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LLLC1kICAL LNGINLLkING MA1LkIALS

1hey are
O Conductors
O Sem| Conductors
O |e|ectr|cs
O Insu|ators
CCNDC1CkS
A conductor of e|ectr|c|ty |s any substance or mater|a| wh|ch w||| afford
cont|nuous f|ow of current when sub[ected to a d|fferent|a| of potent|a|
the greater the dens|ty of the current for a g|ven potent|a| d|fference the
more eff|c|ent the conductor |s sa|d to be
LLLC1kICAL CCNDC1C1S
1he cho|ce of conductor mater|a|s depends upon the fo||ow|ng factors
O kes|st|v|ty of the mater|a|
O 1emperature coeff|c|ent of res|stance
O kes|stance aga|nst corros|on
O Lase |n so|der|ng and we|d|ng]braz|ng
O Can be drawn ro||ed
O Mechan|ca||y strong
O |ex|b|||ty and abundance
O urab|||ty and |ow cost
O kes|stance to chem|ca| and weather
SLCIIC kLSIS1ANCL #cific ritonc or ritivity" of the
mater|a| may be def|ned as #th ritonc btwn th ooit
ho of o cm cub of thot motrio/" It |s usua||y represented by p
AC1CkS ALC1ING 1nL kLSIS1IVI1 C LLLC1kICAL MA1LkIALS
01 1emperature In most of the meta|s there |s |ncrease |n the
e|ectr|ca| res|stance w|th the |ncrease |n temperature 8ut |n case
of sem|conductors e|ectro|ytes and |nsu|ators the e|ectr|ca|
res|stance decreases w|th |ncrease |n temperature Severa|
meta|s possess n|| res|st|v|ty at abso|ute zero of temperature the
phenomenon known as urconductivity
02 A||oy|ng 1he add|t|on of sma|| amount of |mpur|t|es may
|ncrease the res|st|v|ty cons|derab|y
03 Mechan|ca| Stress|ng Mechan|ca| stress|ng of crysta|
structure decreases the conduct|v|ty of meta|
04 Age narden|ng Age harden|ng |ncreases the res|st|v|ty of an
a||oy


1LMLkA1DkL CCLICILN1 C kLSIS1ANCL
(ktk)]kt
If k 1 t1
0
C then
(k
1
k
0
)
nence temperature coeff|c|ent at 0
0
C may be def|ned as the change |n
res|stance per ohm for change |n temperature of 1
0
C from 0
0
C
VAkIA1ICN C kLSIS1IVI1 WI1n 1LMLkA1DkL
p
t
p
0
(1+
0
t)
where p
t
res|st|v|ty at t
0
C and p
0
res|st|v|ty at 0
0
C
LLLC1kICAL CCNDC1ING MA1LkIALS


Copper
ropert|es
01 Its co|our |s redd|sh
02 It |s h|gh|y ma||eab|e and duct||e
03 It can be cast forged ro||ed drawn and mach|ned
04 When heated to very h|gh temperature |t vapour|ses
and burns w|th f|ame
0S ens|ty at 20
0
C g]cm
3
894
06 Me|t|ng po|nt 1083
0
C
07 1herma| conduct|v|ty 0923 ca|]cm sec
0
C
08 1emperature coeff|c|ent of res|st|v|ty 000411
0
C
1

09 It has |ow contact res|stance
10 It has |owest res|stance per un|t vo|ume
11 8y add|t|on of 1 of cadm|um the tens||e strength of copper
|s |ncreased by S0 but conduct|v|ty however decreases by
1S Cadm|um add|t|on makes copper su|tab|e for the use |n |ong
span of th|n cross sect|on wh|ch requ|res conductors of h|gh
mech Strength
12 It read||y a||oys w|th many other meta|s
Dses
01 Soft copper |s used to make an extens|ve var|ety of
w|nd|ng w|res and conductors for produc|ng cab|es
02 nard copper |s used to make commutator segments and contact
w|re
A|um|n|um
ropert|es
01 It |s s||ver wh|te |n co|our
02 It possesses h|gh duct|||ty
03 It can be read||y worked by ro|||ng draw|ng sp|nn|ng
extrud|ng and forg|ng
04 It has re|at|ve|y h|gh therma| and e|ectr|ca| conduct|v|t|es
0S ens|ty at 20
0
C 2703 gm]cm
3

