m G
is
an approximate inverse of G
m
, and G
f
is a low pass filter. The name internal model controller
derives from the fact that the controller contains a model of the process internally. This model
is connected in parallel with the process. If the model matches the process, i.e., G
m
= G
p
, the
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signal is equal to the disturbance d for all control signals u. If G
f
= 1 and G
j
, is an exact
inverse of the process, then the disturbance d will be cancelled perfectly. The filter G
f
is
introduced to obtain a system that is less sensitive to modelling errors. A common choice is
G
f
(s) = 1/(1 + sT
f
), where T
f
is a design parameter.
Figure 2.3 Block diagram of a closedloop system with a controller based on the internal
model principle.
The controller obtained by the internal model principle can be represented as an ordinary
series controller with the transfer function
G G f m
=
Gc
1
G G G f m m
_________________________(2.1)
From this expression it follows that controllers of this type cancel process poles and zeros.
The internal model principle will typically give controllers of high order. By making special
assumptions it is, however, possible to obtain PI or PID controllers from the principle
An interesting feature of the internal model controller is that robustness is considered
explicitly in the design. Robustness can be adjusted by selecting the filter G
f
properly. A
tradeoff between performance and robustness can be made by using the filter constant as a
design parameter. The IMC can be designed to give excellent response to set point changes.
Since the design method inherently implies that poles and zeros of the plant are cancelled, the
response to load disturbances may be poor if the cancelled poles are slow in comparison with
the dominant poles.
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2.4 RELAY AUTO TUNING (ASTROM & HAGGLUND 84):
Alternative to continuous cycling method to find K
c
& P
u
. F.B controller temporally replaced
by an ON OFF controller (or Relay). After the control loop is closed, controlled variables
shows sustained oscillation (due to on off). Operation of relay auto tuner includes a dead
band to avoid frequent switching caused by measurement noise. Process is operated in closed
loop, so that output does not drift away from desired target value. Relay is used with
hysteresis, so that the system is less sensitive to measurement noise.
P
u
is the period of oscillation for the process output.
K
cu
= 4d / a
where, d = relay amplitude (set by user)
and a = measured amplitude of process oscillation
PID controller settings can be obtained as for ZN.
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2.5 REACTION CURVE METHOD: 
It is an Open loop method by CohenCoon.Response to step I/P; only for system with self
regulation. Loop opened between controller and valve; controller on manual.
Reaction rate:
p
c (Change_in_variable%)
N =
T(process_reaction_time_in_min.)
with correction by Cohen & Coon for Qr. Amplitude damping, the log ratio is
For P :
p
P
k
NL
A
=
With correction :
p
P R
k 1
NL 3
A (
= +
(
p
NL
R
c
=
A
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For PI :
p I
I
P 1
k 0.9 ; T 3.33L
NL k
A
= = =
With correction:
p
P R
k 0.9
NL 12
A (
= +
(
I
30 3R
T L
9 20R
+ (
=
(
+
For PID :
p I D
P
k 1.2 ; T =2L ; T =0.5L
NL
A
=
With correction:
p I
P R 32 6R
k 1.33 ; T L
NL 4 13 8R
A + ( (
= + =
( (
+
D
4
T =L
11+2R
 

\ .
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CHAPTER3
LITERATURE SURVEY
This literature survey can be divided in three categories:
 Analytical methods
 Methods of optimization
 Fuzzy PID
3.1 Analytical methods:
[1]. E. K. Ho and W. Xu, PID tuning for unstable processes based on gain and phase
margin specifications, IEEE Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. D, vol. 145, no. 5, pp. 392396, May
1998.
Work done: 
In the paper, simple formulas are derived to tune the PID controller for unstable processes to
meet gain and phase margin specifications. The stability of the closedloop system is ensured
by the Nyquist stability criterion. These formulas are derived for first and secondorder
processes with time delay.
Gain and phase margins have always served as important measures of robustness. It is known
from classical control that the phase margin is related to the damping of the system and
therefore can also serve as a performance measure.
Robustness is clearly a key issue for control systems, and gain and phase margins are
important indicators. Simple formulas will be derived in this paper to tune the PID controller
for unstable processes to meet gain and phasemargin specifications. The stability of the
closedloop system is ensured by the Nyquist stability criterion. These formulas are derived
for firs order unstable processes with time delay.
