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Dr. S.A. Ostroumov is at the faculty of biology of Moscow State University. A member–in-honor of Eco-Ethics International Union.

Member of international and national professional societies. Awarded the P.L.Kapitsa Medal for Scientific Discovery. Author and coauthor of papers and books on issues of hydrobiology, biochemical ecology, general and aquatic ecology, biocontrol of quality of water, natural purification potential of aquatic ecosystems, phytoremediation. Some of the publications (with or without abstracts) are on the list below; many of them are available online on Scribd and/or other Internet services: Bibliography of some publications by Dr. S. A. Ostroumov:
1. 2008 Ostroumov S.A. On the concepts of biochemical ecology and hydrobiology: ecological chemomediators. - Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 2008, Volume 1 (2): 238244 [MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica distributed by Springer Science+Business Media LLC. ISSN 1995-4255 (Print) 1995-4263 (Online)] [Earlier, the author published two books and some papers, in which he described conceptual foundations of new scientific disciplines — biochemical ecology and biochemical hydrobiology. These trends in research include studies of the role of chemical substances in interorganismal interactions, in communication and regulation of supraorganismal systems. Another part of biochemical ecology concerns studies of the destiny and transformation of external chemical substances when they interact with the organisms. Both natural and man-made compounds are interesting for biochemical ecology. The basic concepts of biochemical ecology include ecological chemomediators and ecological chemoregulators that have already been included in the body of modern conceptions and are used in modern ecological literature. Application of biochemical ecology to aquatic ecosystems creates the basis for development of biochemical hydrobiology. Original Russian Text: published in ‘Sibirskii Ekologicheskii Zhurnal’, 2006, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 73–82]. DOI 10.1134/S1995425508020100. 2. 2008 Ostroumov S. A. Basics of the molecular-ecological mechanism of water quality formation and water self-purification. - Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 2008, Vol. 1, No. 1, p. 147-152. [MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica distributed by Springer Science+Business Media LLC; ISSN 1995-4255 (Print) 1995-4263 (Online); Original Russian Text © S.A. Ostroumov, 2006, published in Sibirskii Ekologicheskii Zhurnal, 2006, Vol. 13, No. 6, pp. 699–706]. The paper formulates some basics of the modern ecological theory of the polyfunctional role of biota in the molecular-ecological mechanism of water decontamination, water quality formation and improvement, in the purification potential of aquatic ecosystems. The theory covers the following items: (1) sources of energy for selfpurification mechanisms, (2) the main structural and functional units of the self-purification system, (3) the main processes involved in the system, (4) contributions of major taxa to selfpurification, (5) self-purification system reliability and supporting mechanisms, (6) the response of some components of the self-purification system to external factors, (7) particulars of the operation of water purification mechanisms, and (8) conclusions and recommendations for biodiversity preservation practice. DOI 10.1007/s12259-008-1017-x. 3. 2007 Solomonova E.A., Ostroumov S.A. Tolerance of an aquatic macrophyte Potamogeton crispus L. to sodium dodecyl sulphate. - Moscow University Biological Sciences Bulletin, 2007, 62 (4): 176-179. ISSN 0096-3925 (Print) 1934-791X (Online). Effects of the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylsulphate, on the aquatic macrophyte Potamogeton crispus L. were studied. The concentrations 83-133 mg/l induced fragmentation of the stems of the plants. The tolerance of the plants to the negative effects of the surfactant was higher in spring (April) than in autumn (September).The new data obtained that are relevant to phytoremediation, how to use plants in water treatment and decontamination, water quality maintenance and improving. DOI 10.3103/S0096392507040074. 4. 2007 Ostroumov S.A. Hydrobiological self-purification of water: from studies of biological mechanisms to search of ecotechnologies. Мoscow: Publishers «Oil and Gas» of

the Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gaz, 2007. – 53 p. 5. 2007 Ostroumov S.A. Approaches to purification and remediation of aquatic systems (phytoremediation, bioremediation, zooremediation) in connection with the theory of polyfunctional role of biota in water self-purification. – Water: technology and ecology. 2007. № 2. p. 49-69. Bibliogr. 53 ref. 6. 2006 Ostroumov S.A., Widdows J. Inhibition of mussel suspension feeding by surfactants of three classes. - Hydrobiologia. 2006. Vol. 556, No. 1. Pages: 381 – 386. Effects of three surfactants on the filtration rates by marine mussels were studied. The xenobiotics tested represented anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactants including tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TDTMA), a representative of a class of cationic surfactants; sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), a representative of anionic alkyl sulfates; and Triton X-100, a representative of non-ionic hydroxyethylated alkyl phenols. All three surfactants inhibited the clearance rates. The significance of the results for the ecology of marine ecosystems is discussed, including the natural purification potential of aquatic ecosystems. DOI 10.1007/s10750-005-1200-7. 7. 2006 Ostroumov S.A. On biotic purification of water and ecological repair. - Siberian Ecological Journal. 2006. No 3 p. 339-343. 3 Tables. Abstract in English. Bibliogr. 15 refs. 8. 