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Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.

Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh


ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
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SVTH: Nhm 2 - HTP3
GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Nm hc: 2010-2011
TP. H CH MINH, 11-2010
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
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SINH VIN THC HIN MSSV
Trn Th Hng Cm 07700391
Nguyn Th Diu My 07704521
ng Th Thu Tho 07709241
Nguyn Th Thu Trang 07703651
ng Bo Trung 07713201
TP. H CH MINH, 11-2010
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
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u tin, nhm xin chn thnh cm n n Trng i Hc
Cng Nghip Thnh Ph H Ch Minh to cho chng em mi
trng hc tp thoi mi.
Cm n Vin Cng Ngh Sinh Hc - Thc Phm trang b
cho chng em nhng kin thc cn thit hon thnh bi tiu
lun ny. Xin gi li cm n chn thnh n Th vin trung tm
cung cp cho chng em ngun ti liu thit thc.
V c bit, xin gi li cm n chn thnh nht n ThS.
Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh, ThS. Nguyn B Thanh, cm n c thy
tn tnh hng dn nhm kp thi hon thnh bi tiu lun
trong thi gian sm nht. Mt ln na xin cm n c thy!
Tp th Nhm 2 HTP3
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
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M U ...................................................................................................................... 6
NI DUNG CHNH ................................................................................................... 7
I.Xy dng chin lc pht trin sn phm ............................................................. 7
1. Gi nh .................................................................................................................... 7
2. Phn tch SWOT ....................................................................................................... 7
II.Pht trin v sng lc tng ............................................................................... 9
1. Cc tng pht trin sn phm .............................................................................. 9
2. La chn v nh gi 10 tng chn................................................................ 14
2.1. La chn 10 tng .............................................................................................. 14
2.2. nh gi 10 tng chn ................................................................................. 18
3.Sng lc cc thuc tnh .............................................................................................. 21
4. iu tra sn phm ..................................................................................................... 23
4.1. Bng cu hi iu tra ............................................................................................. 23
4.2. X l kt qu iu tra ............................................................................................ 28
4.3.Nhn xt kt qu iu tra bnh bng lan nha am ..................................................33
5. nh gi cc yu t nh hng cc thuc tnh sn phm ........................................ 35
III.Pht trin sn phm nguyn mu trong phng th nghim .............................. 39
1. Gii thiu tng quan sn phm ................................................................................. 39
1.1. Bnh bng lan ........................................................................................................ 39
1.1.1. Gii thiu tng quan nguyn liu ....................................................................... 39
1.1.2. Quy trnh d kin ................................................................................................ 47
1.1.3. Thuyt minh quy trnh ........................................................................................ 48
1.2. Mt nha am .......................................................................................................... 52
1.2.1. Gii thiu tng quan nguyn liu ....................................................................... 52
1.2.2. Quy trnh d kin ................................................................................................ 58
1.2.3. Thuyt minh quy trnh ........................................................................................ 59
2.B tr th nghim kho st dnh ca mt nha am theo lng v loi ph gia s
dng ( Th nghim 1) .................................................................................................. ..63
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
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2.1.B tr th nghim ................................................................................................... ..63
2.2.Phng php x l kt qu ................................................................................... ..65
3.Th nghim kho st s nh hng ca lng mc ti kt dnh ca 2 lp bnh
(Th nghim 2) ............................................................................................................ ..65
3.1.B tr th nghim ................................................................................................... ..65
2.2.X l kt qu v nhn xt ..................................................................................... ..67
4.Kho st th hiu ngi tiu dng v sn phm mi ............................................... ..67
4.1.B tr th nghim cm quan .................................................................................. ..67
4.2.X l kt qu v nhn xt ..................................................................................... ..71
IV.PH LC ............................................................................................................... 75
Ph lc I. Bng kt qu iu tra kin ngi tiu dng .............................................. 75
Ph lc II. nh 10 tng theo phng php cho im ........................................... 78
Ph lc III. nh gi thuc tnh sn phm ................................................................... 81
Ph lc IV. Yu t nh hng ti cc thuc tnh ca bnh bng lan nha am ............ 88
Ph lc V. Cc ph gia to gel khc ng dng trong thc phm ............................... ..91
KT LUN ............................................................................................................... 101
TI LIU THAM KHO ........................................................................................ 102














Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
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Cng ngy cng c nhiu cng ty thc phm mc ln theo xu th pht trin mnh
ca x hi, chng ta s b o thi, loi tr nu khng c s pht trin, i mi cho
ph hp nhu cu th hiu ngy cng cao. Thm ch s b chm hn so vi cc cng ty
khc nu ch sn xut cc sn phm tng t, chng c im c sc s khin cho
nguy c b o thi cng ln hn. V vy pht trin sn phm l khu quan trng trong
sn xut, cn ch quan tm hn, v n c th gp phn tng doanh thu, li ko khch
hng v nng cao thng hiu
Nhu cu n ung tng ln vi nhng nhu cu chm sc sc khe tt hn cng
c quan tm, ch trng hn do nn kinh t cng ngy cng i ln, n no ngy nay
khng cn n gin m i hi phi ngon, b ph hp s thch m phi cn c li cho
sc khe na. X hi pht trin cng nng ng hn, tng lp tr thc cng tng mnh,
thi gian dnh cho cng vic ngy cng nhiu hn, t th vui n ung ngy cng
phong ph thm cho nhng bui giao lu vn ha, va phi tin li cho s dng, va
cht dinh dng cho cuc sng nng ng, va ph hp s thch n ung, va c
th p ng nhu cu thm m nh chm sc ln da, c th...
Trong xu th , chng ti tin hnh kho st th trng v phn tch nhu cu th
hiu ngi tiu dng to ra sn phm mi khng ch vi mc ch c th tn ti
trn th trng v khng b o thi theo quy lut loi tr ca xu th cnh tranh ngy
nay, m vi mc ch cui cng l ng dng nhng hiu bit ca chng ti chm
sc tt hn cho sc khe ngi tiu dng. To thm nim tin ca khch hng i vi
chng ti l chng ti lun quan tm n h, lng nghe h v hng n sc khe con
ngi, nhu cu ca h m c nhng ci thin ph hp nht.






Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
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I.Xy dng chin lc pht trin sn phm
1.Gi nh
Vi mc ch lm quen vi mn hc pht trin sn phm thc phm cng nh
trang b c nhng kin thc nn tng v lnh vc mi ny nn nhm chng em
gi nh nhm mnh l nhm sinh vin ang thc hin vic thit k pht trin sn
phm mi trong phng th nghim.
2.Phn tch SWOT
2.1.im mnh
Con ngi:
+ Sing nng, chu kh, nng ng.
+ c trang b cc kin thc chuyn ngnh v thc phm.
+ C k nng thc hnh ti phng th nghim.
+ C kh nng tm ti liu
C s vt cht: c h thng trang thit b, my mc tng i hon thin bao gm cc
loi sau:
+ My o quang.
+ My tit trng.
+ My cn.
+ My cutter
+ My ct.
+ B iu nhit.
+ My ghp m hp.
+ My chin chn khng.
+ B chng ct.
+ My nhi.
+ Bp ga.
+ T mt.
+ T lnh.
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
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+ H thng ray.
+ My ng np chai.
+ My ng gi.
+ My trn bt.
+ My np CO
2

+ T lnh ng.
+ My nh trng.
+ Thit b lm lnh nhanh.
+ T sy.
+ My ghp m ht chn khng.
+ My li tm.
+ My hun khi.
+ My cn m si.
+ My sy hng ngoi.
+ T .
+ T nung.
+ Dng c phn tch.
+ L nng.
+ Bnh ht m.
+ My lc chn khng.
+ My ct nc.
+ My o c l.
Cc yu t tc ng khc:
+ c s dng phng th nghim thng xuyn.
+ c s h tr t gio vin.
+ c s h tr, quan tm ca gia nh, bn b.
+ C phng tin i li thun tin.
+ Ni gn trng.
2.2.im yu
+ Kin thc cha su.
+ Kh nng t chc, b tr th nghim cha cao.
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
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+ K nng dch ti liu cha tt.
+ Kinh t hn hp.
+ Cha c tip xc vi mi trng lm vic thc t.
+ Cha am hiu r v cc sn phm trn th trng.
+ Khng c kinh nghim gii quyt vn khi gp s c.
2.3.C hi
+ Pht trin c nhiu sn phm qui m phng th nghim nh sc sn, thy
sn, nng sn, ung.
+ Sn phm c kh nng a ra th trng.
2.4.Nguy c
+ D gp s c nh hng n cht lng thc phm.
+ Kh nng chp nhn ca ngi tiu dng khng cao.
II.Pht trin v sng lc tng
1.Cc tng pht trin sn phm
STT tng M t vn tt sn phm
1 Xc xch ln men
Xc xch ln men c lm t cc loi tht p mui,
ln men v hun khi nhng chng c th khng cn
qua ch bin bng nhit theo bt k phng php no
khi x dng.
2
Xc xch c Basa

Cch thc ch bin tng t nh cc loi xc xch
khc, ch thay th thnh phn nguyn liu chnh l c
Basa v b sung mt s thnh phn ph sao cho ph
hp.
3
Xc xch g

Nguyn liu chnh l tht g, m heo v cc thnh
phn ph khc nh protein u nnh, tinh bt, ph gia
v gia v (mui, ng, bt ngt, tiu, ti...)
Sn phm lm tng s a dng cho dng xc xch,
tng cm hng cho nhng ngi thch dng tht g.
4 Nem g
c lm t nguyn liu chnh l tht g, c ch
bin tng t cc loi nem khc hin ang c trn th
trng. Sn phm c v chua ging nem v hng v
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
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m ca tht g v cc ph liu.
5
c kho s t
ng hp

L sn phm dn d, p ng nhu cu dinh dng ca
ngi tiu dng.
Nguyn liu chnh l c, x l sch ri tm p gia v,
s t cho ngm vo, em xo ln ri ng hp.
6
Mc st c ng
hp
Thnh phn chnh l mc ti c x l s b ri cho
nc st c vo em ng hp.
7
Ch c thc lc
st me ng hp
Thnh phn gm ch c, gia v p c, du n, s
v st me. Dng ny c ng hp bo qun v
a ra th trng.
8 Mc chua
L sn phm ln men tng t cc sn phm ln men
lactic khc tuy nhin c b sung cc loi rau to
nn mi v c trng cho sn phm nh hnh ty, c
rt, chui xanh, kh chua, me, t, gia v (nc mm,
ng, mui)
9
Nem tm

Thnh phn chnh l tm ngoi ra b sung cc thnh
phn khc tng t cc loi nem khc, tuy nhin sn
phm thu c s c nhng s khc bit c trng to
nt mi l v p ng th hiu ngi tiu dng.
10 c tm gia v
Nguyn liu chnh l c ti ( c bu ) c x l s
b, sy s b sau tm gia v v sy hon thin sn
phm. y l sn phm mang tnh dn d, tin li,
giu cht dinh dng.
11
Trng ct ln bt
chin st c ng
hp

Thnh phn gm: trng ct, tht nc xay, trng, bt
m v mt s gia v. Sau khi sn phm c to thnh
tin hnh cho nc st c vo to hng v c trng
cho sn phm.
12
Mt x mt

L loi mt kh tng t nh mt ht sen, mt da.
Cch thc thc hin tng t nh vy. Sn phm gip
tn dng ngun ph phm.
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13
Mt mng cu
xim ng hp
Mng cu c tch ht, ch ly phn nc c c n
Brix thch hp b sung cc ph gia to ng.
14
Tht g kho s
ng hp

Sn phm gia nh phc v cho nhu cu n lin ca
nhng ngi khng c thi gian ch cn hm nng li
l c th dng ngay.
Nguyn liu chnh l tht g v mt s gia v khc.
Tht g sau khi kho vi s c ng hp, tit trng v
bo qun.
15
Mm da leo

L dng da leo mui chua sau b sung cc thnh
phn gia v vo phi trn li, mm dnh cho ngi n
chay, rt d lm.
16
Nm bo ng tm
gia v

Sau khi x l v tm gia v ta tin hnh sy n m
thch hp cho bo qun, thch hp cho ngi n chay
v nm bo ng l nguyn liu c nhiu cht dinh
dng.
17 X mt sy
Cng c th tn dng x mt to sn phm sy nng
cao gi tr kinh t, b sung thm ng v cc ph gia
nhm tng tnh cm quan hn.
18
Tr ru bp ng
hp
Ru bp c nu si vi nc trch ly cc dng
cht, b sung cc thnh phn nguyn liu khc, sau
phi trn vi syrup n Brix thch hp, thanh trng.
19 Nem chay u
L sn phm ln men lactic t nguyn liu chnh l u
. Cu trc sn phm tng t cc sn phm nem lm
t tht, c tuy nhin y l sn phm dnh cho nhng
ngi n chay.
20
Sa khoai mn
ng chai
Khoai mn c xay mn lc ly nc tin hnh nu,
b sung ng, ph gia to nh.
21
Nc yn ngn
nh hng chanh
Nm tuyt c lm sch, bm nh, phi trn vi
syrup, b sung ph gia m bo cu trc v mi v ca
sn phm.
22 Mm linh chng C sau khi lm mm c chng cch thy ri ng
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ng hp hp.
23
Ch tht nt u
xanh ng hp
Tht c ct nh ht lu nu chung vi u xanh, b
sung cocktail v mt s thnh phn khc, sau ng
hp.
24 Pate gan g
Tng t cc sn phm pate khc ch thay th nguyn
liu l gan g. Tng tnh a dng cho sn phm, p
ng th hiu ngi tiu dng.
25
Chui sy tm
gia v chin gin
Chui c lm sch, sau c tm gia v v chin
gin c bo qun ht chn khng.
26
Tht hm tht nt
ng hp
Tht c hm vi nc tht nt, b sung tht tht nt
nhm tng hng v c trng cho sn phm, sau
c ng hp.
27
Tht kho nc
da ng hp
Tht kho nc da, sau ng hp tng thi gian
bo qun sn phm.
28
Bp non tm gia
v
Bp non c x l sch ro, c th sy s b, tm
gia v, sau sy hon thin. Sn phm c th c
dng ngay hoc ch bin li theo s thch.
29
Ch c thc lc
sy kh
C thc lc ly phn tht trn gia v, ph gia ri em
sy kh bo qun v a n tay ngi tiu dung.
30 Sa ke mui chua
Sake xt mng sau tin hnh ln men lactic. Sn
phm c th c trn chung vi cc nguyn liu khc
n sng hoc c th qua ch bin.
31
Sa ke chin ht
chn khng
Sake ct lt ln bt, chin gin, c bao gi chn
khng.
32
Mt nha am
dng mamalate
Nha am ch ly nc tin hnh c c vi ng n
Brix thch hp sau phi trn vi nha am ct
thnh ming ln to dng mamalade.
33 Fomai hng du
Dng ph mai c b sung hng du lm a dng,
phong ph cho sn phm.
34
Tng ht t u
xanh
Nhm to s a dng sn phm, p ng th hiu
ngi tiu dng, tng c s dng t u xanh lm
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nguyn liu thay th u nnh.
35 Mt kh qua Kh qua xt lt, sn vi ng ri sy kh.
36
Gi gia v nm
lu mm
Dng sn phm n lin, gip ngi ni tr tit kim
thi gian.
37 Cho nm n lin
Nm c sy b sung vo gi gia v, sn phm phc
v cho ngi n chay.
38 Cho cc n lin
Tht cc c x l sch ri bm nhuyn, p tm gia
v, em sy kh dng n lin p ng nhu cu tiu
dng.
39 Kem chin
Kem c ln bt chin, lp bn trong lnh, lp ngoi
l bt, bao gi chn khng, bo qun lnh ng.
40 B nhi tht
B gt v, b ht c nhi tht xay v cc thnh
phn khc, sau i hp v bo qun lnh ng. Tng
tnh tin li cho ngi tiu dng
41 Mt nhi tht tm Mt b ht nhi tht tm xay nhuyn sau em hp.
42
Kh qua nhi tht
ng hp
Kh qua b ht nhi tht xay vo v tin hnh em
hp, ng hp.
43 Sa chua v bi
V bi c tch ly phn v trng, ngm mui, luc
chn ri b sung vo sa chua, tng t nh sa chua
tri cy.
44
Canh mng cun
tht
Sn phm bao gm nhiu lp: bn ngoi l lp mng,
k n l lp tu h ki, bn trong l gi tht v cc
thnh phn khc ri cun trn li, c qun cht
bng si hnh. Sau c cho vo ni canh nu ln.
Sn phm c km theo gi gia v nm canh.
45
Bnh bng lan
nhn nha am
Sn phm bnh bng lan gm hai lp, c lp mt nha
am gia.
46
Khoai lang sy
tm gia v
C khoai lang ct lt mng, p gia v (mui, tiu, ti,
t) ri em sy bo qun.
47 Ch gi rong bin
Sn phm ch gi c cun bn ngoi thm lp rong
bin to hng v c trng mi l cho sn phm
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48 Ht g nng
Ht g rt dch ri phi trn gia v cho hi ha ri cho
tr vo v trng, em nng s b ri ng gi chn
khng, bo qun lnh, ngi tiu dng nng li ri
dng.
49
t chung nhi
tht ng lnh
Tht xay nhuyn trn nm mo v gia v cho hi ha
ri nhi vo t chung c loi b rut.
50

Sa chua khoai
mn
Tng t cc sn phm sa chua trn th trng nhng
c b sung khoai mn c xt lu ri em ln
men, bo qun lnh.

