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Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology

Japans Support for Education


More than 100 million children are still out of school, and about 60% of them are girls. Approximately 800 million adults are illiterate, and two-thirds of them are women. In order to address these challenges, the global community has been working together to provide all people - children, youth and adults - with opportunities for basic education* under the Education for All (EFA) movement since 1990. For decades, the Government of Japan has extended its official development assistance (ODA), with a particular emphasis on supporting nation-building and human resources development. As a cornerstone of nation-building and human resources development, education is one of the priority areas of Japans ODA. At the G8 Genoa Summit in 2001, Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi made an appeal to the world leaders on the vital importance of education in development, introducing a Japanese story about the Spirit of One Hundred Sacks of Rice.** In 2002, the Government of Japan announced the Basic Education for Growth Initiative (BEGIN) at the G8 Kananaskis Summit, and has actively contributed to the international efforts in achieving Education for All. Japan has also actively supported higher and technical education in developing countries, which is imperative to foster skilled human resources needed for social and economic development and enable developing countries to thrive in an accelerating global market and knowledge-based society. The universal aim is to enable all people in the world to enjoy greater opportunities for education with good quality. Japan is committed to continue to provide support for education, responding to the diverse needs of education sector in the developing countries.

Japans Support for Education

Why Support Education? 4 Global Efforts to Support Education 5 Japans International Cooperation Policies in Education and Their Features 6 Japans Major Assistance in the World [Basic education] 8 Japans Assistance : Case Studies
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Basic education Ensuring access to education 10 Improving the quality of education13 Improving the management of education 16 Education in post-conflict and post-disaster situations / Education for human security 18 Promoting multi-sectoral approach 20 Partnering for the progress 21 Higher education/Technical education Higher education 22 Technical/Vocational education and training 24 Assistance for international students 26

Basic education comprises education for acquiring the necessary knowledge and skills required by the people to sustain their daily lives and education that meet their basic learning needs. The scope of basic education varies with individual countries and cultures but it generally covers primary, lower-secondary, pre-primary, and non-formal (youth and adult literacy education, etc) education. Spirit of One Hundred Sacks of Rice The prosperity of a country, the growth of cities everything depends on people. Build schools and develop people of ability. (From the play One Hundred Sacks of Rice by Yuzo Yamamoto) In the early Meiji period, Nagaoka Domain, suffering from severe poverty, received a relief package of hundred sacks or about six tons of rice from a neighboring province. One of the Domains chief executives, Torasaburo Kobayashi, suggested the rice should be used to generate funds to build a new school, since it would be all gone within several days if it was distributed to local communities. As a result, quality human resources were developed at the school. The Spirit of the One Hundred Sacks of Rice, a guiding principle from this episode, emphasizes that investment in education is most important for nation-building.

**

In Kenya(photo : Kazuhito Hattori for JICA) Cover Picture Lontan primary school students in Myanmar (photo : Kenshiro Imamura for JICA)

In Myanmar(photo : Kenshiro Imamura for JICA)

Why Support Education?


Aiming at poverty reduction
One-fifth of the worlds population lives on less than $1 a day. It is a momentous task of the international community to realize a world without poverty and inequality. It is well recognized that education is vital for making such a world a reality. However, a significant number of children in the developing world still do not have any access to schooling, with many of them needing to work to support their families. Children without education tend to remain in poverty. Children from ethnic minorities, socially vulnerable background and rural areas are particularly disadvantaged in their access to education. By acquiring basic knowledge and skills, poor and vulnerable children and adults can participate more actively in political, social, and economic activities. They will be able to have more options in their lives and more likely to find their way out of poverty.

Global Efforts To Support Education


Education for All
More than 100 million children of primary-school age are still out of school and about 60% of those children are girls. Also, about 800 million adults were illiterate and two thirds of them are women. At the World Conference on Education for All held in Thailand in 1990, the world leaders reaffirmed their commitment to ensure that every person, whether children or youths or adults, should be able to benefit from educational opportunities designed to meet their basic learning needs. In 2000, 10 years after the World Conference on Education for All, the World Education Forum was held in Dakar, Senegal, which adopted the Dakar Framework for Action - Education for All: Meeting our Collective Commitments. The Dakar Framework document committed governments to achieving goals that include universal quality primary education by 2015. Dakar Framework for Action-Education for All
1 Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children. 2 Ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality. 3 Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life skills programmes. 4 Achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults. 5 Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls' full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality. 6 Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills.

Promoting human security and empowerment


Education also plays a pivotal role in promoting human security. Human security is a perspective that places the focus not on states but on individuals, and ensures protection against any threat to human existence and livelihoods. It also contributes to fostering a society in which people can live with dignity. The realization of human security requires empowerment of individuals, in addition to protecting their lives, health and livelihoods. Empowerment means that each individual is endowed with rights, ability, and choices on economic, social, legal, and political issues, and is capable of overcoming various inequalities. Education is a first step toward such empowerment.

In Niger (photo : Akio Iizuka for JICA)

Developing human resources for socio-economic development


Investment in education is important for raising personal income and developing human resources needed for socio-economic development. In Japan, education played a critical role in achieving post-war economic development. Equal opportunity in education was promoted for all people in Japan, contributing to the countrys economic development and its sustained economic growth with the reduction of poverty and social disparities. Education is also an important tool for tackling various development challenges including such issues as public health and the modernization of agriculture.

Basic Education in the World(Number of out-of-school children and adult literacy rate)
Central Asia
Adult Literacy rate
100% 99%

Achieving goals
The United Nations Millennium Summit held in September 2000 adopted the Millennium Declaration, leading to the establishment of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), aiming at poverty reduction. Two education-related goals - (i) Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling by 2015 (goal 2); and (ii) Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015(goal 3) are incorporated in MDGs, important targets that international society must work together to achieve. In 2002, the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative (FTI) was launched as a global partnership to ensure accelerated progress toward the goal of universal primary education by 2015. The low-income countries that demonstrate serious commitment to achieve this goal through the formulation of Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) and a sound national education plan can receive support from the FTI. With regard to higher education, UNESCO convened a World Conference on Higher Education in 1998. The conference reaffirmed the important role of higher education in contributing to development, and discussed many issues including the need to expand higher education opportunities for women, modernize higher education institutions and share knowledge across borders. While these policies have been globally adopted, Sector-Wide Approaches (SWAps) are being introduced in many developing countries, to comprehensively address various issues faced by the education sector of each country. This approach is a method of working that brings together development partners to support the national education plans developed with the ownership of developing countries themselves.
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Latin America and the Caribbean


Adult Literacy rate
90% 88%

B G

Number of out-of-school children (thousands) Boys 169 Girls 222

B G

Central and Eastern Europe


Adult Literacy rate
99% 96%

Number of out-of-school children (thousands) Boys 1,300 Girls 1,168

Keeping up with the global economy and the knowledgebased society


At the end of the 20th century, the globalization of the economy has further accelerated, and information and telecommunications technologies (ICTs) have dramatically progressed. It is crucially important that developing countries develop human resources needed for such knowledge-based society, positively using economic opportunities created in market economies, instead of being left behind in growing global economy. At the same time, various global issues we face, such as environmental issues, cannot be tackled without the coordinated actions of all global community members, whether they are developed or developing, based on their knowledge and experience. Higher education and research institutions play a pivotal role in accumulating such knowledge and experience and sharing them with one another on a global scale to address challenges common to all humankind.
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Arab States
Adult Literacy rate
73% 51% B G

The Ratio of Out-of-School Children by Region


Central and Eastern Europe 2.6% Latin America and the Caribbean 2.4% North America and Western Europe 2.3% Central Asia 0.4%

B G

Number of out-of-school children (thousands) Boys 1,245 Girls 1,443 Adult Literacy rate
70% B G 54%

Number of out-of-school children (thousands) Boys 2.992 Girls 4.450 Adult Literacy rate
71% B G 45% 95% 88%

Sub-Saharan Africa South and West Asia East Asia/the Pacific


Adult Literacy rate

Arab States 7.2% East Asia and the Pacific 11.6%

Total 103

Sub-Saharan Africa 38.9%

million people

Number of out-of-school Number of out-of-school children children (thousands) (thousands) Boys 18,301 Girls 21,990 Boys 13,518 Girls 22,289

B G

South and West Asia 34.6%

Number of out-of-school children (thousands) Boys 6.159 Girls 5.835

Source: UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Report 2005

Japan Education Forum

Japans International Cooperation Policies in Education and Their Features


Japans own experience and its development cooperation policies in education
Education is considered as one of the most critical factors that facilitated Japans modernization and rapid economic growth in the post-war period, which was called a miracle. Even in the Edo period (1603-1867), there was a wide diffusion of popular learning places such as terakoya, where children of the common people learned reading, writing and practical skills needed in daily life. This traditional education system in the Edo period served as a foundation of a modern education system, which was subsequently introduced and developed by the Meiji goverment during a relatively short period of time. However, it was not an easy process to introduce and establish such modern education systems at the beginning of the Meiji period (late 19th Century). For example, local communities were not necessarily the supporters of this newly introduced education system and complained about the financial burden that they had to bear. In some local areas, there were uprisings by people against schools and new education system, sometimes even leading to cases of schools being burnt down. It took about 40 years for Japan to achieve universal primary education after the introduction of a modern education system. In the post-war period, Japan worked hard to review its education system, train teachers and rebuild school facilities destroyed during the war. The development of the education system became the foundation of Japans present socio-economic development. The 100-year history of Japans experience in education can be shared with developing countries today and be positively utilized for their development and reconstruction. Based on its own experience, Japan actively supports education in developing countries. In line with the ODA Charter and the Medium-Term Policy on ODA, both of which form the policy basis of Japanese development cooperation, Japan places priority on education as an important sector to be supported. Japan announced Basic Education for Growth Initiative (BEGIN) at the Kananaskis Summit in 2002, identifying Japans strategy to support basic education in developing countries, giving due consideration to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Education for All Dakar Framework for Action, both adopted in 2000. Japan also announced that over 250 billion yen in assistance for education would be provided for low-income countries over the five years starting in 2002. By the end of 2003, Japan has already provided assistance of approximately 105.1 billion yen through grant aid, technical cooperation as well as contribution to international organizations such as UNICEF and UNESCO. In 2002, the World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD) was held in Johannesburg, South Africa, where Japan proposed making the 10-year period starting in 2005 the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (UNESD). UNESD was adopted at the UN General Assembly and has officially been launched since January 2005. Japan has been actively promoting the implementation of UNESD and has been supporting a Prime Mover Project in the Asia Cooperation Dialogue of Japan / Enviromental Education. Japan also established the trust fund for UNESD for UNESCO, the leading agency of UNESD.