Models of controller and process considered: 
Denote the process and controller transfer functions by G
p
(s) and G
c
(s) respectively. The PI
controller is given by :
1
G (s) = k 1+
c c
sT
i
 


\ .
_________________________________________________(3.1)
The firstorder plus deadtime unstable process model is given by:
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k
p
sL
G (s) = e
p
s 1
___________________________________________________(3.2)
RESULTS: 
The tuning formulas derived for the given phase and gain margin specifications were
p
kc =
A k
m p
_________________________________________________(3.3)
And
1
1
2
T =  L
p p
i
2
 

\ .
_______________________________________(3.4)
Where
A + A (A 1)
m m m m
2
=
p
2
(A 1)L
m
____________________________________(3.5)
p
is the phase cross over frequency.
A
m
is the gain margin.
m
is the phase margin.
Also, using the above tuning formulas the gain and phase margins obtained are quite close to
the specified ones. The largest error in gain margin is 1%. The largest error in phase margin
is 4.9%). Such errors are within acceptable limits.
LIMITATION:
The limitations of the method described and the PI controller parameters derived is that the
above tuning parameters can only be used for the systems having
L
< 0.62
Where, L is the dead time and is the first order lag.
[2] G.P. Liu and S. Daley, Optimaltuning PID control for industrial systems,
journal of control engineering practices (Elsevier), vol.9, pp11851194, 2001
Work done:  Three optimaltuning PID controller design schemes are presented for
industrial control systems in this paper. They are time domain Optimaltuning PID control,
frequencydomain optimaltuning PID control and multiobjective optimaltuning PID control.
since only a small amount of information on the dynamic behaviour of the process is used, in
many situations they do not provide good enough tuning or produce a satisfactory closed
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loop response. For example, in practice, the ZieglerNichols rule often leads to a rather
oscillatory response to set point changes.
In fact, to have required system performance specifications, PID controller design of
industrial systems is complicated by a number of factors:
 The system has nonlinearity such as directionally dependent actuator and plant
dynamics;
 Various uncertainties, such as modelling error and external disturbances, are involved
in the system.
 Suboptimal tuning may be necessary to cater for changes in the system with time
such as ageing and general wear.
 Commissioning is easiest without load, but the load is often variable and affects the
dynamic performance.
The schemes described in this paper generally consist of four basic parts: model estimation,
desired system specifications, optimal tuning mechanism and an online PID controller. The
Model estimation provides a parametric/nonparametric model for the process. The desired
system specifications include a set of control requirements of the process. The optimaltuning
mechanism finds optimal parameters for the PID controller so that the desired system
specifications are satisfied. These optimaltuning PID control schemes are demonstrated
through their applications to a hydraulic Position control system, a rotary hydraulic speed
control system and a gasifier.
Time domain optimal tuning:
In the time domain, specifications for a control system design involve certain requirements
associated with the time response of the system. The requirements are often expressed in
terms of the standard quantities on the rise time, settling time, overshoot, peak time, and
steady state error of a step response.
The PID design technique in this technique in this method can be stated as minimization of
the cost function given by:
J(K , K , K )
p min
i d
K ,K ,K
p
i d
____________________________________(3.6)
Statistical considerations show that the performance function J is the most appropriate choice
for data fitting when errors in the data have a normal distribution. The function J is often
preferred because it is known that the best fitting calculation is straight forward to solve.
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Fig3.1 The timedomain optimaltuning PID control scheme.
Frequency domain tuning
In the frequencydomain, there are two quantities used to measure the stability margin of the
system. One is the gain margin, which is the factor by which the gain is less than the neutral
stability value. The other is the phase margin, which is the amount by which the phase of the
system exceeds 180
0
when the system gain is unity. The gain and phase margins are also
related to the damping of a system. In addition to the stability of a design, the system is also
expected to meet a speedof response specification like bandwidth. The crossover frequency,
which is the frequency at which the gain is unity, would be a good measurement in the
frequency domain for the systems speed of time response.
In this he design of PID controller is given by minimization of following cost function
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4
2
w ( (Kc, Ti, Td) 1)
min
i i
i=1
K ,T ,T
c
i d
__________________________________ (3.7)
The control topology adopted in this method is:
Fig3.2 Frequencydomain optimaltuning control scheme.
Multiobjective optimaltuning PI control for a gasifier: 
In this paper this technique has been applied on the gasifier of integrated gasification
combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. A set of multiobjective performance criteria based on
the specifications for the system outputs, inputs and input rates are formulated as functions of
the parameters of the multiinput multioutput (MIMO) PI controller. The controller is
designed using multiobjective optimisation methods and also evaluated on three linearised
gasifier models.