2.La chn v nh gi 10 tng chn
2.1.La chn 10 tng
Sau khi thu thp 50 tng nhm tin hnh tho lun v nh gi chn ra 10
tng.
Tiu ch sng lc 50 tng cn li 10 tng :
- Kh nng p ng trang thit b, chuyn mn tt
- Sn phm c nhu cu tiu th cao
- Tnh kh thi cao ( nguyn liu d tm, c quanh nm, gi c ph hp )
- C th thc hin c trong vng 5 tun
Bng nhn xt sng lc 50 tng:
STT tng Nhn xt, nh gi tng
1 Xc xch ln men
Cha ph bin Vit Nam, ngi tiu dng c th
cha tip cn c vi sn phm. Sn phm xc xch
c v chua c th khng ph bin.
2
Xc xch c Basa

Th trng tiu th khng cao. Nguyn liu t, sn
phm lm ra c gi thnh tng i cao.
3
Xc xch g

Hin nay dng xc xch rt a dng, kh cnh tranh
vi nhng cng ty c c thng hiu.
4 Nem g Nhu cu tin th cc sn phm nem khng cao.
5
c kho s t
ng hp
Sn phm mang tnh tin li cao, tuy nhin cn phi
thanh trng hp sn phm, lc ny c khng cn gi
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c cu trc.
6
Mc st c ng
hp
Sn phm qua qu trnh tit trng s khng gi c
cu trc dai, gin ca mc.
7
Ch c thc lc
st me ng hp
Nguyn liu t tin. Gi sn phm c th cao, kh
tiu th rng ri
8 Mc chua
Kh bo qun trong thi gian di. i vi sn phm
thy sn ln men hi khc l, s chp nhn ca ngi
tiu dng khng cao.
9 Nem tm Nhu cu tiu th khng cao, gi nguyn liu kh t
10 c tm gia v
T sn phm c tm gia v c th ch bin thnh nhiu
sn phm: c hp, chin, xo
p ng c s tin li rt cao: khng phi mt thi
gian x l c trc khi ch bin
11
Trng ct ln bt
chin st c ng
hp
Nhu cu tiu th khng cao, mc khc dng sn phm
ng hp trn th trng rt a dng.
12 Mt x mt
C th tn dng ngun ph liu x mt nhng nhu cu
tiu th i vi sn phm mt khng cao.
13
Mt mng cu
ng hp
Nhu cu tiu th khng cao. Khng tin li bng sn
phm mt vin c trn th trng.
14
Tht g kho s
ng hp
Sau khi tit trng, cu trc si ca tht g kh gi
c, nh th khng gi c nt c trng ca tht
g.
15 Mm da leo
Nhu cu tiu th khng cao. Mc khc, dng sn phm
da mm c mt kh nhiu trn th trng
16
Nm bo ng tm
gia v
So vi nm ti, sn phm khng mang li s tin li
cao (ch bin nm ti khng mt nhiu thi gian)
17 X mt sy
Tn dng c phiu liu, tuy nhin sau khi sy x
mt b co rt v hnh dng, tnh thm m km.
18 Tr ru bp ng Khi thanh trng mi thm c trng ca sn phm c
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hp th b mt. Kh cnh tranh vi tr tho mc ca cc
cng ty c thng hiu c.
19 Nem chay u Nhu cu tiu th khng cao.
20
Sa khoai mn
ng chai
Nhu cu i vi sn phm sa rt cao. Cc sn phm
t thc vt c th dng cho ngi n chay.
21
Nc yn ngn
nh hng chanh
Th trng tiu th khng cao. Kh cnh tranh vi cc
sn phm trn th trng.
22
Mm linh chng
ng hp
Nhu cu tiu th khng cao. Sn phm sau khi tit
trng khng cn gi c mi thm c trng.

23
Ch tht nt u
xanh ng hp
Nguyn liu tht nt khng n nh. Cc mn ch xut
hin kh ph bin trn th trng.
24 Pate gan g Nhu cu th trng khng cao. Nguyn liu t tin
25
Chui sy tm
gia v chin gin
Nhu cu tiu th khng cao. Sn phm cha c lm
quen vi khch hng.
26
Tht hm tht nt
ng hp
Khng c ngun tht nt n nh. Kh gia c cu
trc sau khi tit trng.
27
Tht kho nc
da ng hp
p ng v tnh tin li, tuy nhin sn phm to thnh
c mi nu, khng mang li nt c trng ca sn
phm th kho ti nh.
28
Bp non tm gia
v
Nguyn liu kh tm. Khch hng kh quen thuc
vi vic s dng bp non ti ch bin. So vi bp
non ti, bp tm gia v khng c u im g ln.
29
Ch c thc lc
sy kh
Nguyn liu t tin nn gi thnh cao, kh nng cnh
tranh thp.
30 Sa ke mui chua Ngun nguyn liu kh tm
31
Sa ke chin ht
chn khng
Ngun nguyn liu kh tm
32
Mt nha am
dng mamalate
Nhu cu v cc sn phm mt khng cao
33 Fomai hng du Khng tm c chng ln men. Mi du c th khng
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 17

hp vi mi fomai.
34
Tng ht t u
xanh
Nhu cu khng cao
35 Mt kh qua
C th kh tiu th do v ng ca kh qua. Mc
ri ro kh cao.
36
Gi gia v nm
lu mm
Trn th trng c sn phm tng t. C mt
nhm ngi tiu dng khng s dng c cc sn
phm t mm.
37 Cho nm n lin
Cha trang b v kin thc trong lnh vc ny
Thit b my mc khng c p ng y .
38 Cho cc n lin
Khng my mc. Mc nguy him cao do khng
m bo c c t c c tch ra khng.
39 Kem chin
Nhu cu khng cao. Khch hng thng dng sn
phm ny cc qun bn ngoi ( khng phi n qun
ch n kem m cn c gp g bn b).
40 B nhi tht Sn phm mi l, b dng. p ng s tin li cao.
41 Mt nhi tht tm
C th c s khng ph hp khi kt hp mt v tht (
tri cy v tht).
42
Kh qua nhi tht
ng hp
Sau khi tit trng, cu trc sn phm khng gi c,
nh vy sn phm khng t c cu trc nh khi
lm trong gia nh.
43 Sa chua v bi
C th tn dng c ngun ph phm t v bi, tuy
nhin sn phm kh tm ra chng vi sinh sinh vt dng
ln men.
44
Canh mng cun
tht
Sn phm mi l v c o.p ng s tin li cao.
B dng.
45
Bnh bng lan
nhn nha am
Nhu cu v bnh cao, mc khc nha am l nguyn
liu tt cho sc khe.
46
Khoai lang sy
tm gia v
Th trng tiu th khng ln. Nhu cu v nhng sn
phm ny khng cao.
47 Ch gi rong bin Ch gi l mn n c mt trong hu ht cc dp l, lin
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 18

hoan. Rong bin l thc phm gii nhit, lm ch gi
c hng v mi l, c th thu ht khch hng.
48 Ht g nng
Nhu cu th trng khng cao. Kh khn v thit b v
phng php ly dch trong qu trng ra phi trn.
49
t chung nhi
tht ng lnh
Kh tm ngun nhuyn liu n nh ( t chung). y
l sn phm dng trong gia nh hng ngy, v nng
ca t c th tr em khng n c.
50
Sa chua khoai
mn
Khng tm c ging vi sinh vt

Sau khi tho lun t 50 tng ban u nhm chn lc c 10 tng sau:
STT tng
1 Sa chua bi
2 Trng g nng
3 Mng cun gi sng
4 Ch gi rong bin
5 Xc xch ln men
6 Bnh bng lan nha am
7 c tm gia v
8 Sa khoai mn ng chai
9 B nhi tht
10 Chui sy tm gia v

2.2.nh gi 10 tng chn
nh gi 10 tng theo phng php cho im:
Quy c sn phm:
STT Sn phm
1 Sa chua bi
2 Mng cun gi sng
3 Trng g nng
4 Ch gi rong bin
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 19

5 Xc xch ln men
6 Bnh bng lan nha am
7 c tm gia v
8 Sa khoai mn
9 Chui sy tm gia v
10 B nhi tht

Bng tng kt im tng sn phm
Sn phm

Sinh vin
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Thnh vin 1 79 84 79 79 75 83 75 76 76 81
Thnh vin 2 75 80 79 78 74 87 81 77 74 77
Thnh vin 3 75 78 74 72 75 82 72 78 73 74
Thnh vin 4 77 77 71 72 69 74 68 70 69 76
Thnh vin 5 77 85 74 80 72 84 77 73 69 85

nh gi kt qu thu thp c ta s dng phn tch ANOVA. Kt qu phn
tch c nh sau:

Nhn xt: ta thy gi tr p-value < 0.05 tc l s khc bit gia cc sn phm l
c ngha thng k vi mc ngha 5%, tin cy 95%.
Ta tin hnh chy TukeyHSD nh gi s khc bit gia tng cp sn phm:
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 20



Da vo kt qu ta nhn thy c s khc bit c ngha gia sn phm 9-2, 6-
5, 9-6 vi mc ngha 5% tc l tin cy l 95%.
Biu th hin s khc bit ca tng cp sn phm:
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 21


Bng xp hng sn phm theo im trung bnh:
STT Sn phm im Trung bnh
1 Bnh bng lan nha am 82
2 Mng cun gi sng 80.8
3 B nhi tht 78.6
4 Sa chua bi 76.6
5 Ch gi rong bin 76.2
6 Trng g nng 75.4
7 Sa khoai mn 74.8
8 c tm gia v 74.6
9 Xc xch ln men 73
10 Chui sy tm gia v 72.2

-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15
9
-
8
7
-
6
9
-
4
9
-
3
4
-
3
5
-
2
7
-
1
0
9
-
1
4
-
1
95% family-wise confidence level
Differences in mean levels of X1
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 22

T bng xp hng trn ta chn c 3 sn phm c im s cao nht: bnh
bng lan nha am, mng cun gi sng, b nhi tht phn tch cc thuc tnh
v cc yu t nh hng n cc thuc tnh ca 3 sn phm chn.
3.Sng lc cc thuc tnh
Sau khi la chn c 3 sn phm. Nhm s tin hnh nh gi cc thuc tnh
quan trng ca tng sn phm bng cch cho im tng thnh vin.
Kt qu cho im thuc tnh sn phm:
Sn phm 1: Bnh bng lan nha am
Thuc tnh
Mc quan trng
Thp Trung bnh Cao
xp 0% 20% 80%
bo 20% 60% 20%
kt dnh ca lp nha am 0% 0% 100%
Mi 20% 60% 20%
Mu 20% 40% 40%
ngt nhn 20% 40% 40%
Gi c 20% 40% 40%
S hp dn ca bao b 0% 40% 60%
Thi hn s dng 0% 80% 20%

Kt lun: thuc tnh c nh gi l quan trng ca bnh bng lan l: xp, kt
dnh ca lp nha am.
Sn phm 2: Canh mng cun gi sng
Thuc tnh
Mc quan trng
Thp Trung bnh Cao
gin ca mng 0% 40% 60%
Cu trc nhn 0% 20% 80%
Cch to hnh 0% 20% 80%
V 0% 20% 80%
Mi hng 0% 60% 40%
Gi c 0% 60% 40%
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 23

S hp dn ca bao b 20% 60% 20%
Thi hn s dng 20% 60% 20%

Kt lun: thuc tnh c nh gi quan trng ca sn phm l: gin ca mng,
cu trc nhn, cch to hnh, v.
Sn phm 3: B nhi tht
Thuc tnh
Mc quan trng
Thp Trung bnh Cao
do ca b 20% 0% 80%
Kt dnh ca nhn 0% 20% 80%
Cch to hnh 0% 0% 100%
V 0% 40% 60%
Mu 0% 60% 40%
Gi c 0% 80% 20%
S hp dn ca bao b 0% 40% 60%
Thi hn s dng 0% 80% 20%