2006 Ostroumov S.A. Hydrobiological biomachinery for water self-purification: elements of theory. – Problems of Biogeochemistry and Geochemical Ecology, 2006, No. 2. P. 6-15. Tabl. 4. Bibliogr. 36 refs. 9. 2006 Ostroumov S.A. Elements of the theory of the molecular-ecological mechanism of water quality formation and water self-purification. – Siberian Ecological Journal. 2006. No. 6, p. 699-706, tab. Summary in Rus. and English. Bibliogr. 29 refs. 10. 2006 Ostroumov S.A. Biomachinery for maintaining water quality and natural water selfpurification in marine and estuarine systems: elements of a qualitative theory // International Journal of Oceans and Oceanography. 2006. Volume 1, No.1. P.111-118. [Role of organisms in water quality maintenance and improving] [ISSN 0973-2667]. 11. 2006 Ostroumov S.A. Biological Effects of Surfactants. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis. Boca Raton, London, New York. 2006. 279 p. [Anthropogenic impacts and synthetic surfactants as pollutants of aquatic ecosystems. Toxic effects of man made surfactants using biological methods. New biological effects of anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactants, and detergent mixtures on some bacteria, algae, plants (including the seedlings of terrestrial plants), invertebrates (including leeches and bivalves). Elements of the role of organisms in water purification, biocontrol of water quality, and maintaining the natural purification potential of aquatic ecosystems. Many tables with new expl data, esp. on effects of surfactants and detergents on filtering activity of marine and freshwater bivalves, and on elongation of seedlings of plants]. 12. 2005 Ostroumov S.А. Filter-feeders as part of ecological biomachinery to purify water // Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 2005. Vol. 29/2 (Stuttgart, E.Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung), p.1072-1075. Bibliogr. 16 refs. [Proceedings of the SIL Congress 2004. The paper considers biomachinery for maintaining the natural purification potential of aquatic ecosystems; in the text: "We predict that new examples of xenobiotics that inhibit the filtration activity of aquatic organisms will be found in future"]. [SIL XXIX Congress Lahti Finland, 8 - 14 August 2004; Edited for the Association by J. Jones, 2005. (Verhandlungen IVL, Volume 29 Part 2); ISBN 3-510-54066-2] http://www.schweizerbart.de/pubs/books/es/verhandlun-167002902-desc.html. 13. 2005 Ostroumov S.A. Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders // Hydrobiologia 2005. Vol. 542, No. 1. P. 275 – 286 (in Eng.). Bibliogr. 63 refs. Table 1. Examples of the impact of filter-feeders on the water column: clearance time. Table 2. Examples of diversity of taxons of benthic organisms involved in removing seston from water, and filtration rates. Table 3. Effect of the increase in concentration of algae on the filtration rate and the amount consumed by rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus. Table 4. The ratio F:P in some groups of organisms (examples of "ecological taxation"). Table 5. The ratio F: (P+R) in some filter feeders. Table 6. Results of the ecological tax: biosediment formation in 6 ecosystems. Table 7. Contribution of various aquatic organisms to oxidation

of organic matter in the ecosystem of the Sea of Okhotsk. Table 8. Some chemicals that inhibit the filtering activity of the filter-feeders (new data of the author). Table 9. Some features of water-filtering biomachinery: 6 fundamental principles. Table 10. The level-block approach to the analysis of ecological hazards of anthropogenic effects on the biota (the new conceptualization proposed by the author). On the basis of the previous publications, our new data and the existing scientific literature, we have formulated some fundamental principles that characterize the pivotal roles of the biodiversity of filter-feeders in ecosystems. Among those roles are: (1) the role of ecological repair of water quality (water quality maintenance and improving), (2) the role of contributing to reliability and stability of the functioning of the ecosystem, (3) the role of contributing to creation of habitat heterogeneity, (4) the role of contributing to acceleration of migration of chemical elements. It is an important feature of the biomachinery of filter-feeders that it removes from water various particles of a very broad range of sizes. Another important principle is that the amount of the organic matter filtered out of water is larger than the amount assimilated so that a significant part of the removed material serves no useful function to the organism of the filter-feeder, but serves a beneficial function to some other species and to the ecosystem as a whole. The new experiments by the author additionally demonstrated a vulnerability of the filtration activity of filter feeders (e.g. bivalves and rotifers) to some xenobiotics (synthetic surfactant tetradecyltrymethylammonium bromide, heavy metals and some others). The inhibition of the filtration activity of filter-feeders may lead to the situation previously described as that of an ecological bomb of the second type. DOI 10.1007/s10750-004-1875-1. 14. 2005 Ostroumov S.A. On the Multifunctional Role of the Biota in the Self-Purification of Aquatic Ecosystems // Russian Journal of Ecology, Vol. 36, No. 6, 2005, p. 414–420. [The principles of the theory of the ecological mechanism of water self-purification based on multiple functions of the biota in freshwater and marine ecosystems are formulated. In developing this theory, the results of the author's experiments with filter-feeders have been used. These results indicate that the water self-purification mechanism is vulnerable to the impact of some pollutants and, in particular, surfactants. Conclusions drawn on the basis of the theory have practical significance for biodiversity conservation, for the sustainable use of the biological resources of aquatic ecosystems, for water quality maintenance and improving. Translated from Ekologiya, No. 6, 2005, p. 452–459]. (In 2006, the paper was on the list of 5 Most Viewed Articles. Most viewed articles are the full-text articles from this journal that have been accessed most frequently within the last 90 days, according to the web page of the publisher. ISSN: 1067-4136 (Paper) 1608-3334 (Online)]. DOI 10.1007/s11184-005-0095-x. 15. 