Features of Japans assistance in education


Japan has been promoting international cooperation in basic education based on BEGIN. In support of developing countries own efforts to achieve Education for All, Japans assistance places priority on ensuring equal access to education, improving the quality of education and improving the management of education. The education sector in developing countries faces a number of challenges, including shortage of trained teachers, lack of textbooks and learning materials, insufficient number of school facilities, social environment that are not conducive to learning, and poor education management. Japan seeks to identify key issues concerning the education sector in each developing country and to pursue a comprehensive approach for tackling these issues in line with the partner countries own strategies for education development. In addition, in cooperation with the international community, Japan actively provides assistance in education in the post-conflict and post-disaster situations such as the reconstruction of school buildings and the provision of textbooks and school supplies in cooperation with UNICEF and NGOs in Afghanistan, Iraq, and the tsunami-disaster areas. While strengthening its support for basic education, Japan also actively supports technical and higher education in developing countries, in order to enhance their capacities to thrive in the global economy. Such supports include making technical education suitable to the needs of local industries and strengthening their cooperation with local industry circles, as well as carrying out vocational training combined with the provision of micro-credit for women to support their self-reliance. In the field of higher education, Japan assists both quantitative and qualitative improvement of the higher education institutions. Japan also supports the cross-border networking of higher education institutions. Without developing countries self-help efforts, the assistance in education cannot work effectively or their results will not be sustained on a long-term basis. Therefore, Japan respects developing countries ownership and supports their self-help efforts. For this purpose, Japan places priority on capacity building to optimize assistance from Japan and to pursue their self-sustaining development. Many aid organizations in the world are involved in assistance on education for developing countries. Japan implements its educational assistance in cooperation with various partners such as NGOs, international organizations and other donor countries, based on comparative advantages and expertise of each agency, in order to maximize the results of the assistance. At the grass roots level, Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers have been providing assistance on educational development in many developing countries. 226 Japanese in-service teachers have been dispatched as volunteer teachers to various developing countries over the four years. Moreover, in cooperation with Japanese universities and NGOs, the cooperation base system was established to systematize their knowledge and technical know-how in global cooperation in education. The Japan Education Forum, jointly hosted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology has been held every year since 2003, providing opportunities to share such knowledge and technical know-how with the international community.

In Mongolia (photo : Kenshiro Imamura for JICA)

Japan's ODA in Education


hundred million Yen number of people

BEGINBasic Education for Growth Initiative


Basic philosophies
Emphasis on a commitment by the governments of developing countries and support of ownership Recognition of cultural diversity and promotion of mutual understanding Assistance based on collaboration and cooperation with the international community Promotion of community involvement and the utilization of local resources Linkages with other development sectors Utilization of Japans experience in education

307.22 500 Yen Loan (ODA ) Grant Aid 275.04

344.17

4,000

Assistance for improving quality of education Assistance for science and mathematics education Assistance for teacher training Assistance for improvement of school administration and operation Improvement of management of education Enhancement of support for formulation of education policies and education development plans Assistance for improvement of educational administration system

3,500

400 124.95 143.58 300

3,000

2,500

2,000 Trainees accepted 63.47 1,500 200 194.51 183.54 134.54 100 169.76 148.89

New efforts by Japan


1. Utilization of in-service teachers and establishment of cooperation bases 2. Promotion of wide-ranging collaboration with international frameworks Support to UNESCO Support to UNICEF Consideration on World Banks Fast Track Initiative Participation in the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) 3. Support for education for post-conflict nation-building

Priority areas
Assistance for ensuring access to education Construction of school buildings and related facilities serving various needs Assistance for elimination of gender disparities (girls education) Assistance for non-formal education (promotion of literacy education) Active utilization of information and communication technology (ICT)

150.57

1,000

JOCVs dispatched

500

1 9 9 9

2 0 0 0

2 0 0 1

Experts dispatched 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 3

0 2 0 0 4 Year

(Full text : www.mofa.go.jp/region/africa/education3.html)

Japans Major Assistance in the World [Basic education]


Afghanistan
-Back-to-School Campaign Emergency (UNICEF) -Project for Construction of Basic Education Facilities (phase I) Grant Aid -Strengthening of Non-Formal Education Project Technical Cooperation -Strengthening Teacher Education Program (STEP) Technical Cooperation -Project on Support for Expansion and Improvement of Literacy Education Technical Cooperation -Primary School Construction Project in Nangarhar Province NGO

Pakistan
-Punjab Literacy Promotion Project Technical Cooperation -Balochistan Middle Level Education Project Yen Loan

Bangladesh
-Strengthening Primary Teacher Training on Science and Mathematics Project Technical Cooperation -Project for Support to Intensive District Approach to Education for All Grant Aid -Project for Improvement of Primary Education Through Second Primary Education Development Programme (PEDP II) Grant Aid
Grant Aid

Nepal
-The Community-based Alternative Schooling Project (CASP) Technical Cooperation -Project for Construction of Primary Schools in Support Primar of Education for All Grant Aid -Community Learning Centres to Help Grass-roots Community, Lear ass-roots Community Especially Women and other Disadvantaged Groups, to Regain omen Disadv Human Security / Dignity and to Enhance their Capacity for Personal & Social Development Human (UNICEF)

Iraq
-Project for Reconstruction of Primary Education Iraq (UNICEF) -Project for Strengthening Primary and Secondary Education -School Rehabilitation Project Emergency (UN-HABITAT) *2
Emergency (UNICEF)

Grant Aid Yen loan (ODA) Technical Cooperation Emergency Grant Aid United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security Grant Assistance for Japanese NGO Projects International Reconstruction Fund for Iraq

Mongolia
-Strengthening the Planning Capacity for In-serve Teacher Training Technical Cooperation -Teaching Methods Improvement Project towards hing Impro Children's Development Technical Cooperation en's -Project for Development of Primary School Facilities, Phase II Grant Aid -Rehabilitation of Boarding Schools and Provision of Refresher Training Course for Headmasters and Teachers aining in the Dzud (natural disaster affecting livestock caused by severe winter conditions) affected Gobi Desert Provinces Human (UNICEF) -Supply of Mimeog Mimeograph to Promote School Educational NGO Activities

Yen Loan

Technical Cooperation Emergency Human NGO Iraq

Yemen
-Project for Construction of School Facilities for Basic Education, phase I and II Grant Aid -Broadening Regional Initiative for Developing Girls Education (BRIDGE) Program in Taiz Governorate am
Technical Cooperation

Serbia and Montenegro


-Reactivation of Quality Primary Education in Kosovo Human (UNICEF) ation Primar -School Rehabilitation in Kosovo Human (UNDP) -School Buses for Minority Students Human (UNMIK/UNOPS) *1 -Reconstruction of the Elementary School Pandelli Sotiri in Oblic Elementar

NGO

*1 UNMIK : United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo UNOPS : United Nations Office for Project Services *2 UN-HABITAT : United Nations Human Settlements Programme *3 WFP : World Food Programme *4 UNCRD : United Nations Centre for Regional Development

Bosnia-Herzegovina
-Project for Construction of Basic Schools
Grant Aid

Mexico
Yen Loan

Algeria
-Earthquake-Affected Education Sector Reconstruction Project

Laos
-Project for Construction of Primary Schools Grant Aid -Project for Impro Improving Science and Mathematics Teacher Training Technical Cooperation -Girls Education and Community Development for Awareness Raising and Prevention of Girl Trafficking Human (UNICEF) s

-Project for Improvement of Life of Women in Marginalized Communities in vement ginalized Urban Zone of Chiapas State, The United Me Mexican States Technical Cooperation

Morocco
-Rural Secondary Education Expansion Project
Yen Loan

Honduras
-Project for the Improvement of Teaching Method in Mathematics, phase II Technical Cooperation

Vietnam
-Project for Strengthening Cluster-based Teacher Training and School Management Technical Cooperation -Project for Improvement of Facilities of Primary Schools in Northern Mountain Region, Phase II Grant Aid

Republic Dominican
-Project for the Improvement of the Quality of Teaching in Mathematics in the Dominican Republic Technical Cooperation

Nicaragua
-Project for Rehabilitation of Basic Education Facilities in Managua -Project for Construction of Primar Schools Facilities Grant Aid Primary -Project for the Improvement on Mathematics Teaching in vement Primary Primar Education Technical Cooperation
Grant Aid

Vietnam/Cambodia
-Support for Urban Youth at Risk: House for Youth
Human (UN-HABITAT)

