng Lhe
governmenLs subpoena Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons for complylng exlsLed llrsL lL could be argued LhaL
Lhe program was legal because Lhe unlLed SLaLes governmenL possesses Lhe auLhorlLy Lo subpoena
records sLored wlLhln lLs LerrlLory and SWll1 malnLalned many of lLs records ln vlrglnla Second lL ls
enLlrely posslble LhaL complylng wlLh Lhe governmenLs subpoena LhwarLed anoLher caLasLrophlc
LerrorlsL aLLack LhaL would have cosL llves and dollars 1hlrd cooperaLlng wlLh Lhe governmenL dld noL
expllclLly vlolaLe any SWll1 pollcles due Lo Lhe presence of a valld subpoena Powever Lhe exLenL of
cooperaLlon cerLalnly surprlsed many flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons and sparked some ouLrage and debaLe wlLhln
Lhe flnanclal communlLy

Whlle SWll1 had compelllng argumenLs boLh for agreelng and refuslng Lo cooperaLe wlLh Lhe uS
governmenL program even ln hlndslghL lL ls lmposslble Lo [udge wlLh cerLlLude Lhe wlsdom and eLhlcs
of SWll1s declslon Lo cooperaLe as we sLlll lack answers Lo lmporLanL quesLlons such as whaL
lnformaLlon dld Lhe governmenL wanL? WhaL promlses dld Lhe governmenL make abouL daLa
confldenLlally? WhaL lf any poLenLlally lmpendlng LhreaLs dld Lhe governmenL presenL Lo [usLlfy lLs need
for daLa?

lnferrlng from Lhe passage whlch of Lhe followlng consLlLuLed an eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlon for SWll1
complylng wlLh Lhe governmenL?
A) 1he uS governmenL can subpoena lnformaLlon LhaL perLalns Lo lLs clLlzens
8) SWll1 execuLlves belleved anoLher caLasLrophlc aLLack was lmmlnenL
C) rovldlng daLa Lo Lhe governmenL based upon a valld subpoena dld noL expllclLly vlolaLe SWll1
pollcy
u) uesplLe osLenslbly poor overslghL senlor 1reasury ueparLmenL offlclals assured SWll1 LhaL daLa
would be kepL confldenLlal
L) uS offlclals Lold SWll1 offlclals exacLly why 1reasury needed Lhe lnformaLlon
Show Answer
CorrecL Answer C
ShorLly afLer SepLember 11 2001 Lhe unlLed SLaLes began requesLlng addlLlonal flnanclal lnformaLlon
abouL persons of lnLeresL by subpoenalng records locaLed aL Lhe SWll1 banklng consorLlum SWll1
whlch rouLes Lrllllons of dollars a day faced an eLhlcal dllemma flghL Lhe subpoenas ln order Lo proLecL
member prlvacy and Lhe groups repuLaLlon for Lhe hlghesL level of confldenLlallLy or comply and
provlde lnformaLlon abouL Lhousands of flnanclal communlcaLlons ln Lhe hope LhaL llves wlll be saved
SWll1 declded Lo comply ln secreL buL ln laLe !une 2006 four ma[or uS newspapers dlsclosed SWll1s
compllance 1hls sparked a heaLed publlc debaLe over Lhe eLhlcs of SWll1s declslon Lo reveal osLenslbly
confldenLlal flnanclal communlcaLlons

Analyzlng Lhe slLuaLlon ln hlndslghL Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons exlsLed for noL complylng wlLh Lhe
1reasury ueparLmenLs requesLs llrsL SWll1 needed Lo uphold lLs longsLandlng values of
confldenLlallLy nondlsclosure and lnsLlLuLlonal LrusL 1he second eLhlcal reason agalnsL SWll1s
lnvolvemenL came wlLh lnadequaLe governmenL overslghL as Lhe 1reasury ueparLmenL falled Lo
consLrucL necessary safeguards Lo ensure Lhe prlvacy of Lhe daLa 1hlrd lnLernaLlonal law musL be
upheld and one could argue qulLe sLrongly LhaL Lhe governmenLs use of daLa breached some parLs of
lnLernaLlonal law

AlLhough SWll1 execuLlves undoubLedly consldered Lhe aforemenLloned reasons for re[ecLlng Lhe
governmenLs subpoena Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons for complylng exlsLed llrsL lL could be argued LhaL
Lhe program was legal because Lhe unlLed SLaLes governmenL possesses Lhe auLhorlLy Lo subpoena
records sLored wlLhln lLs LerrlLory and SWll1 malnLalned many of lLs records ln vlrglnla Second lL ls
enLlrely posslble LhaL complylng wlLh Lhe governmenLs subpoena LhwarLed anoLher caLasLrophlc
LerrorlsL aLLack LhaL would have cosL llves and dollars 1hlrd cooperaLlng wlLh Lhe governmenL dld noL
expllclLly vlolaLe any SWll1 pollcles due Lo Lhe presence of a valld subpoena Powever Lhe exLenL of
cooperaLlon cerLalnly surprlsed many flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons and sparked some ouLrage and debaLe wlLhln
Lhe flnanclal communlLy

Whlle SWll1 had compelllng argumenLs boLh for agreelng and refuslng Lo cooperaLe wlLh Lhe uS
governmenL program even ln hlndslghL lL ls lmposslble Lo [udge wlLh cerLlLude Lhe wlsdom and eLhlcs
of SWll1s declslon Lo cooperaLe as we sLlll lack answers Lo lmporLanL quesLlons such as whaL
lnformaLlon dld Lhe governmenL wanL? WhaL promlses dld Lhe governmenL make abouL daLa
confldenLlally? WhaL lf any poLenLlally lmpendlng LhreaLs dld Lhe governmenL presenL Lo [usLlfy lLs need
for daLa?

1he auLhor suggesLs whlch of Lhe followlng ls Lhe mosL approprlaLe concluslon of an analysls of Lhe
eLhlcs of SWll1s declslon?
A) SWll1 acLed lnapproprlaLely as lL compromlsed lLs longsLandlng values of lnLegrlLy prlvacy and
confldenLlallLy
8) SWll1s acLlons cannoL be [udged wlLh persplculLy as answers Lo lmporLanL quesLlons are sLlll
unknown
C) SWll1 acLed properly as lL complled wlLh Lhe requesLs of a soverelgn governmenL ln an aLLempL
Lo save llves
u) SWll1s acLlons endangered Lhe flow of commerce by sparklng publlc ouLrage aL an lmporLanL
lnsLlLuLlon
L) SWll1s acLlons were approprlaLe lnlLlally yeL should have been dlsconLlnued prlor Lo !une 2006
Show Answer
CorrecL Answer 8

ShorLly afLer SepLember 11 2001 Lhe unlLed SLaLes began requesLlng addlLlonal flnanclal lnformaLlon
abouL persons of lnLeresL by subpoenalng records locaLed aL Lhe SWll1 banklng consorLlum SWll1
whlch rouLes Lrllllons of dollars a day faced an eLhlcal dllemma flghL Lhe subpoenas ln order Lo proLecL
member prlvacy and Lhe groups repuLaLlon for Lhe hlghesL level of confldenLlallLy or comply and
provlde lnformaLlon abouL Lhousands of flnanclal communlcaLlons ln Lhe hope LhaL llves wlll be saved
SWll1 declded Lo comply ln secreL buL ln laLe !une 2006 four ma[or uS newspapers dlsclosed SWll1s
compllance 1hls sparked a heaLed publlc debaLe over Lhe eLhlcs of SWll1s declslon Lo reveal osLenslbly
confldenLlal flnanclal communlcaLlons

Analyzlng Lhe slLuaLlon ln hlndslghL Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons exlsLed for noL complylng wlLh Lhe
1reasury ueparLmenLs requesLs llrsL SWll1 needed Lo uphold lLs longsLandlng values of
confldenLlallLy nondlsclosure and lnsLlLuLlonal LrusL 1he second eLhlcal reason agalnsL SWll1s
lnvolvemenL came wlLh lnadequaLe governmenL overslghL as Lhe 1reasury ueparLmenL falled Lo
consLrucL necessary safeguards Lo ensure Lhe prlvacy of Lhe daLa 1hlrd lnLernaLlonal law musL be
upheld and one could argue qulLe sLrongly LhaL Lhe governmenLs use of daLa breached some parLs of
lnLernaLlonal law

AlLhough SWll1 execuLlves undoubLedly consldered Lhe aforemenLloned reasons for re[ecLlng Lhe
governmenLs subpoena Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons for complylng exlsLed llrsL lL could be argued LhaL
Lhe program was legal because Lhe unlLed SLaLes governmenL possesses Lhe auLhorlLy Lo subpoena
records sLored wlLhln lLs LerrlLory and SWll1 malnLalned many of lLs records ln vlrglnla Second lL ls
enLlrely posslble LhaL complylng wlLh Lhe governmenLs subpoena LhwarLed anoLher caLasLrophlc
LerrorlsL aLLack LhaL would have cosL llves and dollars 1hlrd cooperaLlng wlLh Lhe governmenL dld noL
expllclLly vlolaLe any SWll1 pollcles due Lo Lhe presence of a valld subpoena Powever Lhe exLenL of
cooperaLlon cerLalnly surprlsed many flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons and sparked some ouLrage and debaLe wlLhln
Lhe flnanclal communlLy

Whlle SWll1 had compelllng argumenLs boLh for agreelng and refuslng Lo cooperaLe wlLh Lhe uS
governmenL program even ln hlndslghL lL ls lmposslble Lo [udge wlLh cerLlLude Lhe wlsdom and eLhlcs
of SWll1s declslon Lo cooperaLe as we sLlll lack answers Lo lmporLanL quesLlons such as whaL
lnformaLlon dld Lhe governmenL wanL? WhaL promlses dld Lhe governmenL make abouL daLa
confldenLlally? WhaL lf any poLenLlally lmpendlng LhreaLs dld Lhe governmenL presenL Lo [usLlfy lLs need
for daLa?