2005 Ostroumov S. A. On some issues of maintaining water quality and selfpurification.- Water Resources, 2005. Volume 32, Number 3, p. 305-313. [Generalizations presented in this paper represent, in systematized form, the basic elements of the qualitative theory of water self-purification in freshwater and marine ecosystems, water quality maintenance and improvement. Recommendations are given for maintaining and upgrading water quality, and sustainable development of water resources. Results of experimental studies of the effect exerted by the synthetic surfactant Triton X-100 and the synthetic detergent OMO on the mollusks Unio tumidus]. ISSN 0097-8078 (Print) 1608-344X (Online). Translated from ‘Vodnye Resursy’, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2005, p. 337–346. DOI 10.1007/s11268-005-0039-7. 16. 2004 Ostroumov S.A. The effect of synthetic surfactants on the hydrobiological mechanisms of water self-purification. - Water Resources. 2004. Volume 31, Number 5 p. 502-510. [Long-term studies of the biological effect of surfactants, including the effect surfactants exert on filter feeders, are reviewed. The role is analyzed of filter feeders in the functioning of freshwater and marine ecosystems, especially in the mechanisms of maintenance and improving water quality. New aspects in the assessment of environmental hazard due to the impact of chemical pollutants, including surfactants and detergents, are established]. DOI 10.1023/B:WARE.0000041919.77628.8d. 17. 2004 Ostroumov S.A. Suspension-feeders as factors influencing water quality in aquatic ecosystems. — In: The Comparative Roles of Suspension-Feeders in Ecosystems, R.F. Dame, S. Olenin (Eds), Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2004. pp. 147-164. Bibliogr.: p.160-164. [Proceedings of the Advanced Research Workshop on The Comparative Roles of Suspension-Feeders in Ecosystems Nida, Lithuania 4–9 October 2003. Suspension-feeders

are found in both pelagic and benthic systems. They function as an important part of an ecosystem's biomachinery that maintains water quality in aquatic systems. They remove suspended matter and excrete faeces, pseudofaeces and dissolved inorganic materials that contribute to nutrient cycling between the water column and the benthic habitats. Suspension-feeders are a key part of many natural aquatic remediation systems and they can decrease some negative anthropogenic impacts. Recent author’s experiments are reported that demonstrate new effects of pollutants on the filtration rates of suspension-feeders. Table 1: factors decreasing water quality in aquatic ecosystems; Table 2: how filter-feeders may produce effects on 9 processes of water purification (chemical oxidation by oxygen, photodegradation etc.); Table 3: quantitative data on filter-feeders of 12 large taxa (Rotifers, Polychaeta etc.); Table 4: amount of the days for the water column to be filtered in 20 ecosystems; Table 5: production of biosediments per year or per day by filter-feeders; Table 6: chemicals that inhibit filtration rates (mainly the data generated by the author); Table 7: Key facts and principles that characterize suspension - feeders as part of water-filtering biomachinery maintaining water quality; Table 8: the level-block approach to the analysis of ecological hazards of anthropogenic effects on the biota. New concepts: polyfunctional role of suspension-feeders regulating ecosystem processes (p.155); "suspension-feeders have a potential to contribute to creating habitat heterogeneity (in terms of patchiness of concentrations of suspended matter in water) (p.157); "ecological taxation: suspensionfeeders pay ecological tax to the community (ecosystem)" (p.157)]. ISBN 978-1-4020-30284 (Print) 978-1-4020-3030-7 (Online). DOI 10.1007/1-4020-3030-4_9. 18. 2004 Ostroumov S.A. On the biotic self-purification of aquatic ecosystems: elements of the theory. - DAN (Doklady Akademii Nauk), Vol. 396, 2004, No. 1, p. 136–141. [System of elements of the theory of biotic maintaining the natural purification potential of ecosystems, of water quality maintenance and improving].The paper was awarded the honor Diploma from the Academy of Water Sciences (2006). In Russ., translated into Eng.: 19. 2004 Ostroumov S.A. On the biotic self-purification of aquatic ecosystems: elements of the theory. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2004, Vol. 396, Numbers 1-6, pp. 206-211. [System of elements of the theory of biotic maintaining the natural purification potential of ecosystems, water quality maintenance and improving]. DOI: 10.1023/B:DOBS.0000033278.12858.12. [proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological sciences sections / translated from Russian]. 20. 2004 Ostroumov S.A. Biological mechanism of self-purification in natural water bodies and streams: theory and applications. - Advances of Modern Biology. 2004. 124 (5): 429442. 6 Tables. Bibliogr. 79 refs. In Russ., abstract in English. [Analysis of the role of biota in maintaining the natural purification potential of ecosystems]. 21. 2004 Ostroumov S.A. Aquatic ecosystem as a bioreactor: water purification and some other functions. - Rivista di Biologia / Biology Forum, 2004, vol. 97, p. 39-50. Abstracts in Eng. and Italian. [A fundamental concept is proposed of aquatic ecosystem as a bioreactor that carries out the function of water purification in natural water bodies and streams, water quality improvement. The ecosystem as a bioreactor has the following characteristic attributes: (1) it is a large-scale (large-volume) bioreactor; (2) it is a diversified (in terms of the number of taxa and the scope of functional activities) bioreactor; (3) it possesses a broad range of biocatalytic (chemical-transforming and degrading) capabilities. New experimental data on xenobiotics-induced inhibition of the functioning of the molluscs Unio tumidus, U. pictorum, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Lymnaea stagnalis emphasize the potential ecological hazard from sublethal concentrations of pollutants (including those exemplified by synthetic surfactants and detergents)]. 