Kt lun: thuc tnh c nh gi quan trng ca sn phm l: do ca b
kt dnh ca nhn, cch to hnh, v, gi c, s hp dn ca bao b.
4.iu tra sn phm
Sau khi nh gi cc thuc tnh ca tng sn phm nhm s tin hnh iu tra
thu thp kin ca ngi tiu dng la chn cc c im ni bc ca tng thuc
tnh. i tng c iu tra y ch yu l sinh vin.
4.1.Bng cu hi iu tra
BNG CU HI IU TRA
A.PHN CHUNG
1. Khi la chn thc phm, iu bn quan tm l g?
a. Gi c
b. Dinh dng
c. V sinh
d. Hnh thc
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
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e. kin khc
2. Bn thng mua sn phm dng no?
a. n lin, khng cn qua ch bin li ( vd: bnh bng lan)
b. Ch bin li ( vd:ch gi)
c. C th ch bin li hoc khng ( vd: hp c st c)
d. kin khc
3. Bn mua sn phm thc phm u ?
a. Siu th
b. Ch
c. Ca hng tp ha
d. kin khc
4. Bn thng i mua thc phm:
a. 1 ln/ngy
b. 1 ln/ tun
c. 2-3 ln/ tun
d. kin khc
B.PHN RING
Sn phm 1: BNH BNG LAN NHA AM
M t sn phm: Bnh bng lan c 2 lp, c 1 lp mt nha am gia. Nha am
xt ming sn ng to thnh dng sn st.
1. Bn c thch s dng bnh bng lan khng ?
a. C
b. Khng
2. Bn c tng s dng sn phm c nha am cha?
a. C
b. Khng
3. Theo bn, tc dng ca nha am l: ( c th chn nhiu )
a. Thanh nhit, gii c
b. p da, chng lo ha
c. Sng mt
d. Khng h bit
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
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e. kin khc.
4. Hin nay, bn thch bnh bng lan loi no nht
a. Bnh bng lan nhn kem ( hng du, da, cam)
b. Bnh bng lan khng nhn
c. kin khc .
5. Nu c sn phm bnh bng lan nha am bn c s dng khng?
a. Chc chn c
b. C th c
c. Khng
6. Bn c cho l sn phm vt tri so vi cc sn phm tng t trn th
trng khng?
a. Chc chn c
b. C th c
c. Khng c
d. kin khc.................................................................................................................
7. Bn sn sng b ra bao nhiu tin mua mt hp bnh bng lan nha am
10 ci ( 1 hp 250g) ?
a. 10.000
b. 12.000
c. 14.000
d. 16.000
e. kin khc
Sn phm 2: CANH MNG CUN GI SNG
M t sn phm: Sn phm gm nhiu lp: th t cc lp t ngoi vo trong l:
lp mng, lp tu h ki, lp tht xay, c ci xt si. C gi gia v km theo. Bn c
th hp hoc nu canh.
1 Bn c thch n mn canh mng hm tht heo khng?
a. C
b. Khng
2. Bn c thng lm cc mn cun nhn tht trong ba n hay khng?
a. C ( chuyn xung cu 3)
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 26

b. Khng ( chuyn xung cu 4)
3. Ti sao bn lm cc mn cun nhn tht trong ba n ?
a. S thch
b. Thi quen
c. Hnh thc p
d. B dng
e. kin khc..
4. Ti sao bn khng lm cc mn cun nhn tht trong ba n?
a. Mt nhiu thi gian
b. Cu k, kh lm
c. Khng thch n
d. kin khc
5. Nu c sn phm mng cun gi sng bn c s dng khng ?
a. Chc chn c
b. C th c
c. Khng
6. Theo bn, tnh tin li ca sn phm nh th no?
a. Rt cao
b. Cao
c. Bnh thng
d. Thp
7. Bn sn sng b ra bao nhiu tin mua mt hp mng cun gi sng
(250g)?
a. 26.000
b. 28.000
c. 30.000
d. 32.000
Sn phm 3: B NHI THT
M t sn phm: B nguyn tri, gt v, b ht, sau c nhi y bi hn
hp: tht xay nhuyn, bn tu, gia v, nm mo. Sau , c bao gi kn v bo qun
lnh. Bn c th hp hoc nu canh.
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 27

1. Bn c thch n canh b vi tht khng?
a. C
b. Khng
2. Theo bn, b c tc dng:
a. p da
b. Tng cng th gic
c. D tiu ha
d. kin khc
3. Bn c thng lm cc mn tht nhi trong ba n hay khng? ( v d: kh
qua nhi tht, c chua nhi tht, u h nhi tht)
a. C ( chuyn xung cu 4)
b. Khng ( chuyn xung cu 5)
4. Ti sao bn lm cc mn tht nhi trong ba n?
a. S thch
b. Thi quen
c. Hnh thc p
d. B dng
e. kin khc..
5. Ti sao bn khng lm cc mn tht nhi trong ba n?
a. Mt nhiu thi gian
b. Cu k, kh lm
c. Khng thch n
d. kin khc..
6. Nu c sn phm bn c s dng khng?
a. Chc chn c
b. C th c
c. Khng
7. Theo bn, tnh tin li ca sn phm nh th no?
a. Rt cao
b. Cao
c. Bnh thng
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 28

d. Thp
8. Bn sn sng b ra bao nhiu tin mua mt tri b nhi tht ( 600g)
a. 27.000
b. 29.000
c. 31.000
d. 33.000
Bn hy xp 3 sn phm: Bnh bng lan nha am, Mng cun gi sng, B nhi
tht theo th t t t thch nht n thch nht vo bn di:
t thch nht Trung bnh Thch nht


Xin chn thnh cm n!
4.2.X l kt qu iu tra
iu tra kin ngi tiu dng trn 100 i tng l sinh vin ca trng i
hc Cng Nghip TP.HCM
Trong :
25 sinh vin thuc khi ngnh kinh t
25 sinh vin k tc x
50 sinh vin thuc ngnh thc phm.
a im nghin cu: trng i hc Cng Nghip TP.HCM.
Kt qu nh sau:
A: phn chung
Cu 1: Khi la chn thc phm iu bn quan tm l g?

24%
35%
30%
10%
1%
Mi quan tm khi la chn thc thm
gi c
dinh dng
v sinh
hnh thc
kin khc
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 29


Cu 2: Bn thng mua sn phm dng no?

Cu 3: Bn mua sn phm thc phm u?

Cu 4: Mc thng xuyn ca vic mua thc phm


46%
20%
29%
5%
Dng sn phm thng mua
khng ch bin li
ch bin li
c th ch bin li
hoc khng
kin khc
46%
35%
17%
2%
Ni chn mua sn phm
siu th
ch
ca hng tp ha
kin khc
52%
18%
27%
3%
Mc thng xuyn mua sm thc phm
1 ln/ngy
1 ln/tun
2-3 ln/tun
kin khc
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 30

Nhn xt kt qu iu tra tin hnh trn 100 i tng:
Ngi tiu dng khi mua cc sn phm thc phm thng quan tm n cc
vn gi c (25%), dinh dng (35%) v v sinh (30%), t quan tm n hnh thc
(10%) v cc vn khc (1%). V vy sn phm lm ra cn hng ti vic p ng
cc nhu cu v dinh dng, m bo v sinh an ton thc phm nhng gi c phi ph
hp.
Cc i tng iu tra c xu hng thch cc sn phm dng ngay m khng
cn qua ch bin li (46%), tip theo l nhm c ch bin li hoc khng (29%), c
qua ch bin li ch chim 20%. iu ny chng t trong ba sn phm th sn phm
bnh bng lan nha am l chim u th nht.
Trong ba sn phm th sn phm bnh bng lan nha am c th bn mi ni
do khng yu cu nghim ngt v bo qun, cn sn phm mng cun tht v b
nhi tht th cn phi bo qun lnh ng nn ch c th bn siu th hoc ti cc ca
hng c t ng m bo c nhit . Cc i tng iu tra cho thy h chn mua
hng siu th (46%) l cao nht, thp hn l ch (35%) v tip theo l ca hng
tp ha (17%), kin khc (2%). Mc thng xuyn ca vic i mua thc phm l
1 ln/ngy (52%), 2-3 ln/tun (27%). Do h thng i siu th v mc i mua sn
phm cng thng xuyn cho thy 3 sn phm u c kh nng tung ra th trng.
B. Phn ring

Nhn xt:
90.91%
85.86%
86.87%
9.09%
14.14%
13.13%
bnh bng lan nha am mng cun tht b nhi tht
Mc a thch i vi 3 sn phm
C Khng
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 31

Qua th ta thy mc a thch i vi sn phm bnh bng lan nha am l
cao nht (90.91%), v mc khng c a thch thp nht cng l bnh bng lan
nha am (9.09%). V mc a thch i vi 2 sn phm cn li l tng ng
nhau. S a thch i vi bnh bng lan nha am l chim u th hn hai sn phm
cn li, nhng s vt tri ny l khng cao.

Nhn xt:
mun s dng i vi ba sn phm nhn chung l kh cao. Mc chc chn
mun s dng cao nht l bnh bng lan nha am (38.38%) v thp nht l mng cun
tht (24.24%), mc c th s dng i vi ba sn phm l kh cao, v mc t
chi khng s dng cao nht l sn phm mng cun tht (13.13%). Ta thy mc
chp nhn ca ngi tiu dng th hin cao i vi hai sn phm bnh bng lan nha
am v b nhi tht, cn thp i vi sn phm mng cun tht.
Nhu cu v gi c:
38.38%
24.24%
28.28%
55.56%
62.63%
67.68%
6.06%
13.13%
4.04%
bnh bng lan nha am mng cun tht b nhi tht
mun s dng i vi 3 sn phm
Chc chn c C th c khng
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 32


Nhn xt:
Trn biu th hin 4 mc gi theo th t tng dn t a, b, c, d. Thp nht
mc a v cao nht l mc d.
Qua biu th hin nhu cu v gi c ca ngi tiu dng ta thy sn phm
bnh bng lan c th a ra th trng v mc chp nhn v gi th hin u c ba
mc a, b,c, v cng chp nhn c mc gi d vi 16.16% kin. Cn hai sn
phm mng cun tht v b nhi tht th a s cc kin u mc a l mc gi
thp nht v ba mc gi cn li th mc chp nhn rt thp. iu ny cho ta thy
ngha v mt kinh t ca sn phm bnh bng lan nha am l cao hn hai sn phm
cn li. Hai sn phm mng cun tht v b nhi tht c ri ro cao v sn phm cn
bo qun lnh ng nn ngoi tn chi ph sn xut cn tn thm chi ph bo qun
nhng gi bn ra thp, dn n tnh kh thi l khng cao.
BNG TNG KT IU TRA KIN NGI TIU DNG
Sn phm Bnh bng lan nhn nha am
(A)
Mng cun gi sng
(B)
B nhi tht
(C)
Tng im 228 172 200

Cng thc tnh kim nh Friedman

( )

( )
Trong :
K: s lng mu
28.28
62.63 62.63
16.16
4.04
6.06
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
bnh bng lan nha am mng cun tht b nhi tht
%
Nhu cu v gi c ca ngi tiu dng
a
b
c
d
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 33

N: s ngi th
T
k
: cc tng hng

)
Tra bng

, ta c

tiu chun mc ngha =0,05 v bc t do bng 3 l


7,82.
Do

tnh ton ln hn

tiu chun nn nn s khc nhau v mc a


thch ca ngi tiu dng l c ngha thng k
- Gi tr khc bit nh nht c ngha l
( )

M hnh v s khc bit thng k trong mc u tin:
Sn phm A B C
Tng hng 228 172 200
Nhm ngha a b c
Nhn xt:
Khong khc bit ca A vi B l: 56 < 27.72
Khong khc bit ca A vi C l: 28 < 27.72
Khong khc bit ca B vi C l 28 < 27.72
Vy ba sn phm khc nhau tng i mt. V s tng hng ca sn phm A l ln nht
(228)
Da vo cc phn tch trn ta a ra nhn xt l sn phm bnh bng lan nha
am l c tnh kh thi cao nht v vy kt lun a ra l chn bnh bng lan nha am
l sn phm cui cng.
4.3.Nhn xt kt qu iu tra bnh bng lan nha am
Tin hnh kho st trn 100 i tng ta c kt qu nh di y.
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 34


Da vo th ta thy a s ngi tiu dng c xu hng thch cc loi bnh
bng lan c nhn (82%), tip theo l bnh bng lan khng nhn (13%) v cc dng
khc (5%).


th trn cho thy c 97% i tng kho st bit v cc tc dng ca nha
am, cn 3% khng bit hoc hiu sai. Da vo yu t ny cng vi mi quan tm v
sc khe nn sn phm bnh bng lan nha am c th tc ng n tm l ngi tiu
dng khi la chn thc phm.
82%
13%
5%
Mc a thch ca ngi tiu dng
c nhn
khng nhn
cc loi khc
97%
3%
S hiu bit ca ngi tiu dng v nha am
bit
khng h bit
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 35


Da vo th cho thy mc chp nhn v gi c ca ngi tiu dng i
vi sn phm bnh bng lan nha am phn b u ba mc gi u v t hn mc
gi cui (mc cao nht), nhng s chnh lch khng cao. Vy mc chp nhn ca
sn phm trn th trng l tng i cao ng vi mt khong gi t 10.000 VND n
16.000 VND.
Da vo cc phn tch trn v cc phn tch trong phn nh gi kin ba sn
phm ca ngi tiu dng ta i n nhn xt chung v xu hng th trng i vi sn
phm bnh bng lan nha am nh sau:
Kh nng xm nhp th trng tng i cao.
Th phn ln v thi gian chim lnh th phn nhanh.
C kh nng thu li nhun cao.
5.nh gi cc yu t nh hng cc thuc tnh sn phm bnh bng lan nha
am
nh gi mc nh hng ca cc yu t ti thuc tnh sn phm, cc
thnh vin trong nhm tho lun a ra cc yu t nh hng ti thuc tnh
chn, sau mi thnh vin s nh gi mc nh hng ca yu t bng cch cho
im cho tng yu t ng vi nhiu thuc tnh ( 0: khng nh hng, 10: nh hng
rt ln). Kt qu thu c s c x l bng ANOVA tm ra cc yu t c nh
hng ln n thuc tnh sn phm.
Sau khi tho lun, nhm a ra bng nh gi nh sau:
Thuc Cc yu t c lin quan
28.28%
27.27%
28.28%
16.16%
kin v gi c
10.000 VND
12.000 VND
14.000 VND
16.000 VND
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 36

tnh
m lp nha
am
Loi
ph
gia
Lng
ph
gia
Nguyn
liu
lm
bnh
bng
lan
T l
cc
thnh
phn
nguyn
liu
Lng
nhn
Ch

nng
Kch
tht
bnh
Loi
nha
am
Bx
kt
dnh ca
lp nha
am

xp






Kt qu phn tch: Bng tng kt nh gi im cho tng yu t
Thuc
tnh
Cc yu t c lin quan
m lp
nha am
Loi ph
gia
Lng
ph
gia
Lng
nhn
Nguyn
liu
lm
bnh
bng
lan
T l
cc
thnh
phn
nguyn
liu
Ch

nng
Kch
tht
bnh
Loi
nha
am

Bx

kt
dnh
ca
34 31 43 46 42 0 0 0 0
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 37

lp
nha
am

xp
0 0 0 0 38 46 46 39

Cc yu t nh hng ti kt dnh ca lp nha am
Bng kt qu
Thnh
vin
Loi nha
am
Bx
Lng
nhn
Loi
ph gia
Lng
ph gia
1 5 6 9 9 10
2 7 7 9 7 9
3 8 7 7 9 8
4 7 6 8 9 10
5 7 5 9 9 9

bit c liu c s khc nhau v mc nh hng ca cc yu t ny ti
kt dnh ca lp nha am ta phn tch ANOVA s liu thu c. Kt qu nh sau:

Nhn xt: kt qu phn tch cho gi tr Pr=0.0001585 < 0.05, iu ny chng t
c s khc nhau v mc nh hng ca cc yu t n s kt dnh ca lp nha am.
bit c s khc bit ny l do cc cp yu t no gy ra, ta phn tch Tukey, kt
qu thu c nh sau:
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 38


Gii thch:
1: Loi nha am
2: Bx
3: Loi ph gia
4:Lng ph gia
5:Lng nhn
Qua phn tch Tukey, chng ta thy rng c s khc bit v mc nh hng
ca cp yu t sau y:
- Loi ph gia, loi nha am
- Lng ph gia, loi nha am
- Loi ph gia, Bx
- Lng ph gia, Bx
- Lng nhn, Bx
Tng im nh gi mc nh hng ca yu t loi nha am v Bx
l thp nht. Nh vy, chng ta c th b qua s nh hng ca yu t loi nha am,
Bx n kt dnh ca lp nha am.
Kt lun: cn phi kho st chn cc thng s : loi ph gia, lng ph gia
ph hp, lng nhn.
Cc yu t nh hng ti xp ca bnh bng lan:
Bng kt qu
Thnh
vin
Nguyn liu lm
bnh
T l cc thnh
phn
Ch
nng
Kch
thc
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 39