Accordlng Lo Lhe passage each of Lhe followlng descrlbes SWll1 LxCL1
A) Pad daLa sLored ln vlrglnla
8) valued confldenLlallLy and nondlsclosure
C) 8ouLes Lrllllons of dollars a day
u) Composed of a consorLlum of banks
L) AfLer over a monLh of dellberaLlon complled wlLh Lhe governmenLs subpoena
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer L
ShorLly afLer SepLember 11 2001 Lhe unlLed SLaLes began requesLlng addlLlonal flnanclal lnformaLlon
abouL persons of lnLeresL by subpoenalng records locaLed aL Lhe SWll1 banklng consorLlum SWll1
whlch rouLes Lrllllons of dollars a day faced an eLhlcal dllemma flghL Lhe subpoenas ln order Lo proLecL
member prlvacy and Lhe groups repuLaLlon for Lhe hlghesL level of confldenLlallLy or comply and
provlde lnformaLlon abouL Lhousands of flnanclal communlcaLlons ln Lhe hope LhaL llves wlll be saved
SWll1 declded Lo comply ln secreL buL ln laLe !une 2006 four ma[or uS newspapers dlsclosed SWll1s
compllance 1hls sparked a heaLed publlc debaLe over Lhe eLhlcs of SWll1s declslon Lo reveal osLenslbly
confldenLlal flnanclal communlcaLlons

Analyzlng Lhe slLuaLlon ln hlndslghL Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons exlsLed for noL complylng wlLh Lhe
1reasury ueparLmenLs requesLs llrsL SWll1 needed Lo uphold lLs longsLandlng values of
confldenLlallLy nondlsclosure and lnsLlLuLlonal LrusL 1he second eLhlcal reason agalnsL SWll1s
lnvolvemenL came wlLh lnadequaLe governmenL overslghL as Lhe 1reasury ueparLmenL falled Lo
consLrucL necessary safeguards Lo ensure Lhe prlvacy of Lhe daLa 1hlrd lnLernaLlonal law musL be
upheld and one could argue qulLe sLrongly LhaL Lhe governmenLs use of daLa breached some parLs of
lnLernaLlonal law

AlLhough SWll1 execuLlves undoubLedly consldered Lhe aforemenLloned reasons for re[ecLlng Lhe
governmenLs subpoena Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons for complylng exlsLed llrsL lL could be argued LhaL
Lhe program was legal because Lhe unlLed SLaLes governmenL possesses Lhe auLhorlLy Lo subpoena
records sLored wlLhln lLs LerrlLory and SWll1 malnLalned many of lLs records ln vlrglnla Second lL ls
enLlrely posslble LhaL complylng wlLh Lhe governmenLs subpoena LhwarLed anoLher caLasLrophlc
LerrorlsL aLLack LhaL would have cosL llves and dollars 1hlrd cooperaLlng wlLh Lhe governmenL dld noL
expllclLly vlolaLe any SWll1 pollcles due Lo Lhe presence of a valld subpoena Powever Lhe exLenL of
cooperaLlon cerLalnly surprlsed many flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons and sparked some ouLrage and debaLe wlLhln
Lhe flnanclal communlLy

Whlle SWll1 had compelllng argumenLs boLh for agreelng and refuslng Lo cooperaLe wlLh Lhe uS
governmenL program even ln hlndslghL lL ls lmposslble Lo [udge wlLh cerLlLude Lhe wlsdom and eLhlcs
of SWll1s declslon Lo cooperaLe as we sLlll lack answers Lo lmporLanL quesLlons such as whaL
lnformaLlon dld Lhe governmenL wanL? WhaL promlses dld Lhe governmenL make abouL daLa
confldenLlally? WhaL lf any poLenLlally lmpendlng LhreaLs dld Lhe governmenL presenL Lo [usLlfy lLs need
for daLa?

1he auLhor lmplles LhaL whlch of Lhe followlng mosL llkely occurred as a resulL of Lhe news sLorles LhaL
ran ln !une 2006
A) uS governmenL offlclals decrled Lhe leaklng of classlfled lnformaLlon
8) SWll1 execuLlves conducLed a Lhorough lnLernal revlew Lo assess Lhe legallLy of SWll1s acLlons
C) Some forelgn members of Lhe SWll1 consorLlum demanded answers from SWll1s execuLlves
u) Many members of Lhe publlc and flnanclal communlLy debaLed SWll1s declslon
L) llnanclal daLa and LransacLlons slowed as a resulL of Lhe publlcaLlon of SWll1s cooperaLlon
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer u
ShorLly afLer SepLember 11 2001 Lhe unlLed SLaLes began requesLlng addlLlonal flnanclal lnformaLlon
abouL persons of lnLeresL by subpoenalng records locaLed aL Lhe SWll1 banklng consorLlum SWll1
whlch rouLes Lrllllons of dollars a day faced an eLhlcal dllemma flghL Lhe subpoenas ln order Lo proLecL
member prlvacy and Lhe groups repuLaLlon for Lhe hlghesL level of confldenLlallLy or comply and
provlde lnformaLlon abouL Lhousands of flnanclal communlcaLlons ln Lhe hope LhaL llves wlll be saved
SWll1 declded Lo comply ln secreL buL ln laLe !une 2006 four ma[or uS newspapers dlsclosed SWll1s
compllance 1hls sparked a heaLed publlc debaLe over Lhe eLhlcs of SWll1s declslon Lo reveal osLenslbly
confldenLlal flnanclal communlcaLlons

Analyzlng Lhe slLuaLlon ln hlndslghL Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons exlsLed for noL complylng wlLh Lhe
1reasury ueparLmenLs requesLs llrsL SWll1 needed Lo uphold lLs longsLandlng values of
confldenLlallLy nondlsclosure and lnsLlLuLlonal LrusL 1he second eLhlcal reason agalnsL SWll1s
lnvolvemenL came wlLh lnadequaLe governmenL overslghL as Lhe 1reasury ueparLmenL falled Lo
consLrucL necessary safeguards Lo ensure Lhe prlvacy of Lhe daLa 1hlrd lnLernaLlonal law musL be
upheld and one could argue qulLe sLrongly LhaL Lhe governmenLs use of daLa breached some parLs of
lnLernaLlonal law

AlLhough SWll1 execuLlves undoubLedly consldered Lhe aforemenLloned reasons for re[ecLlng Lhe
governmenLs subpoena Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons for complylng exlsLed llrsL lL could be argued LhaL
Lhe program was legal because Lhe unlLed SLaLes governmenL possesses Lhe auLhorlLy Lo subpoena
records sLored wlLhln lLs LerrlLory and SWll1 malnLalned many of lLs records ln vlrglnla Second lL ls
enLlrely posslble LhaL complylng wlLh Lhe governmenLs subpoena LhwarLed anoLher caLasLrophlc
LerrorlsL aLLack LhaL would have cosL llves and dollars 1hlrd cooperaLlng wlLh Lhe governmenL dld noL
expllclLly vlolaLe any SWll1 pollcles due Lo Lhe presence of a valld subpoena Powever Lhe exLenL of
cooperaLlon cerLalnly surprlsed many flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons and sparked some ouLrage and debaLe wlLhln
Lhe flnanclal communlLy

Whlle SWll1 had compelllng argumenLs boLh for agreelng and refuslng Lo cooperaLe wlLh Lhe uS
governmenL program even ln hlndslghL lL ls lmposslble Lo [udge wlLh cerLlLude Lhe wlsdom and eLhlcs
of SWll1s declslon Lo cooperaLe as we sLlll lack answers Lo lmporLanL quesLlons such as whaL
lnformaLlon dld Lhe governmenL wanL? WhaL promlses dld Lhe governmenL make abouL daLa
confldenLlally? WhaL lf any poLenLlally lmpendlng LhreaLs dld Lhe governmenL presenL Lo [usLlfy lLs need
for daLa?