22. 2003 Ostroumov S.A., Kolesnikov M.P. Molluscs in biogeochemical flows (C, N, P, Si, Al) and water self-purification: effects of surfactants. — Vestnik MGU. Ser.16. Biology. (ISSN 0201-7385; ISSN 0137-0952) 2003. No. 1. P. 15-24. [Effects of a cationic surfactant on the feeding rate and the pellet excretion by the freshwater mussels (Unionidae) was studied. We also studied the content of the pellets of freshwater mussels after their feeding on the natural seston (the sample of mussels taken from the natural community). In the sample, the species and their percentages were: bivalves Unio tumidus 63.21%, U. pictorum 27.36 %, Crassiana crassa 7.55 %, Anodonta cygnea 1.89 %. This sample of

bivalves produced the pellets that had the following chemical content: C, 64.3%; N, 2.73%; P, 0.39%; Si, 1.14%; Al, 0.071%. Water filtering by the unionids was also inhibited by surfactant TDTMA and some other surfactants. Therefore it was shown that the surfactant inhibited the matter and elements transfer through this level of the trophic chain]. 23. 2003 Ostroumov S.A., Dodson S., Hamilton D., Peterson S., Wetzel R.G. Medium-term and long-term priorities in ecological studies // Rivista di Biologia / Biology Forum. 2003. 96: 327-332. Abstracts in Eng. and Italian (p. 332). Bibliogr. 20 refs. [The detailed list of priorities in ecology: research priorities in ecology and environmental sciences for the future are formulated. The priorities for both fundamental and applied ecology are proposed. The list of priorities includes 50 items. The priorities are relevant to terrestrial, aquatic, and general ecology. The list of priorities is helpful when grant proposals are being prepared, evaluated, and selected for funding]. 24. 2003 Ostroumov S.A. Studying effects of some surfactants and detergents on filterfeeding bivalves. - Hydrobiologia. 2003. 500: 341-344. [Effects of several surfactants and chemical mixtures on marine bivalves were studied. An anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS), and a cationic surfactant, tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TDTMA), inhibited the filtering activity of oysters (Crassostrea gigas). Similar effects were exhibited by some chemical mixtures that included surfactants. Those mixtures inhibited the filtering activity of Crassostrea gigas and mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. Inhibition of filtering activity as a result of the effects of surfactant TDTMA 0.5 mg l-1 on the oysters Crassostrea gigas; surfactant SDS 0.5 mg l-1 on C. gigas; 3 synthetic detergent mixtures on Mytilus galloprovincialis and C. gigas.The new results are in agreement with the author's previous experiments, where a number of xenobiotics and/or pollutants inhibited the filtering activity of several species of marine and freshwater bivalves, e.g., it had been shown that SDS inhibited filtering activity of Mytilus edulis (e.g., Ostroumov, 2000, 2001). This experimental approach is helpful in assessment of environmental hazards from man-made chemicals that can contaminate marine systems]. DOI 10.1023/A:1024604904065. 25. 2003 Ostroumov S.A. On the role of the biota (ecological and hydrobiological factors) in the regulation and stabilization of biospheric, geochemical, and geophysical processes and parameters. - Vestnik of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. 2003, Vol.3, No. 2, P.59-62. [The paper revisits the role of the biota (living organisms, the sum of ecological and hydrobiological factors) in the regulation and stabilization of parameters of the biosphere, geophysical and geochemical processes and, as a result, in the preventing the extremal weather events and global change of the climate system. The shortlist of the six most important functions of biota in doing so is formulated and commented]. 26. 2003 Ostroumov S.A. Effect of some amphyphilic substances and mixtures on marine mollusks // Gidrobiologicheskiy Zhurnal (Kiev). 2003. 39 (2): 103-108 (in Rus.). English translation is available: Influence of some amphyphilic substances and mixtures on marine mollusks // Hydrobiological Journal (Hydrob. J.) 2003, v.39. Issue 4. (ISSN 0018-8166) http://dx.doi.org/ ; also: http://www.edatacenter.com/journals/38cb2223012b73f2,290c78b07c8d18f5,038db8ad6f5c36c1.html [The influence of some surface active substances on the filtration activity of marine Bivalvia was studied. It has been found that both anionic (sodium dodecylsulphate) and cationic (tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide) surfactants inhibited the filtration activity of oysters (Crassostrea gigas). Some mixtures containing surface active substances also inhibited the filtration activity of C. gigas and marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. The obtained data correlate well with the results obtained previously. They suggest that some xenobiotics and pollutants inhibited the filtration activity of other species of marine and freshwater Bivalvia. This experimental approach is useful in evaluating the influence of surface active substances on marine ecosystems]. 27. 2003 Ostroumov S.A. Anthropogenic effects on the biota: towards a new system of principles and criteria for analysis of ecological hazards // Rivista di Biologia / Biology Forum. 2003. vol. 96, no.1, p. 159-170. 28. 2003 Ostroumov S.A. Anthropogenic effects on the biota: towards a new system of principles and criteria for analysis of ecological hazards // Rivista di Biologia / Biology Forum. 2003. vol. 96, no.1, p. 159-170. Table. Abstracts in Eng. and Italian (p.169). Bibliogr.