1 8 10 10 8
2 7 9 9 8
3 8 9 9 7
4 7 9 10 8
5 8 9 8 7

Kt qu phn tch ANOVA nh sau:

Nhn xt: C s khc bit v mc nh hng ca cc yu t nu trn i vi
xp ca bnh. (P=0.0003040 < 0.05).
Kt qu phn tch Tukey nh sau:

Gii thch:
1: Nguyn liu lm bnh
2: T l cc thnh phn
3: Ch nng
4: Kch thc bnh
Qua s liu trn ta thy rng c s khc nhau v mc nh hng i vi cc
cp yu t sau:
- T l cc thnh phn, nguyn liu lm bnh
- Ch nng, nguyn liu lm bnh
- Kch thc bnh, t l cc thnh phn
- Kch thc bnh, ch nng
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 40

Theo im tng kt, im ca yu t nguyn liu lm bnh , kch thc
bnh l thp hn 2 yu t cn li, kt hp vi s liu phn tch thng k trn chng ta
thy rng yu t: t l cc thnh phn, ch nng nh hng ln n xp ca
bnh bng lan.
Tuy nhin, do bnh bng lan c quy trnh sn xut ti u nn chng ta khng
kho st cc yu t nh hng ti xp ca sn phm.
III.Pht trin sn phm nguyn mu trong phng th nghim
1.Gii thiu tng quan sn phm
1.1.Bnh bng lan
1.1.1.Gii thiu tng quan nguyn liu
1.1.1.1.Bt m


Bt m s 8
Bt m l sn phm c ch bin t ht la m bng qu trnh nghin. Trong
qu trnh ny v cm v phi c tch ra v phn cn li ca ht la m (ni nh)
c nghin nh ti mn thch hp (ra thnh phm l bt m). Ngoi ra, bt m c
th c b sung mt s thnh phn khc v cc mc ch cng ngh nh:
- Cc sn phm malt c hot tnh enzym vn c sn xut t ht la m, ht
mch en hay t ht i mch, gluten ti, bt u tng hay bt u khc c
cht lng thc phm thch hp.
- Cc cht dinh dng: Vic thm cc vitamin, cc cht khong hoc cc axit
amin c hiu nhng phi ph hp vi php lut ca nc tiu th sn phm.
Mt s yu cu ti thiu c coi l bt m thng phm
- axit ca cc axit bo khng qu 50mg KOH cn trung ha axit bo t do
trong 100g bt tnh theo cht kh.
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 41

- Protein: hm lng protein khng thp hn 7%, tnh theo cht kh.
- m: m ca sn phm khng vt qu 13.5%.
- C ht: Bt m khng nh hn 98% lng bt lt qua ry c kch thc l 212
milimicron (N-70).
- Kim loi nng: Trong bt m khng c php c kim loi nng vi s lng
gy nguy him cho con ngi.
- D lng cht tr sinh vt hi phi tun th gii hn ti a cho php theo quy
nh.
Phn loi bt m
Bt m hin nay c lm t nhiu loi bt c nghin trn t nhiu loi la
m khc nhau. Ngi ta gi tn nh bt m loi trng, hay nu, en.. ty vo mu sc
ca bt v gi l bt cng hay mm ty vo lng v tnh cht gluten ca bt. Bt m
lm bnh m (Bread), gluten cao hn v khe hn, lm cho bnh n khe, gi
c hnh dng ca bnh sau khi nng. Bt m lm bnh kem xp (cake hay
gateaux) c gluten t hn. Bt lm bnh ngt (pastry) c gluten cao hn bnh kem xp
cht t, v thp hn bt lm bnh m.
C cc loi bt m ch yu sau (phn theo cng dng):
- Bt bnh m, hay bt m thng thng.
- Bt bnh ngt (pastry).
- Bt bnh gato hay bnh kem (cake, gateaux).
- Bt m gia dng (all-purpose): C lng gluten cao, thch hp lm hu ht
cc loi bnh, trong gia nh.
- Bt m lm bnh bao: Loi bt trng, c xay t phn li ca ht la m.
- Bt m Durum: Lm cc loi m Spagetti... c lm t loi la m rt cng
(Durum), c gluten cao nht. Loi bt m ny c sn xut t nh my bt m
chuyn dng.
Mt s thnh phn ha hc ca bt m
Protit
Hm lng protit trong cc loi bt m khc nhau th khng ging nhau. Hm
lng protit tng dn t bt hng cao n bt hng thp, nhng v mt dinh dng th
protit trong bt hng cao gi tr hn. Protit trong bt m cng gm c 4 loi:
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 42

- Anbumin (ha tan trong nc).
- Globumin (ha tan trong dung dch mui trung tnh).
- Prolamin (ha tan trong dung dch ru ru 60-80) cn gi l gliadin.
- Glutelin (ha tan trong dung dch kim yu 0,2%), cn c tn gi l glutenin.
Trong 4 loi protit ni trn, hm lng anbumin v globulin chim khong 20%,
cn 80% l prolamin v glutelin. T l gliadin v glutenin trong bt m tng ng
nhau. Khi em bt m nho vi nc v yn mt thi gian s to thnh bt nho.
Ra bt nho cho tinh bt tri i, cn li mt khi do l gluten. Gluten thu c
sau khi ra ca bt nho gi l gluten t. Trong gluten t c cha khong 60-70%
nc.
Gluxit
Gluxit trong bt m gm c tinh bt, dextrin, xenluloza, hemixenlulza, gluxit
keo, cc loi ng.
Tinh bt l gluxit quan trng ca bt, trong bt c cc hng cao c cha n
80% tinh bt. Tinh bt ca cc loi bt khc nhau th khng ging nhau v hnh dng,
kch thc, kh nng trng n v h ha. ln v nguyn ca ht tinh bt c
nh hng n tnh rn chc, kh nng ht nc v hm lng ng trong bt nho.
Trong cc ht tinh bt, ngoi tinh bt ra cn c mt lng rt nh acid
photphoric, acid silisic, acid bo v cc cht khc.
ng trong bt c cha mt hm lng khng ln lm. Trong bt c cha
khong 0.1-0.25% glucoza v fructoza, v gn 0.1-0.5 % mantoza. Trong bt m sn
xut t ht ny mm th hm lng mantoza tng ln rt r rt. ng ch yu nm
trong phi ht.
Hm lng saccaroza trong bt vo khong 0.2-0.6%. Hm lng chung ca
cc loi ng ph thuc vo hng bt v cht lng ht. Hm lng ng chung
trong bt m trng vo khong 1.8-4.0%.
Cc lipit
L nhng cht hu c k nc c cu trc khc nhau, khng ha tan trong nc
nhng c kh nng ha tan trong cc dung mi hu c. Trong s cc lipit ca bt m,
ngoi cc cht bo trung tnh cn phi k ti cc photpharit, sterin, sc t v cc
vitamin ha tan trong cht bo.
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 43

Trong bt cc lipit c trng thi t do v trng thi kt hp vi protit v gluxit.
Nhng hp cht ny nh hng n tnh cht ca gluten, chng lm cho gluten n hi
hn. Hm lng chung ca cc lipit trong bt m khong 2-3%, lipit ca bt gm
khong 75% cht bo.
1.1.1.2.Trng

Trng g
Vai tr:
Trng khi nh to bt kh. Bt kh n ra khi nng, nn trng cng tham gia
vo s qu trnh n ca bnh, lm cho bnh tng th tch v mm.
Trng lm tng gi tr dinh dng v hng v ca bnh.
Protein trng albumin bin tnh nhit cao nn cng tham gia to cu trc
khung cho sn phm, mc d khng quan trng nh gluten.
Lng c tc dng lm mm bnh bi lng cht bo c trong n. Lng
giu lecithin l cht c dng nh ha.
Mu trng ph thuc hm lng carotenoid trong trng, mu ca lng
trng cng c nh hng ti mu sn phm khi nng.
Bng: Ch tiu cht lng ca trng ti
STT Tn ch tiu Yu cu
1 Mi Khng c mi l
2 V Sch, khng mp mo
3 Bung kh Khng v
4 Lng trng Khng v khi vo chn, mu ti, c sn st.

1.1.1.3.Bt n
L hp cht cc cht s tc dng tng h vi nhau sinh ra mt lng kh CO
2

do phn ng ha hc xy ra nhit cao.
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 44

NaHCO
3
C
0
80
Na
2
CO
3
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O
NaHCO
3
+HX
NaX + CO
2
+ H
2
O
c s dng trong qu trnh sn xut cc loi bnh thay th cho men, bt ni
c tc dng to thm xp ca bnh v gi xp bnh sau khi nng. Kh CO
2

khng mi nn khng lm thay i cht lng sn phm. Bt ni c dng thay th
cho bt khai vi nhng u im to xp cho bnh nhng khng c v khai.
Hm lng s dng ty theo xp mong mun. Thng thng t 3 5% hm
lng bt s dng.
1.1.1.4.Du n


Du n
Du n c tinh lc t ngun gc thc vt, nm th lng trong mi trng
bnh thng. C kh nhiu loi du c xp vo loi du n gm: du liu, du c,
du nnh, du canola, du ht b ng, du bp, du ht hng dng, du cy rum, du
lc, du ht nho, du vng, du argan v du cm go.
Cc loi du v c tnh ca tng loi
Du/cht bo im si S dng
Du canola 242C Chin, nng, trn salad
Du da 177C
Nng bnh, lm ko, nh trng, lm o bnh,
lm kem cph khng sa, pha gin
Du bp 236C Chin, nng, trn salad, lm macgarin
Du ht bong 216C Macgarin, lm gin, trn salad, sn phm chin
Du ht nho 204C Nu n, trn salad, macgarin
Macgarin, m 150C Nu n, nng, nm gia v
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 45

Du liu (tinh) 225C Chin p cho, chin khuy, nu n, salad,
Du c 230C Nu n, p hng, du thc vt, to gin
Du phng 231C Chin, nu, du salad, lm macgarin
Du cm go 254C Nu n, chin khuy, chin chn
Du vng 232C Nu n, chin chn
Du nnh 241C Nu n, trn salad, du thc vt, , to gin
Du hng dng 246C Nu n, trn salad, macgarin, to gin

Du lm tng gi tr dinh dng v nng lng. i vi bnh lm mm bt v
to mng mng bao quanh bt lm bt khng tip xc c vi nc nn mng gel
km bn lm bnh mm.
1.1.1.5.Sa

Sa ti
Sa lm tng gi tr dinh dng ca bnh, tham gia to thnh hng v ca sn
phm. Thnh phn ng lactose khi nng b caramen ha, nn sa cng tham gia
vo to mu sc v bnh. Thnh phn bo tham gia trong sa c vai tr tng t nh
b.
Thnh phn ho hc ca sa ti
Thnh phn % theo khi lng
Nc 85.5 89.5%
Tng lng cht kh:
Cht bo
Protein
10.5 14.5%
2.5 6.0%
2.9 5.0%
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 46

Lactose
Cht khong
3.6 5.5%
0.6 0.9%

Bng: Cc ch tiu cm quan ca sa tit trng theo TCVN 7029: 2002
Ch tiu Yu cu
1. Mu sc Mu c trng ca sn phm
2. Mi, v Mi, v c trng ca sn phm, khng c mi, v l
3. Trng thi Dch th ng nht

Bng: Cc ch tiu l - ho ca sa tit trng theo TCVN 7029: 2002
Tn ch tiu Mc yu cu
1. Hm lng cht kh, % khi lng, khng nh hn 11,5
2. Hm lng cht bo, % khi lng, khng nh hn 3,2%
3. T trng ca sa 20 oC, khng nh hn 1,027
4. axit, oT 18-20
5. Ch s khng ho tan, khng ln hn 0,5/50

Bng: Cc ch tiu vi sinh vt ca sa tit trng theo TCVN 7029: 2002
Tn ch tiu Mc cho php
1. Tng s vi sinh vt hiu kh, s khun lc trong 1 ml sn phm 10
2. Coliform, s vi khun trong 1 ml sn phm 0
3. E.Coli, s vi khun trong 1 ml sn phm 0
4. Salmonella, vi khun trong 1 ml sn phm 0
5. Staphylococcus aureus, s vi khun trong 1 ml sn phm 0
6. Clostridium perfringens, s vi khun trong 1 ml sn phm 0

1.1.1.6.ng saccarose

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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 47


ng tinh luyn
Vai tr
To v cho bnh, tham gia to mu cho v bnh. ng ng gp vo gi tr
dinh dng (nng lng) ca bnh.
Trong mi trng axit v nhit cao rt d b phn hy cho ra glucose v
fructose (tc xy ra hin tng nghch o ng).
Thng thng t ht m nhng khi un nng nhit cao (khong 130
o
C) th
li c kh nng ht m mnh v n 160
o
C th bt u cho phn mg caramen ha.
Tan tt trong nc ( ha tan 25
o
C l 2,04 kg/kg nc) v tan tng theo
nhit . ngt trong dung dch ph thuc vo s c mt ca cc cht khc v iu
kin mi trng nh pH, nht, v hm lng NaCl
Ch tiu ng saccharose:
ng saccharose: 99.8%
m 0.05%
1.1.2.Quy trnh d kin
Cng thc nguyn liu
ng: 21.35%
Bt m: 21.35%
Trng: 42.7%
Du: 3.6%
Sa: 10.67%
Bt n: 0.33%
Quy trnh
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 48

Trng
nh ni
Bnh bng lan
ng xay
Nho trn
khun
Nng
Ph gia, sa, du Bt m
Tch khun

1.1.3.Thuyt minh quy trnh
nh ni:
Dng c s dng phi tuyt i sch. Cho trng vo nh ni. Ban u nh
trng vi tc ln nht nhm to nhiu bt kh, ng thi thm ng xay t t
ng c ha tan cng vi vic to bn cho bt. Sau khong thi gian nh
trng thch hp: th tch gp khong 6-7 ln ban u, bt li ti, mn, khi nhc ln thy
ng ngn, khng chy xung hoc dng a nhng ri ha trong nc thy bt
khng tan ra l c. Ta ry bt ln (bt c trn vani v bt n), thm sa, du
v trn u. Ch : bc ny cn trn nh nhng, nhanh, hn hp thnh khi ng
nht.
Nho bt:
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 49

Nho bt l khu rt quan trng, c nh hng r rt n khu tip theo ca qu
trnh k thut, cht lng ca bnh. Mc ch ca qu trnh nho bt l thu c
mt khi bt nho ng nht.
Khi bt c nho trn cc protein ca gluten s hp th nc, nh hng, sp
xp li thnh hng v gin mch tng phn nn s lm pht sinh cc tng tc a bo
v hnh thnh cc cu isufua mi. Mt mng protein ba chiu c tnh nht n hi
c thit lp, dn dn nhng tiu phn gluten ban u bin thnh nhng mng mng
bao ly xung quanh cc ht tinh bt v nhng hp phn khc c trong bt m. Khi bt
tr thnh n hi v d chy gi l bt nho.
Qu trnh ho sinh trong bt nho c lin quan cht ch vi h enzym trong bn
thn nguyn liu. Nhng bin i ch yu c nh hng n cht lng bnh l h
glucid- protease gy nn. Trong qu trnh ln men h glucid amylase lun thay i,
u tin glucid b thu phn theo th t: glucose, fructose, sacarose, maltose,
trisacarose. Sau thu phn tinh bt thnh maltose cho n khi kt thc.
nh hnh:
Tip , bt nho vo khun ri cho ngay vo l nng trnh bt kh b
mt nhiu khi lu. Qu trnh rt bt vo khun : khun c lt giy v qut du
trn b mt. Cht lng sau khi nh hnh nh sau: hnh dng ng nt r p, ng
trng lng, kch c.
Nng bnh:

L nng bnh
Nng l giai on phc tp nht ca quy trnh sn xut bnh. Trong qu trnh
nng bnh xy ra s thay i v ho l trong bt nho, s thay i ny quyt nh n
cht lng ca bnh.
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 50

Khun phi c lm nng trc khi cho bt vo. Nhit khun phi t 180
0
C, thi gian nng trong vng 40 45 pht ty vo th tch bnh.
Trong qu trnh nng th c s thay i nhit , m, thay i l hc, th tch, mu
sc, ho hc, cht bo.
Khi gia nhit cc b trong l nng nhit v m c s thay i khng
ging nhau gia cc lp khc nhau: lp v b mt, lp st v v lp trung tm ca
bnh. nhng giy pht u tin ca qu trnh nng nhit cc bt (30
o
C) thp
hn rt nhiu so vi nhit bung nng (200-260
o
C) v do m khng kh trong
bung nng cao do s ngng t hi nc trong b mt bnh ( m lp b mt
tng 1,3%). Sau nhit b mt tng ln 100
o
C, khi lp b mt bnh c s bc
hi nc mnh, trong giai on ny nhit lp b mt khng tng cho n khi lp
v mt ht nc, khi nhit v bnh tng ln 160-180
o
C v c s hnh thnh lp
v ngoi. Vn tc hnh thnh v bnh ph thuc vo nhit v m khng kh
trong bung nng. m mi trng khng kh trong bung nng cng ln v
nhit nng cng thp th qu trnh hnh thnh v bnh cng chm. Lng nc
lp ngoi ca bnh mt phn chuyn sang mi trng khng kh v mt phn chuyn
vo pha trong rut bnh. Nguyn nhn m di chuyn theo s truyn nhit t ni c
nhit cao n ni c nhit thp (t lp ngoi vo trung tm rut bnh). m di
chuyn t ni c m cao n ni c m thp (t lp bn di v ra n lp v bn
ngoi v thot ra mi trng). Di lp v hnh thnh mt vng bay hi nc, vng
ny s i su vo rut bnh lm dy ca v bnh tng dn vo bn trong. Mt phn
hi nc vng bay hi chuyn qua v v bay hi, mt phn do tr lc ca lp v
cng nn nc chuyn vo trung tm rut bnh. Do m rut bnh tng ln so vi
m ban u, 1.5 2.5% m ca lp trung tm tng chm v t gi tr nh nht
so vi lp trung gian. Nhit trung tm rut bnh cui qu trnh nng ln 94-
97
o
C v nhit lm chn bnh.
giai on u xy ra qu trnh thy phn tinh bt bng enzym v bng acid c
trong bt nho. Nu hm lng acid trong bt nho cao th c th rt ngn c qu
trnh thy phn tinh bt bng enzym nhng do hm lng acid trong bt nho khng
ng k nn s thy phn tinh bt bng acid thp. Trong qu trnh nng bnh c gn
70 cht gy hng v c to thnh (ru, acid, este, aldehyd, ceton, furfurol) to
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 51

hng v thm ngon c trng cho bnh. c bit lp v xy ra phn ng
maillard to melanoidin, cc cht mu v cc cht thm. Cc cht gy mi thm t lp
v khuch tn mt phn vo rut bnh v mt phn thot ra mi trng. Cng
mu ca v bnh ph thuc vo: hm lng acid amin v ng kh trong bt nho,
nhit nng. V bnh mu nht th cha hnh thnh cc cht gy hng. Nh
vy s hnh thnh mu sc v bnh v s to thnh cc cht thm c lin quan vi
nhau.
Cc qu trnh keo xy ra ch yu trong bt nho. Khi nng l qu trnh h ha
tinh bt v s ng t protein, cc qu trnh ny c ngha ln bi v lm bnh chn v
n c. 40
o
C ht tinh bt bt u trng n khi nhit tng cao hn th cc ht
tinh bt v ra. Nc len vo bn trong ht tinh bt phn hy ht tinh bt v gii phng
cc thnh phn amylose, amylosepectin. Amylose ho tan thnh dung dch cn
amylosepectin to thnh keo dnh. Mun h ho hon ton lng nc nhiu gp 2- 3
ln lng nc hin din trong bt nho. Do trong thi gian nng tinh bt ch
c h ho cc b. S h ho trong mi trng thiu nc s din ra chm v s kt
thc khi nhit trung tm bnh t 95-97
o
C. Tinh bt h ho s lin kt vi nc
t do trong bt nho v nc thot ra t protid b bin tnh. Lng nc t do trong
bnh gim i r rt, do rut bnh khi chn s kh ro v n hi. Nu emzym
amylase phn ct hu ht tinh bt thnh dextrin th tinh bt b mt tnh ho nc v
rut bnh s tr nn dnh. Qu trnh bin tnh ca protid do nhit xy ra 50-70
o
C.
Khi b ng t protid s gii phng nc lin kt, khi cc phn t protid lin
kt cht vi nhau v mt tnh n hi. Protid bin tnh to thnh b khung cho bnh
bng lan v c nh hnh dng ca bnh. Cn cc ht tinh bt h ho keo dnh v
bm xung quanh b khung gluten.
Cc giai on nng
Giai on 1- lm chn bnh
Gia on 2 - to v bnh
Giai on 3- lm kh
Giai on 1 : Cc bin i
- Tinh bt h ha v chn
- Protit bin tnh v chn
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- Thuc n b phn hy
- Khuch tn m
Giai on 2 : Cc bin i
- Qu trnh dextrin ha to lp v bnh
- Qu trnh caramen ha to mu vng cho v bnh v mi thm
- ng kh + axit amin (Maillard) to mi v cho sn phm
- Qu trnh thot m
Giai on 3 : ch yu l khuch tn m
S thay i khi lng bt nho
Sau khi nng xong, h nhit l xung, bnh trong l mt thi gian
bnh h nhit xung t t, ly bnh ra l, mt thi gian. Mc ch cng on ny
trnh bnh b thay i nhit , p sut ngt khin bnh b sp, b mt b lm.
Bnh bng lan khi nng trong khun t b gim khi lng,v bnh gi kh tt, s to
v chm do bnh c m cao
Sn phm:
Kim tra bnh chn cha bng cch dng tm m vo rut bnh, nu bnh
khng dnh tm l chn. Dng vi m lm ngui bnh n nhit thng mi tin
hnh tch khun.
Yu cu: Bnh mm, xp, n tt, cm thy nh tay. Vng nu bn ngoi, vng kem
bn trong.
1.2.Mt nha am
1.2.1.Gii thiu tng quan nguyn liu
1.2.1.1.Nha am

Nha am
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 53

Nha am cn gi l cy L Hi, H Thit, Tng m, Du Thng, Long Tu
Li H, thuc h Hnh Ti (Liliaceae). Nha am c tt c trn 300 loi, mi th cho
nhiu cht lng khc nhau.
Loi thng dng nht l Aloe Vera (hay Da king) c l hnh thon c m
trng, hai bn c gai nhn nhng rt mm, l di trung bnh t 30-50 cm, chiu cao 60-
90 cm, dy 1-2 cm, bn ngoi c lp v xanh, bn trong l cht thch ng.
Ti min bc Vit Nam c trng mt loi L Hi c xc nh l Aloe
perfoliata L. ch yu lm cnh, c l ngn hn ch o c t 15-20 cm, cha thy
ra hoa kt qu.
Ti nhiu ni khc Vit Nam, cy L Hi mc hoang b bin nhng tnh
Ninh Thun (Phan Rang , Phan R) v Bnh Thun.
Loi L hi c hoa th cm di chng 1m hoa mu vng xanh lc nht lc u
mc ng, sau r xung di 3-4 cm. Qu nang, hnh chung thun, lc u xanh sau
nu v dai.
Thnh phn ha hc:
Theo sch ca Tt Li, ty theo ngun gc, L Hi c thnh phn ha hc
khc nhau, nhng cn bn c nhng cht sau y:
Tinh du mu vng, si 266 -271, cho mi c bit , t quan trng v mt
dc l.
Nha 12-13%: C tc gi cho rng nha ny khng c tc dng ty ra.
Hot cht ch yu l cht aloine. Aloine khng phi l mt cht thun nht m
l gm nhng antraglocozit c tinh th, v ng c tc dng ty. T l Aloine
thay i ty theo ngun gc L Hi.
1.2.1.2.Ph gia to gel
Pectin ( E440)
Cu to: Polysaccharide d th, mch thng, l dn xut methyl ca acid pectic
+ Acid pectic l 1 polymer ca acid D-galcturonic, lin kt vi nhau bng lin
kt 1,4-glucoside.
+ Mt chui gm khong 10000 phn t galacturonic to thnh mt phn t
pectin M= 10000 -100000.
Ch s c trng:
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Trang 54

+ Ch s metoxyl( MI) biu hin t l methyl ha, l phn trm khi lng nhm
methoxyl (-OCH
3
) trn tng khi lng phn t.
MI max = 16,3%
MI ca pectin thc vt = 10 12%
+ Ch s ester ha (DE): th hin mc ester ha ca pectin, l phn trm v s
lng ca cc gc acid galacturonic c ester ho trn tng s lng gc acid
galacturonic c trong phn t.
Theo % nhm methoxyl c trong phn t:
- HMP (High Methoxyl Pectin): DE > 50% hay MI >7%.

- LMP (Low Methoxyl Pectin) : DE 50% hay MI 7%.

- Mc to gel
HMP: to gel bng lin kt hydro
iu kin to gel: [ng] >50%; pH = 3-3,5; [Pectin] = 0,5-1%
ng c kh nng ht m, v vy lm gim mc hydrat ha ca phn t
pectin trong dung dch.
pH acid trung ha bt cc gc COO-, lm gim tch in ca cc phn t.
V vy, cc phn t c th tin li gn nhau to thnh lin kt ni phn t v
to gel. Lin kt hydro c hnh thnh gia cc phn t pectin c th hydroxyl
hydroxyl, carboxyl carboxyl hoc hydroxyl carboxyl. Kiu lin kt ny khng bn,
do cc gel to thnh s mm do bi tnh linh ng ca cc phn t trong khi gel.
Cu trc ca gel ph thuc vo hm lng ng, hm lng acid, hm lng pectin,
loi pectin v nhit .
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30 50% ng thm vo pectin l sacharose. Do cn duy tr pH acid khi un
nu s gy ra qu trnh nghch o ng, ngn cn s kt tinh. Tuy nhin, cng khng
nn dng qu nhiu acid v pH qu thp s gy ra nghch o mt lng ln
saccharose gy kt tinh glucose v ho gel nhanh to nn cc vn cc.
Khi dng lng pectin vt qu lng thch hp s gy ra gel qu cng, do
khi dng mt nguyn liu c cha nhiu pectin cn tin hnh phn gii bt chng bng
cch un lu hn.
Khi s dng mt lng c nh bt c mt loi pectin no th pH, nhit cng
gim v hm lng ng cng cao th gel to thnh cng nhanh.
LMP: to gel bng lin kt vi ion Ca
2+
.
iu kin to gel: khi c mt Ca
2+
, ngay c nng < 0,1%, khng cn
ng v acid.
LMP, t l cc nhm COO- cao, do cc lin kt gia nhng phn t pectin
s c to thnh qua cu ni l cc ion ha tr (II), c bit l Ca
2+

Cu trc ca gel ph thuc vo nng Ca
2+
.
c im ca gel: n hi.
Liu lng s dng cho php: khng quy nh, ty thuc vo yu cu sn phm
Gum arabic
Arabic tan c trong nc, khng tan trong cht bo, c nht thp. nht
ph thuc vo pH v nng mui. nng cao l cht keo kt hp vi cc qu
trnh sy sn phm rt hiu qu.
Arabic rt n nh trong mi trng acide, v vy arabic s dng rt tt cho vic
n nh mi ca nc qu. Gi tr pH t nhin ca dung dch Arabic l 3,9 - 4,9 l do
s hin din ca acide gluconic. Khi thm acide hoc kim c th lm thay i nht
v din tch tip xc ca dch keo, pH thp th nht thp v ngc li. nht t
ti a khi pH= 5,5.
Hp cht arabic thng c s dng gi mi cho cc sn phm dng nh
tng, gi mi cho cc sn phm bao gi, gi nc v chng s kt tinh ng.
Liu lng s dng: 0.5-0.75% khi lng sn phm
Agar
Cu to
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ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
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Agar l mt polysacharide c tch ra t to , c cu to bi hai thnh
phn chnh l v c lin
kt vi nhau thng qua lin kt v .
Agar gm hai thnh phn chnh: agarose v agaropectin.
- Agarose l thnh phn to gel chnh ca agar, c vai tr vi in tch
ton b phn t v i vi tnh cht ca gel nh: bn, n hi, nhit to gel
- Agaropectin l thnh phn khng to gel, c mc ester ho cao hn
agarose.

Cng thc cu to ca agar
Tnh cht
To gel rt bn, cu trc gel cng, dn, trong. Kh nng to gel ph thuc vo
nhit , ban u agar pha lin tc v nc pha phn tn. Khi a nhit ln cao
ln hn 90
o
C, agar tr thnh pha phn tn v nc l pha lin tc do lc ny hnh
thnh dng dung dch bao gm nhng tiu phn mixen, gia mixen l phn t agar.
Khi h nhit xung 35
o
C cc ht mixen c bao bc xung quanh mt lp nc
lin kt li to thnh gel dn n s phn b li din tch trn b mt ca nhng ht
mixen. Kh nng hnh thnh gel thun nghch nhit l c im duy nht lm cho agar
c mt s kt hp cn thit trong nhiu ng dng. Khi to gel, cc cu ni hydro lm
tng tnh bn vng ca cu trc mch agar, chng li s phn ly ca hn hp dch khi
tng nhit qu mnh.
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Hnh: C ch to gel ca agar
Kh nng to gel ca agar ph thuc vo hm lng agarose, s c mt ca ion
sulfate s lm gel b m c.
Khi to gel agar s lm tng kh nng gi mu, mi, v ca sn phm nh nhit
nng chy cao (85-90
0
C).
Gel agar c th chu c nhit cao 100
0
C, pH t 5-8, kh nng gi nc
cao.
ng dng
- Agar c kh nng to gel tt c ng dng rng ri trong sn xut bnh ko.
- Khng c hp thu vo c th nn dng cho cc sn phm cha t nng lng.
- c s dng thay th cho pectin gim nng ng, thay th gelatin
trong cc sn phm tht.
Cc yu t nh hng n kh nng to gel.
- Nhit , pH:
o Agar t b tc ng nhiu trong mi trng trung tnh.
o Trong mi trng axit b tc ng mnh khi nhit bin i.
o pH ti u cho qu trnh to gel: 8-9.
- Cc thnh phn khc:
o Kh nng to gel gim khi c mt tinh bt, tng khi c s tn ti ca
ng.
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o T l, nng cc thnh phn phi trn vi agar, chng hn nh: nu
dng agar 1%, gelatin 4% th nhit chy ca gel l 90
0
C, nu nng gelatin l 8%
th h gel gim nhit chy l 40
0
C.
1.2.2.Quy trnh d kin
Cng thc th nghim mt nhuyn
Nha am 57.5%
ng 42.2%
Pectin 0.3%
Quy trnh
Nha am
Ct nhuyn
C c ti
o
Bx=65
ngui
Thnh phm
X l s b
Phi trn
Chn, 30s ng, ph gia
V
Ha tan
Ngm nc mui,
NaCl 1%, 30 pht.
Ngm cng, CaCl
2

1%, 15 pht
Ct lt, 4cmx2cm
Ngm ng
40
0
Bx
Chn, 30s

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1.2.3.Thuyt minh quy trnh
Nguyn liu:
Nha am c s dng l loi b to, khng b su bnh, khng rch v, c
chn k thut m bo cu trc ming ca nha am trong mamalde.