*2

Philippines Burkina Faso


-Project for Construction of Primary Schools, phase III
Grant Aid

-Project for Improvement of Educational Facilities Grant Aid -Third Elementar Education Project Yen Loan d Elementary -Secondary Education Development and Improvement Project y Improvement

Colombia
Yen Loan

Sierra Leone
-Children and Youth Development Project in Kambia District
Technical Cooperation

-In service Teacher Education and Training in Mathematics and aining Natural Science Technical Cooperation

Sri Lanka
-Improving School Management to Enhance Quality of Education with Special Reference to Science and Mathematics
Technical Cooperation

Solomon Islands
-Project for Rehabilitation of Schools in Provinces Affected by Ethnic Conflict
Human (UNDP)

El Salvador
-Project for the Improvement on Mathematics Teaching in vement Primary Primar Education Technical Cooperation

Guinea
-Project for Construction of Primary Schools in the City of Conakry
Grant Aid

Papua New Guinea


-Project for Enhancing Quality in Teaching through TV Program (EQUITV)
Technical Cooperation

Mali
-Project for Construction of Primary Schools
Grant Aid

Maldives
-Project for Reconstruction of the Third Primary School in Male hool
Grant Aid

Guatemala
-Project for the Improvement of Teaching Method in Mathematics vement hing
Technical Cooperation

Djibouti
-Project for Strengthening Basic Education (Construction of Primary and Secondary School)
Grant Aid

East Timor
-Project for Reconstruction of Primar Schools and Junior High Schools Grant Aid Primary - 100 Schools Project: Improving the Quality of Primary Education Human (UNICEF) Impro

Senegal
-Education System Improvement Program Technical Cooperation -Project for Improvement of Educational Equipments for Elementary Schools Grant Aid -Project for Construction of Classrooms for Elementary Schools Grant Aid

Uganda
-Secondary Science and Mathematics Teachers' Project (SESEMAT) Technical Cooperation

Ethiopia
-Community-based Basic Education Improvement Project Technical Cooperation Improvement -The Project on Increasing Access to Quality Basic Education through Developing School Sc Mapping and Str Strengthening Microplanning in Oromia Region Technical Cooperation -Project for Consolidation of Educational Television and Radio Recording Studios, phase I and II Grant Aid

Cambodia
-Project for Construction of Primary Schools in Phnom Penh Grant Aid -Project for Improving Science and Mathematics Education Technical Cooperation -Project to Construct a School Building at Sansam Kosal Primary School, Phnom Penh City NGO -Non-Formal Basic Education and Vocational Skill Training for Children and Youth at Risk Human (UNESCO)

Mauritania
-Project for Construction of Primary and Secondary Schools in Nouakchott and Nouadhibou Grant Aid

Lesotho
-Project for Construction of Primary Schools
Grant Aid

Bolivia
-Project for the Quality Improvement of Primary School Education (Child Centered Teaching Project) Technical Cooperation

Indonesia
-Regional Educational Development and Improvement Program
Human (UNICEF)

Ghana

South Africa

Kenya
-Strengthening of Mathematics and Science in Secondary Education (SMASSE), phase II
Technical Cooperation

-Project for Construction of Primary and Junior -Capacity Development in Educational Planning Project Technical Cooperation Secondary Schools in Limpopo Province Grant Aid -Project to Support the Operationalisation of the -Project for Construction of Primary and Junior INSET Policy Technical Cooperation Secondary Schools in Eastern Cape Province, phase II Grant Aid

Myanmar
-Strengthening Child-centered Approach (SCCA)
Technical Cooperation

Peru
-The Project for Strengthening of Educational Management in the Rural Education Networks of Canas and Suyo Technical Cooperation

Tanzania
-Project for Development of School Facilities for Dar Es Salaam Primary Schools Grant Aid -Basic Education and HIV/AIDS and Life Skill for Out of School Children Human (UNICEF) -Support to Primary Education in Drought Prone and Pastoralist Areas Human (WFP) *3

Benin Niger

Chile
-Project on Improvement of Mathematics Education
Technical Cooperation

-Project for Construction of Primary Schools

Grant Aid

Zambia
-Project for Construction of Basic Schools in Lusaka, phase II Grant Aid

Madagascar
-Project for Construction of Primary Schools, phase II
Grant Aid

-Project for Construction of Primary Schools in Dosso and Tahoua Regions Grant Aid -Project on Support to the Improvement of School Management through Community Participation (School for All) Technical Cooperation

Angola
-Project for Construction of Primary Schools in Luanda Province Grant Aid

Malawi
-Strengthening of Mathematics and Science in Secondary Education in Malawi (SMASSE-Malawi) Technical Cooperation -Project for Improvement of Domasi College of Education Grant Aid

Indonesia/India/Fiji/Uzbekistan
- School Earthquake Safety Project
Human (UNCRD)

Nigeria
-Project for Construction of Additional Classrooms for Primary Schools Grant Aid

Cameroon
-Project for Construction of Primary Schools, phase III Grant Aid

*4

Mozambique
-Project for Reconstruction of the Xai-Xai Primary Teacher Training Center
Grant Aid

Basic education

Japan's Assistace - Case Studies Basic

education
Niger
Technical Cooperation

Ensuring access to education


In order to improve school enrollments in developing countries, it is important not only to construct and rehabilitate schools but also to raise awareness of parents and community people about the value of educating their children. Many lowincome families are often discouraged to send their children to school, because they cannot bear the cost of schooling or they need their children to work. Japan provides assistance to increase educational opportunities to all children, through hardware assistance such as construction of classrooms as well as software assistance such as raising awareness of parents and community people and ensuring their participation in school management. Japan seeks to promote community participation in school construction wherever possible, which ensures their ownership of the school and active participation in school maintenance and management. In many developing countries, enrolments of disadvantaged children such as girls, children from poor families and ethnic minorities are particularly low, while disparity between urban and rural areas is also prominent. Thus, it is also important to make special efforts to address such disparities. Girls account for 60% of out-of-school children in the world. Japan seeks to provide educational environments that are safe and conducive for girls, through such measures including providing separate bathrooms for boys and girls when constructing school buildings. In rural areas where construction of school facilities and deployment of teachers face a particular challenge, assistance for distance learning via television and radio is being pursued. Non-formal education* is an effective way to provide basic education to children and adults who never had a chance to attend school or dropped out from schools. Japan supports literacy education by promoting community learning centers - a kind of Terakoya, which were the civilian-run schools found throughout Japan in the Edo period (16031867). Thus, Japan also contributes to The United Nations Literacy Decade starting in 2003.
*Non-formal education refers to the organized educational activities which take place outside of the formal education system. Non-formal education includes literacy education for adults and youths, alternative education for out-of-school children, and health education among others.

Niger
participation in school management. To this end, the goverment is promoting the establishment of school management committees (COGES) comprising of teachers, parents and community representatives. JICA has supported a School for All project since January 2004 with the aim to provide a management model for COGES and to enhance the capacity of local education administrators to support COGES activities. The ultimate aim of the project is to make community members play a central role in school management. In several districts, the community members have already planned and implemented action programs to make their local schools better, which has contributed to improved learning environments as well as increased educational opportunities for children.

School for All, School by All


Niger is among the poorest countries in the world. According to the UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), the countrys gross enrollment ratio in primary education was 40% in 2001, close to being the lowest in the world. Niger sets the goal of increasing the gross enrollment ratio in primary education to 91% by 2013 in its 10-year education development plan. Among many factors causing the low enrollment rate, the two biggest reasons are the serious shortage of classrooms and the parents low level of trust in local school management, which makes parents reluctant to send their children to school despite their desire to educate their children. In dealing with the shortage of classrooms, development partners such as the World Bank and other donors, including Japan, are assisting Niger to construct about 20,000 classrooms. To date, Japan provided 2,315 million yen as grant aid for constructing additional 144 schools. As for the reluctance of parents to send their children to school, it is necessary to raise their awareness about education and encourage their

Election of school management committee members

Nepal

Grant Aid

Nepal
Government developed a new education program, Education for All 2004-2009, in order to further expand and improve primary education. The Project for Construction of Primary Schools in Support of Education for All has been conducted since October 2003, to support the construction of classrooms and education resource centers in 15 selected districts, which were selected based on needs, poverty levels and access to schools. The Government of Japan provided financial and material resources needed for the school construction, while the actual construction work was carried out with the active participation of local people.

Furthermore, the project has begun to have significant impact at the national level. For instance, the study manual developed for the project has been utilized as the basis of Nigers official study manual.

Towards the realization of Education for All


In Nepal, the Basic and Primary Education Program-II (BPEP-II) was implemented during the period of 1999 - 2004, aiming at greater access, quality improvement and strengthening educational management capacity in primary education. With the introduction of the program, the countrys net primary enrollment ratio increased from 70% in 1999 to 84% in 2004. However, both quality and coverage of education still remain as great challenges. Due to a serious shortage of classrooms, many schools have no choice but to accept a limited number of students, suspend classes in the rainy season and conduct class sessions outdoors. The Nepali

Yemen

Technical Cooperation

Ye m e n
opment Strategy in 2002, aiming at providing children with greater opportunities for basic education, with particular emphasis on eliminating gender disparity. However, since the decentralization process in public administration has been introduced only recently, the country faces a number of challenges including the low level of planning capacity of local education administrators, insufficient management capacity of school administrators and low level of community involvement in education development. JICA has been supporting Broadening Regional Initiatives for Developing Girls Education (BRIDGE) Program in Taiz Governorate from June 2005 to November 2008. The project is expected to establish a model for effective local administration system in education that can promote girls education initiated by schools and communities, through the activities jointly conducted by local education administrators, school administrators and community members.

