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Informations Communications Technology

DICTIONARY

A
AM Amplitude Modulation Access Time - The performance of a hard drive or other storage or reading device - how long it takes to locate a file. Active Program or Window - The application or window at the front (foreground) on the monitor. Alert (alert box) - a message that appears on screen, usually to tell you something went wrong or give warning of dangerous activity. Alias - an icon that points to a file, folder or application. Application - a program in which you do your work. Application menu - on the right side of the screen header. Lists running applications. ASCII (pronounced ask-key ) - American Standard Code for Information Interchange. a commonly used data format for exchanging information between computers or programs. Access Port - The physical gateway between a customer's local loop and the frame relay network. Actuator - A mechanical assembly that positions the read/write head assembly over the appropriate tracks. ADC - Analog-to-Digital Conversion. Process of converting analog signals to a digital representation. DAC represents the reverse translation. Adaptive Digital Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM) - A compression technique, which records only the difference between samples and adjusts the coding scale dynamically to accommodate large and small differences. ADPCM is simple to implement, but introduces much noise. ADSL Short for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line, a technology that allows more data to be sent over existing copper telephone lines. ADSL supports data rates of from 1.5 to 9 Mbps when receiving data (known as the downstream rate) and from 16 to 640 Kbps when sending data (known as the upstream rate).

AIN advanced intelligent network; a service-independent telecommunications network in which the intelligence is moved from the switch and hosted in computer nodes distributed throughout the network. AIT - advanced intelligent tape; a helical scan technology developed by Sony for tape backup/archive of networks and servers, specifically addressing midrange to high-end backup requirements. Algorithm - Any step-by-step problem-solving procedure. Transmission of compressed video over a communications network requires sophisticated compression algorithms. Some videoconferencing systems offer both proprietary and standard compression algorithms Amplifier - A device used to boost the strength of an electronic or optical signal, which is weakened (attenuated) as it passes through the transport network. Amplifiers add gain to the signal by an amount equal to the loss in the previous section of the network since last amplification. Analog - A form of transmission that is a continuous wave electrical signal that varies in frequency and/or amplitude in response to the variations of physical phenomena such as human speech or music. In telephony, your voice is captured by a diaphragm within the telephone which causes a magnet to vibrate creating a continuously fluctuating electrical signal that is passed through a wire circuit and received on the other end. Analog Signal - A type of signal that encodes voice, video, or data transmitted over wire or through the air, and is commonly represented as an oscillating wave. An analog signal can take any value in a range and changes smoothly between values, as opposed to digital signals, which is characterized by discrete bits of information in numerical steps. An analog signal can transmit analog or digital data. Anti-spam server - A device that helps to prevent Unsolicited Bulk Email (UBE) or spam from being sent to a users email account. An anti-spam server will tag or delete spam before it reaches the mailbox. Appliance Server - An appliance server is an easy to administer, single or multi-function devices that is less expensive than a traditional server and can still handle all the tasks required by businesses today. Appliance servers allow businesses to set up a full array of network and Internet features from firewall protection to web hosting. Application Program Interface (API) - The interface (calling conventions) by which an application program accesses operating system

and other services. An API is defined at source code level and provides a level of abstraction between the application and the kernel (or other privileged utilities) to ensure the portability of the code. Array - an arrangement of two or more disk drives: may be in RAID or daisy-chain fashion. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) - A new technology that allows more data to be sent over existing copper telephone lines. ADSL supports data rates of from 1.5 to 9 Mbps when receiving data (known as the downstream rate) and from 16 to 640 Kbps when sending data (known as the upstream rate). Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) - A method of sending audio, visual and computer data at the same time over one high-speed digital line. A mode in which the sending and receiving serial hosts know where a character begins and ends because each byte is framed with additional bits, called a start bit and a stop bit. A start bit indicates the beginning of a new character; it is always 0 (zero). A stop bit marks the end of the character. The time interval between characters may be of varying lengths. Synchronous data uses an external reference clock to unify both ends of the data circuit. A high bandwidth, High speed (up to 155 Mbps), controlleddelay fixed-size packet switching and transmission system integrating multiple data types (voice, video, and data). Uses fixed-size packets also known as "cells" (ATM is often referred to as "cell relay"). Atlantic Crossing (AC-1) - Part of the Global Crossing network. AC-1 links the United States, United Kingdom, Netherlands and Germany. It became operational in May 1998 Audio - In video communications, electrical signals that carry sounds. The term is also used to describe systems concerned with sound with recording and transmission; speech pickup systems, transmission links that carry sounds, amplifiers and the like. Autonomous System - Internet (TCP/IP) terminology for a collection of gateways (routers) that fall under one administrative entity and cooperate using a common Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). B Background - part of the multitasking capability. A program can run and perform tasks in the background while another program is being used in the foreground.

Bit - the smallest piece of information used by the computer. Derived from "binary digit". In computer language, either a one (1) or a zero (0). Backup - a copy of a file or disk you make for archiving purposes. Boot - to start up a computer. Bug - a programming error that causes a program to behave in an unexpected way. Burn To copy a file or program to a CD-R CD-RW or DVD+R/RW or DVDR/RW using a laser CD Writer or DVD Writer. Bus - an electronic pathway through which data is transmitted between components in a computer. Byte - a piece of computer information made up of eight bits. Backbone - the underlying network communication conduit or line by which all main servers and devices are connected; backbone devices are typically servers, routers, hubs, and bridges; client computers are not connected directly to the backbone. Backhaul Capacity - Capacity on terrestrial fiber optic cables from undersea cable landing stations to metropolitan areas. B-Channel - A 56Kbps or 64-kbps channel that carries user data on a line using ISDN D-channel signaling. B-Mac - A method of transmitting and scrambling television signals. In such transmissions MAC (Multiplexed Analog Component) signals are timemultiplexed with a digital burst containing digitized sound, video synchronizing, authorization, and information. Band - A range of frequencies between two defined limits. Bandwidth - Bandwidth is the data capacity of a service, measured in thousands of bits per second (kbps) or millions of bits per second (Mbps). In videoconferencing systems a larger bandwidth is used to spread or "dither" the signal in order to prevent interference. A relative range of frequencies that can carry a signal on a transmission medium. A measure of capacity of information-carrying capacity on a communications channel. Narrowband: Less than or equal to 64 Kbps.

Wideband: Digital rates between 64 Kbps and 1.544 Mbps (DSI) or 2.048 Mbps (E1)-LANs, bulk files transfer, video conferencing, and multimedia. Broadband: Greater than 44.736 Mbps (D3) or 34.368 Mbps (E3). Baseband - The basic direct output signal in an intermediate frequency based obtained directly from a television camera, videoconference television receiver, or video tape recorder. Baseband signals can be viewed only on studio monitors. To display the baseband signal on a conventional television set a "modulator" is required to convert the baseband signal to one of the VHF or UHF television channels, which the television set, can be tuned to receive. Bidirectional Line Switched Ring (BLSR) - Commonly referred to as BLSR. It is a method of SONET transport in which half of the working network is sent counterclockwise over one fiber and the other half is sent clockwise over another fiber. BLSR offers bandwidth use advantages for distributed traffic in single-ring architectures. Bit - A binary unit of information that can have either of two values, 0 or 1. Contraction of binary digit: kilobit = 1,000 bits; megabit = 1 million bits; gigabit = 1 billion bits; terabit = 1 trillion bits. Bit Error Rate - The percentage of received bits in error compared to the total number of bits received. A bit error rate of 10-6 means that there is an average of one error per million bits bps. Bits per second - A unit of measurement of the speed of data transmission and thus of bandwidth. Actually a nested acronym, meaning binary digits per second. (lower case is significant) Bps (or BPS). (8-bit) bytes per second (upper case is significant). Block - a portion of a volume usually 512 bytes in size; often referred to as a "logical block." Bluetooth - is a computing and telecommunications industry specification that describes how mobile phones, computers, and personal digital assistants (PDAs) can easily interconnect with each other and with home and business phones and computers using a short-range wireless connection. Using this technology, users of cellular phones, pagers, and personal digital assistants such as the PalmPilot will be able to buy a three-in-one phone that can double as a portable phone at home or in the office, get quickly synchronized with information in a desktop or notebook computer, initiate the sending or receiving of a fax, initiate a print-out, and, in general, have

all mobile and fixed computer devices totally coordinated. The technology requires that a low-cost transceiver chip be included in each device. Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) - A routing protocol used in inter-domain routing in large networks to maintain integrity of the network. It allows the routers to exchange only pre-specified information with pre-specified routers in other domains. Bridge - A data communications device that connects two or more network segments and forwards packets between them. It also amplifies the carrier signal, and accepts data packets, (perhaps buffering them during periods of network congestion) and forwards them. In videoconferencing vernacular, a bridge connects three or more conference sites so that they can simultaneously pass data, voice, or video. Videoconferencing bridges are often called MCU's - multipoint conferencing units. (See router). BRI - Basic Rate Interface. One of two ISDN subscriber "interfaces" in ISDN. 2 voice (B) channels at 64 kbps channels and 1 data signal (D) channel at 16 kbps. The B-channels are for voice, video, and data. The Dchannel is for signaling between telephone company switches and for carrying ISDN user-network messages. Broadband - A broad bandwidth communications channel capable of supporting high capacity ISDN services or other integrated voice, data and video applications. A transmission channel usually carrying a tremendous amount of information at transmission speeds of 45 Mbps (45,000,000 bits per second) or greater. A communications channel with a bandwidth sufficiently large to carry voice, data and video on a signal channel. Any voice communications channel having a bandwidth greater than a voice-grade channel. A way of transmitting large amounts of data, voice, and video that is greater than telephony networks. In ISDN, broadband channels support rates above the primary rate (1.544 Mbps or 2.048 Mbps). (See wideband and narrowband) Buffer - A temporary storage location for data information being sent or received. Usually located between two different devices that have different abilities or speeds for handling the data. The buffer acts like a reservoir, capturing the data and then letting it out at speeds the lower river can handle without, hopefully, flooding or overflowing the banks.