06 Me|t|ng po|nt 6S7
0
C
07 1herma| conduct|v|ty ca|]cm sec
0
C 0S03
08 L|ectr|ca| res|st|v|ty ohm mm
2
]m 002828
09 1emperature coeff|c|ent of res|st|v|ty
0
C 000403
10 It has the |owest res|stance per un|t we|ght
11 It has h|gh contact res|stance
12 It poses no prob|em |n cab|e manufacture and |nsta||at|on
13 A|um|n|um has h|gh ref|ect|v|ty for ||ght rays
DSLS
01 1he stee| re|nforced a|um|n|um conductors (ACSk) f|nd
extens|ve use |n |ong transm|ss|on ||nes
02 A|um|n|um conductors are part|cu|ar|y su|tab|e for operat|on
to very h|gh amb|ent temperature
03 It |s used |n domest|c w|r|ng f|ex|b|e w|res rotor bars of
squ|rre| cage |nduct|on motors
04 ue to |ts |ess dens|ty a|um|n|um wound mach|nes have |ess
we|ght but they are not commerc|a||y successfu|
1ungsten
01 kes|st|v|ty of tungsten |s S cm wh|ch |s tw|ce as poor as
that of a|um|n|um
02 It has h|ghest me|t|ng po|nt amongst meta|s and therefore
It |s su|tab|e for app||cat|ons requ|r|ng h|gh operat|ng cond|t|ons
such as |amps and va|ve f||ament |amps
03 1he great hardness and h|gh bo|||ng and me|t|ng tungsten
coup|ed w|th |ts res|stance to abrat|on estab||sh th|s meta| as an
outstand|ng mater|a| for e|ectr|ca| contacts |n certa|n app||cat|on
It |s extreme|y res|stance to the destruct|ve forces of arc|ng
1yp|ca| operat|ng cond|t|on for tungsten contacts are
Vo|tage AC or C up to 2S0 V Current up to 1S Amps
04 1ungsten contacts are used |n battery |gn|t|on systems
v|brators and e|ectr|c razors
Iron and Stee|
01 Stee| |s used as conductor ra|| |n tract|on on account of |ts
cheapness and r|g|d|ty
02 Ga|van|zed stee| and |ron w|res wh|ch are usua||y used for
earth conductor |n the vo|tage d|str|but|on systems
03 Stee| a||oyed w|th chrom|um and a|um|n|um |s used for
mak|ng starters rheostats where ||ghtness comb|ned w|yh
robustness and good heat d|ss|pat|on are |mportant
cons|derat|ons
04 Cast |ron |s emp|oyed |n manufacture of "res|stance gr|ds" to
be used |n the start|ng of |arge C motors
N|cke|
It |s used |n mak|ng of e|ectrodes of therm|on|c va|ves and spark|ng
p|ugs
1|n
It |s ma|n|y used |n manufacture of |ow current fuses
Lead
It |s used to form (|)Cab|e sheaths and (||) the p|ates of |ead ac|d
accumu|ator Lead sheaths are requ|red to protect the |nsu|at|on of
the cab|e effects of the mo|sture
A||oys
A||oy mater|a|s are used for (|) mak|ng res|stors for |ab |nstruments
and for |ab standards where a h|gh constancy of res|stance |s
des|rab|e
(||) Mak|ng heaters and thermocoup|e e|ements
Carbon and Graph|te
Dses
01 Carbon |s used |n automat|c vo|tage regu|ators
02 It |s used |n the manufacture of we|d|ng e|ectrodes f|xed and
var|ab|e res|stors for ||ght currents and contacts of certa|n c|asses
of C su|tab|e gear wh|ch are sub[ected to arc|ng
03 Carbon brushes reduce cons|derab|y the sever|ty of spark|ng
and the rate of commutat|on wear |n e|ectr|ca| mach|nes
Mo|ybdenum
Dses
01 It |s emp|oyed as the target |n kray tube and structura|
member |n h|gh vacuum tubes because of |ts ab|||ty to form a
t|ght sea| w|th g|ass
02 Dsed for h|gh temperature app||cat|on |n refractory
e|ements

|at|num
O |at|num can be drawn |n to th|n f||aments and str|ps and
emp|oyed |n d|fferent e|ectr|ca| dev|ces
O Dsed as heat|ng e|ements |n ovens and furnaces It |s emp|oyed as
conductor |n the fo||ow|ng
01 1hermocoup|es
02 L|ectr|ca| Contacts
03 Corros|on kes|stance app||cat|ons
04 Gr|ds |n vacuum tubes


