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Synthesis of LC & RC Networks (CAUER I & CAUER II realizations)

By: Ramirez, Jorge J.

1) ABSTRACT

There are four universal methods used to obtain the input impedance Z(s) of a network. These four methods are Foster I, Foster II, Cauer I, and Cauer II. The subject of this work is to cover the Cauer Canonical forms and the design of an interactive program to obtain the value of the elements in the network.

Cauer I & II Realizations for LC Networks

Assuming we have the following general equation for Z(s),

Z(s) = a _{5} s ^{5} + a _{3} s ^{3} + a _{1} s B _{4} s ^{4} +b _{2} s ^{2} +b _{0}

(1.0)

The polynomials numerator and denominator are arranged in a descending power of s. If Z(s) is not in a factor form, factor out and use continuous partial fraction to obtain the values of the elements.

Z1

Z3

Zn-1

Z2

Zn

Figure 1. Network used to represent both Cauer I and Cauer II realizations.

In a LC network, if we use Cauer I to obtain the input impedance Z(s), the inductor will be found in the series branches of the network. The capacitors will be in the shunt branches of the network. Besides, the first element of the network will be a series inductor if Z(∞) = ∞; otherwise, if Z(∞) = 0 the first element will be a shunt capacitor. If the first element is a series inductor, we use Z(s) to obtain our Cauer realization. If the first element is a shunt capacitor, we use Y(s) to obtain our realization.

In a Cauer II network, capacitors are placed in the series branches and inductors shunting to ground the network. If the first element is a series capacitor, Z(0) = ∞, the circuit will be built in Z(s). On the other hand, if the first element is a shunt inductor, Z(0) = 0, the expansion is done on Y(s). Also, the behavior of the input impedance at high frequencies of s is fundamental for the last element of the circuit. For example, when Z(∞)=∞ the last element is an inductor. At the same time, when Z(∞)=0 the last element is a capacitor.

General equation of Cauer II is given in (2.0),

Y(s) = b _{4} s ^{4} + b _{2} s ^{2} + b _{0} A _{5} s ^{5} +b _{3} s ^{3} +a _{1} s

(2.0)

SYNTHESIS OF RC NETWORKS

In a first Cauer canonical form for RC impedance, we arrange Z _{R}_{C} (s) so that the numerator and denominator polynomials appear in ascending order of s. To obtain the values of the elements in the network we expand the general equation in continued-fraction forms.

The second Cauer canonical form for RC impedance is obtained after arranging the numerator and denominator polynomials in ascending order of s. We expand the resulting function in a continued fraction to obtain the values of the components in the network.

This program will help the designer to determine the input impedance for LC and RC networks. The program is created in Excel and makes use of the principle of matrices for calculating impedance and admittance. The graphics were created in PowerPoint and these notes were created in Word to be later distilled into Adobe Acrobat format.

2. REFERENCE

• |
A.Budak, 1974, Passive and Active Network Analysis and Synthesis, Chapter 4, Boston:Houghton, Mifflin. |

• |
Wai-Kai Chen, 1986, Passive and Active Filter, Chapter 3, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. |

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