Promoting community-based girls education


Yemen has one of the largest gender disparity in basic education, according to the UNDPs Human Development Report 2004. While the countrys overall net enrollment ratio in primary education is 67%, the ratio for female is only 47%. Likewise, while the overall adult literacy rate is 49%, the rate for female remains as low as 28%. The Government of Yemen developed a 10year national strategy, Basic Education Devel-

Children in a Japan-assisted primary school in Nepal

Morocco

Yen LoanODA

Morocco
has failed to keep up with the sharp increase in the number of primary school graduates, thereby constraining the national secondary school enrollment ratio to 63%. Particularly, a shortage of secondary schools in remote rural areas is a serious issue, where their enrollment ratio is only 42%. Another challenge is a low enrollment of female children in remote rural areas that was 33% compared with 79% in urban areas, in 2001. In response to this challenge, one of the priorities of the educational sector in Morocco is to construct secondary schools in each municipality in rural areas, so as to increase enrollement in secondary education. Japan provided 8.9 billion yen to Morocco through the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) to finance the Rural Secondary Education Expansion Project. The project consists of constructing additional 101 secondary schools as well as providing necessary equipment and library facilities for these schools in the rural areas of five regions. Moreover, the project will contribute to strengthening the management capacity of the Education/Human Resources Development District Academy, which is the implementing agency of the project. It is expected that the project will propagate secondary education in the poor rural areas and help reduce disparities in access to education between urban and rural areas as well as between male and female children.

Critical importance of girls education


About 60 % of the worlds out-ofschool children are girls, exemplifying how serious the gender disparity is in education. Evidence shows that when mothers are literate and educated, they become knowledgeable about health care practices, thus preventing them from becoming ill during pregnancy and childbirth, which in turn reduces child mortality rates. It also contributes to reducing maternal mortality rates and lowering fertility rate. Education provides girls and women with greater opportunities for work, help them participate in the socio-economic activities and enable them to make decisions for themselves.
Girls class in Taiz Governorate

Greater access to secondary education in rural areas


Moroccos efforts to expand and improve basic education led to the great improvement of the countrys enrollment ratio in primary education from 53% in 1990 to 90% in 2001. However, infrastructure development for secondary education

10

Students learning at a newly built secondary school (JBIC)

11

Basic education

Vietnam

JICA Partnership Program

Vietnam
model CLCs in these provinces an urgent task. Under these circumstances, JICA, in cooperation with NFUAJ, supported a Project for Promotion of Community Learning Centers in the Northern Mountainous Region from October 2003 to June 2005. The main aim of the project was to establish a model CLC in each of the eight targeted province, to provide non-formal education for local villagers, particularly adult illiterates and primary school drop-outs. The project contributed to improving the standard of living of the people in the targeted communities and spreading CLCs in the region.

Literacy education for ethnic minorities


In Vietnam, efforts have been made to provide non-formal education opportunities for those who never had a chance to receive formal education for various reasons, though Community Learning Centers (CLCs), run and managed by community people. The CLCs have been in operation since 1997 in Vietnam, with support from the National Federation of UNESCO Associations in Japan (NFUAJ) and UNESCO Bangkok office. However, the eight provinces in the northern mountainous region (Son la, Lao Cai, etc.) with various socio-economic difficulties have been facing a particular challenge in establishing such CLCs by themselves, which made the establishment of
Girls at a Community Learning Center

Improving the quality of education


Many developing countries face the challenge of improving the quality of education in addition to increasing access to education. The contents of education are often not relevant to the needs and social background of pupils. Many children who complete primary education still have problems in basic literacy and numerical skills. Also, a large number of pupils repeat grades or dropout of schools before completing primary schooling. Low quality education is caused by multiple factors, including a lack of trained teachers, their low level of motivation and teaching skills, a lack of textbooks and learning materials, and irrelevant curriculum. Among these factors, the quality of teachers has the biggest impact on improving the quality of education. Therefore, Japan provides support to establish a model system for teacher training and promote such a model system nationwide, particularly in science and math. Such assistance is expected to improve teachers capacity to manage class work and to enhance students learning outcomes. Japan also supports the development and distribution of textbooks and teaching guides for teachers. Moreover, in order to address the issue of teacher shortage and their lack of qualification, Japan works to provide assistance to teacher training institutions.

Afghanistan

Technical Cooperation

Afghanistan
training for elders as well as male and female community leaders. Moreover, the Terakoyabased centers serve as local libraries and meeting places for the communities. Vocational training classes such as sewing classes are also being provided in the centers, in order to meet the needs of the local people, who are striving to make their living.

Kenya

Technical Cooperation

Kenya
2003 to June 2006. With discussion and exchange of ideas between Japanese and Kenyan experts, the project has adopted a unique approach of encouraging teachers to conduct innovative lessons utilizing science experiments and practices. This method of lesson innovation is called the ASEI (Activity, Student, Experiment, Improvisation) approach, aiming at making teaching and learning more student-centered. The project has also successfully introduced the PDSI (Plan, Do, See, Improve) method, which encourages teachers to constantly fine-tune their curricula according to the students learning achievements and educational needs. Kenyas experience and achievements have gained great attention from neighboring countries in Africa, and a regional cooperation network in education called SMASSE-WECSA was established in 2002. Currently, more than 30 African countries participate in the SMASSEWECSA, to conduct training and establish regional network on ASEI and PDSI approaches. The SMASSE-WECSA is recognized as one of the most important projects in the New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD) and also plays a central role in science and math working group of the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA).

Terakoya supports post-war nation building


Terakoya (temple hut in Japanese) refers to the voluntarily run institutions found throughout Japan in the Edo period (1603-1867). In the early 19th century, the total number of these schools mainly set up at local temples was said to be as many as 15,000. They provided literacy and basic education to the children of common people. It is believed that the Terakoya facilitated the rapid development of the Japans modern educational system in the subsequent century. Today, these Terakoya-type schools support literacy programs in many parts of the world. The National Federation of UNESCO Associations in Japan (NFUAJ) started the World Terakoya Movement at the time of the launch of the International Literacy Year in 1990. Since then, the Terakoya schools have been introduced in 43 countries in the world, promoting community based literacy programs with support from Japan. Long-time civil war and the heavy bombing operations in Afghanistan devastated the countrys education systems, resulting in the twothirds of the population being illiterate. JICA and NFUAJ have been supporting a Strengthening of Non-formal Education Project (March 2004 March 2007), for the purpose of supporting Community Learning Centers (CLCs) based on the Terakoya approach. In the project, three CLCs were established in Kabul, to serve as a model for non-formal education institution in the country. The centers provide literacy programs for community members, who have started learning how to read and write eagerly. Recognizing the importance of community members active participation in the management of the centers, the project also provides

Promoting students-centered teaching and learning


The Government of Kenya has set a goal to achieve industrialization by 2020. Accordingly, the government faced an urgent need to improve science and math education at primary and secondary levels, to develop human resources needed to support such industrialization. It is in this context that Japan assisted a project for Strengthening Mathematics and Science in Secondary Education (SMASSE) for five years from 1998, providing in-service training in science and math in nine selected districts. The phase II of the project is being conducted from July

Teaching students the joy of learning


Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers (JOCVs) provide voluntary services at the grassroots level in over 120 different occupational fields in about 70 countries. Of all the operations of JOCVs, the activities in the field of education and culture account for 45 %. In particular, a number of requests come from many developing countries to dispatch JOCVs as science and math teachers. Many developing countries face a serious shortage of teachers in rural areas. In addition, teacher training system is often not well established and many teachers lack opportunities, for instance, to carry out science experiments in laboratories. This results in poor quality of science and math education in many developing countries. JOCV science and math teachers are expected to help make local students interested in science and math subjects, while providing support for curriculum development and advice to local teachers. Since 2001, the Special In-service Teacher Participation Scheme has been introduced to encourage in-service teachers of Japanese public schools to participate in JOCV activities, while their occupational positions are guaranteed during their volunteer activities.
Secondary students conducting science practices

Non-formal education workshop

Ethiopia

Grant Aid

Ethiopia
Education in Ethiopia faces many challenges including a shortage of teachers and textbooks, low net enrollment ratio in primary education, and large disparity between urban and rural areas. Under these circumstances, distant learning is considered as one of the effective ways to provide children with wider opportunities for basic education and to reduce regional disparity . Although Ethiopia is a multi-lingual country, the distant learning programs had been broadcast only in English until the Education Sector Development Program was introduced in 1996. The program set out a new policy direction that primary education should be provided in each local language in line with the countrys decentralization policy. Subsequently, distant learning programs need to be made according to the specific curricula developed by different local education departments and broadcast in respective local languages. Japan supported the Project for Consolidation of Educational Television and Radio Recording Studios and provided broadcast equipment at eight radio stations and two TV stations. Also, Japanese experts on radio/TV education programs have been dispatched to support the program. Thus, the project has been contributing to the establishment of a decentralized national distance learning system, through the provision of both hardware and software assistance.

Promoting decentralized distance learning

Broadcast equipment practice

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13

Basic education

Honduras

Technical Cooperation

Honduras
(FTI). The project has also had a positive impact on education in neighboring countries. The project became one of the subjects discussed at the Central America Education Ministerial Meeting held in 2003. It was decided that the project achievements would be introduced in other countries in Central America through a launch of a regional cooperation network. In this way, more than 15-year cooperation in math education by JOCVs in Honduras are now about to bear fruit in the region.