Burst Mode - A way of doing data transmission, usually faster than normal transmission mode, in which a continuous block is transferred between main memory and an input/output device without interruption until the transfer has been completed. Characteristically, burst mode is sustainable for only limited periods of time under special conditions. Bus - the main communication avenue in a computer; an electrical pathway along which signals are sent from one part of the computer to another. Business Television - Corporate communications tool involving video transmissions of information via videoconference. Common uses of business television are for meetings, product introductions and training. Byte - the fundamental data unit for personal computers, comprising 8 contiguous bits. C Card - a printed circuit board that adds some feature to a computer. Cartridge Drive - a storage device, like a hard drive, in which the medium is a cartridge that can be removed. CD-ROM - an acronym for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory. Chooser - A desk accessory used to select a printer, or other external device, or to log onto a network. Clipboard - A portion of memory where the PC temporarily stores information. Called a Copy Buffer in many PC applications because it is used to hold information which is to be moved, as in word processing where text is "cut" and then "pasted". Clock Rate (MHz) (GHz)- The instruction processing speed of a computer measured in millions of cycles per second (i.e., 200 MHz or 2.2 GHz ) . Command - the act of giving an instruction to your Mac either by menu choice or keystroke. Compiler - a program the converts programming code into a form that can be used by a computer. Compression - a technique that reduces the size of a saved file by elimination or encoding redundancies (i.e., JPEG, MPEG, LZW, etc.)

Control key - seldom used modifier key . Used when selecting multiple items for copy or deletion. Control panel - a program that allows you to change settings in a program or change the way a PC looks and/or behaves. CPU - the Central Processing Unit. The processing chip that is the "brains" of a computer. Crash - a system malfunction in which the computer stops working and has to be restarted. Cursor - The pointer, usually arrow or cross shaped, which is controlled by the mouse. Cable modem Type of broadband Internet connection sent through coaxial TV cables. The bandwidth of co-axial cable is far greater than that of standard telephone lines, allowing cable Internet access to be extremely fast. Other advantages include the fact that most home and businesses are already wired for cable television making it easy to set up. Cache - a large bank of random access memory used for temporary storage of information. CAD - computer-aided design; the use of a computer in industrial design applications such as architecture, engineering, and manufacturing. Call processing - The method by which telephone calls are identified and routed through the network. Usually refers to the processing of a call within a telephone switch. Camera presets - Allows pre-defined camera angles to be programmed into a videoconferencing system. Capacity - The information-carrying ability of a telecommunications system, as defined by its design (number of fibers, system length, and optoelectronic equipment) and its deployed equipment (amount of optoelectronics in the station) and measured in bits per second. Capacity is sold in discrete units, usually system interface levels such as DS-3s and STM-1s, that in the aggregate are the equivalent of total system capacity. Carrier - A third-party provider of communications services by wire, fiber or radio. Common Carrier: A private company offering facilities or services to the general public on a non-discriminatory basis and regulated as to market

entry, practices, and rates by various Federal and State authorities. Private Carrier: Services provided for internal use and free of most common carrier regulations to allow discrimination in service provision or pricing. Category 5 cable - Unshielded twisted pair with 100 ohm impedance and electrical characteristics supporting transmission at frequencies up to 100 MHz. Its specific standard designation is EIA/TIA-568. Cat 5 cable typically has three twists per inch of each twisted pair of 24 gauge copper wires within the cable. CCITT - Consultative Committee for international Telegraphy and Telephony (Now called the International Telecommunications Union's Telecommunications Standardization Sector or TSS.) The world's leading telecommunications standards organization responsible for establishing interoperability standards for communications systems. CDMA - Short for Code-Division Multiple Access, a digital cellular technology that uses spread-spectrum techniques. Unlike competing systems, such as GSM, that use TDMA, CDMA does not assign a specific frequency to each user. Instead, every channel uses the full available spectrum. Individual conversations are encoded with a pseudo-random digital sequence. CDMA consistently provides better capacity for voice and data communications than other commercial mobile technologies, allowing more subscribers to connect at any given time, and it is the common platform on which 3G technologies are built. Central Office (CO) - The local switching facility of a telephone company to which telephones are connected. A secure, self-contained telecommunications equipment building that houses servers, storage systems, switching equipment, emergency power systems, and related devices that are used to run telephone systems. CGI (Short for Common Gateway Interface), is the most common way for web servers to interact dynamically with users. Common uses include online feedback and online forms. CIF - Common Intermediate Format. An international standard for video display formats developed by TSS. The QCIF format, which employs half the CIF spatial resolution in both horizontal and vertical directions, is the mandatory H.261 format. QCIF is used for most desktop videoconferencing applications where head and shoulder pictures are sent from desk to desk. Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) An authentication method that can be used when connecting to an Internet

Service Provider. CHAP allows you to log in to your provider automatically, without the need for a terminal screen. Channel - The path along which a communications signal is transmitted. Channelization - The process of subdividing the bandwidth of a circuit into smaller increments called channels. Typically, each channel carries an individual transmission, e.g., a voice conversation, a data conversation, or a computer-to-computer session. This process is accomplished through a multiplexer, such as dense wavelength division multiplexers. Clustered servers - the concept of combining multiple host computers together through a private communication line, such as Ethernet backbone, to form a ring of host computers; this ring of host computers act as a single entity, capable of performing multiple complex instructions by distributing the workload across all members of the ring. Clustered storage - the concept of combining multiple storage servers together to form a redundant ring of storage devices; clustered storage systems typically perform multiple read and write requests through parallel access lines to the requesting computer. CODEC - COder-DECoder. In the videoconferencing world, a video codec converts analog video signals from a video camera to digital signals for transmission over digital circuits, and then converts the digital signals back to analog signals for display. Compression - Algorithm that minimizes the redundancy in the signal to be transmitted. Compression is a technique that reduces the quantity of bandwidth or bits required to encode a block of information so that it occupies less space on a transmission channel or storage device and a fundamental concept of video communications. Compressed video - When the vast amount of information in a normal TV transmission is squeezed into a fraction of its former bandwidth by a codec, the resulting compressed video can be transmitted more economically over a smaller carrier. Some information is sacrificed in the process, which may result in diminished picture and sound quality. An uncompressed NTSC signal requires about 90 Mbps of throughput, greatly exceeding the speed of all but the fastest and shortest of today's networks. Squeezing the video information can be accomplished by reducing the quality (sending fewer frames in a second or displaying the information in a smaller window) or by eliminating redundancy.

Commerce service provider (CSP) - a company that provides ecommerce solutions for retailers. Competitive local exchange carrier (CLEC) - a long distance carrier, cable company, or small startup local exchange carrier that competes for business in a local telephone market; many CLECs also offer Internet services. Controller - a unit or circuitry that manages the information flow between storage disks and the computer. Content Filtering - Web site content filtering is a program that uses a blacklist as well as custom admin created lists to block users from accessing inappropriate web sites. COTS - commercial off-the-shelf; commercially available products that can be purchased and integrated with little or no customization, thus facilitating customer infrastructure expansion and reducing costs. CTI - computer telephony integration; providing a link between telephone systems and computers to facilitate incoming and outgoing call handling and control; the physical link between a telephone and server. Cryptography - The process of concealing the contents of a message from all except those who know the key. Cryptography is used to protect e-mail messages, credit card information, and corporate data. As the Internet and other forms of electronic communication become more prevalent, electronic security is also becoming increasingly important. D Daisy chaining - the act of stringing devices together in a series (such as SCSI). Database - an electronic list of information that can be sorted and/or searched. Data - (the plural of datum) information processed by a computer. DBX Digital Branch Exchange Defragment - (also - optimize) to concatenate fragments of data into contiguous blocks in memory or on a hard drive. Placing relevant programming content closer together.

Desktop - 1. the finder. 2. the shaded or colored backdrop of the screen. Desktop file - an invisible file in which the Finder stores a database of information about files and icons. Dialog box - an on-screen message box that appears when the PC requires additional information before completing a command. Digitize - to convert linear, or analog, data into digital data which can be used by the computer. Disk - a spinning platter made of magnetic or optically etched material on which data can be stored. Disk drive - the machinery that writes the data from a disk and/or writes data to a disk. Disk window - the window that displays the contents or directory of a disk. Document - a file you create, as opposed to the application which created it. DOS - acronym for Disk Operating System - used in Older PCs. Download - to transfer data from one computer to another. (If you are on the receiving end, you are downloading. If you are on the sending end, you are uploading ). DPI - acronym for Dots Per Inch - a gauge of visual clarity on the printed page or on the computer screen. Drag - to move the mouse while its button is being depressed usually while clicked on an icon. Drag and Drop - a feature on the Pc which allows one to drag the icon for a document on top of the icon for an application, thereby launching the application and opening the document. Driver - a file on a computer which tells it how to communicate with an addon piece of equipment (like a printer). Dark Wavelength - Refers to a virtual channel in a fiber optic system utilizing DWDM. Each virtual channel is supported through a specific wavelength of light, with many channels riding over the same fiber. Once

the fiber system is deployed and the DWDM equipment is activated, some of the wavelengths may be activated immediately and others may be left dark for future needs. When the need arises, those dark wavelengths are lit up. DAT - digital audio tape; a digital magnetic tape format originally developed for audio recording and now used for computer backup tape; the latest DAT storage format is DDS (digital data storage). DBS - Direct broadcast videoconference. Refers to a service that uses videoconferences to broadcast multiple channels of television programming directly to home mounted small-dish antennas. D Channel - A channel that carries WAN synchronization information on a line using ISDN D-channel signaling. Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) - A technique which employs more than one light source and detector operating at different wavelengths and simultaneously transmits optical signals through the same fiber while message integrity of each signal is preserved. Delay - The time it takes for a signal to go from the sending station through the videoconference to the receiving station. This transmission delay for a single hop videoconference connection is very close to one-quarter of a second. Demodulator - A videoconference receiver circuit which extracts or "demodulates" the "wanted" signals from the received carrier. Desktop videoconferencing - Videoconferencing on a personal computer. Most appropriate for small groups or individuals. Many desktop videoconferencing systems support document sharing. (See Room-based videoconferencing). DHCP Short for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is a protocol used to dynamically assign IP addresses to client computers on a network. DHCP simplifies network administration because the software keeps track of IP addresses rather than requiring an administrator to manage the task. This means that a new computer can be added to a network without the hassle of manually assigning it a unique IP address. DHCP also supports a mix of static and dynamic IP addresses. Dial up Internet connection Dial up Internet connections requires a modem that dials an access number provided by your local ISP. The user must submit a username and password to authenticate. Dial up Internet is