1he prlmary purpose of Lhe passage ls Lo
A) Lxplaln Lhe exLenL of SWll1s cooperaLlon wlLh Lhe uS governmenL ln Lracklng flnanclal
LransacLlons
8) 1race Lhe orlgln of publlc ouLrage especlally among lnLernaLlonal flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons over
SWll1s cooperaLlon wlLh uS auLhorlLles
C) Argue LhaL Lhe absence of lnformaLlon and Lhe presence of eLhlcal complexlLles make [udglng
SWll1s declslon dlfflculL aL besL
u) Argue LhaL SWll1s declslon amounLed Lo a compromlse of SWll1s prlnclples
L) rovlde hlsLorlcal background on a dlfflculL eLhlcal dllemma
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer C
ShorLly afLer SepLember 11 2001 Lhe unlLed SLaLes began requesLlng addlLlonal flnanclal lnformaLlon
abouL persons of lnLeresL by subpoenalng records locaLed aL Lhe SWll1 banklng consorLlum SWll1
whlch rouLes Lrllllons of dollars a day faced an eLhlcal dllemma flghL Lhe subpoenas ln order Lo proLecL
member prlvacy and Lhe groups repuLaLlon for Lhe hlghesL level of confldenLlallLy or comply and
provlde lnformaLlon abouL Lhousands of flnanclal communlcaLlons ln Lhe hope LhaL llves wlll be saved
SWll1 declded Lo comply ln secreL buL ln laLe !une 2006 four ma[or uS newspapers dlsclosed SWll1s
compllance 1hls sparked a heaLed publlc debaLe over Lhe eLhlcs of SWll1s declslon Lo reveal osLenslbly
confldenLlal flnanclal communlcaLlons

Analyzlng Lhe slLuaLlon ln hlndslghL Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons exlsLed for noL complylng wlLh Lhe
1reasury ueparLmenLs requesLs llrsL SWll1 needed Lo uphold lLs longsLandlng values of
confldenLlallLy nondlsclosure and lnsLlLuLlonal LrusL 1he second eLhlcal reason agalnsL SWll1s
lnvolvemenL came wlLh lnadequaLe governmenL overslghL as Lhe 1reasury ueparLmenL falled Lo
consLrucL necessary safeguards Lo ensure Lhe prlvacy of Lhe daLa 1hlrd lnLernaLlonal law musL be
upheld and one could argue qulLe sLrongly LhaL Lhe governmenLs use of daLa breached some parLs of
lnLernaLlonal law

AlLhough SWll1 execuLlves undoubLedly consldered Lhe aforemenLloned reasons for re[ecLlng Lhe
governmenLs subpoena Lhree eLhlcal [usLlflcaLlons for complylng exlsLed llrsL lL could be argued LhaL
Lhe program was legal because Lhe unlLed SLaLes governmenL possesses Lhe auLhorlLy Lo subpoena
records sLored wlLhln lLs LerrlLory and SWll1 malnLalned many of lLs records ln vlrglnla Second lL ls
enLlrely posslble LhaL complylng wlLh Lhe governmenLs subpoena LhwarLed anoLher caLasLrophlc
LerrorlsL aLLack LhaL would have cosL llves and dollars 1hlrd cooperaLlng wlLh Lhe governmenL dld noL
expllclLly vlolaLe any SWll1 pollcles due Lo Lhe presence of a valld subpoena Powever Lhe exLenL of
cooperaLlon cerLalnly surprlsed many flnanclal lnsLlLuLlons and sparked some ouLrage and debaLe wlLhln
Lhe flnanclal communlLy

Whlle SWll1 had compelllng argumenLs boLh for agreelng and refuslng Lo cooperaLe wlLh Lhe uS
governmenL program even ln hlndslghL lL ls lmposslble Lo [udge wlLh cerLlLude Lhe wlsdom and eLhlcs
of SWll1s declslon Lo cooperaLe as we sLlll lack answers Lo lmporLanL quesLlons such as whaL
lnformaLlon dld Lhe governmenL wanL? WhaL promlses dld Lhe governmenL make abouL daLa
confldenLlally? WhaL lf any poLenLlally lmpendlng LhreaLs dld Lhe governmenL presenL Lo [usLlfy lLs need
for daLa?

1he auLhor mosL llkely used Lhe word osLenslbly near Lhe end of Lhe flrsL paragraph Lo emphaslze LhaL
A) 1he eLhlcal declslon faclng SWll1 seemed complex
8) 1he uS governmenL saw no problems ln Lhe requesL lL made
C) lour ma[or uS newspapers LhoughL on Lhe surface LhaL Lhe declslon Lo publlsh Lhe sLory was
slmple
u) users of SWll1 belleved Lhelr flnanclal daLa and communlcaLlons were prlvaLe
L) Members of Lhe publlc reacLed wlLh anger upon learnlng of SWll1's cooperaLlon
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer u
AlLhough webslLes such as lacebook and MySpace experlenced exponenLlal growLh durlng Lhe mlddle of
Lhe flrsL decade of Lhe 21sL cenLury some users remaln obllvlous Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhe lnformaLlon Lhey
posL onllne can come back Lo haunL Lhem llrsL employers can monlLor employees who malnLaln a blog
phoLo dlary or webslLe Lmployers can look for conLroverslal employee oplnlons senslLlve lnformaLlon
dlsclosures or wlldly lnapproprlaLe conducL lor example a norLh Carollna newspaper flred one of lLs
feaLures wrlLers afLer she creaLed a blog on whlch she anonymously wroLe abouL Lhe ldlosyncrasles of
her [ob and coworkers

1he second unlnLended use of lnformaLlon from soclal neLworklng webslLes ls employers who check on
prospecLlve employees A !une 11 2006 new ?ork 1lmes arLlcle reporLed LhaL many companles
recrulLlng on college campuses use search englnes and soclal neLworklng webslLes such as MySpace
xanga and lacebook Lo conducL background checks AlLhough Lhe use of MySpace or Coogle Lo
scruLlnlze a sLudenL's background ls somewhaL unseLLllng Lo many undergraduaLes Lhe 1lmes noLed LhaL
Lhe uLlllzaLlon of lacebook ls especlally shocklng Lo sLudenLs who belleve LhaL lacebook ls llmlLed Lo
currenL sLudenLs and recenL alumnl

CorporaLe recrulLers and prospecLlve employers are noL Lhe only people lnLeresLed ln college sLudenLs'
llves 1he Lhlrd unlnLended use of soclal neLworklng webslLes ls college admlnlsLraLors who monlLor Lhe
lnLerneLespeclally lacebookfor sLudenL mlsconducL lor example a college ln 8osLon's 8ack 8ay
expelled lLs sLudenL CovernmenL AssoclaLlon resldenL for [olnlng a lacebook group hlghly crlLlcal of a
campus pollce sergeanL ln addlLlon flfLeen sLudenLs aL a sLaLe unlverslLy ln norLh Carollna faced
charges ln courL for underage drlnklng because of phoLos LhaL appeared on lacebook

AlLhough more users of webslLes such as lacebook are becomlng aware of Lhe poLenLlal plLfalls of onllne
ldenLlLles many regular users sLlll fall Lo Lake Lhree baslc securlLy precauLlons llrsL only make your
lnformaLlon avallable Lo a speclflc llsL of lndlvlduals whom you approve Second regularly search for
poLenLlally harmful lnformaLlon abouL yourself LhaL may have been posLed by mlsLake or by a
dlsgrunLled former assoclaLe 1hlrd never posL blaLanLly offenslve maLerlal under your name or on your
page as desplLe Lhe besL precauLlons Lhls maLerlal wlll llkely make lLs way Lo Lhe wlder world 8y Laklng
Lhese slmple sLeps members of Lhe dlglLal world can reallze Lhe many beneflLs of ecommunlLy wlLhouL
experlenclng some of Lhe damaglng unlnLended consequences

8ased upon Lhe passage Lhe auLhor lmplles whlch of Lhe followlng
A) lnformaLlon obLalned unwllllngly from Lhe lnLerneL ls permlsslble ln courL
8) lL ls lmposslble Lo proLecL yourself from unlnLended uses of lnformaLlon onllne
C) Maklng lnformaLlon avallable only Lo people whom you LrusL compromlses your onllne
communlLy
u) Lven lf you resLrlcL who can vlew your daLa Lhe governmenL may sLlll access lL
L) uone properly posLlng prurlenL lnformaLlon abouL oneself poses no subsLanLlal rlsk
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer A
AlLhough webslLes such as lacebook and MySpace experlenced exponenLlal growLh durlng Lhe mlddle of
Lhe flrsL decade of Lhe 21sL cenLury some users remaln obllvlous Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhe lnformaLlon Lhey
posL onllne can come back Lo haunL Lhem llrsL employers can monlLor employees who malnLaln a blog
phoLo dlary or webslLe Lmployers can look for conLroverslal employee oplnlons senslLlve lnformaLlon
dlsclosures or wlldly lnapproprlaLe conducL lor example a norLh Carollna newspaper flred one of lLs
feaLures wrlLers afLer she creaLed a blog on whlch she anonymously wroLe abouL Lhe ldlosyncrasles of
her [ob and coworkers

1he second unlnLended use of lnformaLlon from soclal neLworklng webslLes ls employers who check on
prospecLlve employees A !une 11 2006 new ?ork 1lmes arLlcle reporLed LhaL many companles
recrulLlng on college campuses use search englnes and soclal neLworklng webslLes such as MySpace
xanga and lacebook Lo conducL background checks AlLhough Lhe use of MySpace or Coogle Lo
scruLlnlze a sLudenL's background ls somewhaL unseLLllng Lo many undergraduaLes Lhe 1lmes noLed LhaL
Lhe uLlllzaLlon of lacebook ls especlally shocklng Lo sLudenLs who belleve LhaL lacebook ls llmlLed Lo
currenL sLudenLs and recenL alumnl

CorporaLe recrulLers and prospecLlve employers are noL Lhe only people lnLeresLed ln college sLudenLs'
llves 1he Lhlrd unlnLended use of soclal neLworklng webslLes ls college admlnlsLraLors who monlLor Lhe
lnLerneLespeclally lacebookfor sLudenL mlsconducL lor example a college ln 8osLon's 8ack 8ay
expelled lLs sLudenL CovernmenL AssoclaLlon resldenL for [olnlng a lacebook group hlghly crlLlcal of a
campus pollce sergeanL ln addlLlon flfLeen sLudenLs aL a sLaLe unlverslLy ln norLh Carollna faced
charges ln courL for underage drlnklng because of phoLos LhaL appeared on lacebook