21 refs. [=Effetti dell' attività umana sul biota: verso un nuovo sistema di principi e criteri per l'analisi dei rischi ecologici. [The currently accepted system of criteria for evaluating environmental and ecological hazards of man-made chemicals (pollutants) is vulnerable to criticism. In this paper, a new concept of the system of approaches towards criteria for evaluating the ecological hazard from man-made impact is proposed. It is suggested to assess the man-made impacts (including effects of pollutants and xenobiotics) on the biota according to the following four levels of disturbance in biological and ecological systems: (1) the level of individual responses; (2) the level of aggregated responses of groups of organisms; (3) the level of stability and integrity of the ecosystem; (4) the level of contributions of the ecosystem to biospheric processes. On the basis of the author’s experimental studies, an example is given of how to apply the proposed approach and the system of criteria to the analysis of concrete experimental data. To exemplify the efficiency of the proposed approach, it is shown how to use it to analyze new data on effects of a synthetic surfactant on water filtering by bivalves. It is concluded that the proposed approach will be helpful in better assessing environmental and ecological hazards from anthropogenic effects on biota, including effects of man-made chemicals polluting ecosystems. Surfactant ТХ100 0.5 мг/л inhibited filtration of water (90 мин, 16°С) by mussels Mytilus edulis and the removal of cells of algae Isochrysis galbana out of water. The abundancy of unfiltered cells that stayed in water was twice as much than in the control system without TX100]. 29. 2003 Ostroumov S. A., N. Walz, R. Rusche. Effect of a cationic amphiphilic compound on rotifers. - Doklady Biological Sciences. 2003. Volume 390, Numbers 1-6, p. 252-255. DOI 10.1023/A:1024417903077. [The surfactant TDTMA 0.5 mg l-1, turbidostat; effects on the culture of rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus feeding on the algae Nannochloropsis limnetica; Tab.2: filtration rates of zooplankton and benthic filter-feeders]. 30. 2002 Ostroumov S.A. System of principles for protecting the biogeocenotic function and biodiversity of filter-feeders. — DAN. 2002. V. 383. No. 5. P. 710-714. [As a result of our studies of filter-feeders (DAN, 1998, Vol. 362, P. 574-576; DAN, 2001, Vol. 378, P. 283285), it is clear that the filtering activity of the populations of filter-feeders in natural habitats might be significantly reduced if the concentrations of some pollutants reach certain levels. The role of filter-feeders as factors of water purification in ecosystems is so important that their inhibition is a danger for the entire ecosystem. The author emphasizes that not only the biodiversity of filter-feeders but also their level of functional (filtration) activity is to be protected. In order to do so, we suggest establishing a new type of protected areas whose main purpose is to protect functionally active populations of filter-feeders, including bivalves and other organisms. Those protected areas could be named hydrobiological (some variants: biofiltering, or malacological) reserves (some variants: refuges, sanctuaries, etc.)]. In Russ., translated into English: 31. 2002 Ostroumov S.A. System of principles for conservation of the biogeocenotic function and the biodiversity of filter-feeders. — Doklady Biological Sciences. 2002. Vol. 383: 147150. Bibliogr. 15. (ISSN 0012-4966. [5 principles of nature conservation requirements in malacological and hydrobiological reserves (Tabl. 3), among them principle 2, "conservation of filtration activity of organisms and populations"; 5 detergents (1-50 mg/L) inhibited the filtration activity of freshwater mussels Unio tumidus, marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, oysters Crassostrea gigas (Tabl. 2); effects on the efficiency of elimination (EEE) of suspended matter from water were measured (Tabl. 2); the number of days (0.3 – 10) needed to filter the volume of aquatic (freshwater and marine) ecosystem by the local bivalves (a review of data from literature) (Tabl.1). "I suggest that the existing system of protected terrestrial and water areas should be supplemented with special sites intended to conserve populations of filter-feeding hydrobionts. In addition to biodiversity conservation, these populations should be conserved because they fulfill a very important biogeocenotic function of water filtration and purification" (p.149). "The system of five principles…is proposed to provide an ecological basis of the environment conservation conditions at these sites (malacological and hydrobiological reserves)" (p.149).]. DOI 10.1023/A:1015398125876. 32. 2002 Ostroumov S.A. Polyfunctional role of biodiversity in processes leading to water purification: current conceptualizations and concluding remarks. — Hydrobiologia. 2002. V. 469 (1-3): 203-204. Bibliogr. 8 refs. [Selected elements of a new vision of the role of