The cost function has the form
{ } (K) =1+ Re(j) +
max
r+2m+1
j=1,2,3,....,n
e
The parameter vector K denotes the parameters of the PI controller, j is the jth poles of the
closedloop system, Re(.)denotes the real part of a number, e the positive real number
represents the requirements on the closedloop poles.
Advantage :
These schemes can provide optimal PID parameters so that the desired system specifications
are satisfied even in case where the system dynamics are time variant or the system operating
points change.
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[3]. K.G.Arvanitis, G.D.Pasgianos and G. Kalogeropoulos, Tuning PID Controllers for a
Class of Unstable Dead Time Processes based on Stability Margins Specifications,
IEEE Mediterranean conference on control and automation, July 2729, 2007, Athens
Greece.
Work done: 
In this paper The control of unstable second order plus dead time (USOPDT) processes
systems using generalized PID type controllers is investigated in this paper. New tuning rules
based on the exact satisfaction of gain and phase margin specifications are proposed. The
tuning rules are given in the form of iterative algorithms, as well as in the form of accurate
analytic approximations, particularly useful for online tuning applications. The proposed
tuning rules are applied for the control of a gravitybiased one degree of freedom magnetic
levitation experimental system.
Unstable processes exhibit two gain margins, designated as the increasing (or upward) and
the decreasing gain margin (or gain reduction margin). Unstable processes exhibit two gain
margins, designated as the increasing (or upward) and the decreasing gain margin (or gain
reduction margin). The present paper is focused on the tuning of PIDtype controllers based
on the exact satisfaction of gain and phase margin specifications. Here, the phase margin, the
increasing, as well as the decreasing gain margins, has simultaneously been taken into
account for the design of the PID controller for USOPDT process processes. Since the
transfer function of an USOPDT system includes a deadtime term, the tuning formulas for
the parameters of a PID type controller that satisfy the gain and phase margin specifications
cannot be directly expressed in an explicit analytic form. For this reason, in order to calculate
the controller parameters, iterative algorithms are derived in the paper. In addition to the
solution of the controllertuning problem provided by iterative algorithms, an analytic
expression that approximates the exact solution quite accurately and which is particularly
useful for online applications is also provided for the special case where the derivative time
constant of the controller is selected equal to the stable time constant of the system. In this
special case, the USOPDT system controlled by a PID controller is equivalent to an UFOPDT
system controlled by a PI controller.
Advantages: 
Unlike in paper 1 where a proportionalintegral (PI) tuning method, based only on the
phase and the increasing gain margin specifications is proposed. This method uses some
approximations of the tan
1
function to simplify the PI controller design, but due to the less
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accurate approximations used, it is not applicable for large values of the time delay and for
small gain and phase margin specifications. This paper presents New tuning rules based on
the exact satisfaction of gain and phase margin specifications are proposed.
[4]. M. Ramasamy, S. Sundaramoorthy, PID controller tuning for desired closedloop
responses for SISO systems using impulse response, The journal of computer &
chemical engineering (Elsevier) vol.32 (2008), pp17731788
Work done:
In this paper, a new method of designing PID controllers using impulse response instead of
step response of the plant is presented. Treating the impulse response of the plant as a
statistical distribution, the mean and the variance of the distribution are calculated and
used in the calculation of PID controller parameters. Thus, the proposed method requires no
approximation of the plant by any model. In this paper, a direct synthesis approach to PID
controller design is proposed that makes use of Maclaurin series of the desired closedloop
transfer function, truncated up to the first three terms. PID controller parameters are
synthesized to match the closedloop response of the plant to the desired closedloop
response. Formulae for the calculation of PID controller tuning parameters are derived for the
desired closedloop response models of the types FOPDT and SOPDT. Only stable SISO
systems are considered. The PID controllers tuned result in closedloop responses very close
to the desired response and perform equally well compared to other tuning methods reported
in literature.
Advantages:
 The proposed paper sometimes provides responses with minimum overshoot and no
oscillations with comparable response times.
 Systems with complex dynamic characteristics such as dominant numerator dynamics
and inverse response characteristics were also considered.
 PID controllers cascaded with first or secondorder lag are used for dominant
numerator dynamic systems to overcome the problem of negative integral and/or
derivative time constants and it was found that present method performs well.