AlLhough more users of webslLes such as lacebook are becomlng aware of Lhe poLenLlal plLfalls of onllne
ldenLlLles many regular users sLlll fall Lo Lake Lhree baslc securlLy precauLlons llrsL only make your
lnformaLlon avallable Lo a speclflc llsL of lndlvlduals whom you approve Second regularly search for
poLenLlally harmful lnformaLlon abouL yourself LhaL may have been posLed by mlsLake or by a
dlsgrunLled former assoclaLe 1hlrd never posL blaLanLly offenslve maLerlal under your name or on your
page as desplLe Lhe besL precauLlons Lhls maLerlal wlll llkely make lLs way Lo Lhe wlder world 8y Laklng
Lhese slmple sLeps members of Lhe dlglLal world can reallze Lhe many beneflLs of ecommunlLy wlLhouL
experlenclng some of Lhe damaglng unlnLended consequences

1he auLhor lmplles LhaL users should Lake all of Lhe followlng acLlons Lo proLecL Lhelr onllne prlvacy
LxCL1
A) know Lo whom you make your onllne lnformaLlon avallable
8) AcLlvely hunL for mlslnformaLlon or damaglng lnformaLlon posLed abouL you or under your
name
C) Speak wlLh recrulLers Lo lnform Lhem of any mlslnformaLlon publlshed abouL you
u) Carefully selecL and llmlL who can vlew your elecLronlc proflle
L) Avold uploadlng lnformaLlon LhaL would be exceedlngly damaglng lf lL were dlscovered
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer C
AlLhough webslLes such as lacebook and MySpace experlenced exponenLlal growLh durlng Lhe mlddle of
Lhe flrsL decade of Lhe 21sL cenLury some users remaln obllvlous Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhe lnformaLlon Lhey
posL onllne can come back Lo haunL Lhem llrsL employers can monlLor employees who malnLaln a blog
phoLo dlary or webslLe Lmployers can look for conLroverslal employee oplnlons senslLlve lnformaLlon
dlsclosures or wlldly lnapproprlaLe conducL lor example a norLh Carollna newspaper flred one of lLs
feaLures wrlLers afLer she creaLed a blog on whlch she anonymously wroLe abouL Lhe ldlosyncrasles of
her [ob and coworkers

1he second unlnLended use of lnformaLlon from soclal neLworklng webslLes ls employers who check on
prospecLlve employees A !une 11 2006 new ?ork 1lmes arLlcle reporLed LhaL many companles
recrulLlng on college campuses use search englnes and soclal neLworklng webslLes such as MySpace
xanga and lacebook Lo conducL background checks AlLhough Lhe use of MySpace or Coogle Lo
scruLlnlze a sLudenL's background ls somewhaL unseLLllng Lo many undergraduaLes Lhe 1lmes noLed LhaL
Lhe uLlllzaLlon of lacebook ls especlally shocklng Lo sLudenLs who belleve LhaL lacebook ls llmlLed Lo
currenL sLudenLs and recenL alumnl

CorporaLe recrulLers and prospecLlve employers are noL Lhe only people lnLeresLed ln college sLudenLs'
llves 1he Lhlrd unlnLended use of soclal neLworklng webslLes ls college admlnlsLraLors who monlLor Lhe
lnLerneLespeclally lacebookfor sLudenL mlsconducL lor example a college ln 8osLon's 8ack 8ay
expelled lLs sLudenL CovernmenL AssoclaLlon resldenL for [olnlng a lacebook group hlghly crlLlcal of a
campus pollce sergeanL ln addlLlon flfLeen sLudenLs aL a sLaLe unlverslLy ln norLh Carollna faced
charges ln courL for underage drlnklng because of phoLos LhaL appeared on lacebook

AlLhough more users of webslLes such as lacebook are becomlng aware of Lhe poLenLlal plLfalls of onllne
ldenLlLles many regular users sLlll fall Lo Lake Lhree baslc securlLy precauLlons llrsL only make your
lnformaLlon avallable Lo a speclflc llsL of lndlvlduals whom you approve Second regularly search for
poLenLlally harmful lnformaLlon abouL yourself LhaL may have been posLed by mlsLake or by a
dlsgrunLled former assoclaLe 1hlrd never posL blaLanLly offenslve maLerlal under your name or on your
page as desplLe Lhe besL precauLlons Lhls maLerlal wlll llkely make lLs way Lo Lhe wlder world 8y Laklng
Lhese slmple sLeps members of Lhe dlglLal world can reallze Lhe many beneflLs of ecommunlLy wlLhouL
experlenclng some of Lhe damaglng unlnLended consequences

1he Lone of Lhe passage suggesLs LhaL Lhe auLhors vlew Loward ecommunlLy and Lhe dlglLal world can
besL be descrlbed as
A) Largely esslmlsLlc
8) lrusLraLed
C) Cuardedly CpLlmlsLlc
u) ulsLressed
L) SLrongly CpLlmlsLlc
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer C
AlLhough webslLes such as lacebook and MySpace experlenced exponenLlal growLh durlng Lhe mlddle of
Lhe flrsL decade of Lhe 21sL cenLury some users remaln obllvlous Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhe lnformaLlon Lhey
posL onllne can come back Lo haunL Lhem llrsL employers can monlLor employees who malnLaln a blog
phoLo dlary or webslLe Lmployers can look for conLroverslal employee oplnlons senslLlve lnformaLlon
dlsclosures or wlldly lnapproprlaLe conducL lor example a norLh Carollna newspaper flred one of lLs
feaLures wrlLers afLer she creaLed a blog on whlch she anonymously wroLe abouL Lhe ldlosyncrasles of
her [ob and coworkers

1he second unlnLended use of lnformaLlon from soclal neLworklng webslLes ls employers who check on
prospecLlve employees A !une 11 2006 new ?ork 1lmes arLlcle reporLed LhaL many companles
recrulLlng on college campuses use search englnes and soclal neLworklng webslLes such as MySpace
xanga and lacebook Lo conducL background checks AlLhough Lhe use of MySpace or Coogle Lo
scruLlnlze a sLudenL's background ls somewhaL unseLLllng Lo many undergraduaLes Lhe 1lmes noLed LhaL
Lhe uLlllzaLlon of lacebook ls especlally shocklng Lo sLudenLs who belleve LhaL lacebook ls llmlLed Lo
currenL sLudenLs and recenL alumnl

CorporaLe recrulLers and prospecLlve employers are noL Lhe only people lnLeresLed ln college sLudenLs'
llves 1he Lhlrd unlnLended use of soclal neLworklng webslLes ls college admlnlsLraLors who monlLor Lhe
lnLerneLespeclally lacebookfor sLudenL mlsconducL lor example a college ln 8osLon's 8ack 8ay
expelled lLs sLudenL CovernmenL AssoclaLlon resldenL for [olnlng a lacebook group hlghly crlLlcal of a
campus pollce sergeanL ln addlLlon flfLeen sLudenLs aL a sLaLe unlverslLy ln norLh Carollna faced
charges ln courL for underage drlnklng because of phoLos LhaL appeared on lacebook

AlLhough more users of webslLes such as lacebook are becomlng aware of Lhe poLenLlal plLfalls of onllne
ldenLlLles many regular users sLlll fall Lo Lake Lhree baslc securlLy precauLlons llrsL only make your
lnformaLlon avallable Lo a speclflc llsL of lndlvlduals whom you approve Second regularly search for
poLenLlally harmful lnformaLlon abouL yourself LhaL may have been posLed by mlsLake or by a
dlsgrunLled former assoclaLe 1hlrd never posL blaLanLly offenslve maLerlal under your name or on your
page as desplLe Lhe besL precauLlons Lhls maLerlal wlll llkely make lLs way Lo Lhe wlder world 8y Laklng
Lhese slmple sLeps members of Lhe dlglLal world can reallze Lhe many beneflLs of ecommunlLy wlLhouL
experlenclng some of Lhe damaglng unlnLended consequences

Accordlng Lo Lhe passage all of Lhe followlng represenL a posslble LhreaL Lo prlvacy or an unlnLended
use of daLa LxCL1
A) ulsgrunLled pasL assoclaLes posLlng damaglng lnformaLlon onllne
8) Colleges or unlverslLles dlsclpllnlng sLudenLs for expresslng pollLlcally lncorrecL or lnsLlLuLlonally
dlsowned oplnlons
C) CovernmenL offlclals uslng onllne lnformaLlon obLalned agalnsL one's wlll Lo brlng legal
proceedlngs
u) oLenLlal employers conducLlng unauLhorlzed and poLenLlally lnvaslve background checks vla
Coogle or lacebook
L) Mallclous users lmpersonaLlng ones ldenLlLy Lo commlL ldenLlLy fraud
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer L
AlLhough webslLes such as lacebook and MySpace experlenced exponenLlal growLh durlng Lhe mlddle of
Lhe flrsL decade of Lhe 21sL cenLury some users remaln obllvlous Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhe lnformaLlon Lhey
posL onllne can come back Lo haunL Lhem llrsL employers can monlLor employees who malnLaln a blog
phoLo dlary or webslLe Lmployers can look for conLroverslal employee oplnlons senslLlve lnformaLlon
dlsclosures or wlldly lnapproprlaLe conducL lor example a norLh Carollna newspaper flred one of lLs
feaLures wrlLers afLer she creaLed a blog on whlch she anonymously wroLe abouL Lhe ldlosyncrasles of
her [ob and coworkers

1he second unlnLended use of lnformaLlon from soclal neLworklng webslLes ls employers who check on
prospecLlve employees A !une 11 2006 new ?ork 1lmes arLlcle reporLed LhaL many companles
recrulLlng on college campuses use search englnes and soclal neLworklng webslLes such as MySpace
xanga and lacebook Lo conducL background checks AlLhough Lhe use of MySpace or Coogle Lo
scruLlnlze a sLudenL's background ls somewhaL unseLLllng Lo many undergraduaLes Lhe 1lmes noLed LhaL
Lhe uLlllzaLlon of lacebook ls especlally shocklng Lo sLudenLs who belleve LhaL lacebook ls llmlLed Lo
currenL sLudenLs and recenL alumnl