Mercury
Dses
Mercury conductors are used |n mercury rect|f|er gas f|||ed tubes
||qu|d contact mater|a| |n e|ectr|c sw|tches vacuum dev|ces mercury
e|ectrodes |n |nstruments

Copper based a||oys conta|n|ng t|n cadm|um bery|||um and certa|n
other meta|s are genera||y ca||ed bront and are a|so used as h|gh
conduct|v|ty mater|a|s Another k|nd of copper base a||oy f|nd|ng w|de
app||cat|on |n e|ectr|ca| engg |s bro on o//oy of cor with tinc

Character|st|cs of copper a||oys (brass and bronze)
8rass
01 It conta|ns 60 copper and 40 z|nc
02 n|gh tens||e strength
03 Lower conduct|v|ty than copper
04 Las||y shaped by press|ng
0S a|r|y res|stant to corros|on
06 Las||y drawn |nto w|res
07 Las||y we|ded and so|dered
W|de|y used as current carry|ng and structure mater|a| |n p|ug po|nt
socket out|ets sw|tches |amp ho|ders fuse ho|ders kn|fe sw|tches
s||d|ng contacts for starters and rheostats etc
8ronze
01 It conta|ns 90 copper and 10 t|n
02 hosphor bronze |s an a||oy of ord|nary bronze w|th a sma||
amount of phosphorus It f|nds use |n prope||ers pump rods etc

8ery|||um bronze |s used for mak|ng carry|ng spr|ngs s||d|ng contacts
kn|fe sw|tch b|ades etc
Cadm|um bronze |s emp|oyed for contact|ng conductors and
commutater segments

1hermocoup|e mater|a|s
A thermocoup|e |s based on 'seeback effect' Accord|ng to th|s effect
when d|fferent meta|s and a||oys are we|ded or so|dered at a [unct|on
and |f temp d|ff ex|sts at the [unct|on the emf |s deve|oped ca||ed
e|ectromot|ve force1he magn|tude of emf |s of order of few m|cro
vo|ts per degree temp d|ff between the two [unct|ons
1he poss|b|e thermocoup|es are g|ven be|ow
01 ConstantanIron
02 ConstantanCopper
03 CopperCope| (CuS6 N|44)
04 |at|num|at|num rhod|um
0S Crome| (N|90 Cr10)A|ume| ( N|9S A|2 S|2 Mg
1) 1000
0
C
06 IronCope| 3S0
0
C
07 Crome|Cope| 60
0
C






SLMICCNDC1CkS
Sem|conductors are so||d mater|a|s e|ther non meta|||c e|ements or
compounds wh|ch a||ows e|ectrons to pass through them so that they
conduct e|ectr|c|ty |n much the same way as a meta|
Character|st|cs of Sem|conductors
01 1he res|st|v|ty |s usua||y h|gh
02 1he temp coeff Cf res|stance |s a|ways negat|ve
03 1he contact between sem|conductor and a meta| forms a
|ayer wh|ch has a h|gher res|stance |n one d|rect|on than the
other
04 When some su|tab|e meta|||c |mpur|ty (eg Arsen|c Ga|||um
etc) |s added to a sem|conductor |ts conduct|ng propert|es
change apprec|ab|y
0S 1hey exh|b|t a r|se |n a conduct|v|ty |n the |ncreas|ng
temperature w|th the decreas|ng temp the|r conduct|v|ty fa||s
off and at |ow temp sem|conductors become d|e|ectr|cs
06 1hey are usua||y meta|||c |n appearance but (un||ke meta|s)
are genera||y hard and br|tt|e
Lxamp|es 8oron Carbon S|||con German|um hosphorus Arsen|c
Ant|mony Su|pher Se|||n|um 1e||ur|um Iod|ne etc


1herm|stors
1he conduct|v|ty of an |ntr|ns|c german|um |ncreases about 6 per
degree C r|se |n temperature 1h|s |s rather a |arge change |n
conduct|v|ty w|th temp and |mposes a restr|ct|on on the use of such
conductors dev|ces |n certa|n c|rcu|ts Cn the other hand th|s
temperature dependence has been ut|||zed effect|ve|y |n therm|ster
1herm|stors f|nd w|de use
01 In thermometry
02 In measurement of m|crowave power
03 As a therma| re|ay
04 In contro| dev|ces actuated by temperature changes