slower than other forms, and is not dedicated, meaning it is not always on you must dial the service provider every time you want to connect to the Internet. Digital - A form of transmission that transforms analog signals such as speech into a series of electrical or optical pulses that represent the binary digits 0 and 1. The first step of a digital transmission is sampling the analog waveform and converting it into a stream of numerical data. This data is then converted into a form such as electronic pulses for a wired network, optical light waves for transmission over fiber optics or into radio waves for wireless transmissions. Describes a method of storing, processing and transmitting information through the use of distinct electronic or optic pulses representing the binary digits 0 and 1. In communications they will modify a carrier at a selected frequency. The precise signal transitions preclude any distortion such as graininess or snow in the case of video transmission, or static or other background distortion in the case of audio transmission. Digital Signal - A way of sending voice, video, or data that reconstructs the signals using binary codes (1s and 0s) for transmission through wire, fiber optic cable, videoconference, or over air techniques. Digital audio/video signals represented by discrete variations (in voltage, frequency, amplitude, location, etc.) can be transmitted faster and more accurately than analog signals. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) - A family of digital telecommunications protocols designed to allow high-speed data communication over the existing copper telephone lines between end-users and telephone companies. Digital Signal Processor (DSP) - A specialized digital microprocessor used to efficiently and rapidly perform calculations on digitized signals that were originally analog in form (e.g. voice). The big advantage of DSP lies in the programmability of the processor, allowing parameters to be easily changed. Digital Transmission - Method of storing, processing and transmitting information through the use of distinct electronic or optical pulses that represent the binary digits 0 and 1. Digital transmission and switching technologies employ a sequence of these pulses to represent information as opposed to a continuously variable analog signal. The precise digital numbers preclude any distortion such as graininess or snow in the case of video transmission, or static or other background distortion in the case of audio transmission.

Disk array (or array) - an arrangement of two or more hard disks, in RAID or daisy-chain configuration, organized to improve speed and provide protection of data against loss. Distributed computing environment - a set of middleware standards that defines the method of communication between clients and servers in a cross-platform computing environment; enables a client program to initiate a request that can be processed by a program written in a different computer language and housed on a different computer platform. Distance learning - The incorporation of video and audio technologies so that students can "attend" classes and training sessions that are being presented at a remote location. Distance learning systems are usually interactive and are becoming a highly-valuable tool in the delivery of training and education to widely-dispersed students or in instances where the instructor cannot travel to the student's site. DLT - digital linear tape; a serpentine technology first introduced by Digital Equipment Corporation and later developed by Quantum for tape backup/archive of networks and servers; DLT technology addresses midrange to high-end tape backup requirements. DNS Directory Name Service, is a TCP/IP based name resolution service. It is used to resolve a host name to its associated IP address. Document sharing - A feature supported by many videoconferencing systems that allows participants of a videoconference to view and edit the same computer document. Domain Name - A domain name is a unique name, which used to be up to fifteen characters in length, but can now be up to sixty-seven characters, assigned to identify the domain on the network. A domain name must be different than all other domain names, workgroup names, and computer names on the network. In the Internet, a part of a naming hierarchy consisting of a sequence of names separated by periods (dots) that corresponds to the network number in the IP address. In the symbolic name john@videoconferencingbridging.com, the domain name is videoconferencingbridging.com. Doped Fibers - Various impurities may be added to silica-based fiber optic strands as they are constructed to achieve specifically desired transmission or physical properties.

DSI - A digital transmission hierarchy supporting 1.544 million bits per second that may be used for "near-full motion" or compressed video, data or voice circuits (24, 48, or 96). DTE - Data Terminal Equipment. As defined in the RS-232 specification, equipment to which DCE (Data Communications Equipment) is connected, such as a videoconference terminal, LAN bridge or router. Dual 56 - Two switched 56 calls made between videoconferencing equipment to allow data transfer at 112 kbps. The videoconferencing equipment performs a two-channel inverse-multiplexing procedure to assure channel alignment. Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF) - "Touch-tone." A method used by the telephone system to communicate the keys pressed when dialing. Pressing a key on the phone's keypad generates two simultaneous tones, one for the row and one for the column. These are decoded by the exchange to determine which key was pressed. DVB - Digital Video Broadcast. The standard for direct broadcast television in Europe and the U.S. Based on MPEG2 Compression E Ethernet - a protocol for fast communication and file transfer across a network (LAN). Expansion slot - a connector inside the computer which allows one to plug in a printed circuit board that provides new or enhanced features. Extension - the ending of a file that uses a specific program to use it. As .html is for the internet .dll is for the pc or .exe is for a program. EIA - Electronic Industries Association; a trade association that establishes electrical and electronics-oriented standards. Earth Station - The term used to describe the combination or antenna, lownoise amplifier (LNA), down-converter, and receiver electronics used to receive a signal transmitted by a videoconference. Echo-cancellation - Process which attenuates or eliminates the acoustic echo effect on videoconference calls. Echo cancellors are largely replacing obsolete echo suppressers.

Echo Effect - A time-delayed electronic reflection of a speaker's voice. This is largely eliminated by modern digital echo cancellation. Echo suppression - To reduce annoying echoes in the audio portion of a videoconference, it silences all sound when on by temporarily deadening the communication link in one direction. Unfortunately, not only the echo is stopped but also the remote end's new speech, which results in clipping. EIRP - Effective Isotropic Radiated Power. This term describes the strength of the signal leaving the videoconference antenna or the transmitting earth station antenna. The transmit power value in units of dBW is expressed by the product of the transponder output power and the gain of the videoconference transmit antenna. E-1 - Similar to the North American T-1, E-1 is the European format for digital transmission. E-1 carries signals at 2.048 Mbps (32 channels at 64 Kbps), versus the T-1, which carries signals at 1.544 Mbps (24 channels at 64 Kbps). E-1 and T-1 lines may be interconnected for international use. EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution) is a digital mobile phone technology which acts as a bolt-on enhancement to 2G and 2.5G (a.k.a.GPRS) networks. This technology is working in TDMA and GSM networks. EDGE (also known as EGPRS) is a superset to GPRS and can function on any network with GPRS deployed on it (provided the carrier implements the necessary upgrades). EDGE was developed to enable the transmission of large amounts of data at a high speed, 384 kilobits per second. EMI - electromagnetic interference; what occurs when electromagnetic fields from one device interfere with the operation of some other device. Email (Electronic Mail.) Messages, usually text, sent from one computer to another via the Internet or between Mail Servers via direct modem connections. Sent messages are stored in electronic mailboxes until the recipient fetches them. To see if you have any e-mail, you may have to check your electronic mailbox periodically, although most systems today alert you when e-mail is received. Email Appliance - An email appliance is an easy to configure device that include hardware and software to provide email services to your network. Enterprise storage network (ESN) - an integrated suite of products and services designed to maximize heterogeneous connectivity and management of enterprise storage devices and servers; a dedicated, high-speed network

connected to the enterprise's storage systems, enabling files and data to be transferred between storage devices and client mainframes and servers. Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) - A purely optical (as opposed to electronic) device used to boost an optical signal. It contains several meters of glass fiber doped with erbium ions. When the erbium ions are excited to a high energy state, the doped fiber changes from a passive medium to an active amplifying medium. Ethernet - A local area data network used for connecting computers, printers, workstations, terminals, etc., within the same building. Ethernet operates over twisted wire and over coaxial cable at speeds up to 100 Mbps. ETRN (Abbreviation for Extended Turn) An ESMTP command with which a client computer, asks the mail server to deliver queued mail to the client via ESMTP. a local area network standard for hardware, communication, and cabling. F FM Frequency Modulation Fibre channel - as applied to data storage and network topology File - the generic word for an application, document, control panel or other computer data. Floppy - a 3.5 inch square rigid disk which holds data. (so named for the earlier 5.25 and 8 inch disks that were flexible). Folder - an electronic subdirectory which contains files. Font - a typeface that contains the characters of an alphabet or some other letterforms. Footprint - The surface area of a desk or table which is occupied by a piece of equipment such as the PC Base Unit. Fragmentation - The breaking up of a file into many separate locations in memory or on a disk. Freeze - a system error which causes the cursor to lock in place.

Fail over - the transfer of operation from a failed component (e.g., controller, disk drive) to a similar, redundant component to ensure uninterrupted data flow and operability. Fault Tolerance - The ability of a system to respond gracefully to an unexpected hardware or software failure. There are many levels of fault tolerance, the lowest being the ability to continue operation in the event of a power failure. FC-AL - Fibre Channel-Arbitrated Loop; a Fibre Channel implementation in which users are attached to a network via a one-way ring (loop) cabling scheme. FCIF/QCIF - Standards-based formats for communicating between videoconferencing systems from different vendors. QCIF is one quarter of the resolution of FCIF. FDX - Full-duplex. Two-way, simultaneous transmission of data; a communication protocol in which the communications channel can send and receive data at the same time. Compare to half-duplex, where information can only be sent in one direction at a time. Fractional T1 - Service offering data rates between 64 kbps (DS0 rate) and 1.536 Mbps (DS1 rate), in specified intervals of 64 kbps. It is typically provided by a carrier in lieu of a full T-1 connection and is a point-to-point arrangement. A specialized multiplexer is used by the customer to channelize the carrier's signals. Frame rate - Frequency in which video frames are displayed on a monitor, typically described in frames-per-second (fps). Higher frame rates improve the appearance of video motion. Frame store - A system capable of storing complete frames of video information in digital form. This system is used for television standards conversion, computer applications incorporating graphics, video walls and various video production and editing systems. Fibre Channel: a high-speed storage/networking interface that offers higher performance, greater capacity and cabling distance, increased system configuration flexibility and scalability, and simplified cabling. Fiber Kilometers - The number of route kilometers installed multiplied by the number of fiber strands along the path.