Nguyn liu nha am
X l s b:
Nha am c ra sch nhm loi b cc cht bn, thuc tr su, loi mt phn
vi sinh vt bm trn v nguyn liu. Thao tc ra c thc hin th cng bng tay
hay my.

Ra nha am
Sau khi ra ta s gt b phn v xanh bn ngoi, thao tc gt phi tht k trnh
v cn st li trn b mt nha am to v ng cho sn phm.
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Trang 60


Ct loi b v nha am
Sau khi gt v ta tin hnh loi gn trnh gy ng cho nha am.

Tch gn nha am
Sau ta tin hnh ra nha am li ln na loi bt m v thu c ming
nha am trng trong.
Ngm nc mui
Mc ch ca giai on ny l loi nht trong nha am to iu kin thun
li cho cng on ch bin tip theo.
Nht trong nha am c bn cht l mucin l phc cht gia glucid vi protein.
Nc mui c tc dng lm thay i in li, thay i kh nng tch in, kh nng
hydrate ha ca protein, t tc ng n lin kt gia protein v glucid trong cu
trc ca phc cht mucin lm protein tch ra kt ta xung. Nh vy nht s b loi ra
khi nha am.
Ngoi mui cn c th s dng dung dch cn v cn cng c tc ng lm thay
i in li, thay i kh nng tch in ca protein nn s lm thay i tng tc
gia protein v glucid gip tch nht ra khi nha am. Ngoi ra cn cn c tc dng
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gim cht ng c trong nha am v cht ng ca nha am c bn cht khng phn
cc ha tan tt trong dung mi khng phn cc.
i vi phn mt nhuyn:
Ct nhuyn
To iu kin thun li cho qu trnh chn lm tng b mt tip xc ca nha
am vi nc chn gip loi b nht tt hn.
Chn:
Mc ch ca qu trnh chn:
- V hot enzyme
- Khi chn khi lng nguyn liu gim do ha tan cc cht tan, th tch gim do
nc t nguyn liu thot ra ngoi, gip n nh t l ci nc. Nu khng chn khi
thanh trng t l ci nc gim, sn phm khng t yu cu
- ui bt kh trong gian bo nguyn liu, loi bt oxi. Hn ch qu trnh oxi ha
xy ra.
- Lm suy yu t bo thc vt, ph hy tnh bn thm ca mng t bo, nc
trong t bo d thot ra ngoi, dch phi ch c th thm vo bn trong.
- Dit mt phn vi sinh vt
- Nha am c mu sng hn do ph hy mt s cht mu.
- Loi bt mt s cht mi kh chu.
Phi trn
ng saccarose s c b sung mt lng nc thch hp t c Bx
yu cu cho sn phm.
Cc cht c vai tr to ng cho sn phm c ha tan vi nc theo t l
nht nh ri c phi trn vo dch nha am tin hnh c c.
C c (sn mt)
- Mc ch: tng nng cht kh trong sn phm, ko di thi gian bo qun v
hon thin sn phm.
- Cch tin hnh: tin hnh gia nhit nh cho ng ngm u vo trong nguyn
liu. C c n khi Bx khong 65 th ngng qu trnh c c li.
- Cc bin i:
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V ha l: gim h s dn nhit , nhit dung C, h s cp nhit o , h s
truyn nhit K, hm lng khng kh cn li trong gian bo v ha tan trong sn phm
cng gim, tng khi lng ring , nht q, tn tht do nng A, nhit si.
nht ca dch tng ln l do s hnh thnh gel ca cc ph gia b sung vo
t trng thi yu cu ca thnh phm. C ch tc ng ca ph gia c trnh by
nh trn.
V ha sinh: pH mi trng tng ln, xy ra cc phn ng to mu nh Mailard
v caramen ha, cc cht thm v cht d bay hi trong nguyn liu s gim i.
V cm quan: thay i mu sc sn phm, cu trc sn phm so vi ban u
Sau khi c c xong ta s ngui v em bo qun nu cha s dng lin.
i vi thch nha am:
Tin hnh ct lt vi kch thc 4cmx2cm to s ng nht cho sn phm, sau
tin hnh chn tng t nh trong qui trnh sn xut mt nhuyn.
Ngm cng
Sau khi chn nha am c ngm trong dung dch CaCl
2
1% lm tng
cng cho nha am, m bo cu trc nha am trong thnh phm.
Trong thnh phn ca nha am c cha nhiu polysaccharide c kh nng to
gel vi ion Ca
2+
lm tng cng ca nha am.
Ngm ng:
Trong nha am chim hn 96% nc v vy nu cho nha am vo trong qu
trnh sn mt th s lm cho ming nha am teo tp li nh hng n gia tr cm quan
sn phm. trnh hin tng trn ta tin hnh ngm ng trc khi cho vo phi
trn vi dch mt sn.
Sn phm mt sau khi sn ch yu tn ti dng nc lin kt. Thch nha am
sau khi ngm nc ng s xy ra hin tng nc t do dch chuyn t trong nha
am ra mi trng v ng dch chuyn t dch ng vo nha am lm gim lng
nc t do trong sn phm.
V hot nc trong mt c nh hng quyt nh n cu trc bnh bng
lan. Ta cn lm gim hot nc t do trong mt trnh hin tng khuch tn m
khi qut ln bnh bng lan lm thay i cu trc sn phm. Sn phm mt sau khi sn
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 63

ch yu tn ti dng nc lin kt nn hot c th khng chnh lch so vi hot
nc t do ca bnh bng lan nn hin tng khuch tn m c th khng ng k.
2.B tr th nghim kho st dnh ca mt nha am theo lng v loi ph gia
s dng ( Th nghim 1)
2.1.B tr th nghim
C nh cc thng s: nhit , hm lng ng, lng nguyn liu,
o
Bx cui
cng ca sn phm mt l 65
o
Bx.
Mc tiu: La chn loi, lng ph gia s dng sao cho mt nha am c dnh
khng khc bit so vi sn phm mt nhuyn trn th trng.
Phng php s dng:
Sn xut mt nha am theo quy trnh bn di: thu c cc mu M1M15.
Tin hnh o kt dnh ca 15 mu kho st v mu trn th trng (M16) s
dng my o c l Instron
Lp li th nghim 5 ln cho mi mu th
Da vo mt s ngun ti liu tham kho nhm la chn c hm lng ph gia th
nghim nh sau:
Pectin (0.1% 0.4%): Bi ging Ph gia to gel C Tn N Minh Nguyt
H Bch Khoa TP.HCM (trang 11)
Gum arabic (0.5% - 0.75%): Bi ging ph gia thc phm Thy L Vn Nht
Hoi H Cng Nghip TP. HCM (slide 103)
Agar 1.5% (Quy trnh sn xut mt ng phng th ngim)
S b tr th nghim:
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 64

Nha am
Ct nhuyn
C c ti
o
Bx=65
ngui
Thnh phm
X l s b
Phi trn
Chn, 30 s
ng
V

Pectin
Agar
Gum
arabic



Ha tan Ha tan
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.4%
1.1%
1.2%
1.3%
1.4%
0.8%
0.5%
0.6%
0.7%
Ngm nc mui
NaCl 1%, 30 pht
0.5%
1%
0.9%

Bng b tr th nghim:
Th nghim 1: xc nh lng v loi ph gia thch hp
Ph gia Nng (%)
Pectin 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Agar 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
Arabic 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
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2.2.Phng php x l kt qu: phng php ANOVA
Nu khng c s khc bit (16 mu u ging nhau) th chn mu no trong 15
mu kho st c hiu qu kinh t nht.
Nu c s khc bit. Chy Tukey so snh s khc bit gia cc cp.
C 2 trng hp xy ra:
Ch c s khc bit ca bt k cp mu no trong 15 mu kho st m khng c
s khc bit gia cc mu kho st vi mu trn th trng (M16) th chn mu c s
dng loi v lng ph gia c hiu qu kinh t.
Nu tt cc mu kho st khc bit vi mu trn th trng th:
- Trng hp 1: nu 15 mu kho st c kt dnh thp hn mu M16 th tng
lng ph gia cho mu c kt dnh cao nht trong 15 mu kho st n khi no
khng c s khc bit gia mu vi mu trn th trng.
- Trng hp 2: nu 15 mu kho st c kt dnh cao hn mu M16 th gim
lng ph gia cho mu c kt dnh thp nht trong 15 mu kho st n khi no
khng c s khc bit gia mu vi mu trn th trng.
- Trng hp 3: nu mu M16 c dnh cao hn 1 s mu kho st v thp hn 1 s
mu cn li th i vi cn trn th gim hm lng, i vi cn di th tng liu
lng ph gia. Tuy nhin vic chn tng hay gim s ph thuc vo loi ph gia cho
hiu qu kinh t cao hn.
Mu 16 va ging bt k mu no trong 15 mu, v khc vi bt k mu no
trong 15 mu kho st th chn mu ging vi mu 16.
3.Th nghim kho st s nh hng ca lng mc ti kt dnh ca 2 lp
bnh (Th nghim 2)
3.1.B tr th nghim
C nh cc thng s: nhit , hm lng ng, lng nguyn liu,
o
Bx cui
cng ca sn phm mt l 65
o
Bx, loi v lng ph gia thch hp la chn th
nghim 1.
Mc tiu: La chn lng nhn s dng sao cho thnh phm c kt dnh khng
khc bit so vi sn phm trn th trng.
Phng php s dng:
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 66

Sn xut bnh bng lan nha am theo quy trnh bn di: thu c cc mu
M1M5.
Tin hnh o kt dnh ca 5 mu kho st v mu trn th trng (M6) s
dng my o c l Instron
Lp li th nghim 5 ln cho mi mu th
S b th nghim:
Nha am
Ct nhuyn
C c ti
o
Bx=65
ngui
X l s b
Phi trn
Chn, 30 s
ng
V
Ha tan Ha tan
Ngm NaCl
1%, 30 pht
Qut nhn bnh
o cu trc
Ph gia
4g
6g
8g
10g
12g
Bng b tr th nghim:
Th nghim 2: Kho st lng nhn thch hp
Lng nhn (g) 4 6 8 10 12
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Trang 67

Mu th nghim M1 M2

M3

M4 M5

2.2.X l kt qu v nhn xt
Phng php x l kt qu: phng php ANOVA
Nu khng c s khc bit (6 mu u ging nhau) th chn mu no trong 5
mu kho st c hiu qu kinh t nht.
Nu c s khc bit. Chy Tukey so snh s khc bit gia cc cp.
C 3 trng hp xy ra:
TH1: Ch c s khc bit ca bt k cp mu no trong 5 mu kho st m
khng c s khc bit gia cc mu kho st vi mu trn th trng (M6) th chn
mu c s dng lng nhn c hiu qu kinh t nht.
TH2: Nu tt cc mu kho st khc bit vi mu trn th trng th:
- Trng hp 1: nu 5 mu kho st c kt dnh thp hn mu M6 th tng
lng nhn cho mu c kt dnh cao nht trong 5 mu kho st n khi no khng
c s khc bit gia mu vi mu trn th trng (thay i bc nhy khi lng
nhn s dng).
- Trng hp 2: nu 5 mu kho st c kt dnh cao hn mu M6 th gim
lng nhn cho mu c kt dnh thp nht trong 5 mu kho st n khi no khng
c s khc bit gia mu vi mu trn th trng.
- Trng hp 3: nu mu M6 c dnh cao hn 1 s mu kho st v thp hn
1 s mu cn li th i vi cn trn th gim lng nhn, i vi cn di th tng liu
lng nhn s dng.
TH3: Mu M6 va khng khc bit vi bt k mu no trong 5 mu, va khc
bit vi bt k mu no trong 5 mu kho st th chn mu khng khc bit vi mu
M6.
4.Kho st th hiu ngi tiu dng v sn phm mi
4.1.B tr th nghim cm quan
Mc tiu:
nh gi mc a thch ca sn phm so vi cc sn phm tng t trn th
trng: bnh bng lan Hura, bnh bng lan Solite, bnh bng lan c Pht.
Phng php nh gi: phng php so hng th hiu
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 68

Cch tin hnh:
Lp phiu chun b th nghim trong c k hoch trnh by mu cho mi
ngi th.
Tin hnh nh gi hi ng gm 60 thnh vin
tui : 20-25
Nhit gii thiu mu 30
o
C
Thanh v bng nc
Dng c cha mu a nha
nh sng trng, m bo yu cu v diu kin ting n, trnh s tip xc gia
nhng ngi th vi nhau.
M ha sn phm:
Bnh bng lan nha am (981)
Bnh bng lan Hura (194)
Bnh bng lan Solite (763)
Bnh bng lan c Pht (462)
B tr trt t mu theo hnh vung latin:
1 2 3 4
2 3 4 1
3 4 1 2
4 1 2 3
S dng cch bc thm ta s c c trt t trnh by mu cho 10 ngi th
nh bng di:
Bng trnh by trt t mu
M s ngi th Trt t trnh by mu Trt t m ha
1 D A B C 462; 981; 194; 763
2 A B C D 981; 194; 763; 462
3 B C D A 194; 763; 462; 981
4 C D A B 763; 462; 981; 194
5 D A B C 462; 981; 194; 763
6 A B C D 981; 194; 763; 462
7 B C D A 194; 763; 462; 981
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 69

8 C D A B 763; 462; 981; 194
9 D A B C 462; 981; 194; 763
10 A B C D 981; 194; 763; 462
11 B C D A 194; 763; 462; 981
12 C D A B 763; 462; 981; 194
13 D A B C 462; 981; 194; 763
14 A B C D 981; 194; 763; 462
15 B C D A 194; 763; 462; 981
16 C D A B 763; 462; 981; 194
17 D A B C 462; 981; 194; 763
18 A B C D 981; 194; 763; 462
19 B C D A 194; 763; 462; 981
20 C D A B 763; 462; 981; 194
21 D A B C 462; 981; 194; 763
22 A B C D 981; 194; 763; 462
23 B C D A 194; 763; 462; 981
24 C D A B 763; 462; 981; 194
25 D A B C 462; 981; 194; 763
26 A B C D 981; 194; 763; 462
27 B C D A 194; 763; 462; 981
28 C D A B 763; 462; 981; 194
29 D A B C 462; 981; 194; 763
30 A B C D 981; 194; 763; 462
31 B C D A 194; 763; 462; 981
32 C D A B 763; 462; 981; 194
33 D A B C 462; 981; 194; 763
34 A B C D 981; 194; 763; 462
35 B C D A 194; 763; 462; 981
36 C D A B 763; 462; 981; 194
37 D A B C 462; 981; 194; 763
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 70

38 A B C D 981; 194; 763; 462
39 B C D A 194; 763; 462; 981
40 C D A B 763; 462; 981; 194
41 D A B C 462; 981; 194; 763
42 A B C D 981; 194; 763; 462
43 B C D A 194; 763; 462; 981
44 C D A B 763; 462; 981; 194
45 D A B C 462; 981; 194; 763
46 A B C D 981; 194; 763; 462
47 B C D A 194; 763; 462; 981
48 C D A B 763; 462; 981; 194
49 D A B C 462; 981; 194; 763
50 A B C D 981; 194; 763; 462
51 B C D A 194; 763; 462; 981
52 C D A B 763; 462; 981; 194
53 D A B C 462; 981; 194; 763
54 A B C D 981; 194; 763; 462
55 B C D A 194; 763; 462; 981
56 C D A B 763; 462; 981; 194
57 D A B C 462; 981; 194; 763
58 A B C D 981; 194; 763; 462
59 B C D A 194; 763; 462; 981
60 C D A B 763; 462; 981; 194








Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 71





Lp phiu th nghim nh sau:
PHNG TH NGHIM NH GI CM QUAN
PHP TH U TIN SO HNG
BNH BNG LAN NHA AM
M s ngi th:...........................................
Xin vui lng thanh v bng nc lc trc khi bt u mu th.
Bn c th thanh v ln na bt k lc no trong sut qu trnh th mu nu cn
thit.
Xin vui lng nm 4 mu theo th t c trnh by, t tri sang phi.
Bn c th nm li mu mt khi bn th nm xong tt c cc mu.
Sp xp cc mu t a thch nht n t c a thch nht s dng nhng s sau
y: 1 = a thch nht, 4 = t c a thch nht


t thch nht Thch nht
Bn hy yn tm v cu tr li ca mnh.
Cm n bn tham gia!