ILLLC1kICS
Introduct|on
O |e|ectr|cs (|nsu|ators) as d|st|nct from conductors have no free
e|ectrons nence when a source of emf |s connected across a
d|e|ectr|c no current f|ows nowever s|nce no d|e|ectr|c |s perfect
|t conta|ns a sma|| number of free e|ectrons and a very sma||
current f|ows through |t when e|ectr|c f|e|d |s app||ed Capac|tors
therefore have a sma|| |eakage current
O |e|ectr|c mater|a|s are essent|a||y |nsu|at|ng mater|a|s nowever
wh||e the funct|on of an |nsu|at|ng mater|a| |s to obstruct the f|ow
of current the funct|on of the d|e|ectr|c mater|a| |s to store
e|ectr|ca| energy
O 1he behav|or of rea| d|e|ectr|c |s pr|mar||y e|ectrostat|c e|ectro
dynam|c effects that a|so take p|ace due to the|r non zero
conduct|v|ty are qu|te |ns|gn|f|cant |n norma| operat|ng
cond|t|ons In a|| k|nds of e|ectr|ca| dev|ces and c|rcu|ts d|e|ectr|c
surves to |nsu|ate one current carry|ng part from another
whenever they operate w|th a d|fference |n e|ectr|ca| potent|a|
re|at|ve to each other In capac|tors d|e|ectr|cs serve to prov|de
some needed va|ue of capac|tance
O 1he d|e|ectr|cs used |n e|ectr|ca| eng|neer|ng may be (|) So||ds
(||) L|qu|ds and (|||) Gases

Leakage Current
1he |eakage current |s that current wh|ch |s set up |n a d|e|ectr|c due to
|ts e|ectr|ca| conduct|v|ty
8reakdown Vo|tage and |e|ectr|c Strength
If the vo|tage across the p|ate |s |ncreased s|ow|y astage |s reached at
wh|ch d|e|ectr|c breakes down and short ckt|ng of the p|ates may be
caused 1he vo|tage at wh|ch th|s occurs |s ca||ed breakdown vo|tage
1he |ntens|ty of the e|ectr|c f|e|d at wh|ch break down occurs |s ca||ed
the d|e|ectr|c strength
|e|ectr|c strength 8reak down Vo|tage]1h|ckness of the |e|ectr|c
It |s expressed |n kV]cm or kV]mm depends upon fo||ow|ng factors
01 Samp|e th|ckness
02 L|ectrode form
03 neat conduct|v|ty
04 kate and 1ota| t|me of vo|tage app||cat|on
0S 1emperature
06 Area
07 Surround|ng Med|um



INSDLA1CkS
#/ctrico/ inu/otinq motrio/ are def|ned as mater|a|s wh|ch offer a
very |arge res|stance to f|ow of current and for that reason they are
used to keep the current |n |ts proper path a|ong the conductor
Character|st|cs of a good Insu|at|ng mater|a|
01 Large |nsu|at|ng res|stance
02 n|gh d|e|ectr|c strength
03 Dn|form V|scos|ty|t g|ves un|form e|ectr|ca| and therma|
propert|es
04 Shou|d be un|form throughout|t keeps the e|ectr|c |osses
as |ow as poss|b|e and e|ectr|c stresses under h|gh vo|tage
d|fference
0S Least therma| expans|on
06 When exposed to arc|ng shou|d be non|gn|tab|e
07 Shou|d be res|stant to o||s or ||qu|ds gas fumes ac|ds and
a|ka||s
08 Shou|d have no deter|orat|ng effect on the mater|a| |n
contact w|th |t
09 Low d|ss|pat|on factor (|oss tangent)
10 n|gh mechan|ca| strength
11 n|gh therma| conduct|v|ty
12 Low perm|tt|v|ty
13 n|gh therma| strength
14 ree from gaseous |nsu|at|on to avo|d d|scharges (for so||ds
and gases)
1S Shou|d be homogeneous to avo|d |oca| stress concentrat|on
16 Shou|d be res|stant to therma| and chem|ca| deter|orat|on
C|ass|f|cat|on of Insu|at|ng Mater|a|s
01 C|ass|f|cat|on accord|ng to substances and mater|a|s
02 C|ass|f|cat|on accord|ng to temperature
C|ass|f|cat|on as per substance and mater|a|s
01 So||ds (|norgan|c and |norgan|c) M|ca Wood S|ate G|ass
orce|ene kubber Cotton S||k kayon 1ery|enepaper and
ce||u|ose mater|a|s etc
02 L|qu|ds (C||s and Varn|shes) L|nseed C|| kef|nend
hydrocarbon m|nera| o||s Sp|r|te and synthet|c varn|shes etc
03 Gases ry a|r Carbon d|ox|de argon N|trogen etc