Fiber Optics - Technology based on thin filaments of glass or other transparent materials used as the medium for transmitting coded light pulses that represent data, image and sound. Fiber-optic technology offers extremely fast transmission speeds. Firewall A firewall is the first line of defence in protecting private information on the network. A firewall allows only specific kinds of messages from the Internet to flow in and out of the internal network. This protects the internal network from intruders or hackers who might try to use the Internet to break into those systems. Firewall Appliance - A firewall appliance is an easy to configure device that include hardware and software to provide firewall security to your network. Footprint: the amount of floor space that a piece of equipment (e.g., a rackmount enclosure) occupies. Form factor: the physical size and shape of a device; often used to describe the size of disk arrays in a rackmount enclosure. Frequency - The rate at which an electrical current alternates, usually measured in Hertz. Frequency equals the number of complete cycles of current occurring in one second. FTP (Abbreviation for File Transfer Protocol.) The most common protocol used to move files between two sites. FTP allows login to another Internet site for the purpose of retrieving and/or sending files. There are many Internet sites that have established publicly accessible repositories of material that can be obtained using FTP. Full Duplex - The simultaneous transmission of data in both directions, used when communicating between two computers. Full duplex is sometimes called "Echo On" by some communications programs. Simultaneous transmission and reception of information. Full duplex audio - 2-way audio simultaneously transmitted and received without any interference or "clipping." A common feature of room-based videoconferencing systems. Full-motion video - In the videoconferencing world, the term "full-motion video" is often used and misunderstood. Videoconferencing systems cannot provide 30 fps for all resolutions at all times nor is that rate always needed for a high-quality, satisfying video image. Picture quality must sometimes be sacrificed to achieve interactive visual communication economically.

Videoconferencing vendors often use "full-motion video" to refer to any system that isn't still-frame. Most videoconferencing systems today run 10 to 15 fps at 112 Kbps. Full motion video is equivalent to broadcast television video with a frame rate of 30 fps for NTSC signals or 25 fps for PAL signals. Images are sent in real time and motion is continuous. Also known as continuous-motion video. G Get info - a Finder File menu command that presents an information window for a selected file icon. Gig - a gigabyte = 1024 megabytes. 3G - is an ITU specification for the third generation (analog cellular was the first generation, digital PCS the second) of mobile communications technology. 3G promises increased bandwidth, up to 384 Kbps when a device is stationary or moving at pedestrian speed, 128 Kbps in a car, and 2 Mbps in fixed applications. 3G will work over wireless air interfaces such as GSM, TDMA, and CDMA. The new EDGE air interface has been developed specifically to meet the bandwidth needs of 3G. Gigabyte: approximately one billion bytes, 1,024 megabytes. Gateway A gateway is often associated with both a router, which directs the packets of data that arrive at the gateway, and a switch, which furnishes the path in and out of the gateway for a given packet. Gateway Gateways are points of entrance to and exit from a communications network. Viewed as a physical entity, a gateway is that node that translates between two otherwise incompatible networks or network segments. Gbps (Gigabits per second) - A data rate of 1 Gbps corresponds to 1,000 million bits per second. Global System for Mobile (GSM) - A digital European cellular standard, based on TDMA technology, specifically developed to provide system compatibility across country boundaries. This compatible network enables GSM cellular users to use a single cellular phone throughout Europe, most of Asia, and parts of North and South America and have every call billed to one

account. Countries have been rapidly building GSM networks, resulting in over 160 million fully working subscribers in over 125 countries. GPRS - (General Packet Radio Service) a radio technology for GSM networks that adds packet-switching protocols, shorter set-up time for ISP connections, and offer the possibility to charge by amount of data sent rather than connect time. A standard for wireless communications which runs at speeds up to 115 kilobits per second, compared with current GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) systems' 9.6 kilobits. GPRS, which supports a wide range of bandwidths, is an efficient use of limited bandwidth and is particularly suited for sending and receiving small bursts of data, such as e-mail and Web browsing, as well as large volumes of data. H Hard drive - a large capacity storage device made of multiple disks housed in a rigid case. Head crash - a hard disk crash caused by the heads coming in contact with the spinning disk(s). High Density Disk - a 1.4 MB floppy disk. Highlight - to select by clicking once on an icon or by highlighting text in a document. H.264 - also known as MPEG-4 AVC (Advanced Video Coding), is a video compression standard that offers significantly greater compression than its predecessors. The standard is expected to offer up to twice the compression of the current MPEG-4 ASP (Advanced Simple Profile), in addition to improvements in perceptual quality. The H.264 standard can provide DVDquality video at under 1 Mbps, and is considered promising for full-motion video over wireless, satellite, and ADSL Internet connections. HBA - host bus adapter; a hardware card that resides on the PC bus and provides an interface connection between a SCSI device (such as a hard drive) and the host PC. Half duplex - Alternating the transmission and reception of information between users. Sometimes also referred to as "Ping-Pong" operation. This is the basic mode of operation of most TDD and TDMA systems, where transmission and reception are separated in time.

H.320 / H.323 - Sets of widely-used CCITT video compression standards describing methods to allow videoconferencing systems from different manufacturers to interoperate. They include a number of individual recommendations for coding, framing, signaling and establishing connections. Three audio algorithms, G.721, G.722 and G.728, are also included in the standards. Half duplex audio - 2-way audio transmitted and received in turn (rather than simultaneously) so only one site can speak at a time. Contrast with full duplex audio. Handshake - Prior to a videoconferencing transmission, the codecs exchange predetermined electrical signals that allow them to interoperate by they seeking out a common algorithm. Hertz - Then unit of measuring frequency (one cycle per second). High Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) - HIPPI is used to network supercomputers, high-end workstations and peripherals using cross-bar type circuit switches. It provides for transfer rates of 800 Mbps over 32 twisted pair copper wires (single HIPPI) and 1,600 Mbps over 64 pairs (double HIPPI). Home page - the main page on a Web site that serves as the primary point of entry to related pages within the site and may have links to other sites as well. Host-attached storage - a storage system that is connected directly to the network server; also referred to as server-attached storage. Hot spare - a backup component (e.g., disk or controller) that is online and available should the primary component go down. Hot swappable - the ability to replace a component (e.g., disk drive, controller, fan, power source) while the system is on line, without having to power down; also referred to as hot-plug removable. Hostname The unique name by which a computer is known on a network, used to identify it. HSM - hierarchical storage management; a storage system in which new, frequently used data is stored on the fastest, most accessible (and generally more expensive) media (e.g., RAID) and older, less frequently used data is stored on slower (less expensive) media (e.g., tape).

HTML (Short for Hyper Text Mark-up Language), is a set of codes that are displayed over a web browser. It is guide for the browser with instructions on how the page is set-up, where and how text and graphics should be placed. HTTP (Short for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol), a protocol for exchanging files over the world wide web, including text, graphics, sound, video and other multimedia files. Hub - a device that splits one network cable into a set of separate cables, each connecting to a different computer; used in a local area network to create a small-scale network by connecting several computers together. I Icon - a graphic symbol for an application, file or folder. Initialize - to format a disk for use in the computer; creates a new directory and arranges the tracks for the recording of data. Installer - software used to install a program on your hard drive. Interrupt Button - a tool used by programmers to enter the debugging mode. The button is usually next to the reset button. ICT Information and Communications Technology The International Cultic Studies Association (ICSA) is since 2004 the new name of the American Family Foundation (AFF), a major anti-cult organization based in the United States. An organisation with the mission to continually improve commercial computer security through certification of firewalls, anti-virus products and web sites. ICSA also shares and disseminates information concerning information security IDS - (Short for Intrusion Detection System) - A system that works alongside the firewall to help eliminate the threat outside attackers gaining access to a network. The IDS will log, block and send an alert message to the administrator if suspicious or malicious traffic is detected. IDS Appliance - An ids appliance is an easy to configure device that include hardware and software to provide IDS protection to your network. IMAP (Short for Internet Message Access Protocol) a mail protocol that provides management of received messages on a remote server. The user

can review headers, create or delete folders and messages, and search contents remotely without having to download the mail. It includes more functions than the similar and popular POP mail protocol. Infrastructure - the physical equipment (computers, cases, racks, cabling, etc.) that comprises a computer system. Initiator - a SCSI device that requests another SCSI device (a target) to perform an operation; usually a host computer acts as an initiator and a peripheral device acts as a target. I/O - input/output; reception (read) or transmission (write) of computer signals; the entire connection path between the CPU bus and the disk drives. IOPS - I/Os per second; a measure of performance for a host-attached storage device or RAID controller. Indefeasible Right of Use (IRU) - A measure of currency in the undersea cable business. The owner of an IRU has the right to use the capacity for the time and bandwidth to which the IRU applies. Interface - a connection between hardware devices, applications, or different sections of a computer network. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) - The ITU is an intergovernmental agency of the United Nations within which the public and private sectors cooperate for the development of telecommunications. The ITU adopts international regulations governing the use of the radio spectrum and develops standards to facilitate the interconnection of telecommunications systems on a worldwide basis. It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. In 1996, the ITU comprised 185 Member States and 363 members (scientific and industrial companies, public and private operators, broadcasters, regional and international organizations active in three sectors: Radio communications, Standardization and Development). Internet The vast collection of interlaced networks that all use the TCP/IP protocol and that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60's and early 70's. Unlike online services, which are centrally controlled, the Internet is decentralized by design. Each Internet computer, called a host, is independent from all other hosts. A fabric of interconnected computer networks, originally known as the DARPA network (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) connecting