4.2.X l kt qu v nhn xt
Bng s liu thu c
Mu

Ngi th
Bnh bng lan
nha am
Bnh bng lan
Hura
Bnh bng lan
Solite
Bnh bng lan
c Pht
01
02
03
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 72

04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 73

34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Tng hng

Tnh chun s F theo cng thc:
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 74

()
(

( ) (1)
Trong :
K l s lng mu
N l s ngi th
T
k
l cc tng hng
Bc t do cho F l K-1
Tra bng C Bng cc gi tr ti hn ca Khi bnh phng. Nhn xt gi tr F tra
bng.
Tnh gi tr LSD (khc bit nh nht c ngha) trn cc tng hng theo cng
thc:

( )


Bng kt qu phn hng:
Cp mu |Hiu tng hng| Nhn xt
A - B
A C
A D
B C
B - D
C - D

Da vo kt qu bng phn hng ta s kt lun bnh bng nha nha am c mc
a thch nh th no so vi cc sn phm hin c trn th trng.







Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 75









Ph lc I.Bng kt qu iu tra kin ngi tiu dng
STT
Bnh bng lan
nha am (A)
Mng cun
gi sng (B)
B nhi
tht (C)
1 1 2 3
2 1 3 2
3 1 3 2
4 2 3 1
5 3 1 2
6 3 1 2
7 1 3 2
8 3 1 2
9 3 2 1
10 1 3 2
11 3 2 1
12 1 2 3
13 3 1 2
14 3 1 2
15 2 1 3
16 2 3 1
17 2 3 1
18 2 1 3
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 76

19 3 1 2
20 3 1 2
21 2 1 3
22 3 1 2
23 3 2 1
24 1 2 3
25 3 1 2
26 3 1 2
27 2 1 3
28 3 2 1
29 1 2 3
30 3 1 2
31 1 2 3
32 2 1 3
33 2 1 3
34 3 2 1
35 3 1 2
36 3 1 2
37 3 1 2
38 2 1 3
39 3 1 2
40 3 2 1
41 3 1 2
42 1 3 2
43 3 2 1
44 1 2 3
45 2 1 3
46 2 3 1
47 2 1 3
48 3 1 2
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 77

49 3 2 1
50 2 1 3
51 3 2 1
52 3 2 1
53 1 2 3
54 3 1 2
55 3 1 2
56 3 1 2
57 3 2 1
58 1 3 2
59 2 1 3
60 1 2 3
61 3 1 2
62 3 1 2
63 1 2 3
64 3 2 1
65 3 2 1
66 2 3 1
67 1 3 2
68 2 3 1
69 2 3 1
70 1 3 2
71 1 3 2
72 2 1 3
73 1 2 3
74 3 2 1
75 3 2 1
76 3 1 2
77 3 2 1
78 3 2 1
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 78

79 2 1 3
80 3 2 1
81 1 2 3
82 3 1 2
83 3 2 1
84 1 2 3
85 2 3 1
86 2 1 3
87 3 1 2
88 1 2 3
89 2 1 3
90 3 2 1
91 1 2 3
92 3 1 2
93 3 1 2
94 3 2 1
95 2 1 3
96 3 1 2
97 3 1 2
98 3 1 2
99 1 3 2
100 3 2 1
Tng
hng
228 172 200

Ph lc II.nh 10 tng theo phng php cho im
Quy c sn phm:
STT Sn phm
1 Sa chua bi
2 Mng cun tht g
3 Trng g nng
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 79

4 Ch gi rong bin
5 Xc xch ln men
6 Bnh bng lan nha am
7 c tm gia v
8 Sa khoai mn
9 Chui sy tm gia v
10 B nhi tht


Kt qu cho im tng thnh vin:
Thnh vin th 1:
STT Tiu ch nh gi
Sn phm
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 Tnh mi 7 9 9 8 9 9 8 8 7 9
2 Nhu cu 7 8 8 8 7 8 7 8 7 8
3 S tin li 7 8 7 8 7 8 8 8 8 8
4 Dinh dng 8 8 8 9 8 8 8 6 6 9
5 Ngun nguyn liu 9 9 9 9 8 9 6 9 9 9
6 My mc 8 9 8 8 7 9 8 8 8 8
7 Thi gian 8 8 8 8 7 8 7 7 8 7
8 Chuyn mn 9 8 8 7 7 8 7 7 8 8
9 Kinh t 8 8 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 7
10 Kh nng cnh tranh 8 9 7 7 8 8 8 7 7 8
Tng im 79 84 79 79 75 83 75 76 76 81

Thnh vin th 2:
STT Tiu ch nh gi
Sn phm
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 Tnh mi 7 7 8 8 8 9 8 6 7 8
2 Nhu cu 7 8 8 8 7 8 8 7 7 8
3 S tin li 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 8 7 8
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 80

4 Dinh dng 8 8 8 9 9 9 7 7 6 8
5 Ngun nguyn liu 9 9 9 7 9 9 7 8 9 8
6 My mc 8 9 9 9 7 9 9 9 9 7
7 Thi gian 7 8 7 8 7 9 8 8 8 8
8 Chuyn mn 7 8 7 7 6 8 8 8 8 7
9 Kinh t 7 7 7 6 7 8 9 9 7 7
10 Kh nng cnh tranh 8 8 8 8 6 9 8 7 6 8
Tng im 75 80 79 78 74 87 81 77 74 77

Thnh vin th 3:
STT Tiu ch nh gi
Sn phm
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 Tnh mi 9 6 8 7 7 8 7 8 8 7
2 Nhu cu 6 9 7 6 7 8 8 7 6 9
3 S tin li 6 8 7 9 8 9 9 9 7 8
4 Dinh dng 8 9 8 9 8 8 7 8 6 9
5 Ngun nguyn liu 8 7 8 8 9 8 6 8 9 7
6 My mc 9 8 8 6 7 9 7 8 7 8
7 Thi gian 7 8 6 7 7 8 7 8 6 7
8 Chuyn mn 8 7 7 6 7 7 6 7 8 6
9 Kinh t 7 8 8 7 6 8 7 6 9 6
10 Kh nng cnh tranh 7 8 7 7 9 9 8 9 7 7
Tng im 75 78 74 72 75 82 72 78 73 74

Thnh vin th 4:
STT Tiu ch nh gi
Sn phm
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 Tnh mi 8 6 7 6 7 8 8 7 6 7
2 Nhu cu 7 8 7 7 6 7 6 6 6 8
3 S tin li 8 7 6 7 8 8 7 8 6 7
4 Dinh dng 8 8 7 6 6 7 6 7 6 7
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 81

5 Ngun nguyn liu 8 9 9 9 9 8 7 9 9 8
6 My mc 9 9 9 9 7 7 8 7 9 9
7 Thi gian 8 8 6 7 6 7 6 6 6 8
8 Chuyn mn 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 6
9 Kinh t 7 7 7 8 7 8 7 6 6 7
10 Kh nng cnh tranh 7 8 7 7 7 8 7 8 8 9
Tng im 77 77 71 72 69 74 68 70 69 76

Thnh vin th 5:
STT Tiu ch nh gi
Sn phm
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 Tnh mi 8 9 8 7 8 9 6 8 6 7
2 Nhu cu 7 9 8 7 8 8 7 8 6 9
3 S tin li 7 9 7 9 7 8 9 9 9 9
4 Dinh dng 8 9 7 7 8 8 8 8 6 9
5 Ngun nguyn liu 9 8 9 9 9 9 8 8 6 8
6 My mc 7 9 9 9 7 9 8 7 8 9
7 Thi gian 7 9 6 9 6 9 8 7 6 9
8 Chuyn mn 7 9 6 9 6 8 7 6 7 9
9 Kinh t 8 7 7 7 7 8 7 6 9 7
10 Kh nng cnh tranh 9 7 7 7 6 8 9 6 6 9
Tng im 77 85 74 80 72 84 77 73 69 85

Ph lc III.nh gi thuc tnh sn phm
Sn phm 1: Bnh bng lan nha am
Thnh vin 1
Thuc tnh
Mc quan trng
Thp Trung bnh Cao
xp X
bo X
kt dnh ca lp nha am X
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 82

Mi X
Mu X
ngt nhn X
m ca nhn X
Gi c X
S hp dn ca bao b X
Thi hn s dng X



Thnh vin 2
Thuc tnh
Mc quan trng
Thp Trung bnh Cao
xp X
bo X
kt dnh ca lp nha am X
Mi X
Mu X
ngt nhn X
m ca nhn X
Gi c X
S hp dn ca bao b X
Thi hn s dng X

Thnh vin 3
Thuc tnh
Mc quan trng
Thp Trung bnh Cao
xp X
bo X
kt dnh ca lp nha am X
Mi X
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 83

Mu X
ngt nhn X
m ca nhn X
Gi c X
S hp dn ca bao b X
Thi hn s dng X




Thnh vin 4
Thuc tnh
Mc quan trng
Thp Trung bnh Cao
xp X
bo X
kt dnh ca lp nha am X
Mi X
Mu X
ngt nhn X
m ca nhn X
Gi c X
S hp dn ca bao b X
Thi hn s dng X

Thnh vin th 5
Thuc tnh
Mc quan trng
Thp Trung bnh Cao
xp X
bo X
kt dnh ca lp nha am X
Mi X
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 84

Mu X
ngt nhn X
m ca nhn X
Gi c X
S hp dn ca bao b X
Thi hn s dng X



Sn phm 2: mng cun tht
Thnh vin 1
Thuc tnh
Mc quan trng
Thp Trung bnh Cao
gin ca mng X
Cu trc nhn X
Cch to hnh X
V X
Mi hng X
Gi c X
S hp dn ca bao b X
Thi hn s dng X

Thnh vin 2
Thuc tnh
Mc quan trng
Thp Trung bnh Cao
gin ca mng X
Cu trc nhn X
Cch to hnh X
V X
Mi hng X
Gi c X
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 85

S hp dn ca bao b X
Thi hn s dng X

Thnh vin 3
Thuc tnh
Mc quan trng
Thp Trung bnh Cao
gin ca mng X
Cu trc nhn X
Cch to hnh X
V X
Mi hng X
Gi c X
S hp dn ca bao b X
Thi hn s dng X

Thnh vin 4
Thuc tnh
Mc quan trng
Thp Trung bnh Cao
gin ca mng X
Cu trc nhn X
Cch to hnh X
V X
Mi hng X
Gi c X
S hp dn ca bao b X
Thi hn s dng X

Thnh vin 5
Thuc tnh
Mc quan trng
Thp Trung bnh Cao
gin ca mng X
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 86

Cu trc nhn X
Cch to hnh X
V X
Mi hng X
Gi c X
S hp dn ca bao b X
Thi hn s dng X


Sn phm 3: B nhi tht
Thnh vin 1
Thuc tnh
Mc quan trng
Thp Trung bnh Cao
do ca b X
Kt dnh ca nhn X
Cch to hnh X
Mi X
Mu X
Gi c X
S hp dn ca bao b X
Thi hn s dng X

Thnh vin 2
Thuc tnh
Mc quan trng
Thp Trung bnh Cao
do ca b X
Kt dnh ca nhn X
Cch to hnh X
Mi X
Mu X
Gi c X
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 87

S hp dn ca bao b X
Thi hn s dng X

Thnh vin 3
Thuc tnh
Mc quan trng
Thp Trung bnh Cao
do ca b X
Kt dnh ca nhn X
Cch to hnh X
Mi X
Mu X
Gi c X
S hp dn ca bao b X
Thi hn s dng X

Thnh vin 4
Thuc tnh
Mc quan trng
Thp Trung bnh Cao
do ca b X
Kt dnh ca nhn X
Cch to hnh X
Mi X
Mu X
Gi c X
S hp dn ca bao b X
Thi hn s dng X

Thnh vin 5
Thuc tnh
Mc quan trng
Thp Trung bnh Cao
do ca b X
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 88

Kt dnh ca nhn X
Cch to hnh X
Mi X
Mu X
Gi c X
S hp dn ca bao b X
Thi hn s dng X

Ph lc IV.Nhng yu t nh hng ti cc thuc tnh ca bnh bng lan nha
am
Thnh vin 1:
Thuc
tnh
Cc yu t c lin quan
m lp nha am
Loi
ph gia
trong
mc
Lng
ph gia
s
dng
trong
mc
Kch
tht
ming
nha
am
Nguy
n
liu
lm
bnh
bng
lan
T l
cc
thnh
phn
nguy
n liu
Ch

nng
Kch
tht
bnh
Loi
nha
am
Thi
gian
sn
mc
Nhit
sn
mc

kt
dnh
ca
lp
nha
am
5 8 8 9 10 8 0 0 0 0

xp
0 0 0 0 0 0 8 10 10 8

Thnh vin 2:
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 89

Thuc
tnh
Cc yu t c lin quan
m lp nha am
Loi
ph gia
Lng
ph gia
Kch
tht
ming
nha
am
Nguy
n
liu
lm
bnh
bng
lan
T l
cc
thnh
phn
nguy
n liu
Ch

nng
Kch
tht
bnh
Loi
nha
am
Thi
gian
sn
mc
Nhit
sn
mc

kt
dnh
ca
lp
nha
am
7 8 8 7 9 7 0 0 0 0

xp
0 0 0 0 0 0 7 9 9 8

Thnh vin 3:
Thuc
tnh
Cc yu t c lin quan
m lp nha am
Loi
ph gia
Lng
ph gia
Kch
tht
ming
nha
am
Nguy
n
liu
lm
bnh
bng
lan
T l
cc
thnh
phn
nguy
n liu
Ch

nng
Kch
tht
bnh
Loi
nha
am
Thi
gian
sn
mc
Nhit
sn
mc

kt
8 10 9 9 8 7 0 0 0 0
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 90

dnh
ca
lp
nha
am

xp
0 0 0 0 0 0 8 9 9 7



Thnh vin 4:
Thuc
tnh
Cc yu t c lin quan
m lp nha am
Loi
ph
gia
Lng
ph
gia
Kch
tht
ming
nha
am
Nguy
n
liu
lm
bnh
bng
lan
T l
cc
thnh
phn
nguy
n liu
Ch
nng
Kch
tht
bnh
Loi
nha
am
Thi
gian
sn
mc
Nhit
sn
mc

kt
dnh
ca
lp
nha
am
7 9 8 9 10 8 0 0 0 0

xp
0 0 0 0 0 0 7 9 10 8

Thnh vin 5:
Tiu lun Pht trin sn phm GVHD: ThS.Nguyn Th Thanh Bnh
ThS.Nguyn B Thanh
Trang 91

Thuc
tnh
Cc yu t c lin quan
m lp nha am
Loi
ph gia
Lng
ph
gia
Kch
tht
ming
nha
am
Nguy
n
liu
lm
bnh
bng
lan
T l
cc
thnh
phn
nguyn
liu
Ch

nng
Kch
tht
bnh
Loi
nha
am
Thi
gian
sn
mc
Nhit

sn
mc

kt
dnh
ca
lp
nha
am
7 9 8 9 9 8 0 0 0 0

xp
0 0 0 0 0 0 8 9 8 7

Ph lc V.Cc ph gia to gel khc ng dng trong thc phm
1.Xanthangum
1.1.Cu to
Cu to ca Xanthangum gm hai thnh phn chnh l D glucose v D
manose, ngoi ra cn c thm D-glucoronic v axit piruvic. Cc phn t D-glucose
lin kt vi nhau qua lin kt .