Bangladesh

Technical Cooperation/Grant Aid

Bangladesh
In 2005, Japan provided another 243 million yen in grant to UNICEF for the purpose of strengthening community-based school management and providing educational opportunities for socially vulnerable children such as children from lowincome families, ethnic minorities and children with disabilities.

Improving teaching skills in mathematics


Various reports from UNESCO and other organizations suggest that, although the average net enrollment ratio in primary education is above 90% in the Central and South American region, basic education in the region still face many challenges . These challenges include high repetition and dropout rates, large disparities between regions, social classes and races. The Government of Honduras has set a goal that all boys and girls of school age receive and complete six-year primary education by 2015. However, the reality is still far from the target goal, with the completion rate in 2000 being 31.6% due to high repetition and dropout rates. Japan has been dispatching Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers (JOCVs) to support textbook development and other activities in Honduras since 1989. These JOCVs include Japanese public school teachers who leave school temporarily for volunteer activities. Owing to the high reputation of JOCVs activities, the Government of Honduras requested Japan to support teacher training programs in mathematics. In response to this request, JICA started an Improvement of Teaching Methods in Mathematics project in 2003, in order to improve teachers capacities in teaching math. Under the project, teachers manuals and self-study workbooks for students in all six grades of primary school has been developed, while teacher training programs are being conducted using the newly developed manuals and the workbooks. In 2005, the workbook has been introduced nationally as a government authorized textbook for primary schools. The success achieved in this project has attracted much interest from other donor countries and organizations, which has led to enhanced cooperation with these organizations. One such example is the financial support from Sweden and Canada for the distribution of the teachers manuals and students workbooks developed under the above JICA-supported project nationwide, within the framework of the Fast Track Initiative

Introducing child-friendly teaching method


Bangladesh has been promoting compulsory primary education since 1990, aiming at achieving universal primary education. As a result, the gross enrollment ratio in primary education improved from 76% in 1991 to 96% in 1996. However, one-third of the enrolled students still leave school before completion. In order to address this challenge, the Government of Bangladesh in cooperation with development partners initiated the Primary Education Develop ment Program-(PEDP- ) from 1998 and PEDP- from 2004. In 2002, the Government of Japan provided 252 million yen in grant to UNICEF to support the Project for Support to Intensive District Approach to Education for All (IDEAL) within the framework of PEDP- . The grant supported the provision of educational materials and teachers training manuals in order to improve the quality of teaching and learning at classroom level. In addition, field-level cooperation has been promoted between Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers (JOCVs) and UNICEFs IDEAL project. For example, the students workbooks in math, which were developed in cooperation with JOCVs, have been introduced in classroom activities by UNICEF. Since 2004, JICA has been supporting a Project for Strengthening Primary Teacher Training on Science and Mathematics under the framework of PEDP-, focusing on the improvement of in-service teachers training (INSET) with particular emphasis on strengthening teachers practical skills in classrooms.

Exhibition of learning materials

The Education for All (EFA)-Fast Track Initiative (FTI)


In 2002, the Fast Track Initiative was launched as a global partnership of donors and low-income countries to ensure accelerated progress towards the universal primary education by 2015, stated in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Dakar Framework for Action. The low-income countries that need
The newly developed teachers manuals and selfstudy workbooks

external support to achieve the goal and develop Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) and a sound national education plan can receive support from the FTI. As of September 2005, sixteen low-income countries were endorsed by the initiative. Japan has given aid to 14 of the 16 countries. In FY2004, Japans aid in basic education to these countries has doubled.

Teachers learning enthusiastically at a training session

Malawi

Grant Aid

Malawi
teaching at secondary schools do not have teaching certificates for secondary education, making it difficult to pursue regular curriculum in many secondary schools. Accordingly, training of additional secondary teachers including female teachers became an urgent task. Domasi College of Education, the largest teachers college in Malawi, has a serious shortage of educational facilities and materials needed to train secondary school teachers since it was initially established as a primary teachers college. Against this background, Japan provided a grant aid for the Project for Improvement of Domasi College of Education in July 2004, to upgrade the school facilities and provide the needed equipment. It is expected that 480 qualified secondary school teachers including 120 female teachers will be trained each year, contributing to the improved quality of secondary education and increased female students enrollment.

Training secondary school teachers


In Malawi, free primary education was introduced in 1994, resulting in a dramatic increase in enrollment. The expansion of primary education has led to the increased demand for secondary education. However, the number of school facilities and qualified teachers in secondary education are far below a level that can meet the growing demand. In many cases, primary school teachers are hired as substitute secondary school teachers. Consequently, 65% of the teachers currently

A JOCV in a teacher training session

Students at Domasi College of Education

14

15

Basic education

Improving the management of education


Improving the management of education is essential to increase access to education, improve the quality, reduce disparities in education, and maintain the positive results generated by such efforts. To this end, it is important to build capacities of education policy makers and service providers to implement educational reforms effectively, understand and analyze the situation of education accurately, and develop policies based on such analysis. Japan provides support to develop education policies and plans in developing countries while helping them effectively coordinate various activities carried out by different development partners. In many countries, education management are being decentralized from central to the local level, closer to where actual teaching and learning take place. Japan actively supports capacity building of local education administrators and school administrators. Japans assistance include data management and education analysis as well as decentralized education planning.

Vietnam Technical Cooperation

Vietnam
teacher supplies, and expanding and improving school facilities. However, lack of detailed action plans to implement such strategy and lack of mechanism to coordinate development partners had been a problem. Moreover, there was an urgent need to strengthen the capacities of local education departments, which have responsibilities for teacher recruitment and school construction. Against this background, JICA conducted a Support Program on Primary Education Development from July 2001 to March 2004, to strengthen planning capacities of education administrators at provincial level to support the formulation of national education development plan, and to incorporate it in provincial education plans. JICA also helped strengthen Vietnams capacity to coordinate the activities of different development partners working in the education sector in Vietnam.

Supporting education planning


Vietnam attaches top priority to education sector development in its national development program. The Government of Vietnam formulated the Strategic Program for Education Development 2001-2010 in 2001, setting the goals of achieving a 99% net enrollment ratio in primary education, increasing education spending per child, quantitative and qualitative improvement of

Indonesia Technical Cooperation

Indonesia
other provinces, the Regional Educational Development and Improvement Program are being implemented since September 2004, with particular emphasis on strengthening the capacity of local education administrators. The program is expected to be completed in September 2008.

Community-oriented school management


Indonesia, which has been moving towards universal primary education, currently places top priority on providing compulsory secondary education. In response to such priority, JICA has been extending various supports to establish and expand a model system for secondary education since 1999, with the central focus on community participatory school management. Under the JICA-supported Regional Educational Development and Improvement Program Phase and , education and school committees have been established to formulate local education development plans, comprising representatives of parents and community people. In addition, awareness raising activities for communities, teacher training and improvement of school facilities have been carried out, in support of the establishment of community participatory education administration. In order to expand the model system to the

Education planning workshop

Afghanistan Technical Cooperation

Afghanistan

Institutionalizing teacher training


In Afghanistan, progress made in post-conflict nation building processes led to a dramatic increase in school enrollment. Efforts have also been made to improve the quality of education. For instance, a new curriculum is planned to be introduced at primary level, while the new textbooks have already been developed. However, most of the in-service teachers have barely had any opportunity to study in teacher training programs, due to the countrys prolonged civil war. Consequently, it is said that approximately 80% of the primary school teachers are not qualified to perform their duties properly. JICA is supporting Strengthening Teacher Training Project from June 2005 to June 2007, to produce teachers manuals and teacher training manuals for the new curriculum as well as implement in-service training (INSET) using these manuals. The project is expected to contribute to improving teachers teaching skills and capacities. Also recommendations are planned to be made on the provision of teachers qualification and the development mid- to long-term strategy for teacher training.

Students using science and math learning materials

Workshop on teachers manual production Students in a sewing class

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17

Education in post-conflict and post-disaster situations / Education for human security


Conflicts and natural disasters result in the devastation of education systems and become major barriers to childrens future. At the stage of emergency relief, efforts need to be made to send children back to schools as quick as possible, in addition to protecting life and restoring health and sanitation. At the stage of reconstruction, rehabilitation of affected school facilities, training of teachers, curriculum development and reconstruction of education systems should be promoted, laying the foundation for post-emergency nation-building. Also, vocational and skill training is important to support employment for those who lost their jobs and to foster skilled workforce. In the process of recovery to development, education plays a critical role in fostering much needed human resources. Also, education can promote mutual understanding between one another, serving as an important first step for achieving ethnic collaboration and peace. Conflict and disaster leave a large wound in many childrens minds. Rebuilding school facilities and restoring a safe environment for children to go to school and setting a goal of learning will provide them with hope for the future. Thus, psychosocial care for children is important in post-conflict and post-disaster assistance. Education also plays a pivotal role in promoting human security and empowerment, that is to say, provide protection against all threats to human existence and livelihoods as well as empower all people to pursue living with dignity.

Afghanistan

Grant Aid

Afghanistan
equipment for the University of Kabuls Schools of Science and Engineering, Agriculture, Veterinary and Medicine and the Kabul University of Education. Furthermore, as public-private cooperation, five womens universities in Japan have been working together to jointly accept more than 10 female Afghan lecturers every year for training. Also, academic partnership agreement has been signed between the School of Agriculture of the University of Kabul and a Japanese university, assigning several Afghan lecturers to be trained in Japan.
Science class at University of Kabul

Rebuilding higher education


The Government of Afghanistan has set a plan to rebuild the countrys higher education system in line with the countrys Rebuilding of Education Development Policy, developed with support from UNESCO. The countrys prolonged civil war destroyed the buildings and facilities of most higher education institutions while laboratory equipment belonging to these institutions had been looted. Also, the payment of salaries for the staffers is often delayed due to tight budget for higher education, making it difficult to hire new instructors with high academic standards. The Government of Japan provided 416 million yen as grant to procure practice and laboratory

Afghanistan, Iraq

Emergency Grant AidInternational Reconstruction Fund for Iraq

Afghanistan / Iraq
cities in southen Iraq, assisting the early resumption of these schools. These rehabilitation programs are also expected to create new employment opportunities for local communities.