biodiversity in water purification and maintaining the natural purification potential of ecosystems, elements of the theory of water self-purification. On the basis of the previous publications, our new data and the existing scientific literature, we have formulated some fundamental principles that characterize the pivotal roles of the biodiversity (including filterfeeders and other organisms) in ecosystems, and water quality maintenance and improving. Among those roles are: (1) the role of ecological repair of water quality, (2) the role of contributing to reliability and stability of the functioning of the ecosystem, (3) the role of contributing to creation of habitat heterogeneity, (4) the role of contributing to acceleration of migration of chemical elements. It is an important feature of the biomachinery of filterfeeders that it removes from water various particles of a very broad range of sizes. Another important principle is that the amount of the organic matter filtered out of water is larger than the amount assimilated so that a significant part of the removed material serves no useful function to the organism of the filter-feeder, but serves a beneficial function to some other species and to the ecosystem as a whole. The new experiments by the author additionally demonstrated a vulnerability of the filtration activity of filter feeders (e.g., bivalves and rotifers) to some xenobiotics (tetradecyltrymethylammonium bromide, heavy metals and some others). The inhibition of the filtration activity of filter-feeders may lead to the situation previously described as that of an ecological bomb of the second type]. DOI 10.1007/s10750004-1875-1. 33. 2002 Ostroumov S.A. New type of action of potentially hazardous chemicals: uncouplers of pelagial-benthal coupling (Novyi tip deistviya potentzialno opasnykh veshchestv: razobshchiteli pelagialno-bentalnogo sopryazheniya). — DAN, 2002, v. 383. No. 1, p.138141. [The effects of a xenobiotic (potassium bichromate K2Cr2O7) on the removal of suspended matter from water by mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis was studied. It was shown that the chemical inhibited the removal of suspended matter from water during water filtering by mussels. It was concluded that the chemical inhibited water filtration rate by mussels. The results are in accord with previous findings on effects of other xenobiotics and pollutants on filtration rate by bivalves. The similar inhibition by xenobiotics and pollutants was shown by the author for both marine (DAN, 2001, vol. 378, No. 2, p. 283-285) and freshwater (DAN, 2001, vol. 380, No. 5, p. 714-717) molluscs. The results demonstrate a new type of ecological hazard from water pollution when the polluting chemicals may uncouple the link between from the pelagial part of the ecosystem and its benthal part, i.e. pelagial-benthal coupling]. In Russ., translated into English: 34. 2002 Ostroumov S.A. Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. — Hydrobiologia. 2002. Vol. 469, P. 117-129. [Top-down control is an important type of interspecies interactions in food webs. It is especially important for aquatic ecosystems, water quality maintenance and improving. Phytoplankton grazers contribute to the top-down control of phytoplankton populations. The paper is focused on the role of benthic filter feeders in the control of plankton populations as a result of water filtering and the removal of cells of plankton from the water column. New data on the inhibitory effects of surfactants and detergents on benthic filter-feeders (freshwater mussels Unio tumidus, U. pictorum, marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, M. edulis, and oysters Crassostrea gigas) are presented and discussed. Importance and efficiency of that approach to the problems of eutrophication and water selfpurification is pointed out. Chemical pollution may pose a threat to the natural top-down control of phytoplankton and water self-purification process. The author considers water selfpurification an important prerequisite for sustainable use of aquatic resources, and contribution to sustainable development. The anionic surfactant SDS at a concentration of 0.5 mg/L inhibited water filtration by C. gigas, at a concentration of 1.7 mg/L suppressed the filtering activity of M. galloprovincialis, at that of 1-5 mg/L decreased water filtration by M. edulis. The non-ionic surfactant TX100 at concentrations 0.5-5 mg/L induced a sharp slowdown in water filtration by M. edulis, at 1 and 5 mg/L it caused a decrease in the filtration rate by the freshwater bivalve U. tumidus. The cationic surfactant TDTMA at 1-2 mg/L constrained the filtering activity of the freshwater bivalve U. pictorum. 4 detergents (6.7-50 mg/L) hindered the filtration by M. galloprovincialis. 3 detergents (1-30 mg/L) slowed down the clearance rate during water filtration by C. gigas. The shampoo AHC (Avon Herbal Care) at concentrations 5-60 mg/L arrested the filtration by M.