 For inverse response systems, the desired closedloop response was chosen as the one
with inverse response characteristics and the proposed method results in controller
settings that provide a better closedloop performance.
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[5]. Wuhua Hu, Gaoxi Xiao, Xiumin Li, An analytical method for PID controller
tuning with specified gain and phase margins for integral plus time delay processes,
Journal on ISA transactions (Elsevier), vol50, 2011, pp 268276
Work done: 
In this paper, an analytical method is proposed for proportionalintegral/proportional
derivative/proportionalintegralderivative (PI/PD/PID) controller tuning with specified gain
and phase margins (GPMs) for integral plus time delay (IPTD) processes. Explicit formulas
are also obtained for estimating the GPMs resulting from given PI/PD/PID controllers. The
proposed method indicates a general form of the PID parameters and unifies a large number
of existing rules as PI/PD/PID controller tuning with various GPM specifications. The GPMs
realized by existing PID tuning rules are computed and documented as a reference for control
engineers to tune the PID controllers.
There are more than fifty PI/PD/PID tuning rules IPTD process according to the survey made
by Odwyer The actual number is even much higher Close observations reveal that many of
these rules are sharing a common form. Such observations motivate exploration of a general
solution for the PI/PD/PID controller tuning on an IPTD process in this paper.
Advantage:
The results show that a variety of GPMs are attained by the existing rules. Since the rules
were developed based on various criteria and methods, the summary of their resulting GPMs
provides a rich reference for control engineers to tune PID controllers, helping to select a rule
or GPM for a specific design.
3.2 METHODS OF OPTIMIZATION: 
[6]. NICK J. KILLINGSWORTH and MIROSLAV KRSTIC, PID Tuning Using
Extremum Seeking, IEEE CONTROL SYSTEMS MAGAZINE, FEBRUARY 2006,
pp70 80
Work done:
This article, we present a method for optimizing the step response of a closedloop system
consisting of a PID controller and an unknown plant with a discrete version of Extremum
seeking (ES). Specifically, ES minimizes a cost function, which quantifies the performance
of the PID controller. ES, which is a non modelbased method, iteratively modifies the
arguments of a cost function (in this application, the PID parameters) so that the output of the
cost function reaches a local minimum or local maximum.
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COST FUNCTION AND PID CONTROLLERS: 
ES is used to tune the parameters of a PID controller so as to minimize a given cost function.
The cost function, which quantifies the effectiveness of a given PID controller, is evaluated at
the conclusion of a stepresponse experiment. We use the integrated square error (ISE) cost
function.
T
1
2
J() = e (t, )dt
T t
t
0
0
}
_________________________(3.9)
We use a standard PID controller, with the exception that the derivative term acts on the
measured plant output but not on the reference signal. This PID controller avoids large
control effort during a step change in the reference signal. Figure 3.3 shows a block diagram
of the closedloop system, where G is the unknown plant, the controller is parameterized as
and r, u, and y are the reference signal, control signal, and output signal, respectively.
FIG 3.3 Closedloop servo system. The output signal y of the unknown plant G is
regulated to the reference signal r by the two degree offreedom controller C
r
and C
y
.
r
i
1
C (s) = K 1+
Ts
 

\ .
_____________________________(3.10)
1
( ) 1
y d
i
C s K T s
Ts
 
= + +

\ .
___________________________(3.11)
Fig3.3 The overall ES PID tuning scheme
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Advantages :
 Extremum seeking converges to parameters that yield performance comparable to the
best achievable with other popular PID tuning methods.
 Extremum seeking produces favourable results in the presence of actuator saturation.
[7]. Qingdong Zeng & Guanzheng Tan, Optimal Design of PID Controller Using
Modified Ant Colony System Algorithm, Third International Conference on Natural
Computation, 2007
Work done: 
In this paper A novel intelligent design method for PID controller with optimal selftuning
parameters is proposed based on the modified Ant Colony System (ACS) algorithm. By
testing four different control systems with the typical characteristic such as high order, time
delays, and nonlinearity, the proposed ACSPID algorithm has been demonstrated to have an
adaptive property and robust stability in searching for the optimal PID controller parameters.
By comparing with the PID controllers designed by use of the differential evolution (DE), the
realcoded genetic algorithm (GA), and the simulated annealing (SA), the proposed ACSPID
controller has been demonstrated to be better than or equivalent to these PID controllers in
control performance.