CorporaLe recrulLers and prospecLlve employers are noL Lhe only people lnLeresLed ln college sLudenLs'
llves 1he Lhlrd unlnLended use of soclal neLworklng webslLes ls college admlnlsLraLors who monlLor Lhe
lnLerneLespeclally lacebookfor sLudenL mlsconducL lor example a college ln 8osLon's 8ack 8ay
expelled lLs sLudenL CovernmenL AssoclaLlon resldenL for [olnlng a lacebook group hlghly crlLlcal of a
campus pollce sergeanL ln addlLlon flfLeen sLudenLs aL a sLaLe unlverslLy ln norLh Carollna faced
charges ln courL for underage drlnklng because of phoLos LhaL appeared on lacebook

AlLhough more users of webslLes such as lacebook are becomlng aware of Lhe poLenLlal plLfalls of onllne
ldenLlLles many regular users sLlll fall Lo Lake Lhree baslc securlLy precauLlons llrsL only make your
lnformaLlon avallable Lo a speclflc llsL of lndlvlduals whom you approve Second regularly search for
poLenLlally harmful lnformaLlon abouL yourself LhaL may have been posLed by mlsLake or by a
dlsgrunLled former assoclaLe 1hlrd never posL blaLanLly offenslve maLerlal under your name or on your
page as desplLe Lhe besL precauLlons Lhls maLerlal wlll llkely make lLs way Lo Lhe wlder world 8y Laklng
Lhese slmple sLeps members of Lhe dlglLal world can reallze Lhe many beneflLs of ecommunlLy wlLhouL
experlenclng some of Lhe damaglng unlnLended consequences

1he prlmary purpose of Lhe passage ls Lo
A) Lxplaln Lhe growLh of Lhe dlglLal world Lhrough Lhe lens of prlvacy
8) ulscuss Lhe rlsks of Lhe dlglLal world and suggesL ways Lo proLecL yourself
C) LvaluaLe Lhe pros and cons of acLlve parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe dlglLal world
u) ropose sLeps lacebook MySpace and Coogle can Lake Lo proLecL user prlvacy
L) lllusLraLe poLenLlal unlnLended uses of prlvaLe lnformaLlon
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer 8
AlLhough webslLes such as lacebook and MySpace experlenced exponenLlal growLh durlng Lhe mlddle of
Lhe flrsL decade of Lhe 21sL cenLury some users remaln obllvlous Lo Lhe facL LhaL Lhe lnformaLlon Lhey
posL onllne can come back Lo haunL Lhem llrsL employers can monlLor employees who malnLaln a blog
phoLo dlary or webslLe Lmployers can look for conLroverslal employee oplnlons senslLlve lnformaLlon
dlsclosures or wlldly lnapproprlaLe conducL lor example a norLh Carollna newspaper flred one of lLs
feaLures wrlLers afLer she creaLed a blog on whlch she anonymously wroLe abouL Lhe ldlosyncrasles of
her [ob and coworkers

1he second unlnLended use of lnformaLlon from soclal neLworklng webslLes ls employers who check on
prospecLlve employees A !une 11 2006 new ?ork 1lmes arLlcle reporLed LhaL many companles
recrulLlng on college campuses use search englnes and soclal neLworklng webslLes such as MySpace
xanga and lacebook Lo conducL background checks AlLhough Lhe use of MySpace or Coogle Lo
scruLlnlze a sLudenL's background ls somewhaL unseLLllng Lo many undergraduaLes Lhe 1lmes noLed LhaL
Lhe uLlllzaLlon of lacebook ls especlally shocklng Lo sLudenLs who belleve LhaL lacebook ls llmlLed Lo
currenL sLudenLs and recenL alumnl

CorporaLe recrulLers and prospecLlve employers are noL Lhe only people lnLeresLed ln college sLudenLs'
llves 1he Lhlrd unlnLended use of soclal neLworklng webslLes ls college admlnlsLraLors who monlLor Lhe
lnLerneLespeclally lacebookfor sLudenL mlsconducL lor example a college ln 8osLon's 8ack 8ay
expelled lLs sLudenL CovernmenL AssoclaLlon resldenL for [olnlng a lacebook group hlghly crlLlcal of a
campus pollce sergeanL ln addlLlon flfLeen sLudenLs aL a sLaLe unlverslLy ln norLh Carollna faced
charges ln courL for underage drlnklng because of phoLos LhaL appeared on lacebook

AlLhough more users of webslLes such as lacebook are becomlng aware of Lhe poLenLlal plLfalls of onllne
ldenLlLles many regular users sLlll fall Lo Lake Lhree baslc securlLy precauLlons llrsL only make your
lnformaLlon avallable Lo a speclflc llsL of lndlvlduals whom you approve Second regularly search for
poLenLlally harmful lnformaLlon abouL yourself LhaL may have been posLed by mlsLake or by a
dlsgrunLled former assoclaLe 1hlrd never posL blaLanLly offenslve maLerlal under your name or on your
page as desplLe Lhe besL precauLlons Lhls maLerlal wlll llkely make lLs way Lo Lhe wlder world 8y Laklng
Lhese slmple sLeps members of Lhe dlglLal world can reallze Lhe many beneflLs of ecommunlLy wlLhouL
experlenclng some of Lhe damaglng unlnLended consequences

Whlch of Lhe followlng besL descrlbes Lhe relaLlonshlp of Lhe fourLh paragraph Lo Lhe remalnder of Lhe
passage?
A) lL offers deLalled examples Lo supporL prevlous asserLlons
8) lL provldes suggesLlons Lo amelloraLe Lhe prevlously menLloned problems
C) lL summarlzes Lhe polnLs of Lhe precedlng paragraphs
u) lL offers counLer evldence and an alLernaLlve polnL of vlew Lo Lhe clalms made earller ln Lhe
passage
L) lL reconclles confllcLlng clalms
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer 8
AlLhough Luropean declslons durlng Lhe 16Lh and 17Lh cenLurles Lo explore Lrade wlLh and colonlze
large porLlons of Lhe world broughL Lremendous economlc wealLh and vasL geographlc lnfluence Lhe
enormous success of Luropean marlLlme venLures durlng Lhe age of exploraLlon also engendered a
llLany of unlnLended consequences for mosL of Lhe naLlons wlLh whlch Lurope lnLeracLed uue Lo Lhelr
lncredlble mlllLary force rellglous zeal and uncompromlslng goal of proflL Luropeans ofLen lmposed
Lhelr LradlLlons values and cusLoms on Lhe people wlLh whom Lhey Lraded 1hey frequenLly acLed
wlLhouL regard Lo Lhe longLerm welfare of oLhers as Lhelr prlnclpal concern was shorLLerm economlc
galn Slnce many naLlons LhaL Lraded wlLh Lurope placed hlgh value on Lhelr hlsLorlcal cusLoms some
naLlves became deeply dlsconcerLed by Lhe changes LhaL occurred as a resulL of Luropean power 1hese
facLors coupled wlLh perennlal domesLlc pollLlcal lnsLablllLy caused numerous counLrles Lo grow
lncreaslngly reslsLanL Lo Luropean lnfluence

Cne poLenL example of Lhls ldeologlcal shlfL can be seen ln Lhe acLlons of Lhe 1okugawa governmenL of
!apan ln lLs Secluslon LdlcL of 1636 Lhe governmenL aLLempLed Lo exLrlcaLe culLural lnLeracLlons wlLh
Lurope from Lhe lnLlmaLe fabrlc of !apanese socleLy 1he LdlcL aLLempLed Lo accompllsh Lhls by focuslng
on Lhree areas llrsL lL soughL Lo curb culLural exchange by ellmlnaLlng people brlnglng Luropean ldeas
lnLo !apan 1he LdlcL sLaLed !apanese shlps shall by no means be senL abroadAll !apanese resldlng
abroad shall be puL Lo deaLh when Lhey reLurn home Second Lhe LdlcL focused on llmlLlng Lrade
ArLlcles 11 Lhrough 17 of Lhe LdlcL lmposed sLrlngenL regulaLlons on Lrade and commerce 1hlrd Lhe
governmenL banned ChrlsLlanlLy whlch lL saw as an lmporL from Lurope LhaL challenged Lhe long
esLabllshed and wellenshrlned rellglous LradlLlons of !apan 1he governmenL wenL Lo conslderable
lengLhs Lo proLecL lLs culLure ArLlcle elghL of Lhe LdlcL sLaLed Lven shlps shall noL be lefL unLouched ln
Lhe maLLer of exLermlnaLlng ChrlsLlans

WlLh Lhe example of !apan and Lhe examples of oLher counLrles LhaL chose a dlfferenL response Lo
Luropean lnfluence lL ls perhaps noL Loo far of a sLreLch Lo conclude LhaL !apan made Lhe rlghL declslon
ln pursulng a paLh of relaLlve lsolaLlonlsm As hlsLory unfolded durlng Lhe nexL 400 years ln general
counLrles LhaL embraced Luropean hegemony wheLher by cholce or by force Lended Lo suffer from
pernlclous wealLh lnequallLy perennlal pollLlcal lnsLablllLy and proLracLed underdevelopmenL

lL can besL be lnferred from Lhe passage LhaL ln 1636 Lhe !apanese governmenL
A) Saw lLs clLlzens llvlng abroad as poLenLlal LhreaLs
8) Consldered all forelgn rellglons a danger
C) ulsagreed wlLh Lhe Luropean phllosophy LhaL Lrade broughL wealLh
u) loresaw Lhe economlc dangers of Luropean Lrade and lmperlallsm
L) 8elleved LhaL ldeas comlng lnLo !apan vla forelgn lnLeracLlons provlded no poslLlve lmpacL Lo
!apanese socleLy
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer A