galloprovincialis]. DOI 10.1023/A:1015559123646. 35. 2002 Ostroumov S.A. Identification of a new type of hazard of chemicals: inhibition of processes of ecological remediation. – DAN. 2002. Vol. 385. No. 4. P. 571-573. [New data on the inhibition of filter-feeders by chemical mixtures (detergents) are reported. The detergent Lanza-Automat (20 mg/L) inhibited water filtration by the bivalves (oysters) Crassostrea gigas (incubation time 4-35 min, 23.4ºC). As a result, the removal from water of suspended cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was inhibited by the detergent. New data are in line with the previous findings of the same author on the similar action of other detergents as well as surfactants (e.g., Ostroumov, 2000, 2001). The author formulated and substantiated a new conceptualization of ecological hazards from chemicals that pollute aquatic environment. The author proposed that the ability of bivalves to contribute to water purification, water quality maintenance and improving, and ecosystem remediation may be damaged by chemical pollutants exemplified by detergents. The concept is in accord with the conclusions made on some other studies of the same author using bivalves Unio tumidus (DAN, 1991, 380:714-717); Mytilus edulis (DAN, 1998, v.262: 574-576) and C. gigas (DAN, 2001, v. 378: 283-285)]. This paper was translated into English and published as the following paper. 36. 2002 Ostroumov S.A. Identification of a new type of ecological hazard of chemicals: inhibition of processes of ecological remediation. - Doklady Biological Sciences. 2002. 385: 377-379 (in Eng.; ISSN 0012-4966). [Effects on elimination efficiency (EEE); new concept of ecological remediation as ecological repair; new data on inhibitory effects of the detergent Lanza-Automat (20 mg/L) on water filtration by oysters Crassostrea gigas and removal of cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from water (Tabl. 1); a summary table of effects of cationic, anionic, non-ionic surfactants, pesticides, potassium bichromate, on marine and freshwater bivalves, larvae of Ephemeroptera, rotifers, and Cladocera – mainly the data of the author plus some data from literature (Tabl.2). The author identified "a new type of ecological hazard caused by water pollution. This hazard is associated with the fact that chemical pollution of water causes inhibition of the physiological activity of hydrobionts, thereby inhibiting the ecological processes mediated by the hydrobionts. These processes contribute significantly to water purification, and the related remediation of aquatic ecosystems (their ecological repair)" (p.379), and water quality maintenance and improving]. DOI 10.1023/A:1019929305267. 37. 2002 Ostroumov S.A. Biodiversity protection and quality of water: the role of feedbacks in ecosystems.- Doklady Biological Sciences. 2002. Volume 382, Numbers 1-6, p.18-21. [A new vision of how biodiversity helps towards better stability and water quality. Among new facts: the detergent IXI 20 mg/L inhibited filtration by bivalves (marine mussels) Mytilus galloprovincialis (3-25 min, 18 pro mille, 22.8ºC); the detergent Deni-Automat 30 mg/L also inhibited filtration of oysters Crassostrea gigas Thunberg (2-40 min, 25.2ºC). New vision of how biodiversity helps towards better stability and water quality improving]. DOI 10.1023/A:1014465220673. 38. 2002 Ostroumov S.A. Biodiversity protection and quality of water: the role of feedbacks in ecosystems. - Doklady Biological Sciences. 2002. Volume 382, Numbers 1-6, p.18-21. [A new vision of how biodiversity helps towards better stability and water quality. Among the new facts: the detergent IXI 20 mg/L inhibited filtration by Mytilus galloprovincialis (3-25 min, 18 pro mille, 22.8ºC); the detergent Deni-Automat 30 mg/L also inhibited filtration of oysters Crassostrea gigas Thunberg (2-40 min, 25.2ºC)]. DOI 10.1023/A:1014465220673. 39. 2002 Ostroumov S.A. Biodiversity and water quality: the role of feedbacks. — DAN. 2002. vol. 382. No. 1. P.138-141. 1 fig, 2 tables. Bibliogr. 15 refs. Translated into English: 40. 2002 Ostroumov S.A. A new type of effect of potentially hazardous substances: uncouplers of pelagial–benthal coupling. — Doklady Biological Sciences. 2002. Vol. 383: 127-130. Bibliogr. 15. (ISSN 0012-4966. [The average percentage of assimilated (16-90%) and non-assimilated (10-84%) food matter for 15 large taxa of invertebrates (Table 1); potassium bichromate inhibited water filtration by bivalves (marine mussels) Mytilus galloprovincialis (Table 2); surfactants, detergents, pesticides inhibited filtration by filterfeeders, marine and freshwater bivalves and rotifers (Table 3)]; DOI 10.1023/A:1015385723150.