Algeria

Yen LoanODA

Algeria
Moreover, a serious shortage of classrooms and educational equipment caused by the earthquake have forced many primary schools to go back into operating on a double-shift system that the Algerian government plans to abolish by 2008. Japan provided Yen loan of approximately 2.9 billion yen throgh JBIC for the Earthquakeaffected Education Sector Reconstruction Project. The loan will finance civil work for rebuilding 26 primary schools, as well as four junior and six senior high schools that were most heavily damaged by the earthquake, together with education equipment for these schools. These new schools are all resistant to earthquakes.

Educating children - the future of the country


In Afghanistan, due to the prolonged conflict, education system was devastated and many people were deprived of opportunities for education, girls and women in particular. Under the Taliban regime, education and employment of women were banned. Enrollment ratio in primary education was 38% for boys and only 3% for girls in 1999. After the establishment of the Interim Government in 2001, UNICEF conducted Back-toSchool campaign with the support from Japan to enable 1.78 million children to start school in the new school year of March 2002. Under the campaign, more than seven million textbooks, 18,000 blackboards, learning materials kits for children and teachers were provided. Moreover, teachers were trained and school buildings and facilities were rehabilitated. Of the total budget of US$19 million, Government of Japan financed US$11 million with grant aid. As a result of the campaign, enrollment ratio in primary education increased to 67% for boys and 40 % for girls in 2003. In Iraq, three wars and more than 10 years of economic sanctions devastated the countrys education system, which once enjoyed a reputation for being the best in the Middle East. Japan provided US$ 42 million in aid to support UNICEFs Back-to-School program in Iraq, providing learning materials to six million students, rehabilitating approximately 150 primary schools and providing teacher training. Japan also provided approximately 652 million yen for UN-HABITAT (the United Nations Human Settlements Programme) to support the rehabilitation of 200 primary and secondary schools that were completely devastated in three

Rebuilding schools devastated by earthquake


The Northern Algeria Earthquake in May 2003 caused a serious damage across the region, leaving a total of 2,300 dead, 11,500 injured and 1.8 million houses damaged. School facilities were also heavily damaged, which forced many of these schools to resort to continue classes by using makeshift school buildings, the damaged school buildings with quick repairs, or classrooms in the neighboring schools in case of complete collapse of school buildings. A long distance commuting by students caused by such temporary measures led to deterioration in the education environment.

Students and a rehablitated school building

Female students learning at a temporary classroom (Afghanistan) (UNICEF)

Cambodia, Vietnam

Trust Fund for Human Security

Cambodia / Vietnam
and dignity in the world. The fund has been utilized to support a number of projects including reconstruction of education systems in post-conflict situations and education of children and youth at risk. In Cambodia and Vietnam, many youth have migrated from poverty stricken rural area to urban areas searching for better lives. However, most of them have few or no opportunities for education and jobs and the number of youth living on the street is increasing. They are at high risk of exploitation, physical abuse, prostitution and human trafficking. Against this background, Japan provided approximately US$360,000 of the Human Security Fund for Support Urban Youth at Risk: House for Youth project, carried out by UN-HABITAT (United Nations Human Settlements Programme). The project provided street youths with opportunities for basic education and vocational training, while various awareness raising activities about drug abuse and HIV/AIDS as well as psycho-social care programs were carried out. In addition, capacity development seminars for social orientation were conducted. The Trust Fund for Human Security also financed approximately US$610,000 for Nonformal Basic Education and Vocational Skill Training for Children and Youth at Risk project in Cambodia, which was implemented by UNESCO Cambodia office in cooperation with five local NGOs. The project targeted about 3,000 children in difficult circumstances aged five to twenty four including orphans, school dropouts and street children, and provided them with opportunities for literacy and math classes, capacity building in problem-solving and life skills. Also, vocational training programs such as cosmetology, poultry, sewing and electric product maintenance were conducted to help these children and youth to pursue self-reliance and reintegration in the society. In addition, the project supported them to go back to formal schooling system whereever possible. 19

Support for urban youth at risk: House for Youth


Japan took the initiative to establish the Trust Fund for Human Security in the United Nations in 1999, to help secure peoples lives, livelihood

Indonesia

Contribution to UNICEFEmergency Assistance

Indonesia

Psychosocial care for children


Three weeks after a massive tsunami devastated a dozen Indian Ocean countries, the Government of Japan provided emergency relief aid of US$ 70 million to UNICEFs emergency operations, of which US$ 25 million was utilized to support Indonesia. This contribution from Japan accounted for about half of the resources requested by UNICEF Tsunami Childrens Emergency Appeal. The tsunami-affected children who lost their families and sources of income suffer from serious physical and psychological damage. UNICEF has focused on assistance to help such children return to their normal lives as quickly as possible. UNICEF provides tents to support the re-opening of schools while opening Childrens Centers that provide affected children with psychosocial support. 18 In Indonesia, temporary classrooms using large tents for 430,000 students were provided through Japans relief aid. Also, recreation kits for psychosocial care of 107,000 children, as well as school-in-a-box kits containing basic educational supplies for approximately 110,000 children were provided through Japans aid. As a result of such prompt assistance, more than 90% of the primary school students came back to schools for their re-opening ceremonies in January 26, 2005, about one month after the tsunami devastation.

Children with schoolbags provided (UNICEF)

Children in a life skill class (UNESCO)

Promoting multi-sectoral approach


Health and education are closely intertwined with each other. Healthy life promotes effective learning, while obtaining knowledge about health and sanitation through education contributes to improved health conditions of students. Provision of adequate safe water and sanitation facilities, health education and de-worming activities in schools can improve the health and sanitation status of children, while school feeding and awareness raisng about nutrition contributes to improved nutrition. In the post-war period, Japan promoted school-based health programs in addition to developing basic health infrastructures, training of quality health workers and promoting Maternal and Childhealth Handbooks. These measures contributed to the dramatic improvements in public health in a short time, including reduction of child mortality rate. Health and sanitation education in schools are particularly effective in controlling infectious diseases prevalent in developing countries, such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and guinea worms. Educating children about the positive health behavior such as washing hands and using safe drinking water greatly benefits the overall promotion of basic public health.

Partnering for the progress


Maximizing the impact of education assistance requires wide partnership with partner governments, citizens, international organizations, other donor countries, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector. Japan seeks to provide assistance in education in line with national education sector plans developed by partner countries. Japan also actively cooperates and coordinates with other development partners to promote the efficient implementation of its cooperation activities. To foster collaboration with international organisations working in educaton sector such as UNESCO and UNICEF, Japan provides various trust funds and general contribution to these organizations. Partnership with NGOs is an important strategy. Japan assists local and international NGOs that are active in education development through Grant Assistance for Grassroots and Human Security, and Japanese NGOs with Grant Assistance for Japanese NGOs.

Laos

Technical Cooperation

Laos
development activities and pilot projects for parasite control in cooperation with the project in Thailand. In the course of the project, the development of the countrys national school health policy had gathered momentum and the actual formulation of the plan has been assisted by JICA. Recently, JICA dispatched experts in school health to support the policy implementation and to strengthen the capacities of school health promotion committees, as well as to enhance the capacities of school principals and teachers for ensuring the sustainability of the activities.
Children at a sanitation campaign event

Supporting UNESCOs efforts for Education for All (EFA)


UNESCO plays a leading role in promoting the realization of EFA Dakar Framework for Action adopted at the World Education Forum (Dakar, Senegal in April 2000). Since 2000, Japan has supported UNESCOs various EFA activities through the Japanese Funds-in-Trust for Capacity-Building for Human Resources. The total amount of Japans assistance for UNESCOs EFA related activities through this trust fund amounted to more than US$13 million to date. The project supported with the trust fund includes; Strengthening National Capacities in Educational Planning and Management for the Implementation of Education for All in Pakistan; In-service Training of Basic Education Teachers in Yemen; Human Resources and Institutional Development in the Nigerien Educational System; Strengthening the EFA Coalition and Emerging Partnerships in Vietnam; and Literacy and Non-formal Education Development in Afghanistan (LAND Afghan) . Also, Japan assists EFA activities in Asia and the Pacific region carried out by UNESCO Bangkok office through the Trust Fund for the Education for All Programme that was established in 2002. The major activities include: 1) expansion and improvement of pre-school and non-formal education; 2) expansion and improvement of formal education; 3) support to develop national EFA action plan; 4) establishment of global network; and 5) evaluation activities.

Mongolia

Grant Assistance for Grassroots and Human Security

Mongolia

Providing poor children with early childhood education


Many poor families in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, live in the 10th ward in the Songinokhairkhan district, located on the north side of the capital city. In recent years, due to heavy snow and drought, poor farmers in rural areas have migrated to the city, leading to the drastic increase in residential population in the ward. The Child Development Center established in 1999 with participation of local community is the only kindergarten in the ward that provides preschool education for 50 local children, most of whom come from the lowest-income families. Though it has received an increasing number of applications for admission, the center is too small to accept more than 50 pre-school children due to the limited facilities. Few children without pre-school experience can keep up with classwork in primary school, and many dropout from school. To support children who have no opportunity for preschool education, the center conducts a visiting school tour to each low-income familys Gel (a Mongolian traditional tent house). However, such an alternative school is difficult to pursue in an efficient manner. Against this background, Japan provided grant assistance for grassroots human security of approximately 5.44 million yen for The Project for Extension of the Child Development Center in Songinokhairkhan District of Ulaanbaatar City, in order to expand the center. The newly expanded center can accept more applicants for admission, providing pre-school education for the increased number of local poor children.