To emphasize the effectiveness of the proposed method, the ITAE performance criterion is
adopted in this paper. Its formula is: 
( )
0
ITAE t e t dt
=
}
______________________(3.12)
Advantages: 
ACSPID algorithm has been demonstrated to have the adaptive property and robust stability
in searching for the optimal PID controller parameters.
[8]. Zhang Yachen, Hu Yueming, On PID Controllers Based on Simulated Annealing
Algorithm, Proceedings of the 27th Chinese Control Conference July 1618, 2008,
Kunming, Yunnan, China
Work done: 
This paper applies the simulated annealing algorithm for PID controllers to deal with those
motion control systems having constant disturbance. The main goal is to eliminate the steady
state error of the system and minimize the integral time absolute error (ITAE) performance
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index. Three PID controllers, the ordinary PID controller, the increment PID (IPID)
controller and the integral separation PID (ISPID) controller are compared.
The integral time absolute error (ITAE) as the objective function, which emphasizes on the
adjusting time as well as the overshoot. The performance index ITAE is quantified as
follows: 
( )
0
ITAE t e t dt
=
}
________________(3.13)
Advantages: 
This algorithm successfully tuned the parameters for the three PID controllers. eliminating
the steady state error of the system and minimizing the ITAE performance index.
[9]. Mohammad Dashti, Kambiz Shojaee, S.M.H. Seyedkashi, Mojtaba Behnam,
Tuning of Digital PID Controller Using Particle Swarm Optimization, Proceedings of
the 29th Chinese Control Conference July 2931, 2010, Beijing, China
Work done : 
In this paper, an accessible method with high accuracy and speed has been presented for
determination of these control parameters, using PSO optimization algorithm and
performance assessment criteria. The results show that there is a considerable difference
between this methods results and the other methods. PID controllers are one of the most
applicable controllers in different industries. The main important need in application of these
controllers is their parameters tuning in order to gain desired result. Existing tuning rules for
their design are usually based on trial and error which are so time consuming, not accurate
and have considerable error.
Fig Schematic diagram of PID controller optimization process
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Advantages: 
Particle swarm optimization algorithm shows that this algorithm has a high capability in
tuning of the parameters of this controller and is more efficient compared with the results by
other studies. Authors suggest changing in particle swarm optimization algorithm and more
accurate adaptation of swarm intelligence for further studies. For instance, some points such
as group motion based on the leader orientation or more precise definition of Kinematics
equations with concepts such as particle accelerated motion can be noted.
3.3 Fuzzy PID:
[10]. K.Goser, KSchuhmacher M.Hartun, K.Heesche, B.Hesse, and A.Kanstein,
NEUROFUZZY SYSTEMS FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS, IEEE
conference on Fuzzy systems, New Orleans, LA, USA, 1996.
Work done:
This paper reports three advanced developments in neuro fuzzy systems for engineering
applications. The essential part of neurofuzzy synergisms comes from a common
framework called adaptive networks, which unifies both neural networks and fuzzy systems.
A neural network with the interpretation done by a fuzzy system is suitable for quality
monitoring of mechanical equipment or power electronics. Neural networks like self
organizing maps or radial basis function nets can feed the data for fuzzy systems which can
control battery chargers or drilling machines. An integrated neurofuzzy topology is
described which represents both a complete feed forward network and a fuzzy controller.
This data driven system is very suitable for automotive control. Neurofuzzy systems are an
important area for technology transfer.
This paper reviews some developments in adaptive fuzzy systems that employ neural
networks learning techniques. The integration of Fuzzy and neural techniques is an active
area of research; it brings together the best features of fuzzy logic and neural networks,
providing knowledgebased system that can adapt or be organized according to sampled data.
Advantages: 
 The feature of neural networks enables the system to learn by itself: it can create new
rules and define new membership functions.
 Genetic algorithms offer a way to make the system more efficient by reducing the
number of rules and by adjusting the shape of their membership functions.
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[11]. HyungSoo Hwang, JeongNae Choi, WonHyok Lee, JinKwon Kim, A Tuning
Algorithm for The PID Controller Utilizing Fuzzy Theory, IEEE conference on
Control & automation, Chonbuck, Korea,1999.