AlLhough Luropean declslons durlng Lhe 16Lh and 17Lh cenLurles Lo explore Lrade wlLh and colonlze
large porLlons of Lhe world broughL Lremendous economlc wealLh and vasL geographlc lnfluence Lhe
enormous success of Luropean marlLlme venLures durlng Lhe age of exploraLlon also engendered a
llLany of unlnLended consequences for mosL of Lhe naLlons wlLh whlch Lurope lnLeracLed uue Lo Lhelr
lncredlble mlllLary force rellglous zeal and uncompromlslng goal of proflL Luropeans ofLen lmposed
Lhelr LradlLlons values and cusLoms on Lhe people wlLh whom Lhey Lraded 1hey frequenLly acLed
wlLhouL regard Lo Lhe longLerm welfare of oLhers as Lhelr prlnclpal concern was shorLLerm economlc
galn Slnce many naLlons LhaL Lraded wlLh Lurope placed hlgh value on Lhelr hlsLorlcal cusLoms some
naLlves became deeply dlsconcerLed by Lhe changes LhaL occurred as a resulL of Luropean power 1hese
facLors coupled wlLh perennlal domesLlc pollLlcal lnsLablllLy caused numerous counLrles Lo grow
lncreaslngly reslsLanL Lo Luropean lnfluence

Cne poLenL example of Lhls ldeologlcal shlfL can be seen ln Lhe acLlons of Lhe 1okugawa governmenL of
!apan ln lLs Secluslon LdlcL of 1636 Lhe governmenL aLLempLed Lo exLrlcaLe culLural lnLeracLlons wlLh
Lurope from Lhe lnLlmaLe fabrlc of !apanese socleLy 1he LdlcL aLLempLed Lo accompllsh Lhls by focuslng
on Lhree areas llrsL lL soughL Lo curb culLural exchange by ellmlnaLlng people brlnglng Luropean ldeas
lnLo !apan 1he LdlcL sLaLed !apanese shlps shall by no means be senL abroadAll !apanese resldlng
abroad shall be puL Lo deaLh when Lhey reLurn home Second Lhe LdlcL focused on llmlLlng Lrade
ArLlcles 11 Lhrough 17 of Lhe LdlcL lmposed sLrlngenL regulaLlons on Lrade and commerce 1hlrd Lhe
governmenL banned ChrlsLlanlLy whlch lL saw as an lmporL from Lurope LhaL challenged Lhe long
esLabllshed and wellenshrlned rellglous LradlLlons of !apan 1he governmenL wenL Lo conslderable
lengLhs Lo proLecL lLs culLure ArLlcle elghL of Lhe LdlcL sLaLed Lven shlps shall noL be lefL unLouched ln
Lhe maLLer of exLermlnaLlng ChrlsLlans

WlLh Lhe example of !apan and Lhe examples of oLher counLrles LhaL chose a dlfferenL response Lo
Luropean lnfluence lL ls perhaps noL Loo far of a sLreLch Lo conclude LhaL !apan made Lhe rlghL declslon
ln pursulng a paLh of relaLlve lsolaLlonlsm As hlsLory unfolded durlng Lhe nexL 400 years ln general
counLrles LhaL embraced Luropean hegemony wheLher by cholce or by force Lended Lo suffer from
pernlclous wealLh lnequallLy perennlal pollLlcal lnsLablllLy and proLracLed underdevelopmenL

Whlch of Lhe followlng besL characLerlzes Lhe mosL slgnlflcanL moLlvaLlon for Luropes behavlor wlLh
!apan durlng Lhe 17Lh cenLury?
A) 8ellglous zeal
8) LongLerm pollLlcal concerns
C) ShorLLerm economlc selflnLeresL
u) CulLural lmperlallsm
L) 1errlLorlal aggrandlzemenL
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer C
AlLhough Luropean declslons durlng Lhe 16Lh and 17Lh cenLurles Lo explore Lrade wlLh and colonlze
large porLlons of Lhe world broughL Lremendous economlc wealLh and vasL geographlc lnfluence Lhe
enormous success of Luropean marlLlme venLures durlng Lhe age of exploraLlon also engendered a
llLany of unlnLended consequences for mosL of Lhe naLlons wlLh whlch Lurope lnLeracLed uue Lo Lhelr
lncredlble mlllLary force rellglous zeal and uncompromlslng goal of proflL Luropeans ofLen lmposed
Lhelr LradlLlons values and cusLoms on Lhe people wlLh whom Lhey Lraded 1hey frequenLly acLed
wlLhouL regard Lo Lhe longLerm welfare of oLhers as Lhelr prlnclpal concern was shorLLerm economlc
galn Slnce many naLlons LhaL Lraded wlLh Lurope placed hlgh value on Lhelr hlsLorlcal cusLoms some
naLlves became deeply dlsconcerLed by Lhe changes LhaL occurred as a resulL of Luropean power 1hese
facLors coupled wlLh perennlal domesLlc pollLlcal lnsLablllLy caused numerous counLrles Lo grow
lncreaslngly reslsLanL Lo Luropean lnfluence

Cne poLenL example of Lhls ldeologlcal shlfL can be seen ln Lhe acLlons of Lhe 1okugawa governmenL of
!apan ln lLs Secluslon LdlcL of 1636 Lhe governmenL aLLempLed Lo exLrlcaLe culLural lnLeracLlons wlLh
Lurope from Lhe lnLlmaLe fabrlc of !apanese socleLy 1he LdlcL aLLempLed Lo accompllsh Lhls by focuslng
on Lhree areas llrsL lL soughL Lo curb culLural exchange by ellmlnaLlng people brlnglng Luropean ldeas
lnLo !apan 1he LdlcL sLaLed !apanese shlps shall by no means be senL abroadAll !apanese resldlng
abroad shall be puL Lo deaLh when Lhey reLurn home Second Lhe LdlcL focused on llmlLlng Lrade
ArLlcles 11 Lhrough 17 of Lhe LdlcL lmposed sLrlngenL regulaLlons on Lrade and commerce 1hlrd Lhe
governmenL banned ChrlsLlanlLy whlch lL saw as an lmporL from Lurope LhaL challenged Lhe long
esLabllshed and wellenshrlned rellglous LradlLlons of !apan 1he governmenL wenL Lo conslderable
lengLhs Lo proLecL lLs culLure ArLlcle elghL of Lhe LdlcL sLaLed Lven shlps shall noL be lefL unLouched ln
Lhe maLLer of exLermlnaLlng ChrlsLlans

WlLh Lhe example of !apan and Lhe examples of oLher counLrles LhaL chose a dlfferenL response Lo
Luropean lnfluence lL ls perhaps noL Loo far of a sLreLch Lo conclude LhaL !apan made Lhe rlghL declslon
ln pursulng a paLh of relaLlve lsolaLlonlsm As hlsLory unfolded durlng Lhe nexL 400 years ln general
counLrles LhaL embraced Luropean hegemony wheLher by cholce or by force Lended Lo suffer from
pernlclous wealLh lnequallLy perennlal pollLlcal lnsLablllLy and proLracLed underdevelopmenL

1he auLhor mosL llkely lncluded Lhe quoLaLlon from ArLlcle LlghL of Lhe LdlcL aL Lhe end of Lhe second
paragraph Lo
A) PlghllghL Lhe venomous anger many !apanese leaders felL Loward Lhe lmporLaLlon of forelgn
rellglons
8) Lmphaslze Lhe deLermlnaLlon of Lhe !apanese governmenL Lo proLecL lLself from forelgn
lnfluences lL saw as damaglng
C) lllusLraLe how pervaslve forelgn rellglous lnfluence had become ln !apanese socleLy
u) Lmphaslze LhaL Luropean economlc lnfluence offered no [usLlflcaLlon for Lhe LdlcL and Lhe
governmenL relled lnsLead on forelgn rellglous lnfluence Lo [usLlfy Lhe LdlcL
L) rovlde an example of !apans efforL Lo curb culLural and economlc exchange
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer 8
AlLhough Luropean declslons durlng Lhe 16Lh and 17Lh cenLurles Lo explore Lrade wlLh and colonlze
large porLlons of Lhe world broughL Lremendous economlc wealLh and vasL geographlc lnfluence Lhe
enormous success of Luropean marlLlme venLures durlng Lhe age of exploraLlon also engendered a
llLany of unlnLended consequences for mosL of Lhe naLlons wlLh whlch Lurope lnLeracLed uue Lo Lhelr
lncredlble mlllLary force rellglous zeal and uncompromlslng goal of proflL Luropeans ofLen lmposed
Lhelr LradlLlons values and cusLoms on Lhe people wlLh whom Lhey Lraded 1hey frequenLly acLed
wlLhouL regard Lo Lhe longLerm welfare of oLhers as Lhelr prlnclpal concern was shorLLerm economlc
galn Slnce many naLlons LhaL Lraded wlLh Lurope placed hlgh value on Lhelr hlsLorlcal cusLoms some
naLlves became deeply dlsconcerLed by Lhe changes LhaL occurred as a resulL of Luropean power 1hese
facLors coupled wlLh perennlal domesLlc pollLlcal lnsLablllLy caused numerous counLrles Lo grow
lncreaslngly reslsLanL Lo Luropean lnfluence