C|ass|f|cat|on accord|ng to temperature
C|ass Insu|at|ng Mater|a|s 1emperature

(ormer|y C)
Cotton s||k paper ce||u|ose wood
etc (Cbso|ete)
90
0
C
A Mater|a|s of c|ass |mpregnated w|th
Natura| res|ns ce||u|ose esters
|nsu|at|ng o||s etc A|so
|nc|uded |n th|s ||st are |am|nated
woo| varn|shed paper
10S
0
C
L Synthet|c res|n ename|s cotton and
aper |am|nates w|th forma|dehyde
bond|ng etc
120
0
C
8 M|ca G|ass |bre Asbestos w|th
su|tab|e bond|ng substance bu||d up
m|ca g|ass f|bre and asbestos
|am|nates
130
0
C
Mater|a|s of c|ass 8 w|th bond|ng
mater|a|s of h|gher therma| stab|||ty
1SS
0
C
n G|ass f|bre and asbestos mater|a|s
bu||t up m|ca w|th s|||con res|ns
180
0
C
C M|ca ceram|cs G|ass quartz w|thout
b|nders or w|th s|||con res|ns of h|gher
therma| stab|||ty
Above 180
0
C



SCLI INSL1N MA1LkIALS
M|ca
ropert|es
AIt |s am|nera| compound of s|||cate of a|um|n|um w|th s|||cate of
soda potash and magnes|a It occurs |n the form of crysta|s wh|ch
can eas||y be sp||t |n to |am|nae
8It |s affected by o||
C1he res|st|v|ty of m|ca at 2S
0
C range from about 10
12
to 10
6
cm
depend|ng upon |nc|us|ons etc
1he d|e|ectr|c strength var|es from 40 to 1S0 kV]mm th|ckness
LIt |s |east affected by heat but dehydrates at h|gh temperature
It has h|gh d|e|ectr|c strength and |ow power |oss
GIt |s r|g|d tough and strong
nMo|sture does not have any effect on |t
I Its e|ectr|ca| propert|es are deter|orated w|th presence of quartz
and fe|spar
I M|ca res|sts to a h|gh degree the attack of gasses such as
comb|nat|on products but |s attacked by warm hydroch|or|c ac|d
potass|um hydrate warm a|ka||ne carbonates and water
conta|n|ng carbon d|ox|de
Dses
(|) M|ca sheets are used for the |nsu|at|ng |eaves between
commutator segments thse are however not ava||ab|e |n
|arge th|cknesses
(||) 1h|ck m|ca tape |s |arge|y used for tap|ng armature and f|e|d
co||s of tract|on motors and for tap|ng the stator co||s of hv
a|ternators
(|||) M|ca |s usua||y avo|ded for s|ot ||n|ngs of hv mach|nes
because |ts space factor |s |ow
Wood
ropert|es
01 1he d|e|ectr|c constant of the wood 2S 27
02 ry res|st|v|ty |s |n the order of 10
10
to 10
13
cm
03 Can w|thstand a potent|a| grad|ent of 40 kV]mm |n serv|ce
Dses
o|e and other structura| |nsu|at|ng members for e|ectr|ca|
transm|ss|on ||nes
Asbestos
ropert|es
01 Its d|e|ectr|c strength |s 34S kV]mm th|ckness
02 It |s h|gh|y hygroscop|c
03 Its strength |ncreases by |mpregnat|on but heat res|stance
and non|nf|ammab|||ty are re|axed
04 It me|ts at 1S00
0
C
0S It |s ne|ther mechan|ca||y strong nor f|ex|b|e
06 Asbestos w|th h|gh |ron content has a vo|ume res|st|v|ty |n
order of 1x10
6
cm
07 ur|f|ed f|bres w|th c|ay f||ter have better e|ectr|c strength
08 Asbestos e|ectr|ca| |nsu|at|ng paper |s supp||ed |n th|ckness of
02 03 04 0S 08 and 10 mm and depend|ng on the
th|ckness has a m|n breakdown vo|tage from o9 24 kV when
sub[ected to random po|nt break down tests
Dses
(|) It |s used as cover|ng for conductors |n h|gh|y rated mach|ne
(||) It |s used as cover|ng of armature and f|e|d co|| exposed to
h|gh temp and a w|re for e|ectr|c heat|ng dev|ces ovens
e|ectr|c |rons etc
(|||) In the form of sheets asbestos |s emp|oyed |n ||n|ngs and
part|t|ons |n sw|tch boxes and fuse boxes or as sh|e|ds for
carbon arc
Marb|e
ropert|es
01 Its d|e|ectr|c strength |s 6 kV]mm th|ckness
02 It |s very hard and takes a f|ne po||sh
03 It can be eas||y carved
Dses
It |s w|de|y used as pane| and sw|tch board
8ake||te
ropert|es
It |s type of fena| forma|dehyde
Its d|e|ectr|c strength |s 61S kV]mm th|ckness
It |s hard thermosett|ng and dark co|oured mater|a|
Dses It |s w|de|y used for sma|| mou|ded parts such as |amp ho|ders
term|na| b|ocks sw|tch covers |nstrument cases and sma|| pane|s
Ceram|cs
It |s the product wh|ch |s produced by the act|on of f|re on earth|y
mater|a| It |s ava||ab|e |n the fo||ow|ng forms
(a) Steat|te
ropert|es
(|) It |s prepared from hydrated magnes|um s|||cate m|xed w|th