Strong linkage between health status and learning achievement


Recognizing the close linkage between health status of children and their learning achievements, the Government of Laos formulated the National School Health Policy in 2005. The government established school health promotion committees at central, provincial and district levels, aiming at strengthening the cooperation between schools and communities to enhance childrens health and life skills, create healthy learning environment, and provide health services and nutrition as well as conduct disease control and prevention measures. JICA conducted a Project for Strengthening Health Service for Children from 2002. The project activities included the implementation of sanitation campaigns using songs by a popular Lao singer and picture story shows, human resources

Support for School Feeding Programs [World Food Programme (WFP)]

School Feeding Program(WFP)


schools, HIV/AIDS awareness program are also being conducted, which is expected to contribute to the enhanced HIV/AIDS prevention. In Myanmar, Japan has been supporting buckwheat cultivation as an alternative crop for poppy in Kokang Special Ward located in a far remote area of Myanmar where ethnic minorities reside. Japan assisted the development and production of buckwheat cookies for the local market, which were used in school lunches by WFP, in view of the rich nutrients in buckwheat. Some reports suggest that school enrollment improved in the targeted area, thanks to school lunches containing buckwheat cookies. Thus, the assistance in agriculture starting as part of the poppy-derived opium eradication activity, has now contributed to improving health and education for children in Myanmar.

Supporting childrens learning by school feeding programs


In countries with serious food security situation, many children from poor families suffer from hunger. Hunger deprives children from concentration and motivation to learn. Also, serious malnutrition is an obstacle to childrens physical and intellectual development. Japan has been actively supporting World Food Programs school feeding program, through regular resources and food assistance programs earmarked for selected countries. School meals provide much-needed nutrition for children from poor families, boost enrollment, promote regular attendance and enhance students learning abilities. In Angola, Japan used the Trust Fund for Human Security to provide about 120 million yen through WFP for the school feeding activities in the two states, which were suffering from low school enrollments resulted from poverty for over three years since the end of civil war. At the targeted 20

Children at the child development center

Working with Japanese NGOs


The Japan NGO Network for Education (JNNE) was established in January 2001 to build networks among Japanese NGOs working in the field of education. The major aims of JNNE are to give policy recommendations to governments and international organizations, conduct research activities on educational cooperation, conduct various awareness raising activities such as through seminars, and strengthen the capacities of NGOs. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has meetings with JNNE regularly to exchange
Children waiting on line for school meals

information and opinions on cooperation policies and strategies in education assistance. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs assists a number of development and humanitarian projects undertaken by Japanese NGOs through the Grant Assistance for Japanese NGO Project. The Grant was established in 2002, by merging Grant Assistance for Grassroots Projects and the Grant Assistance for Supporting NGO Emergency Activities. This new grant scheme partially covers

the expenses for NGO personnel and conducting meetings, supporting the smooth and effective operations of NGOs activities. In FY 2004, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs provided 1.04 billion yen to 72 projects in 32 countries carried out by 46 Japanese NGOs under this grant. The projects supported by the grant include the Project to Construct a School Building at Sansam Kosal Primary School in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, by Japan Team of Young Human Power (JHP).

21

Higher education/Technical education

Higher education/Technical education

Higher education
In the age of accelerated globalization of economy, the critical role of higher education has received renewed recognition. Higher education institutions in developing countries are required to change positively in this new global environment. For instance, higher education institutions are expected to develop human resources needed for knowledge-based society, serve a society as a whole, promote the culture of lifelong learning and strengthen networks with industry circles. Japan supports the expansion and improvement of higher education in developing countries, through improving the contents of learning and methods of teaching, upgrading facilities, reducing disparities and improving school management, particularly in such fields as engineering, agriculture and business administration. Moreover, in response to the recent trend of globalization in university education, Japan promotes global education and research networks, dispatches teachers from Japanese universities, exchanges teachers between Japanese universities and those in partner countries and carries out distant learning by optimizing information and communications technology.

China

Yen LoanODA

China
region. Yen loan was provided for the project to upgrade school facilities and equipment, train lecturers and administrators from the Chinese targeted universities in Japan and carry out joint research projects between Japanese and Chinese universities. The projects activities cover 167 universities in 19 provinces, municipalities and autonomous areas in the inland region. Since the start of the project, 695 university staffs had already visited Japan by May 2005. The project has been contributing to promoting mutual understanding between the two countries and pursuing their joint activities to tackle various global issues, while the advanced knowhow and academic resources of the Japanese universities are expected to be optimized for the greater good.

Cooperation between Japanese and Chinese universities


With the prevalence of primary and secondary education whose enrolment ratio reached 98% in 2003, China has set its next goal of increasing the enrollment ratio in higher education such as universities and graduate schools. Although 17% enrolment ratio in higher education was achieved in 2003, it still remains low compared to 51% in Japan and 38% in Thailand. The Inland Human Resources Development Project was started in 2001, to improve both quantitative and qualitative aspects of higher education in the inland region that is far behind other regions in terms of level of development. The support is expected to contribute to boosting local economies, promoting a market economy system and developing quality human resources in the field of environmental protection in the inland

Indonesia

Grant Aid/Technical Cooperation

Indonesia
1993. Since 1999, a new project on Strengthening of Polytechnic Education in Electric-related Technology was launched, aiming at creating a four-year teacher training course in electricrelated fields (electricity, electronics, telecommunications and information) and a three-year course in information technology. In FY 2001 and 2002, grant aid was again utilized for the construction of school facilities and the procurement of educational and laboratory equipment. Today, the third country training has been extended to cover Africa, and the AsiaAfrica cooperation in the related fields is underway.
* Training implemented by JICA, aiming at enabling a developing country to transfer the skills it has acquired through technical cooperation provided by Japan to other developing countries.

Training technicians in electronics/telecommunications engineering


Indonesia has started establishing polytechnic institutes (technical college) for training quality middle-level technicians since the early 1980s, in line with the countrys national policy on industrial development. Japan assisted the establishment of the Polytechnic Institute of Surabaya in 1986 with grant aid. Technical cooperation has also been provided to support the Project for Polytechnic Institute of Surabaya from 1987 to 1994, aiming at developing teaching materials in electronics engineering and information engineering, training instructors and improving school management. In order to disseminate the experiences gained at the institute, the Third Country Training Program* for teachers of higher education institutions in other countries in Asia was launched in

Human resources development workshop in Xian (JBIC)

ASEAN

Technical Cooperation

ASEAN
sities from 10 ASEAN member countries and 11 support universities in Japan. The project is being carried out from 2001 to 2006, with the purpose of establishing the network itself and improving the research and education capacity of the participating 19 ASEAN universities in the field of engineering, through the cooperation with Japanese universities. The main activities of the project are the creation of a network of researchers and teachers of higher education institutions specializing in engineering education in the ASEAN region, the provision of support to pursue advanced studies (Masters in ASEAN and PhDs in both ASEAN and Japan), as well as research support and organization of academic workshops and seminars. This cooperation network was first proposed at the 1997 Japan-ASEAN Summit Meeting. It was based on the idea that in order to overcome the economic crisis experienced by the ASEAN countries, a new network of institutions specializing in engineering education should be created.

Engineering network between Japan and ASEAN


ASEAN University Network / Southeast Asia Engineering Education Development (AUN/SEED-Net) is a network for cooperation in education and research, consisting of 19 univer-

The Polytechnic Institute of Surabaya won the 2001 NHK Robot Contest (in the category of university).

Laos

Technical Cooperation

Laos
Seminar participants

Training future leaders in the global market economy


Laos has been making a steady transition to the market economy system since 1986. In order to facilitate such transition, the National University of Laos was established in June 1995, which has the first ever faculty of economics and business management in the country. JICA conducted a project for the Faculty of Economics and Business Management, National University of Laos since September 2002, to support this new faculty. The project activities included the development of curriculum, textbooks and syllabus to boost the academic standard of the faculty as well as the improvement of school management including student and library management. In addition, faculty members have been sent to universities in Japan to study at master and doctoral degree programs, in order to strengthen their research capacities. As part of the project, lecturers and researchers of Kobe University were temporarily dispatched to the faculty while distant learning programs were also provided from Japan. 22 According to a survey, about 80% of new graduates from the faculty were employed within six months, while about 80% of the 100 organizations and firms that responded to the survey indicated that they would be keen to employ the faculty graduates.

Students learning at a Faculty of Economics and Business Management, National University of Laos

23

Higher education/Technical education

Technical / Vocational education and training


Technical and vocational education and training play an important role not only in increasing ones income but also developing human resources needed for socio-economic development. A quality work force attracts foreign investment that promotes diversification and sophistication of local industries, strengthening their competitiveness in a global market. Technical and vocational education and training also help increase employment and entrepreneurial opportunities for youth, leading to stability and self-help development of developing countries. Japan has been providing assistance for upgrading vocational training institutes and equipment, supporting technical training, giving necessary advice to such institutes and helping improve school management, developing carriculum suitable for market needs, training instructors, and enhancing partnership with local industrial circles. These vocational training institutes are further developed and used as the regional centers to accept trainees from neighboring countries and promote South-South cooperation. Recently, Japan supports the income generating activities of these institutes helping them operate on a sustainable basis.