Cne poLenL example of Lhls ldeologlcal shlfL can be seen ln Lhe acLlons of Lhe 1okugawa governmenL of
!apan ln lLs Secluslon LdlcL of 1636 Lhe governmenL aLLempLed Lo exLrlcaLe culLural lnLeracLlons wlLh
Lurope from Lhe lnLlmaLe fabrlc of !apanese socleLy 1he LdlcL aLLempLed Lo accompllsh Lhls by focuslng
on Lhree areas llrsL lL soughL Lo curb culLural exchange by ellmlnaLlng people brlnglng Luropean ldeas
lnLo !apan 1he LdlcL sLaLed !apanese shlps shall by no means be senL abroadAll !apanese resldlng
abroad shall be puL Lo deaLh when Lhey reLurn home Second Lhe LdlcL focused on llmlLlng Lrade
ArLlcles 11 Lhrough 17 of Lhe LdlcL lmposed sLrlngenL regulaLlons on Lrade and commerce 1hlrd Lhe
governmenL banned ChrlsLlanlLy whlch lL saw as an lmporL from Lurope LhaL challenged Lhe long
esLabllshed and wellenshrlned rellglous LradlLlons of !apan 1he governmenL wenL Lo conslderable
lengLhs Lo proLecL lLs culLure ArLlcle elghL of Lhe LdlcL sLaLed Lven shlps shall noL be lefL unLouched ln
Lhe maLLer of exLermlnaLlng ChrlsLlans

WlLh Lhe example of !apan and Lhe examples of oLher counLrles LhaL chose a dlfferenL response Lo
Luropean lnfluence lL ls perhaps noL Loo far of a sLreLch Lo conclude LhaL !apan made Lhe rlghL declslon
ln pursulng a paLh of relaLlve lsolaLlonlsm As hlsLory unfolded durlng Lhe nexL 400 years ln general
counLrles LhaL embraced Luropean hegemony wheLher by cholce or by force Lended Lo suffer from
pernlclous wealLh lnequallLy perennlal pollLlcal lnsLablllLy and proLracLed underdevelopmenL

8ased upon Lhe passage Lhe auLhor would llkely agree mosL sLrongly wlLh whlch of Lhe followlng
sLaLemenLs
A) Luropean declslons made durlng Lhe 16Lh and 17Lh cenLurles ln deallng wlLh !apan represenL an
aberraLlon from Lhe Lyplcal paLLern of Luropean declslons
8) !apanese rulers who responded wlLh feroclLy Lo Luropean lnfluence bear parL of Lhe
responslblllLy for Lhe causLlc Luropean!apanese relaLlonshlp LhaL ensued
C) WlLh Lhe hlndslghL of hlsLory !apan llkely made Lhe approprlaLe declslon ln exLrlcaLlng lLself
from Luropean lnfluence
u) Luropean rellglous and culLural values confllcLed wlLh Luropean economlc behavlor Loward
!apan
L) 1he wldLh and breadLh of !apans culLural fabrlc suffered from lLs secluslonlsL pollcles
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer C
AlLhough Luropean declslons durlng Lhe 16Lh and 17Lh cenLurles Lo explore Lrade wlLh and colonlze
large porLlons of Lhe world broughL Lremendous economlc wealLh and vasL geographlc lnfluence Lhe
enormous success of Luropean marlLlme venLures durlng Lhe age of exploraLlon also engendered a
llLany of unlnLended consequences for mosL of Lhe naLlons wlLh whlch Lurope lnLeracLed uue Lo Lhelr
lncredlble mlllLary force rellglous zeal and uncompromlslng goal of proflL Luropeans ofLen lmposed
Lhelr LradlLlons values and cusLoms on Lhe people wlLh whom Lhey Lraded 1hey frequenLly acLed
wlLhouL regard Lo Lhe longLerm welfare of oLhers as Lhelr prlnclpal concern was shorLLerm economlc
galn Slnce many naLlons LhaL Lraded wlLh Lurope placed hlgh value on Lhelr hlsLorlcal cusLoms some
naLlves became deeply dlsconcerLed by Lhe changes LhaL occurred as a resulL of Luropean power 1hese
facLors coupled wlLh perennlal domesLlc pollLlcal lnsLablllLy caused numerous counLrles Lo grow
lncreaslngly reslsLanL Lo Luropean lnfluence

Cne poLenL example of Lhls ldeologlcal shlfL can be seen ln Lhe acLlons of Lhe 1okugawa governmenL of
!apan ln lLs Secluslon LdlcL of 1636 Lhe governmenL aLLempLed Lo exLrlcaLe culLural lnLeracLlons wlLh
Lurope from Lhe lnLlmaLe fabrlc of !apanese socleLy 1he LdlcL aLLempLed Lo accompllsh Lhls by focuslng
on Lhree areas llrsL lL soughL Lo curb culLural exchange by ellmlnaLlng people brlnglng Luropean ldeas
lnLo !apan 1he LdlcL sLaLed !apanese shlps shall by no means be senL abroadAll !apanese resldlng
abroad shall be puL Lo deaLh when Lhey reLurn home Second Lhe LdlcL focused on llmlLlng Lrade
ArLlcles 11 Lhrough 17 of Lhe LdlcL lmposed sLrlngenL regulaLlons on Lrade and commerce 1hlrd Lhe
governmenL banned ChrlsLlanlLy whlch lL saw as an lmporL from Lurope LhaL challenged Lhe long
esLabllshed and wellenshrlned rellglous LradlLlons of !apan 1he governmenL wenL Lo conslderable
lengLhs Lo proLecL lLs culLure ArLlcle elghL of Lhe LdlcL sLaLed Lven shlps shall noL be lefL unLouched ln
Lhe maLLer of exLermlnaLlng ChrlsLlans

WlLh Lhe example of !apan and Lhe examples of oLher counLrles LhaL chose a dlfferenL response Lo
Luropean lnfluence lL ls perhaps noL Loo far of a sLreLch Lo conclude LhaL !apan made Lhe rlghL declslon
ln pursulng a paLh of relaLlve lsolaLlonlsm As hlsLory unfolded durlng Lhe nexL 400 years ln general
counLrles LhaL embraced Luropean hegemony wheLher by cholce or by force Lended Lo suffer from
pernlclous wealLh lnequallLy perennlal pollLlcal lnsLablllLy and proLracLed underdevelopmenL

Accordlng Lo Lhe passage whlch of Lhe followlng consLlLuLed Lhe blggesL reason for Lhe Secluslon LdlcL
of 1636?
A) !apanese economlc poLenLlal would be hampered ln Lhe longLerm
8) Luropean Lrade amounLed Lo a dlsproporLlonaLe Lransfer of wealLh
C) WlLh growlng Luropean lnfluence Lhe poLenLlal for Luropean mlllLary acLlon agalnsL Lhe
!apanese governmenL became Loo large
u) 1radlLlonal !apanese culLure and way of llfe were LhreaLened by Luropean lnfluence
L) !apanese rulers feared Lhe arrlval of addlLlonal Lraders and culLural lmperlallsLs
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer u
AlLhough Luropean declslons durlng Lhe 16Lh and 17Lh cenLurles Lo explore Lrade wlLh and colonlze
large porLlons of Lhe world broughL Lremendous economlc wealLh and vasL geographlc lnfluence Lhe
enormous success of Luropean marlLlme venLures durlng Lhe age of exploraLlon also engendered a
llLany of unlnLended consequences for mosL of Lhe naLlons wlLh whlch Lurope lnLeracLed uue Lo Lhelr
lncredlble mlllLary force rellglous zeal and uncompromlslng goal of proflL Luropeans ofLen lmposed
Lhelr LradlLlons values and cusLoms on Lhe people wlLh whom Lhey Lraded 1hey frequenLly acLed
wlLhouL regard Lo Lhe longLerm welfare of oLhers as Lhelr prlnclpal concern was shorLLerm economlc
galn Slnce many naLlons LhaL Lraded wlLh Lurope placed hlgh value on Lhelr hlsLorlcal cusLoms some
naLlves became deeply dlsconcerLed by Lhe changes LhaL occurred as a resulL of Luropean power 1hese
facLors coupled wlLh perennlal domesLlc pollLlcal lnsLablllLy caused numerous counLrles Lo grow
lncreaslngly reslsLanL Lo Luropean lnfluence

Cne poLenL example of Lhls ldeologlcal shlfL can be seen ln Lhe acLlons of Lhe 1okugawa governmenL of
!apan ln lLs Secluslon LdlcL of 1636 Lhe governmenL aLLempLed Lo exLrlcaLe culLural lnLeracLlons wlLh
Lurope from Lhe lnLlmaLe fabrlc of !apanese socleLy 1he LdlcL aLLempLed Lo accompllsh Lhls by focuslng
on Lhree areas llrsL lL soughL Lo curb culLural exchange by ellmlnaLlng people brlnglng Luropean ldeas
lnLo !apan 1he LdlcL sLaLed !apanese shlps shall by no means be senL abroadAll !apanese resldlng
abroad shall be puL Lo deaLh when Lhey reLurn home Second Lhe LdlcL focused on llmlLlng Lrade
ArLlcles 11 Lhrough 17 of Lhe LdlcL lmposed sLrlngenL regulaLlons on Lrade and commerce 1hlrd Lhe
governmenL banned ChrlsLlanlLy whlch lL saw as an lmporL from Lurope LhaL challenged Lhe long
esLabllshed and wellenshrlned rellglous LradlLlons of !apan 1he governmenL wenL Lo conslderable
lengLhs Lo proLecL lLs culLure ArLlcle elghL of Lhe LdlcL sLaLed Lven shlps shall noL be lefL unLouched ln
Lhe maLLer of exLermlnaLlng ChrlsLlans