sma|| proport|ons of c|ay and fe|dspar 1he f|r|ng m|xture |s
carr|ed up to 1400
0
C when |t forms |n to a dense
homogeneous mass
(||) Its mechan|ca| strength |s h|gh
(|||) osses good e|ectr|ca| propert|es
(|v) It |s cons|derab|y hard and tough
(v) Insu|at|on res|stance |s h|gh
(v|) arts prepared from steat|te are very cheap
Dses It |s su|tab|e for e|ectron|c equ|pment part|cu|ar|y at h|gh
frequenc|es
(b) Cord|er|te
ropert|es
(|) It |s magnes|um a|um|n|um s|||cate
(||) ossesess good heat conduct|v|ty
(|||) Low therma| expn
(|v) n|gh |nsu|at|on res|stance at h|gh temperatures
Dses It |s used |n the mak|ng of |nsu|ators and supports for e|ectr|ca|
heat|ng e|ements where res|stance to heat shock |s of |mportance
orce|a|n
It |s made from ch|na c|ay ba|| c|ay quartz and fe|dspar f|ne|y
powdered and m|xed w|th water 1he p|ast|c|ty of m|xture |s regu|ated
by c|ay uartz and fe|dspar act as f|||er and f|ux respect|ve|y
Dses 1he porce|a|n |nsu|ator are emp|oyed for |nsu|at|on term|na|s of
hv mach|nes
G|ass
Dses
(|) 1oughened g|ass |s emp|oyed for |nsu|at|on |n LnV ||nes
hav|ng vo|tage above 100 kV
(||) It |s used |n the product|on of g|ass f|bre form|ng taps s|m||ar
to cotton or s||k tapes
(|||) G|ass |s often used to make sea|ed |eads |n hermet|c
capac|tors sma|| s|zed transformers and other e|ectr|ca|
dev|ces
(|v) G|asses of se|ected compos|t|on are extens|ve|y used to
make te|ephonete|egraph ar|a| ||nes and power ||ne
|nsu|ators wh|ch after toughen|ng by spec|a| heat treatment
possess h|gh e|ectr|ca| |nsu|at|ng propert|es great mech
Strength and therma| endurance
(v) |ex|b|e g|ass f|bres hav|ng a th|ckness of the order of the
order of m|crons are part|cu|ar|y su|tab|e for manufacture of
m|n|ature capac|tors
Cotton covered w|res |s extens|ve|y used for w|nd|ng of sma|| magnet
co||s armature w|nd|ngs of sma|| and med|um s|zed mach|nes chokes
and transformer co||s etc
S||k used for w|nd|ngs |n fract|ona| horse power mach|nes
aper
ropert|es
(|) It |s prepared from wood pu|p and man||a f|bres beaten and
ro||ed |n to sheets
(||) Its d|e|ectr|c strenghth |s 4 10 kV]mm th|ckness
(|||) It |s hygroscop|c and absorbent so |s part|cu|ar|y su|tab|e for
|mpregnat|on
(|v) L|ectr|ca| propert|es are qu|te good
(v) It |s rare|y used |n |mpregnated cond|t|on but can be used
successfu||y under o||
(v|) It cabon|zes at 12S
0
C so that the temp of any paper
|nsu|ated apparatus |s ||m|ted to about 1000
0
C
Dses
O It |s used for cab|e |nsu|at|on when o|| |mpregnated and as
cover|ng for transformer conductors
O It |s a|so emp|oyed |n manufacture of var|ous form of |nsu|at|ng
boards or tubes
kubber
(|) kubber |s an e|ectr|c mater|a| obta|ned by vu|can|z|ng raw
rubber (natura| or synthet|c)
(||) S|||con rubbers have h|gh e|ectr|ca| |nsu|at|ng propert|es
heat res|stance frost res|stance mo|sture res|stance as we||
as res|stance to ozone and ||ght 1hese rubbers can be
produced as adhes|ve tapes su|tab|e for |nsu|at|ng the
w|nd|ngs of h|gh vo|tage e|ectr|ca| mach|nes 1hose taps a|so
serve to |nsu|ate the term|na| |eads of e|ectr|ca| mach|nes
des|gned for h|gh temperature r|se S|||con rubbers reta|n
the|r f|ex|b|||ty at temperature as |ow as 10
0
C Cne of the|r
drawbacks |s re|at|ve|y |ow mechan|ca| strength another |s
h|gh cost
o|ythene
DSLS
(|) Lmp|oyed for |nsu|at|on of w|res and conductors
(||) Dsed for h|gh vo|tage ( up to 30 kV) app||cat|on
(|||) Dsed asa |nsu|at|on |n submar|ne cab|es and radar ||nes
(|v) n|gh frequency cab|es te|ev|s|on commun|cat|on c|rcu|t etc
(v) As [acket|ng mater|a| for d|fferent types of cab|e
(v|) 1he th|n f||m po|ythene used for |ow |nsu|at|on
o|yv|ny| ch|or|de
Dses
(|) Insu|at|on or [acket mater|a| for var|ous types of house
w|r|ngs power cab|es contro| cab|es m|||tary and a|rcraft
w|res commun|cat|on and s|gna| w|r|ngs
(||) VC f||ms taps and sheets are common|y used as |nsu|at|on
for dry batter|es conductors and cab|es