government and academic sites. It currently links about 50 million people worldwide who use it for everything from scientific research to simple e-mail. Internet Protocol (IP) Address - An Internet address that is a unique number consisting of four parts separated by dots, sometimes called a "dotted quad." For example, 198.204.112.1. Every Internet computer has an IP address and most computers also are assigned one or more domain names that are easier to remember than the dotted quad. Internet Gateway - A gateway for accessing the Internet, which is loosely defined as the complex of wide area networks (WANs) joining government, university, corporate and private computers (nodes) in a vast web of network interconnection. IP - Internet Protocol - IP Address. An address that uniquely identifies each host on a network or Internet. An IP address has a length of 32 bits, and is divided into four 8-bit parts, each separated by a period, as in 149.122.3.30. This kind of notation is called dotted decimal notation. Each part can consist of a number between 1 and 255. In addition to an IP address, you can use a symbolic (domain) name provided by Domain Name Services (DNS) to designate an Internet address. ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network. An international standard for end-to-end digital transmission of voice, data, and signaling. In a videoconference it is a system that provides simultaneous voice, video, and text transmission between individual desktop videoconferencing systems and group (room) videoconferencing systems. Internet Protocols (IP) telephony - The two-way transmission of audio over a packet-switched IP network. When used in a private intranet or WAN, it is generally known as "voice over IP," or "VoIP." When the transport is the public Internet or the Internet backbone from a major carrier, it is generally called "Internet telephony." However, the terms IP telephony, Internet telephony and VoIP are often used interchangeably. Interoperability - the ability of one computer system to control another, even though the two systems are made by different manufacturers. Intranet - a computer network, based on Internet technology, that is designed to meet the internal needs for sharing information within a single organization or company.

IP address Every machine that is on a network (a local network, or the network of the Internet) has a unique IP number [four sets of numbers divided by period with up to three numbers in each set. (I.e. 64.139.27.165)] - If a machine does not have an IP address it cannot be on a network. Most machines also have one or more Domain Names that are easier for people to remember. I.e. www.greencomputer.com. Within an isolated network, such as an office, you can assign IP addresses at random as long as each one is unique. However, connecting a private network to the Internet requires using registered IP addresses (called Internet addresses) to avoid duplicates. ISP - Internet Service Provider. An institution that provides access to the Internet. Examples of ISP's include AOL, Earthlink, @home J Jumpers - small connectors that bridge a connection to activate desired lead. JBOD - just a bunch of disks; a disk array without a controller. K K - short for kilobyte. Keyboard Shortcut - a combination of keystrokes that performs some function otherwise found in a pull down menu. Kilobyte - 1024 bytes. Kbps - Kilobits per second. Refers to transmission speed of 1,000 bits per second. Kernel - the core of an operating system such as Windows 98, Windows NT, Mac OS or Unix; provides basic services for the other parts of the operating system, making it possible for it to run several programs at once (multitasking), read and write files and connect to networks and peripherals. L Landscape - in printing from a computer, to print sideways on the page. Launch - start an application.

Leased Lines - A circuit rented for exclusive use twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week from a telephone company. The connection exists between two predetermined points and cannot be switched to other locations. Lambda - The 11th letter of the Greek alphabet. Lambda is used as the symbol for wavelength in lightwave systems. Fiber optic systems use multiple wavelengths of light through dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM). Each range of wavelength appears in a "window" roughly corresponding to a color in the visible light spectrum. LAN A local area network is a computer network limited to the immediate area, usually the same building or floor of a building. LANs are capable of transmitting data at very fast rates, much faster than the data that is transmitted to you over the Internet; there is no limit on the number of computers that can be attached to a single LAN. Local Area Network. A network that interconnects devices over a geographically small area, typically in one building or a part of a building. The most popular LAN type is Ethernet. LANs allow the sharing of resources and the exchange of both video and data. LAN/WAN Connectivity - This is the practical set of tools, from OS layer protocols to support services, that make a remote access device an effective link between LANs and WANs. An effective remote access server must include a host of communications and translation protocols to fulfill this function. Latency - The amount of time it takes a packet to travel from source to destination. Together, latency and bandwidth define the speed and capacity of a network. The minimum time required to move data from one point to another. Once latency is present, it cannot be optimized. The cause has to be removed (as in using an internal device rather than an external one to remove the latency caused by the serial port). To maximize throughput, use the highest bandwidth available. Legacy - a computer, system, or software that was created for a specific purpose but is now outdated; anything left over from a previous version of the hardware or software. Local area network - a network of computers within a limited area (e.g., a company or organization).

Local Loop - The physical facility, leased from a local exchange carrier (LEC), which provides connectivity between the customer's location and the carrier's point of presence. A communications link (usually wire), between a telephone subscriber's location and the local telephone Central Office. Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) - A low noise, low power, low amplitude method for high-speed (gigabits per second) data transmission over copper wire. LTO: linear tape open; a new standard tape format developed by HP, IBM, and Seagate; expected availability in 2000. LUN: logical unit number; an addressing scheme used to define SCSI devices on a single SCSI bus. M Measurements (summary) *a bit = one binary digit (1 or 0) *"bit" is derived from the contraction b'it (binary digit) -> 8 bits = one byte *1024 bytes = one kilobyte *K = kilobyte *Kb = kilobit *MB = megabyte *Mb = megabit *MB/s = megabytes per second *Mb/s = megabits per second *bps = bits per second i.e., 155 Mb/s = 19.38 MB/s MB - short for megabyte. Megabyte - 1024 kilobytes. Memory - the temporary holding area where data is stored while it is being used or changed; the amount of RAM a computer has installed. Menu - a list of program commands listed by topic. Menu Bar - the horizontal bar across the top of the Pcs screen that lists the menus. Multi tasking - running more than one application in memory at the same time.

MAC - Media Access Control. A system of rules used to move data from one physical medium to another. MAC (A, B, C, D2) Margin - The amount of signal in dB by which a satellite videoconference system exceeds the minimum levels required for operation. MAX - Media Access Exchange. It supports up to 32 host ports or direct Ethernet connections and up to 8 Mbps to the network. It supports multiple applications, including remote LAN access, leased line backup and individual videoconferencing units, as well as connecting videoconference MCUs to the digital dial-up network. MBONE - Multicast / Multimedia Backbone. A collection of Internet routers that support IP multi-casting. The MBONE is used as a "broadcast" channel on which various public and private audio and video programs are sent. Mean Opinion Score (MOS) - This is a formally tested subjective measure of speech quality. The scale goes as high as 5.0, which is the rating for uncompressed speech (8 Ksamples/sec with 16 buts per sample). Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) - A proposed control and signal standard for the conversion of audio signals carried on telephone circuits to data packets carried over the Internet or other packet networks. Unlike regular phones, IP phones and devices are not fixed to a specific switch, so they must contain processors that enable them to function independently from a central switching location. MGCP eliminates the need for complex, processor-intense IP telephony devices, thus simplifying and lowering the cost of these terminals. Megabits per second (Mbps) - One Mbps corresponds to a data rate of 1,000,000 bits per second. Approximately one million bytes, 1,024 kilobytes Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS) - This is a measure of the per-channel processor utilization. Mirroring - a method of storage in which data from one disk is duplicated on another disk so that both drives contain the same information, thus providing data redundancy. Mission critical - any computer process that cannot fail during normal business hours; some computer processes (e.g., telephone systems) must run all day long and require 100 percent uptime.

Modulation - The process of manipulating the frequency or amplitude of a carrier in relation to an incoming video, voice or data signal. Modulator - A device, which modulates a carrier. Modulators are found as components in broadcasting transmitters and in videoconference transponders. MP3 - A standard technology and format for compressing a sound sequence into a very small file (about one-twelfth the size of the original file) while preserving the original level of sound quality when it is played. MP3 is the most popular Internet-Audio format and is revolutionizing the music distribution industry by allowing users to download music over the Internet. MSBF - mean swaps between failure; a statistical calculation used to predict the average usefulness of a robotic device (e.g., a tape library) with any interruption of service. MTBF: mean time between failure; a statistical calculation used to predict the average usefulness of a device without any interruption of service. MTTR - mean time to repair; the average amount of time required to resolve most hardware or software problems with a given device. Multiplatform - the ability of a product or network to support a variety of computer platforms (e.g. IBM, Sun, Macintosh); also referred to as crossplatform. Multicasting - The ability of one network node to send identical data to a number of end servers on the multicast backbone. For large amounts of data, IP multicasting is more efficient than normal Internet transmissions because the server can broadcast a message to multiple recipients simultaneously. Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol (MP) - MP allows multiple physical connections between two points to be combined into a single logical connection called a bundle. MP supports dynamic bandwidth allocation, which means that physical links can be added or removed from the bundle as needed. Multimedia - The electronic conversation between two or more people or groups of people in different places using two or more types of digitally integrated communication for voice, sound, text, data, graphics, video, image or presence at the same time. Applications include conferencing, presentations, training, referencing, games, etc.