Uganda

Technical Cooperation

Uganda
capacity acquired under the project, support has been provided to conduct in-service training to the instructors from other vocational schools in Uganda as well as neighboring countries in Southeast Africa, which is expected to contribute to improving their teaching capacities.

A School generating income and fostering entrepreneurs


In Uganda, a shortage of skilled workers caused by the countrys prolonged civil war was a huge obstacle to the countrys industrial and economic development. In responding to such needs, JICA supported Nakawa Vocational Training Institute Project in the capital Kampala from May 1997 to May 2004. Major objectives of the project were to develop a training system at the Nakawa Vocational Training Insitute, establish and carry out vocational training courses, improve instructors teaching capacities, and establish committees to promote cooperation with local industry. The institute has also started conducting income generating business utilizing school facilities, in order to generate a part of its running cost. The project also supports entrepreneurfostering training at the institute, in cooperation with a Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Project carried out by United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). In order to extend the institutes training
Machinery practice at the Nakawa Vocational Training Institute

Senegal

Grant Aid/Technical Cooperation

Senegal

South-South cooperation in vocational training


The Japan-Senegal Vocational Training Center was established with grant from Japan in 1984, in line with Senegals national policy to achieve industrialization by moving towards the economic structure based on light industry from the one relying on primary products. Technical cooperation to train middle-level technicians has been provided to the centre, and the one for advanced-level technicians has also started since 1999. In addition, the center has been accepting trainees from neighboring countries since 1992. The center, which enjoys a great reputation for being the best vocational training center in Senegal is now recognized as one of the three best vocational training centers in Francophone Africa. As an aftercare program for the technical cooperation, training materials for four departments of the center - electronics, industrial electronics, electronics engineering and automobile mechanics - were provided from July 2002 to December 2003, in addition to the acceptance of trainees in Japan and dispatch of Japanese short-term experts to the center. These efforts have contributed to the centers high placement rate of approximately 80% in 2004. The director of the center is keen to continue to accept trainees from neighboring countries, saying that Senegal is a country with the spirit of welcoming guests and we are confident that we can promote South-South Cooperation.
Precision machinery practice with a Japanese expert

Vietnam

Technical Cooperation

Vietnam
college has started providing short-term training programs for employees of local factories as well as taking manufacturing orders from private firms. Through these activities, the project greatly enhanced the schools capacity to understand the local business needs and develop its training programs according to such needs, further facilitating the good and trustworthy relationships with the local industry. The students who completed the training course supported by the project have acquired not only specialized technical expertise but also proper working attitude and ethics as well as high motivation to manufacture quality products. Accordingly, they are enjoying a high reputation among local industry circles including local Japanese-affiliated firms.

Professional attitudes and skills meeting local industrial needs


In Vietnam, many foreign-capitalized firms have started business operations and industrialization has been accelerated. Under such circumstances, the country faces an urgent need to improve the level of skilled laborers. Project for Strengthening Training Capability for Technical Workers in Hanoi Industrial College has been carried out since 2000, to develop and conduct training courses to nurture machine technicians at the Hanoi Industrial College, one of the leading schools in northern Vietnam. In addition to the regular training courses, the

Uzbekistan

Yen LoanODA

Uzbekistan
In Uzbekistan, which is in transitional period from socialist economy to a market economy, the agricultural sector is one of the most important industries, accounting for 40% of employment and 30% of the GDP. Thus, the development of agriculture sector and the improvement of agriculturerelated education are two of the most important tasks that the government has to address. Uzbekistan has been pursuing education reform that includes the introduction of compulsory senior secondary education. As part of the reform, the government has been trying to expand and improve vocational education particularly in the field of agriculture. To support such efforts of Uzbekistan, Japan provided a Yen loan of 6.3 billion yen through JBIC, for the Senior Secondary Education Project. The loan supported the countrys 50 agricultural schools through the provision of educational materials such as science laboratory equipment and tractors. Training courses for school principals and senior administrators in charge of school management were also conducted both in Japan and Uzbekistan. In Japan,the trainees from Uzbekistan learned know-how in school management, crop cultivation, dairy husbandry/veterinary and food processing. In particular, training such as dairy production and civil engineering machine operation utilizing the advanced technology impressed many trainees.

Transferring the practical know-how of Japanese agricultural high schools

Turnery practice

Agricultural practice using a tractor (JBIC)

24

25

Higher education/Technical education

International Student Loan

Assistance for international students


In the globally inter-linked economy and society, the exchange of international students contributes to building close human networks and promoting mutual understanding and friendly relationships between Japan and foreign countries. Also, it is considered a part of intellectual international cooperation to upgrade the levels of education and academic research work both in Japan and in foreign countries, and support quality human resources development in developing countries. As a member of the global community, Japan seeks to provide young people overseas who are expected to play leadership roles in the future, with a greater opportunity to study and research in Japan. Based on Plan to Accept 100,000 Foreign Students, Japan has advanced various policies to increase the number of foreign students studying in Japan, including planned development of systems to accept Japanese government scholarship students, support for privately financed foreign students, and enhancement of education and research guidance given to foreign students. The goal of accepting 100,000 students was achieved in May 2003, and the total number of accepted foreign students reached about 117,000 in 2004. Since 1999. the Project for Human Resource Development Scholarship has been carried out, to support the nation building efforts of developing countries. The project is implemented jointly with Japan and the government of developing countries, which work together to identify the field of studies, recruit and select students. In 2004, 243 foreign students were accepted by higher education institutes in Japan through this project.

For enhancing human resouces capacities to develop and implement economic and development policies as well as to advance industrialization, Japan has provided a total of 59.1 billion yen in loans to three countries : Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia.

Indonesia

Science and Technology Manpower Development Project Professional Human Resources Development Project () Professional Human Resources Development Project ()

Thailand

Japan-Thailand Technical Transfer Project

Malaysia

Higher Education Loan Fund Project () Look East Policy Project Higher Education Loan Fund Project ()

Malaysia Yen LoanODA

Malaysia
Malaysia has set itself the goal of becoming a developed country by 2020. To achieve this goal, the country has placed priority on further expanding and improving higher education institutions as well as fostering human resources development in the field of scientific research through the promotion of overseas education. The Higher Education Loan Fund Project II (HELP-II), a project that supports Malaysian students who wish to study abroad, has been implemented with an ODA loan provided through OECF (Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund), following the project I (HELP-I) that started in 1992. The study under HELP I consists of 2-year preparatory study in an educational institution in Malaysia and 4-year undergraduate study in Japanese universities after their entrance examination. In the phase II, a twinning program was introduced at undergraduate level. In the twining program, a part of university education is provided in Malaysia, and these credits earned are acknowledged by Japanese universities letting Malaysian students transfered to the 2nd year. Thus, twining system contributes to making the period of their stay shorter and reducing the cost accordingly. With great cooperation and understanding from Japanese universities, the project has been supporting Malaysian students study at universities of science and technology in Japan in a sustainable manner. In the five-year period starting from 2001, approximately 300 Malaysian students have been transferred to Japanese universities by using the twining program and their academic performance has been receiving a high reputation.

Studying abroad efficiently with mutual acknowledgement of degree credits

Number of foreign students studying in Japan


number of students
120,000 117,302

Total number
100,000

109,508

Privately financed foreign students Japanese government scholarship students


78,812

95,550 98,135 85,024

105,592

80,000

Foreign government sponsored students


64,011

60,000 45,066 48,561

52,405 53,787 53,847 52,921 51,047 51,298

55,755 53,640

68,270

Students in a practice session (JBIC)

41,347 40,000 31,251 18,631 22,154 17,701 25,643 25,852 20,549 4,118 976 4,465 934 4,961 1,026 35,360

38,775

45,439 44,783 45,577 45,245 43,573 41,804 41,273 41,390

Website for development assistance in education


The

20,000 10,428 7,483 2,082 0 863

12,410

15,009

14,659 9,267 11,733 3,077 3,458 2,345 2,502 798 774 895 995

5,219 1,072

5,699 1,058

6,408

6,880

7,371

8,051

8,250

8,323

8,774

8,930

9,173

9,009

9,746

9,804

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan www.mofa.go.jp/policy/oda/category/education/index.html Education for Growth Initiative www.mofa.go.jp/region/africa/education3.html of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology www.mext.go.jp/english/index.htm International Cooperation Agency www.jica.go.jp/english/ Bank For International Cooperation www.jbic.go.jp/english/index.php

UNESCOEFA

www.unesco.org/education/index.shtml
World

BEGINBasic

1,214

1,330

1,231

1,297

1,524

1,585

1,542

1,441

1,369

1,517 1,627

1,906

Bank worldbank.org/education/ www.unicef.org/

1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 (year)

Ministry

UNICEF

The Japanese government scholarship student system


The Japanese government scholarship student system is comprised of seven programs provided for the following types of students : Research students, Trainee teachers, Scholarship students of Young Leader's Program(YLP), Undergraduate, Japanese studies/Japanese culture studies students, College of technology students and Senshu-gakko (Special training college) students.

China Thailand Indonesia Vietnam Bangladesh The Philippines Malaysia Mongolia Brazil Cambodia
0 151 500 1000 1500 240 220 315 255 440 530 622 600

1,810

Japn

Association

for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) www.adeanet.org/

Japan

2000

number of students (FY2004)

26

27

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan


Economic Cooperation Bureau
2-2-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8919, Japan Tel +81-3-3580-3311

www.mofa.go.jp/policy/oda
November, 2005