Work done: 
In this paper we proposed a new PID tuning algorithm by the fuzzy set theory to improve the
perfrmance of the PID Controller. The new tuning algorithm for the PID controller has the
initial value of parameter K
p
,
i
t ,
d
by the Ziegler Nichols formula that uses the ultimate
gain and ultimate period from a relay tuning experiment. We will get the error and the error
rate of plant output corresponding to the initial value of parameter and find the new
proportion gain(K
p
)and the integral time (
i
t )from tuner by the error and error rate of plant
output as a membership function of fuzzy theory.
This paper, proposes a new PID tuning algorithm by the fuzzy set theory to improve the
performance of the PID controller. We determined the ultimate gain and the ultimate period
from a simple relay feedback experiment. The new tuning algorithm for the PID controller
has the initial value of parameter K
p
,
i
,
d
by the ZieglerNichols formula that used the
ultimate gain and ultimate period from a relay tuning experiment. And compute the error and
the error change rate of plant response corresponding to the initial value of parameter. We
can find the new proportional gain(K
p
) and the integral time (
i
) from fuzzy tuner by the
error and the error change rate of plant output.
Advantages: 
 This fuzzy tuning algorithm for a PID controller considerably reduced the overshoot
and rise time as compared to any other PID controller tuning algorithms, such as
ZieglerNichols tuning method, refinement of the ZieglerNichols tuning method and
auto tuning methods etc.
 This controller has achievable performance for real parametric uncertainty system.
[12]. Yu Chen and Sangchul Won, Simple Fuzzy PID Controller Tuning of Integrating
ProcessWith Deadtime, International Conference on Control, Automation and
Systems 2008 Oct. 1417, 2008 in COEX, Seoul, Korea
Work done :
In this paper, a simple fuzzy proportionalintegral derivative (PID) controller tuning method
is proposed for a generalized secondorder integrating process with deadtime, which is based
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on matching the coefficients of corresponding powers of s in the numerator and that in the
denominator of a closedloop system. A simple tuning parameter for PID controller is
obtained. A new exponential term approximation is introduced which can reduce the model
error. The proof shows that the system performance can be guaranteed. The fuzzy rule base is
built and fuzzy tuning of the obtained tuning parameter is applied. The result of the fuzzy
tuning method is compared with that proposed in literature under both time varying and non
varying condition. The proposed simple fuzzy tuning method shows a better time domain
performance and good robustness under time varying condition.
In this paper, a better approximation of time delay term is proposed which can work at both
low and high frequency, and a simple fuzzy PID controller tuning method of the generalized
secondorder integrating process with deadtime is proposed.
Advantages: 
 The proposed simple fuzzy tuning method shows a better time domain performance
and good robustness under time varying condition.
 The proposed method showed a better performance even when the delay time is large
and varying.
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Proposed work
Problem statement : 
1. For a CSTR whose model and data is as shown below: 
F Feed flow rate 0.1m
3
/min
V Reactor volume 2m
3
Ko Reaction rate
coefficient
3.5 x 10 /min
Ea Activation energy 49.884kJ/mol
R Ideal gas
Constant
8.313 x 10
3
kJ/mol
Hr Heat of reaction 500kJ/mol
CAO Concentration of A in
feed
1000mol/m
3
To Feed temperature 30
0
C
Density of solution 1000kg/m
3
Cp Heat capacity of
solution
4.2kJ/kg
o
C
UA Heat transfer
coefficient (surface)
252kJ/min
0
C
Vj Jacket volume 0.4m
3
Tjf Inlet temperature
of coolant
10C
MODEL FOR CSTR: 
0
0
dT
( ) ( )
dt
j
F UA
T T Fnn T T
V CpV
= +
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Where,
( )
. ( )
a
E
r RT
nn o
H
F k e Ca Arrhenius equation
CpV
=
j
dT
( ) ( )
dt
jo j j
j j
u UA
T T T T
V CpV
= +
V
F,Ti(t)
T
Tj,
Vj,
Fj
To,
Fjo
u
Fig schematic for a cooled CSTR
The control objective is to maintain the temperature of reactor at a given set point. And
design a FLC(Fuzzy PID) for change set point and for the change in input feed.(disturbance
rejection)
2 To Develop a PID tuning software (in MATLAB environment) incorporating the features
of system identification and latest PID tuning techniques.
3 To develop a technique for building a fuzzy system which from the Knowledge of input
Output data of any system can develop fuzzy membership functions and rules which
helps further in the design of FLC.
PID CONTROLLER TUNING 2011
34 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING , NIT ALLAHABAD
REFRENCES
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PID CONTROLLER TUNING 2011
35 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING , NIT ALLAHABAD
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