Multipoint - Communication configuration in which several terminals or stations are connected. Compare to point-to-point, where communication is between two stations only. Pertaining or referring to a communications line to which three or more stations are connected. It implies that the line physically extends from one station to another until all are connected. MCU - Multipoint Control Unit. Videoconferencing equipment that allows more than three individual videoconference units to connect together to form a multiparty videoconference session. The MCU uses fast switching techniques to patch the presenters or speaker's input to the output ports representing the other participants. Multipoint Videoconference - Videoconference with more than two sites. The sites must connect via a video bridge. (Compare with point-to-point videoconference.) Multiplexed analog component - Color video transmission system. Subtypes refer to the various methods used to transmit audio and data signals. Multiplexing - An electronic or optical process that combines two or more lower bandwidth transmissions onto one higher bandwidth signal by splitting the total available bandwidth into narrower bands (frequency division) or by allotting a common channel to several transmitting sources one at a time in sequence (time division). Techniques that allow a number of simultaneous transmissions over a single circuit. MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) - MPLS is a widely supported method of speeding up data communication over combined IP/ATM networks. This improves the speed of packet processing and enhances performance of the network. MySQL - (pronounced "my ess cue el") is an open source relational database management system (RDBMS) that uses Structured Query Language (SQL), the most popular language for adding, accessing, and processing data in a database. Because it is open source, anyone can download MySQL and tailor it to their needs in accordance with the general public license. MySQL is noted mainly for its speed, reliability, and flexibility. A freely available third-party database engine designed to provide fast access to stored data. Data can be stored, updated and deleted using languages such as PHP. The data can be retrieved from the database to allow the generation of dynamic webpages. Example: A website has a "look

up a member" text area. The viewer can search by last name, and find a single name or list of names out of all of the names stored in the database. N Nanosecond - one billionth of a second. NuBus - expansion slots on the Mac which accept intelligent, selfconfiguring boards. NuBus is a different bus architecture than the newer PCI bus and the boards are not interchangeable. Narrowband - A low-capacity communications circuit/path. It usually implies a speed of 56Kbps or less. (Contrast with wideband and broadband) Network - A group of stations (computers, telephones, or other devices) connected by communications facilities for exchanging information. Connection can be permanent, via cable, or temporary, through telephone or other communications links. The transmission medium can be physical (i.e. fiber optic cable) or wireless (i.e. satellite). Network-attached storage (NAS) - a disk array storage system that is attached directly to a network rather than to the network server (i.e., host attached); functions as a server in a client/server relationship, has a processor, an operating system or micro-kernel, and processes file I/O protocols such as SMB and NFS. NIC Network Interface Card - An adapter card that is installed in the controller that allows it to connect to a network (for example, Ethernet, Token Ring, Twinaxial). The card contains both the hardware to accommodate the cables and the software to use the network's protocols. The NIC is also called a network adapter card. A type of PC adapter card that works without wires (Wi-Fi) or attaches to a network cable to provide twoway communication between the computer and network devices such as a hub or switch. Network service provider (NSP) - a company that provides the national or international packet-switching networks that carry Internet traffic; also called a backbone operator. Node (or network node) - any device that is directly connected to the network, usually through Ethernet cable; nodes include file servers and shared peripherals.

NT (Microsoft Windows NT) - an operating system developed by Microsoft for high-performance processors and networked systems. NT1 - Network Terminator Type 1. The NT-1 is physically connected between the ISDN board of your videoconferencing system and your ISDN phone line and converts the two-wire line coming from your telephone company into a 4-wire line. And provides network maintenance functions such line maintenance access, timing, and echo cancellation. NT1s may be built into other pieces of equipment or stand alone. NTSC - National Television Standards Committee. United States' standard for scanning television signals that has been adopted by numerous other countries. Frames are displayed at 30 frames per second. (Other standards: PAL (Europe) and SECAM (France/former USSR)) O Operating system - the system software that controls the computer. ( aka. Windows, Red Hat, Linux, Dos, OS2 and Solaris among others. ) Optical disk - a high-capacity storage medium that is read by a laser light. OEM - original equipment manufacturer; a company that manufactures a given piece of hardware (unlike a value-added reseller, which changes and repackages the hardware). Operating system - the master control program (e.g., Windows) that manages a computer's internal functions and provides a means of control to the computer's operations and file system. Open systems network - a network comprised of equipment that conforms to industry standards of interoperability between different operating systems (e.g., Unix, Windows NT). Optical Fiber - Thin filaments of glass through which light beams are transmitted. Enormous capacity, low-cost, low-power consumption, small space, lightweight, insensitivity to electromagnetic interference characterize this transport media. Optimips - Adaptive Digital's method for reducing CPU utilization. P PABX - Private Branch Exchange

Palette - a small floating window that contains tools used in a given application. Partition - a subdivision of a hard drives surface that is defined and used as a separate drive. Paste - to insert text, or other material, from the clipboard or copy buffer. PC - acronym for personal computer, commonly used to refer to an IBM or IBM clone computer which uses DOS. PCI - acronym for Peripheral Component Interchange - the newer, faster bus architecture. Peripheral - an add-on component to your computer. Point - (1/72") 12 points = one pica in printing. Pop-up menu - any menu that does not appear at the top of the screen in the menu bar. (may pop up or down) Pop-up Ad - an annoying ad that pops up in its own window simply to make people angry. Port - a connection socket, or jack aka. USB port. Power PC - a processing chip designed by Apple, IBM and Motorola (RISC based). Power Mac - a family of Macs built around the PowerPC chip. Print spooler - a program that stores documents to be printed on the hard drive, thereby freeing the memory up and allowing other functions to be performed while printing goes on in the background. Packets - A block of information sometimes called a cell, frame, data unit, service unit, or signaling unit. Although each of these elements do have unique attributes, in essence, all are packets. PAL - Phase Alternative Line System. The European TV standard for scanning television signals. Frames are displayed at 25 frames per second. Used in most European countries. (Other standards: NTSC (USA) and Secam (France/Former USSR))

Parity data - a block of information mathematically created from several blocks of user data to allow recovery of user data contained on a drive that has failed in an array; used in RAID levels 3 and 5. PCI - personal computer interconnect; an industry-standard bus used in servers, workstations and PCs. Petabyte - 1,024 terabytes. Platform - a hardware standard, such as IBM, Sun or Macintosh, etc PPP - Point-to-Point Protocol. Provides a standard means of encapsulating data packets sent over a single-channel WAN link. It is the standard WAN encapsulation protocol for the interoperability of bridges and routers. PPP is also supported in workstations, allowing direct dial-up access from a personal computer to a corporate LAN or Internet Service Provider. Using PPP ensures basic compatibility with non-Ascend devices. Both the dialing side and the answering side of the link must support PPP. Packet - Generic term for a bundle of data, organized in a specific way for transmission. A packet consists of the data to be transmitted and certain control information, including the destination address. Packet Switching - A process where messages are broken into finite-sized packets that are always accepted by the network. The message packets are sent across different circuit paths. The packets are reassembled into the original message at the end of the circuit. Perl (Short for Practical Extraction and Report Language), is a programming language specifically designed for processing text, and because of this trait is one of the most popular languages for writing CGI scripts. PHP (Short for Hypertext Pre-processor) is a server-side, HTML embedded scripting language used to create dynamic Web content. PHP scripts can be embedded in HTML code and use similar syntax to the Perl and C programming languages. PHP is a server-side, cross-platform, HTML embedded scripting language that lets you create dynamic web pages. PHPenabled web pages are treated just like regular HTML pages and you can create and edit them the same way you normally c reate regular HTML pages. Pipelining In networking, pipelining is a technique used at the transport layer or data

link layer in a layered network architecture that allows for the transmission of multiple frames without waiting to see if they are acknowledged on an individuals basis. Point of Presence (POP) - The physical location within a LATA where an interexchange carrier's circuits interconnect with the local lines of telephone companies in that LATA. Point-to-point videoconference - Videoconference between two sites. (See Multipoint videoconference.) POP - Point of Presence. This is a point-of-presence of an Internet service provider, used to facilitate remote users' access to the range of applications and IP addresses in the internetwork. (Short for Post Office Protocol) it is the protocol used by most email clients to retrieve email. Polling - Making continuous requests for data from another device. For example, modems that support polling can call another system and request data. PRI - Primary Rate Interface. An ISDN subscriber line, consisting of twentythree 64 kbps B channels in North America (thirty 64 kbps channels elsewhere) and one 64 kbps D channel, used for signaling purposes. Proprietary - privately developed and owned technology. Protocols - Computer rules that provide uniform specifications so that computer hardware and operating systems can communicate. A standard that specifies the format of data and rules to be followed in data communication and network environments. Promiscuous Mode - A Bridging parameter mode that determines that the Ethernet controller in an Ascend unit accepts all packets and passes them up the protocol stack for a higher-level decision on whether to route, bridge, or reject them. This mode is appropriate if you are using an Ascend unit as a bridge. Proprietary compression algorithm - A vendor-specific algorithm for compression of a video signal. A videoconferencing system using a proprietary algorithm can only communicate with a remote site using the same algorithm. Many vendors also adhere to standard compression algorithms to facilitate communication across platforms. (i.e .H.320)

Proxy Sever Proxy servers have two main functions, one is to improve performance, and the second is to filter requests. Proxy servers can dramatically improve network performance by storing requested information in memory (caching), so the next time the information is requested it comes from memory instead of being retrieved from the source. The server can also be used to filters requests. Public room - Videoconferencing service offered to the public on a fee-forusage basis. Px64 - Common reference to the CCITT standards (H.261 et. al.) which describe methods to allow for videoconferencing system interoperability. Q QuickTime - the Apple system extension that gives one the ability to compress, edit and play animation, movies and sound on the Mac. QoS - Quality of Service. Interactive video conferencing requires a high QoS. QOS is important as it determines the quality of your video call. Low quality of service results in latency and a jerky picture with poor and inconsistent audio quality. QPSK - Quadrature Phase Shift Keying. videoconference signal. R RAM - acronym for Random-Access Memory. Reset switch - a switch on the Mac that restarts the computer in the event of a crash or freeze. Resize box - the small square at the lower right corner of a window which, when dragged, resizes the window. RISC - acronym for Reduced Instruction Set Computing; the smaller set of commands used by the PowerPC and Power Mac. ROM - acronym for Read Only Memory; memory that can only be read from and not written to. Root directory - the main hard drive window. System of modulating a

RAID1 (Redundant Array of Independent Disks or disk mirroring) A technique in which data is simultaneously written to two hard drive for redundancy. If one of the drives fails the other will continue to function keeping the network operational. There are a number of different RAID levels. The three most commonly used are 0, 1, and 5: Level 0: striping without parity (spreading out blocks of each file across multiple disks). Level 1: disk mirroring or duplexing. Level 2: bit-level striping with parity Level 3: byte-level striping with dedicated parity. Same as Level 0, but also reserves one dedicated disk for error correction data. It provides good performance and some level of fault tolerance. Level 4: block-level striping with dedicated parity Level 5: block-level striping with distributed parity Level 6: block-level striping with two sets of distributed parity for extra fault tolerance Level 7: Asynchronous, cached striping with dedicated parity