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Cng thc cu to ca Xanthangum
1.2.Tnh cht
- Dng bt mn, mu kem.
- Tan trong nc, khng tan trong cc dung mi khng phn cc.
- L hp cht biopolymer c chit t vi sinh vt.
- Xanthan c tnh do, dnh c s dng nh cc tc nhn lm n nh, lm c,
nh ha, hay to huyn ph.
- Bn trong pH kim, acid v di tc dng ca enzyme.
- Khi tng nhit ca dung dch xanthan s lm nng chy mt phn chui
xon kp.
- Khi nhit dung dch thp xanthan thng b ng ha to nn mt cu trc
xon kp c trt t.
- Polysaccharide c tnh cht c r rt nhit thp v nng ion cao.
1.3.ng dng.
- Lm c trong nc st.
- Lm c trong kem chng li hin tng hi ng.
- Dng thay th cht bo nhng khng mang nng lng.
- Dng trong nc qu thanh trng ng chai, nectar ng chai.
2.Carrageenan:
2.1.Cu to
Carrageenan l polysaccharide ca galactose-galactan, ngoi cc nhm chnh
cn c cc gc sulfate gn vo nhng v tr v s lng khc nhau. C rt nhiu dng
carrageenan ty thuc vo s lng v v tr nhm sulfate.
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S chuyn ha cu trc ca Carrageenan
2.2.Tnh cht
- L bt mu sng, khng mi v, khng chy nhit thng, to cu trc gel
dn, trong. Carrageenan l mt polysaccharide ca galactose-galactan.
- Carrageenan tan trong nc nhng tan ca n ph thuc vo dng, nhit ,
pH, nng ca ion v cc cht tan khc.
- Carrageenan c kh nng to gel nng thp ( nh hn 0.5% ). dng gel
cc mch polysaccharide xon vng nh l xo v cng c th xon vi nhau to thnh
khung xng khng gian ba chiu vng chc, bn trong c th cha nhiu phn t
nc (hay dung mi).
- S hnh thnh gel c th gy ra bi nhit thp hoc thm cc cation vi mt
nng nht nh. Qu trnh to gel din ra phc tp, c thc hin theo hai bc:
Bc 1: khi h nhit n mt gii hn no trong phn t carrageenan c
s chuyn cu hnh t dng cun ngu nhin khng c trt t sang dng xon c trt
t. Nhit ca qu trnh chuyn i ny ph thuc vo dng v cu trc cc
carrageenan, cng nh ph thuc vo dng v nng ca mui thm vo dung dch
carrageenan. Do , mi mt dng carrageenan c mt im nhit to gel ring.
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Bc 2: cc phn pht trin y ca chi xon tp hp li to thnh cu
trc gel. Cn di iu kin khng to gel, cc nng polymer thp s hnh thnh
v hp li ca cc cu trc xon s dn ti tng nht.
Nh vy, trc ht l s chuyn i cu hnh t dng cun sang xon l xo, tip
l s kt hp cc xon v t hp li to thnh cc xon kp gel. Nh vy do
carrageenan to ra l do s tp hp c trt t ca cc cu trc xon.


C ch chuyn i t dung dch sang gel di tc dng ca nhit

Trng thi gel ca carrageenan di tc dng ca cation.
2.3.ng dng
- Carrageenan c ng dng rng ri trong cng ngh bnh ko.
- L cht to ng trong mt s sn phm: kem, sa, b, pho mai
- Lm bn h nh tng.
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- Thay i tnh cht c l ca sn phm, lm sn phm c ng c nht theo
mong mun.
- Ngn chn hin tng hi ng trong ko.
- Do c tnh c kh nng lin kt vi protein nn c ng dng rng ri trong
cng ngh sn xut sa, lm bn h nh tng, trnh hin tng phn lp ca sa.
- Carrageenan c kh nng gi nc bn trong sn phm cao nn c ng dng
trong cc sn phm tht, c.
3.Gelatin
3.1.Cu to
Gelatin l cc polypeptid cao phn t dn sut t collagen, l thnh phn
protein chnh trong cc t bo lin kt ca nhiu loi ng vt.

Cu to l mt chui acid amin gm 3 acid amin ch yu l glycine, proline v
hydroproline. Trong phn t gelatin, cc acid amin lin kt vi nhau to chui xon c
c kh nng gi nc. Phn t lng ca gelatin khong vi nghn n vi trm nghn
n v Carbon.
Thnh phn cc acid amin c trong gelatin:
1. Aspartic acid: 6%
2. Arginine: 8%
3. Alanine: 9%
4. Glutamic acid: 10%
5. Proline vo Hydroproline: 25%
6. Glycine: 27%
7. Cac acid main khac: 10%
3.2.C ch to gel
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Gelatin trng n khi cho vo nc lnh, lng nc hp thu gp 5-10 ln th
tch chnh n. Khi gia nhit n b nng chy, ha tan v thnh lp gel khi lm lnh. S
chuyn dng t sol sang dng gel c tnh thun nghch v c th lp i lp li nhiu
ln. y chnh l tnh cht c bit c ng dng nhiu trong thc phm. Gelatin c
nhit nng chy thp 27-34
o
C.
tan ca gel gelatin ph thuc v o cc yu t nh nhit v kch thc ca
ht gelatin. Gelatin tan trong ru v cc dung mi hu c.
4.Alginate
4.1.Cu to
Bao gm axit alginic, alginat natri, alginat kali, alginat amn, alginat canxi,
alginat propylen-glycol

4.2.Tnh cht
Khi ha tan aginate vo nc chng s ngm nc v to thnh dung dch nht.
nht ca dung dch ph thuc vo chiu di v cch sp xp cc phn t trong cu
trc aginate.

- Kh nng to gel.
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Trong iu kin nhit cao trng thi si v khi lm ngui s to thnh gel.
Alginat cng c kh nng kt hp vi ion Ca
2+
to gel.

C ch to gel ca Alginat
Aginate c kh nng to gel khi c mt ion Ca
2+
v acid. C th to gel trong
mi trng acid pH<4 thng dng kt hp vi pectin.
Gel to bi lin kt tnh in gia cc cu ni ion Ca
2+
khng thun nghch v
nhit v t n hi.
S dng aginate kt hp vi pectin trong qu trnh to gel v pectin to gel
nng cht kh cao, khi b sung aginate vo th gel s hnh thnh nng cht kh
thp hn v khong pH rng hn.
4.3.ng dng
Aginate natri c ng dng rng ri trong cng ngh thc phm ch yu l tc
nhn to c, lm dy n nh kh nng kh nng to bt.
Propylenglycol aginate rt bn trong mi trng axit thp t pH = 0-3 nn c
s dng thay th aginate natri.
Lamizell c to thnh bng cch kt hp gia aginate natri v aginate canxi
vi t l nht nh to nht c bit cho sn phm.
Ngoi ra aginate cn c mt s tc dng sau:
+ Lm bn bt.
+ To nht cao.
+ To ra gel c kh nng gi nc tt.
5.CMC (Carboxy Metyl Cellulose):
5.1.Cu to
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L mt cht c iu ch t xenlluloza v acid moso cloacetic, ngoi ra cn c
s tham gia ca NaOH 40%. CMC l cht a in ly, c nh hng ti s to cu tr,
lm tng tnh n hi, tnh kt dnh, dn dai.

Cng thc cu to ca CMC
5.2.Tnh cht
C dng bt trng, kh nng ha tan ph thuc vo trng lng phn t v kh
nng methyl ha. Nhn chung, CMC tan trong nc, dung dch sucrose, NaCl v
etanol, kh nng ha tan trong du v propylen glycol b gii hn.
pH thp nht ca dung dch tng cao thm ch kt ta.
CMC c th b ph hy do hot ng ca vi sinh vt v enzyme kh. nht
gim khi nhit tng, nht c tnh thun nghch vi nhit .

S bin thin nht theo nhit
Ngoi ra nht ca CMC cn b nh hng bi cc ion kim loi: ion Ca
2+
,
Mg
2+
lm gim nht ca dung dch, cn ion Al
3+
, Cr
3+
, Fe
3+
tng kh nng to gel.
5.3.ng dng
Cellulose v cc dn xut t cellulose c s dng ph bin trong cng nghip
ch bin thc phm vi cc tc dng sau:
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+ Thay i tnh cht lu bin ca thc phm, ci thin cu trc, to hnh dng
cho thc phm.
+ L cht lm c trong sn xut kem v cc sn phm cng loi, khi ha tan
CMC vo nc s to dung dch c nht cao.CMC lm chm qu trnh kt tinh, lm
mn tinh th, ci thin bng v ngn nga s chy kem.
+ Dng lm cht n nh pha rn trong cc sn phm nc gii kht.
+ Ci thin tnh cht bt nho, lm mm khi bt nho, gia m, tng kh nng
kt dnh cc thnh phn.
+ Dng lm cht to st trong cc sn phm nc st.




6.Tinh bt bin tnh
6.1.Cu to
Tinh bt bin l tinh bt trong nhng iu kin gia cng nht nh ( x l nhit,
acid, kim) lm bin i tnh cht ca tinh bt to ra c, do, dai, nht,
trong, to mng bao cho sn phm.
6.2.Tnh cht
- Tinh bt bin tnh bng phng php vt l:
Trn vi cht tr:
Tinh bt c trn vi cc cht tr s lm tng kh nng tch bit ca cc phn
t tinh bt, gip cho vic hydrate ha d dng, trnh s vn cc cc phn t tinh bt
li vi nhau.
H ha s b:
Tinh bt h ha s b c cc c tnh sau:
+ Trng nhanh trong nc.
+ Bin i chm trong qu trnh bo qun, ngn chn s thoi ha tinh bt qu
nhanh.
+ C c v kh nng gi nc, gi kh tt.
+ Bn khi nhit thp.
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Tinh bt h ha s b c ng dng trong trng hp:
+ Cn c, gi nc m khng cn nu.
+ Nu bin tnh t amilopectin th s lm bn nht.
Gia nhit kh nhit cao:
Di tc ng ca nhit tinh bt b bin i su sc lm nh hng n cc
tnh cht ca tinh bt: nht gim, ha tan trong nc lnh tng
- Bin tnh bng phng php ha hc
Bin tnh bng axit
Tinh bt bin tnh axit c mt s tinh cht sau:
+ nht gim so vi tinh bt trc khi bin tnh.
+ Khi h ha ht trng n km.
+ Kh nng ha tan cao trong dung dch nc m c nhit thp hn nhit
h ha.
+ Nhit h ha cao.
Bin tnh bng kim
Tinh bt ha tan d dng trong mi trng kim v kim gip ion ha tng phn
phn t tinh bt lm tng kh nng hydrate ha ca tinh bt.
Bin tnh tinh bt bng oxi ha.
+ S h ha xy ra nhanh hn nhit thp hn.
+ nht dung dch tng chm hn so vi tinh bt cha bin tnh.
+ Dch h tinh bt c trong sut cao, kh nng oxi ha cng cao th trong
sut cng cao.
+ Trong qu trnh bo qun th s phn lp khi to thnh gel c gim ti mc
ti thiu.
6.3.ng dng
Tinh bt bin nh c s dng rng ri trong cng ngh ch bin thc phm:
Ch s INS Tn ph gia ng dng trong thc phm
E1400 Dextrin Phomat p, sa chua c hng liu, , kem.
E1401 Tinh bt x l axit hp rau qu, c, sa chua, vin sp.
E1042 Tinh bt x l kim hp rau qu, c, , kem hn hp, sa
chua
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E1043 Tinh bt kh mu Phomat p, sa chua c hng liu, , kem,
thc phm lnh ng.
E1405 Tinh bt x l bng
enzyme
, kem hn hp, vin canh sp.









Bnh bng lan nha am l s kt hp c o, mi l ca hai thnh phn quen
thuc: bnh bng lan v nha am. y c th l sn phm ha hn s nhn c s
n nhn, s ng h ca ngi tiu dng. Tuy nhin, nu c s kho st v t l lp
nhn vi bnh, s phi trn gia cc loi ph gia th sn phm to c th t c s
ph hp cao hn cho ngi tiu dng.
Do khng c thi gian nn nhm chng em cha lm c nhng kho st
. Ngoi ra, ngun nguyn liu nha am cng rt quan trng, ng ra nhm phi kho
st loi nha am, thi im thu hoch sao cho ph hp vi sn phm nht, tuy nhin
chng em khng c iu kin kho st nh gi ngun nguyn liu. Trong bi ny,
chng em a ra quy trnh sn xut ban u sn phm bnh bng lan nha am, y
l c s kho st cc giai on tip theo.





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1. PGS TS Nguyn Duy Thnh - Cc cht ph gia dng trong sn xut thc
phm - Trng i hc Bch khoa H ni - 2004
2. Tn N Minh Nguyt Ph gia to gel, to st Trng i Hc Bch Khoa
TP.HCM
3. L Vn Vit Mn Cng ngh ch bin thc phm NXB i hc quc gia
TP.HCM
4. http://www.scribd.com/doc/3750219/chienluocmarketingmix
5. http://www.kinhdofood.com
6. www.tvsi.com.vn
7. http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ax%C3%ADt_citric
8. http://vnthuquan.net/diendan/tm.aspx?m=519643&AspxAutoDetectCookieSup
port=1
9. http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/D%E1%BA%A7u_%C4%83n



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Xin chn thnh cm n C, Thy!