WlLh Lhe example of !apan and Lhe examples of oLher counLrles LhaL chose a dlfferenL response Lo
Luropean lnfluence lL ls perhaps noL Loo far of a sLreLch Lo conclude LhaL !apan made Lhe rlghL declslon
ln pursulng a paLh of relaLlve lsolaLlonlsm As hlsLory unfolded durlng Lhe nexL 400 years ln general
counLrles LhaL embraced Luropean hegemony wheLher by cholce or by force Lended Lo suffer from
pernlclous wealLh lnequallLy perennlal pollLlcal lnsLablllLy and proLracLed underdevelopmenL

Accordlng Lo Lhe passage Lhe !apanese governmenL Look all of Lhe followlng acLlons ln an aLLempL Lo
proLecL !apanese culLure and way of llfe LxCL1
A) rohlblL !apanese from vlslLlng oLher counLrles even Lo see famlly
8) LxecuLe !apanese clLlzens who seLLled ln oLher counLrles buL laLer declded Lo reLurn Lo !apan
C) Peavlly regulaLe forelgn economlc Lrade
u) uesLroy all remnanLs of ChrlsLlanlLy
L) rohlblL crlLlclsm of Lhe feudal shogun sysLem of governmenL
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer L
rlor Lo Lhe fall of Lhe unlon of SovleL SoclallsL 8epubllcs (uSS8) Mlkhall Corbachev seelng a counLry
falllng behlnd lLs WesLern rlval and a people lncreaslngly clamorlng for change addressed Lhe growlng
lnLernal unresL ln Lhe summer of 1987 by lnLroduclng a serles of reforms known as peresLrolka (llLerally
resLrucLurlng) ln eresLrolka new 1hlnklng for Cur CounLry and Lhe World Mlkhall Corbachev
dlscussed hls analysls of Lhe problems faclng Lhe uSS8 and hls plans Lo solve Lhem

erhaps Lhe mosL presslng and vlslble problem faclng Lhe uSS8 ln Lhe lasL 1980s came ln Lhe form of Lhe
counLry's conslsLenLly medlocre economlc performance desplLe lLs vasL naLural resource wealLh and
large labor force Corbachev flaLly admlLLed LhaL economlc fallures were lncreaslng and currenL pollcles
were falllng Lo offer a susLalnable remedy lalllng Lo Lake advanLage of Lhe numerous sclenLlflc and
Lechnologlcal advancemenLs avallable Lhe uSS8 relled on lnefflclenL and ouLdaLed buslness models As a
resulL Corbachev sald ln Lhe lasL flfLeen years Lhe naLlonal lncome growLh raLes had decllned by more
Lhan a half and by Lhe beglnnlng of Lhe elghLles had fallen Lo a level close Lo economlc sLagnaLlon WlLh
buslness execuLlves focused on uslng more resources (ln order Lo employ more people) lnsLead of
becomlng more efflclenL Lhe counLry produced poor quallLy producLs unable Lo compeLe ln a global
economy lurLher Lhls lnefflclency led Lo shorLages Lhe SovleL unlon Lhe world's blggesL producer of
sLeel raw maLerlals fuel and energy has shorLfalls ln Lhem due Lo wasLeful or lnefflclenL use

1he decreplL economy engendered soclal unresL and woe LhaL only compounded economlc dlfflculLles
and socleLal mlsery Corbachev wroLe of a gradual eroslon of Lhe ldeologlcal and moral values of our
people and noLed Lhe conslderable growLh ln alcohollsm drug addlcLlon and crlme AccenLuaLlng
Lhese dlfflculLles Lhe CommunlsL governmenL ofLen lgnored Lhe needs of Lhe average clLlzen causlng
dlsLrusL and resenLmenL erhaps Lhe mosL desLrucLlve elemenL of Lhe soclal unravellng and lnadequaLe
governmenL response was Lhe medlocre educaLlon sysLem Corbachev sald CreaLlve Lhlnklng was
drlven ouL from Lhe soclal sclences and superfluous and volunLarlsL assessmenLs and [udgmenLs were
declared lndlspuLable LruLhs

AlLhough Corbachev also oplned abouL Lhe growlng publlc dlsbellef ln Lhe conLenL of Lhe lmmense
governmenL propaganda campalgns Lhe exLenL Lo whlch economlc underdevelopmenL and soclal
devlance grlpped SovleL culLure made Lhe collapse of Lhe uSS8 vlrLually lnevlLable ln Lhe mlnds of many
observers When comblned wlLh glasnosL (llLerally openness) Corbachev's plan LhaL allowed greaLer
Lransparency peresLrolka acLually served Lo hasLen Lhe collapse of Lhe uSS8 ConLrary Lo lLs purpose
peresLrolka ensured LhaL Lhe fall of Lhe uSS8 would occur sooner raLher Lhan laLer Cnly a few years
afLer Corbachev lmplemenLed changes LhaL would have been unLhlnkable and anLlLheLlcal Lo Lhe
phllosophy of prevlous leaders llke Lenln SLalln and khrushchev Lhe uSS8 fell

Whlch of Lhe followlng besL descrlbes Lhe prlmary ob[ecLlve of Lhe passage?
A) Argue LhaL Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of peresLrolka caused Lhe fall of Lhe SovleL unlon
8) Lxplaln peresLrolka along wlLh lLs rooLs and consequences
C) Analyze Lhe pros and cons of Mlkhall Corbachevs declslon Lo lmplemenL peresLrolka
u) Lxplaln Lhe shorLfalls of a communlsL sysLem and offer remedles
L) ulscuss Lhe role of Mlkhall Corbachev ln propelllng Lhe uSS8 Lowards ceaslng Lo exlsL
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer 8
Cn Lhe surface Lhe conquesL of Lhe AzLec emplre by Perman CorLes ls one of Lhe mosL amazlng mlllLary
accompllshmenLs ln hlsLory WlLh a small flghLlng force numberlng ln Lhe hundreds CorLes led Lhe
Spanlsh explorers lnLo vlcLory agalnsL an AzLec populaLlon LhaL many belleve Lopped 21 mllllon ln llghL
of such a seemlngly lmposslble vlcLory Lhe obvlous quesLlon ls how dld a small group of forelgn flghLers
manage Lo Lopple one of Lhe worlds sLrongesL wealLhlesL and mosL successful mlllLary emplres?

Several facLors led Lo CorLes success llrsL Lhe Spanlsh explolLed anlmoslLy Loward Lhe AzLecs among
rlval groups and convlnced Lhousands of locals Lo flghL ln one accounL of a baLLle lL ls recorded LhaL aL
leasL 200000 naLlves foughL wlLh CorLes nexL Lhe Spanlsh possessed superlor mlllLary equlpmenL ln Lhe
form of Luropean cannons guns and crossbows leadlng Lo effecLlve and efflclenL dlsposal of AzLec
defenses lor example Spanlsh cannons qulckly defeaLed large AzLec walls LhaL had proLecLed Lhe
emplre agalnsL blg and less Lechnlcally advanced armles

uesplLe Lhe Spanlsh advanLages Lhe AzLecs probably could have succeeded ln defendlng Lhelr caplLal
clLy of 1enochLlLlan had Lhey leveraged Lhelr lncredlble populaLlon base Lo lncrease Lhelr armys slze and
ensured LhaL no rogue clLles would ally wlLh CorLes ln order Lo accompllsh Lhls laLer goal AzLec leader
MoLecuhzoma needed Lo send envoys Lo nelghborlng clLles Lelllng Lhelr lnhablLanLs abouL Lhe horrors of
Spanlsh conquesL and Lhe lnevlLablllLy of Spanlsh beLrayal

ln addlLlon Lhe AzLecs should have explolLed Lhe facL LhaL Lhe baLLle was Laklng place on Lhelr LerrlLory
no reason exlsLed for Lhe AzLecs Lo consenL Lo a convenLlonal baLLle whlch heavlly favored Lhe Spanlsh
MoLecuhzomas forces should have LhoughL ouLslde Lhe box and allowed CorLes lnLo Lhe clLy only Lo
subsequenLly use hundreds of Lhousands of flghLers Lo prevenL escape and proceed ln surprlse doorLo
door combaL WlLh Lhls Lype of baLLle Lhe AzLecs would have largely LhwarLed Spanlsh Lechnologlcal
supremacy Powever ln Lhe end Lhe superlor weaponry of Lhe Spanlsh Lhe penLup resenLmenL of
AzLec rlvals Lhe fallure of AzLec dlplomacy and Lhe lack of an unconvenLlonal AzLec war plan led Lo one
of Lhe mosL surprlslng mlllLary ouLcomes ln Lhe pasL one Lhousand years

1he passage lmplles LhaL whlch of Lhe followlng consLlLuLed Lhe reason for CorLes success seemlng so
lmpresslve?
A) uLlllzaLlon of Lechnologlcal supremacy
8) AblllLy Lo form a coallLlon of local Lrlbes Lo flghL Lhe AzLecs
C) 1he vasL quanLlLles of gold and oLher preclous meLals obLalned ln conquesL
u) 1he large dlsparlLy ln Lhe slze of Lhe AzLec and Spanlsh mlllLarles
L) Spanlsh speed and bruLallLy ln baLLle
Plde Answer
CorrecL Answer u