Rackmount - the cabinet that houses a server/storage workstation (also referred to as a server rack); to mount equipment into a cabinet. Random Access Memory (RAM) - The primary memory in a computer. Memory that can be overwritten with new information. the main memory of a computer system used for storing programs and data. RAM provides temporary read/write storage while hard disks offer semi-permanent storage. Also see Virtual Memory. Rate - The channel bandwidth in kilobits per second required to pass the compressed speech data. Real-Time - The processing of information that returns a result so rapidly that the interaction appears to be instantaneous. Videoconferencing is an example of a real-time application. This kind of real-time information not only needs to be processed almost instantaneously, but it needs to arrive in the exact order it's sent. A delay between parts of a word, or the transmission of video frames out of sequence, makes the communication unintelligible. Receiver (Rx) - An electronic device which enables a particular videoconference signal to be separated from all others being received by an

earth station, and converts the signal format into a format for video, voice or data. Remote access Logging on to a local network from a remote location. Forms of remote access include VPN, Telnet and SSH. Remote access is useful for remotely administering a network, accessing network function when away from the office or for network diagnostic. The only difference a user will notice when attached to the network remotely is that the speed will be slower than if he/she were physically connected to the LAN. Repeater - 1. Equipment that receives a low-power signal, possibly converting it from light to electrical form, amplifying it or retiming and reconstructing it for transmission. It may need to be reconverted to light for retransmission. 2. An optoelectrical device used at each end and occasionally intermediate points of exceptionally long fiber optic span. Optical input is converted to electrical form to restore a clean signal, which drives lasers that fully restores the optical signal at the original signal strength. Requests for Comments (RFCs) - Internet standards that have developed within the Internet community since 1969. They have grown to become a large series of numbered Internet informational documents and standards widely followed by commercial software and freeware in the Internet and Unix communities. Few RFCs are standards but all Internet standards are recorded in RFCs. Perhaps the single most influential RFC has been RFC 822, the Internet electronic-mail format standard. RFCs are unusual in that they are floated by technical experts acting on their own initiative and reviewed by the Internet at large, rather than formally promulgated through an institution such as ANSI (American National Standards Institute). For this reason, they remain known as RFCs even after they have been adopted as standards. RISC - reduced instruction set computer; a computer processing architecture that requires fewer instructions to run applications, thus increasing processing speed. RFS (Ready for Service) - The data of provisional acceptance or commercial service of a cable system. Room (Group) based videoconferencing - Videoconferencing using a sophisticated system. Appropriate for large groups (See Desktop videoconferencing). Router - A device or setup that finds the best route between any two networks, even if there are several networks to traverse. Like bridges,

remote sites can be connected using routers over dedicated or switched lines to create WANs. A network device that connects two similar networks having the same network protocol. It also chooses the best path between two networks when there are multiple paths. RS-232-C - A set of EIA standards specifying various electrical and mechanical characteristics for interfaces between computers, terminals, and modems. The standard applies to both synchronous and asynchronous binary data transmission at rates below 64 kbps. RS-449 - An EIA standard for a 37-pin data communications connector, usually used with RS-422 or RS-423 electrical specifications. S Save - to write a file onto a disk. Save As - (a File menu item) to save a previously saved file in a new location and/or with a new name. Scroll - to shift the contents of a window to bring hidden items into view. Scroll Bar - a bar at the bottom or right side of a window that contains the scroll box and allows scrolling. Scroll Box - the box in a scroll bar that is used to navigate through a window. SCSI - acronym for Small Computer System Interface. SCSI address - a number between zero and seven that must be unique to each device in a SCSI chain. Fast and Wide SCSI devices will allow up to 15 SCSI Ids (hexadecimal); however, the length restriction (3 meters) is such that it is virtually impossible to link 15 devices together. SCSI port - a 25 - 68 pin connector on the back of a PC (native SCSI port); used to connect SCSI devices to the CPU. SCSI terminator - a device placed at the end of a SCSI chain to complete the circuit. (some SCSI devices are self-terminating, or have active termination and do not require this plug).

Serial port - a port that allows data to be transmitted in a series (one after the other), such as the printer and modem ports on a PC. Server - a central computer dedicated to sending and receiving data from other computers (on a network). Shortcut an icon created to send a run command to a program or action. Shut Down - the command from the Special menu that shuts down the PC safely. Software - files on disk that contain instructions for a computer. Spreadsheet - a program designed to look like an electronic ledger. Start Up Disk - the disk containing system software and is designated to be used to start the computer. Surge Suppressor - a power strip that has circuits designed to reduce the effects of surge in electrical power. (not the same as a UPS) System file - a file in the System folder that allows your PC to start and run. System folder - an all-important folder that contains at least the System file and the Finder. 32 bit addressing - a feature that allows the PC to recognize and use more than 8MB of memory. SAN - Storage Area Network; a network infrastructure of shared multi-host storage, linking all storage devices as well as interconnecting remote sites. Serial ATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment or SATA) - SATA is a new standard for connecting hard drives into computer systems. As its name implies, SATA is based on serial signaling technology, unlike current IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) hard drives that use parallel signaling. SATA has several practical advantages over the parallel signaling (also called Parallel ATA or PATA) that has been used in hard drives since the 1980s. SATA cables are more flexible, thinner, and less massive than the ribbon cables required for conventional PATA hard drives. SATA cables can be considerably longer than PATA ribbon cables, allowing the designer more latitude in the physical layout of a system. Because there are fewer

conductors (only 7 in SATA as compared with 40 in PATA), crosstalk and electromagnetic interference (EMI) are less likely to be troublesome. The signal voltage is much lower as well (250 mV for SATA as compared with 5 V for PATA). Scalable - the ability of a product or network to accommodate growth. SCSI - small computer system interface; an interface that serves as an expansion bus that can be used to connect hard disk drives, tape drives, and other hardware components. SDSAF - Switched Digital Services Applications Forum. A consortium of equipment vendors, service vendors, and users, with the goal of advancing the state of switched digital services. SDSL Short for symmetric digital subscriber line, a new technology that allows more data to be sent over existing copper telephone lines. It supports data rates up to 3 Mbps. SDSL works by sending digital pulses in the highfrequency area of telephone wires. Secam - A color television system developed by the French and used in the former USSR. Secam operates with 625 lines per picture frame and 50 cycles per second. It is incompatible with the European PAL system or the U.S. NTSC system. Serial Host - A device, such as a videoconferencing codec, that is connected to a serial host port communicating over a point-to-point link. To a serial host, the MAX appears to be a cable or DCE (Data Communications Equipment). Serial Host Port - The V.35, RS-499, or X.21 port on the MAX. Serial Host Port Module - A module on the MAX that connects to a serial host through its serial host port. Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) - An Internet protocol which is used to run IP over serial lines such as telephone circuits. It allows a packet to traverse multiple networks on the way to its final destination. Server - a computer that stores application and data files for all workstations on a network; also referred to as a file server. Server Appliance - A server appliance is easy to administer, single or multi-function devices that is less expensive than a traditional server and

can still handle all the tasks required by businesses today. Server appliances allow businesses to set up a full array of network and Internet features from firewall protection to web hosting. Simplex (Sx) - Operating a channel in one direction only with no ability to operate in the other direction. For example, one side of a telephone conversation is all that could be carried by a simplex line. Speech encoding - Utilizing signal processing techniques to convert an analog voice waveform into a digital bit-stream. Then digital bit-stream can then be transmitted over communications or data networks. Spindle - mechanism inside a hard disk drive that moves the heads into place; the axle on which a disk turns. SSH encryption Secure Shell is a program developed by SSH Security Communication Ltd. It is used to remotely login to a network computer. It uses strong encryption, and even the login is encrypted making it even more difficult for hackers to get into the network. SSA - serial storage architecture; a high-speed method of connecting disk, tape, and CD-ROM drives, printers, scanners, and other devices to a computer. Standard compression algorithm - An algorithm convention for compression of a video signal. Adherence to standards allows communication among a wide variety of videoconferencing systems, though not with the same clarity as two similar STM-1 - The largest standard circuit unit of capacity, which consists of 155,500 Kbps (equal to 155 Mbps). Thus, each Gbps contains enough capacity for 6.4 STM-1 circuits. While capacity is sold to the largest telecommunications companies in minimum investment units equal to one STM-1 unit, most telecommunications companies buy smaller units at a price higher than the equivalent STM-1 price. systems using a proprietary algorithm. H.320 /H.323 are the most widely accepted standards in use today. Striping - a method of storage in which a unit of data is distributed and stored across several hard disks, which improves access speed but does not provide redundancy.

