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Ques-1 (a) What is the scientific term for pinhole camera? Ans- The scientific name for pinhole camera is Camera obscure (b) How much exposure time was gien in the camera to produce the first permanent photograph? Ans- Eight hours of exposure was given in the camera to produce the first permanent photograph. (c) Who was the first person to permanently record the image of camera? Ans- Joseph Nicephore Niepce was the first person to permanently record the image of camera. (d) What does ASA and ISO stands for? Ans- ASA- American Standard Association ISA- International Standard Association (e) To capture a subject in motion, how would you prefer shooting? Ans- There are three ways to capture a subject in motion: 1. 2. Blurred subject with background in focus: For this use a slow shutter speed. Its important to use a tripod so that your camera remains steady. Blurred background with subject in focus: Similar to the first method, you need to use a slow shutter speed. However, instead of using a tripod, youll be panning your camera along the directional path of your subject. Both subject and background in focus: th Freezing the entire scene requires the shutter speed of atleast 1/10000 of a second.


Ques-2 Draw the basic structure of still camera and mention the key elements?

Ans- The basic structure of a still camera is:

The key elements of a basic still camera are: Mirror: It refracts the light coming into a camera and focuses it on the exposure medium (film or optical/digital converter) SHUTTER: It regulates the amount of light that comes into contact with the exposure medium. FILM: The images of photographic materials, accept down after a certain chemicals processing, can the image fixed down. Ques-3 Explain the concept of circles of confusion and its resultant factors? Ans- A picture is basically an accumulation of many points that are exact images of points composing the subject. After light strikes a subject, it is reflected form many points on the subject. A camera lens redirects these reflected rays into corresponding points on the film. Each of these points is reproduced by the lens as a circle. When the circle is larger than 1/100 inch, the eye sees it as a circle, and the image is blurred or out of focus, whereas, when the circle is small than 1/100 inch, it appears as a sharp point to the eye. Each out-of-focus circle on the film is called circle of confusion and can be visualised as the crossection of the cone of a light ray.


Point object Point object

Point of sharp focus

When a lens is focused on an object at a certain distance, other objects, both closer and farther than the focus distance, form larger circles of confusion. When the film is placed at a point corresponding to the lens focus distance, a clear image is produced. When the film is nearer or farther away from the lens then the corresponding lens focus distance, the image

becomes blurred because of larger circle of confusion caused by the intersection of light rays either in front of, or behind, the film plane. Another factor affecting the circle of confusion is the lens aperture. Decreasing a lens opening narrows the light rays passed by the lens. The narrower these rays, the smaller the circles of confusion when the image is not in perfect focus. In practice, this means that a small lens opening is used to record, as clearly as possible, several objects at varying distances. Even when the rays from same object do not intersect perfectly at the film plane, the circles of confusion ahead or behind the film are negligible and still appear as a sharp image.

Ques-4 Write the name of the director and the film shown to you in the previous class? What key elements did you notice in the film? Ans- The name of the movie is The Man With The Movie Camera and the director of the movie is Dziga Vertov. This movie presents urban life in a city. The people are shown at work and at play, and interacting with the machinery. The film has used various range of cinematic techniques such as fast motion, slow motion, close-ups, footage played backwards, stop motion, freeze frames etc. A man with a movie camera films the daily routine, making the medium itself a theme of the film as the cinema and the editing itself are shown too. The best part of the movie is the way it begins. The movie opens with an empty cinema, its seats standing at attention. The seats swivel down, and an audience hurries in and fills them. They begin to look at film. And this film is about- this film being made. The another great element of the movie is that the man is seeing photographing many of the shots in the movie. Then there are shots of how he does it-securing the tripod and himself to the top of an auto mobile, stooping to walk through a caol mine, hanging in a basket over a waterfall. Since this film is a documentary there are a lot of moments in which we watch an interesting shot and then there is a short sequence afterwards showing us how the scene was shot. It even shows us the workings of the projection booth and one of the editors spicing the film and rejoining it to make a sequence. The best artistic sequence of the film is when it cuts between the blinds of a window, an open window, the womens eye and the lens of the then movie camera.

Ques-5 How do you visualize the transformation of images from still to moving. Explain in brief? Ans- The early cave paintings attest to the fact that man always wanted to record himself, his activities and the environment around him. A medium as dramatic and viscerally engaging as motion pictures appears to have been driven by stories that are just as engaging and compelling as many of those we see on our screens. One of the most memorable stories of founding of motion pictures belongs to Edward Muybridge. In the early 1870s, Leland Stanford, initiated a challenge-and legends tells of a bet for a large sum-to prove that a horse hooves all leave the ground as it gallops, as he believed. Muybridge took up his challenge and set up a test on a racetrack with a series of cameras attached to trip wires. The series of photographs not only proved that a horse does bring all four hooves off the ground while galloping, but the photographs realized the idea of a series of quickly snapped photos to capture movement. All this led to the development of cinema. All this shows us how still images were moved and then used to create moving pictures. Thus we can say, moving images are nothing but are just still images shown to you at a very high speed so that it semms to the observer that the objects in the images are actually moving.