LIDI INSDLA1ING MA1LkIALS
unct|ons 1o prov|de e|ectr|ca| |nsu|at|on and heat transfer
1ypes of Insu|at|ng L|qu|ds
AMost common|y used ||qu|ds 1hey are natura| hydrocarbon
m|nera| o||s used |n transformers c|rcu|t breakers
8Cther common ||qu|ds 1hese are ch|or|nated aromat|c (benzene
and d|pheny) ||qu|ds used for the|r |nf|ammab|||ty character|st|cs
and the|r perm|tt|v|ty (for capac|tors)
CLess common ||qu|ds Less common used but of cr|t|ca|
|mportance for h|gher temperature app||cat|on are s|||con f|u|ds
INSDLA1ING GASLS
Insu|at|ng gases are used both as an |nsu|ant and heat transfer
med|um
C|ass|f|cat|on
01 S|mp|e Gases A|r N|trogen nydrogen ne||um etc
02 Cx|de Gases Carbon d| ox|de Su|pher d| ox|de
03 nydrocarbon Gases Methane Lthane ropane reon gases
04 L|ectronegat|ve gases Su|pher hexa f|uor|de Cn
2
C|
2

Vacuum as |e|ectr|c Dnder vacuum cond|t|ons the d|e|ectr|c |oss |s
|ow and d|e|ectr|c strength |s h|gh Dsed |n capac|tors c|rcu|t breakers
and e|ectrostat|c seperators etc




MAGNL1IC MA1LkIALS
Introduct|on
O Magnet|c mater|a|s are those |n wh|ch a state of magnet|zat|on
can be |nduced Such mater|a|s when magnet|zed create a
magnet|c f|e|d |n the surround space
C|ass|f|cat|on of magnet|c mater|a|s
(|) erromagnet|c mater|a| 1hey are |ron coba|t n|cke| etc
(||) aramagnet|c mater|a|s A|um|n|um p|at|num etc
(|||) |amagnet|c mater|a|s 8|smuth copper s||ver hydrogen