Sustained mode - the measured transfer rate of a given device during normal operation. SVC - Switched Virtual Circuit. A path over a packet-switched network that appears to be a dedicated circuit, but in fact the connection only stays up as long as needed, and then ends. Switch - a network traffic monitoring device that controls the flow of traffic between multiple network nodes. Switched 56 - A dial-up network-based service providing a data channel operating at a rate of 56 kbps. Also a type of network access line, used to provide access to switched 56 network services. Synchronization - In serial data transmission, a method of ensuring that the receiving end can recognize characters in the order in which the transmitting end sent them, and can know where one character ends and the next begins. Without synchronization, the receiving end would perceive data simply as a series of binary digits with no relation to one another. Synchronous communication relies on a clocking mechanism to synchronize the signals between the sending and receiving machines. (See Asynchronous Transmission) Synchronous Transfer Mode (STM) - New term for traditional TDM switching to distinguish it from ATM. Systems integrator - an individual or company that combines various components and programs into a functioning system, customized for a particular customer's needs. T TERABYTE - 1000 Gigabytes Title Bar - the horizontal bar at the top of a window which has the name of the file or folder it represents. Target - a SCSI device that performs an operation requested by an initiator. TCQ - tag command queuing; a feature introduced in the SCSI-2 specification that permits each initiator to issue commands accompanied by instructions for how the target should handle the command; the initiator can either request the command to be executed at the first available

opportunity, in the order in which the command was received, or at a time deemed appropriate by the target. T1 - In North America, T1 service delivers 1.544 Mbps, whereas ISDN service delivers 128 kbps. The data travels over the line at the same speed, but for T1 lines, the capacity is twelve times that of ISDN. Typically channelized into 24 DS0s, each capable of carrying a single voice conversation or data stream. The European T1 or E1 transmission rate is 2.048 million bits per second. A dedicated phone connection supporting data rates of 1.544Mbits per second. A T-1 line actually consists of 24 individual channels, each of which supports 64Kbits per second. Each 64Kbit/second channel can be configured to carry voice or data traffic. Most telephone companies allow you to buy just some of these individual channels, known as fractional T-1 access. T1 PRI line - A T1 line that uses 23 B channels for user data, and one 64 kbps D channel for ISDN D-channel signaling. This type of PRI line is a standard in North America, Japan, and Korea. T3 - DS-3 - In North America, a digital channel which communicates at 45 Mbps, or 28 T1 lines. TDMA - Time division multiple access. Refers to a form of multiple accesses where a single carrier is shared by many users. A technology for delivering digital wireless service using time-division multiplexing (TDM). TDMA works by dividing a radio frequency into time slots and then allocating slots to multiple calls. In this way, a single frequency can support multiple, simultaneous data channels. TDMA is used by the GSM digital cellular system. Telco - abbreviation for "telecommunications company." Telecommuter - A work-at-home computer user who connects to the corporate LAN backbone using remote access technologies. Telnet Telnet is a user command using TCP/IP protocols to access a computer remotely. To have access to that computer, you must have permission, meaning you must authenticate to the system with a valid username and password. When you are connected to the network using telnet, you can enter commands and they will be executed as if the were being entered directly onto the server console. Terabyte - approximately one trillion bytes, 1,024 gigabytes.

Time Division Multiplex (TDM) - A technique for transmitting a number of separate data, voice and/or video signals simultaneously over one communications medium by quickly interleaving a piece of each signal one after another. Third Generation (3G) - Usually used in reference to the next generation digital mobile network. Throughput - measures the number of service requests on the I/O channel per unit of time. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) - A method of digital wireless transmission that allows a large number of users to share access (in a time ordered sequence) to a single radio frequency channel without interference by assigning unique time slots to each user within the channel. Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) - A means of creating multiple circuits on a single transmission channel by rapidly connecting terminals one at a time in a recurring time ordered sequence. Topology - geometric arrangement of nodes and cable links in a local area network; may be either centralized and decentralized. Transfer rate - the number of megabytes of data that can be transferred from the read/write heads to the disk controller in one second. Turnkey - a product or system that can be plugged in, turned on, and operated with little or no additional configuring. U UHF Ultra High Frequency (400 480 MHz) Unzip To uncompress. Some files are zipped to save space on the hard disk. Upload - to send a file from one computer to another through a network. Uninterruptible Power Source (UPS)- a constantly charging battery pack which powers the computer. A UPS should have enough charge to power your computer for several minutes in the event of a total power failure, giving you time to save your work and safely shut down. UPS - acronym for Uninterruptible Power Source.

Unix - an operating system that supports multitasking and is ideally suited to multi-user applications (such as networks). Unsolicited bulk e-mail - Any e-mail message sent to multiple target email addresses simultaneously wherein, loosely speaking the targets are people who have little or no direct prior relationship to the topic of the communications. UBE is usually but not always spam. An example of innocent UBE might include a mass party invitation from someone to all his or her acquaintances. Uplink - The earth station used to transmit signals for a satellite videoconference. URL (Short for Uniform Resource Locator), the address of the resource that your browser will fetch from the Internet. It is divided into two parts, the first being the protocol used the second being the IP address or domain where the information is located. An example is http://www.greencomputer.com. In this URL the protocol is HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol, the domain name where the information will be accessed from is the second part of the URL www.greencomputer.com. FTP://www.domainname.com is also a URL with the protocol used being the File Transfer Protocol and the domain name www.domainname.com being the destination. UTMS (Universal Mobile Telephone System): telecommunications system based on WCDMA-DS. V Vaporware - "software" advertised, and sometimes sold, that does not yet exist in a releasable for. Virtual Memory - using part of your hard drive as though it were "RAM". VHF (Low Band) - Very High Frequency (30 80 MHz) VHF FM Very High Frequency, Frequency Modulation ( 137 175 MHz) VHF AM Very High Frequency, Amplitude Modulation ( 108 136 MHz) VAR - value-added reseller; a business that repackages and improves hardware manufactured by an original equipment manufacturer. Third generation

V.35 - Commonly used to describe electrical characteristics and connector characteristics for a high speed synchronous interface between DTE and DCE. Originally V.35 described a 48 kbps group band modem interface with electrical characteristics defined in an appendix. Although V.35 is considered obsolete and no longer published by the CCITT, its legacy lives on in the data communications world in the form of the electrical characteristics originally described in the appendix. Video bridge - Computerized switching system which allows multipoint videoconferencing. Videoconferencing - Communication across long distances with video and audio contact that may also include graphics and data exchange. Digital video transmission systems typically consist of camera, codec (coderdecoder), network access equipment, network, and audio system. Virtual Domain A virtual domain is when one IP address is shared between multiple domains. VPN (Short for Virtual Private Network), using an encrypted tunnel to access private network information over a public network. Using a virtual private network involves encrypting data before sending it through the public network, such as the Internet, and decrypting it at the receiving end. An additional level of security involves encrypting not only the data but also the originating and receiving network addresses, to avoid anyone gaining access to usernames, or passwords. Voice over IP (VoIP) - VoIP is voice communications transmitted over the Internet. W Wattage - Amount of electrical flow used by electronic devices. WORM - A Virus that attaches itself to emails and spreads. WAN - Wide Area Network. A data network typically extending a LAN outside a building or beyond a campus. Typically created by using bridges or routers to connect geographically separated LANs. WANs include commercial or educational dial-up networks such as CompuServe, InterNet and BITNET. Whiteboarding - A term used to describe the placement of shared documents on an on-screen "shared notebook" or "whiteboard." Videoconferencing software includes tools that enable you to work with

familiar tools to mark up the electronic whiteboard much like you do with a traditional wall mounted board. Wideband - A medium-capacity communications circuit/path. It usually implies a speed from 64Kbps to 1.544Mbps. (Contrast with broadband and narrowband) WAN (Short for Wide Area Network), the largest WAN is the Internet, but a WAN can also be a group of two or more LANs connected to each other. Most WANs are connected through a public network, either through a telephone system, satellite or leased line. Wavelength - The distance between two crests of a signal or a carrier and is measured in terms of meters, millimeters, nanometers, etc. In lightwave applications, because of the extremely high frequencies, wavelength is measured in nanometers. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) - A way of increasing the information-carrying capacity of an optical fiber by simultaneously operating at more than one wavelength. With WDM you can multiplex signals by transmitting them at different wavelengths through the same fiber. WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) - A technology for wideband digital radio communications of Internet, multimedia, video and other capacity-demanding applications. WCDMA, developed by Ericsson and others, has been selected for the third generation of mobile telephone systems in Europe, Japan and the United States. Web based manager The web manager is a simple control console that allows you to administer your network through an Internet browser. Also called a browser-based manager. Web server A web server is a computer that delivers web pages to your Internet browser. Every Web server has an IP address and possibly a Domain name. In the beginning of the Web server, it was designed to serve static content to a web browser. Today web servers do more than serve simple HTML content, and image files. The concept of content has evolved through the years to include application data, streaming multimedia, security models, and integration with other data and content servers. Web cache - a Web cache fills requests from the Web server, stores the requested information locally, and sends the information to the client; the next time the web cache gets a request for the same information, it simply

returns the locally cached data instead of searching over the Internet, thus reducing Internet traffic and response time. WebMail WebMail is an email service that uses your web browser as an email client, allowing you to send and receive emails directly through your browser, from any computer on the Internet. Hotmail email is an example of We based mail. Since the Internet is a public network WebMail uses SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) encryption to protect the data from being intercepted, keeping emails private and secure. Web site A collection of files Web files, including a home page. The home page is usually the address that is given, as it is usually the easiest to remember. I.e. www.greencomputer.com, as opposed to a web page inside the site, such as www.greencompiter.com/services.html (in actuality the first page of the site is www.greencomputer.com/index.html, the server is told that www.greencomputer.com really means www.greencomputer.com/index.html making it easier to remember web addresses. Wireless - Radio-based systems that allow transmission of information without a physical connection, opposed to transmission systems, that require a physical connection, such as copper wire or optical fiber. Wireless access - Using radio communications to replace the access portion telecommunications network. Wireless can provide either fixed (stationary) or mobile access. Wireless local loop - A form of wireless access that utilizes radio to connect fixed end users to the PSTN and provide standard telephone services. World Wide Web - a global hypertext system operating on the Internet that enables electronic communication of text, graphics, audio, and video. X XDSL - (Digital Subscriber Lines) DSL use sophisticated modulation schemes to pack data onto copper wires (telephone wires) DSL can reach speeds of up to 32 Mbps downstream, but it is limited to short runs from the central office (usually around 20,000 feet.) A term referring to a variety of new Digital Subscriber Line technologies. Some of these varieties are asymmetric with different data rates in the downstream and upstream directions. Others are symmetric. Downstream speeds range from 384 Kbps (or "SDSL") to 1.5-8 Mbps (or "ADSL").

X.21 - A set of CCITT specifications for an interface between DTE and DCE for synchronous operation on public data networks. Includes connector, electrical, and dialing specifications. XOR engine - process or set of instructions that calculates data bit relationships in a RAID subsystem. Z Zip ( Zipping ) Compress a file or group of files. A method of compacting information to fit more in a smaller space. Zoom Box - a small square in the upper right corner of a window which, when clicked, will expand the window to fill the whole screen.