41. 2002 Ostroumov S.A. A new type of effect of potentially hazardous substances: uncouplers of pelagial–benthal coupling. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2002 , Volume 383, Numbers 1-6, p. 127-130. [Organisms are mediators of “biogenic migration of atoms in the biosphere”. This migration is partly implemented in the framework of pelagial–benthal coupling. Average percentage of assimilated (16-90%) and non-assimilated (10-84%) food matter for 15 large taxa of invertebrates (Table 1); potassium bichromate inhibited water filtration by mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (Table 2); surfactants, detergents, pesticides inhibited filtration by filter-feeders, marine and freshwater bivalves and rotifers (Table 3). A prediction is made: "Further research and experimental studies are expected to provide new evidence that sublethal concentrations of chemical pollutants induce a significant decrease in the filtration capacity of freshwater and marine filter feeders" (p.129). "The uncoupling process considered above is an anthropogenic violation of two basic laws (empirical rules or biogeochemical principles) of the biosphere functioning: (1) biogenic migration of atoms of chemical elements in the biosphere always tends toward its maximum expression; (2) on the geological time scale, the evolution of species gives rise to the forms of life that are stable in the biosphere, and is so directed that the biogenic migration of atoms in the biosphere increases" (p.129)]. DOI 10.1023/A:1015385723150. 42. 2002 Ostroumov S. A. New definitions of the concepts and terms ecosystem and biogeocenosis. - Doklady Biological Sciences. 2002. Volume 383, Numbers 1-6, p.141-143. [In 1935, the term 'ecosystem' was coined by A. Tansley. In the 1940s, another important term 'biogeocoenosis' was introduced by V. N. Sukachev. Since that time, a significant amount of new facts was accumulated in ecology. It is necessary to revisit the formulation of the basic concepts and terms in ecology, including the two terms mentioned above. The author proposed some new variants of the definition of the two terms that (1) reflect the modern vision of the basics of ecology; and (2) avoid the vicious circle of using other terms which in turn request their definitions. 5 specific features of the proposed definition of ecosystem (Table 1). 8 specific features of the proposed definition of biogeocenosis, and 8 distinctions between the proposed definition and the classical definition by V.N.Sukachev (Table 2)]. DOI 10.1023/A:1015393924967. 43. 2001 Ostroumov S.A., Kolesnikov M.P. Pellets of mollusks in biogeochemical flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. — DAN. 2001. Vol.379. No. 3. P. 426-429. Bibliogr. 12 refs. In Russ.; Eng. translation: 44. 2001 Ostroumov S.A., Kolesnikov M.P. Pellets of some mollusks in the biogeochemical flows of C, N, P, Si, and Al. — Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001. Vol. 379, P. 378-381. Bibliogr. 12 refs. ISSN 0012-4966. [Water quality depends on biogeochemical flows in aquatic ecosystems. Elemental composition (C, N, P, Si, Al) of pellets formed by mollusks Lymnaea stagnalis feeding on the leaves of Nuphar lutea and Taraxacum officinale; the amount (wet weight, dry weight) of pellets formed by L. stagnalis feeding on the leaves of N. lutea and T. officinale; transfer of matter and chemical elements (C, N, P, Si, Al) with pellets of freshwater bivalves (unionids Unio sp., etc.) per unit biomass of mollusks and per unit area of the ecosystem of the river; transfer of matter and chemical elements (C, N, P, Si, Al) with pellets of L. stagnalis per unit biomass of mollusks and per unit area of the ecosystem of the pond. The cationic surfactant ТDТМА 2 mg/l, anionic surfactant SDS 1-2 mg/l, detergent Tide-Lemon 75 mg/l inhibited the trophic activity of Lymnaea stagnalis. Percents of food assimilability of taxons of invertebrates, from Rotatoria (48-80) to Diptera (1-31)]. DOI 10.1023/A:1011620817764. 45. 2001 Ostroumov S.A. The hazard of a two-level synergism of synecological summation of anthropogenic effects. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, Volume 380, Numbers 1-6, p. 499-501. The concrete examples of synergism were found when anthropogenic impacts affected organisms of two adjacent trophic levels. Bioeffects were described of the action of synthetic detergent Vesna (1 mg/l) on oysters Crassostrea gigas, detergent IXI (10 mg/l) on mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, detergent Tide-Lemon (50 mg/l) on M. galloprovincialis. The danger of simultaneous influence of contamination of environment (e.g., by detergents) on organisms of two trophic levels may occur when the polluting chemicals produce effects on algae and bivalves that are filter-feeders. [Publisher MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica, distributed by Springer Science+Business Media LLC.; ISSN 0012-4966 (Print) 1608-3105 (Online)] DOI 10.1023/A:1012348127085.

46. 2001 Ostroumov S.A. Synthetic detergent Losk-Universal // Toxicological Bulletin (in Russ., Toxicologicheskiy Vestnik = Toxicological Review, Moscow, ISSN 0869-7922). 2001. No.3. p. 40-41. Detergent Losk-Universal inhibited filtration by bivalves (marine mussels) Mytilus galloprovincialis (incubation: 27.8ºС; 20 mg/L 19-54 min.; 7 mg/L 9-49 min). 47. 2001 Ostroumov S.A. Synecological basis for the solution of the problem of eutrophication. -DAN. 2001. Vol. 381. No. 5. P. 709-712 [a new approach to prevent eutrophication]. English translation: The synecological approach to the problem of eutrophication. - Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 381, 2001, p. 559–562. ISSN 0012-4966. A new approach to solve the problem of eutrophication towards water quality improving. Among new facts: the liquid detergent Fairy 2 mg/L inhibited filtration by bivalves Mytilus galloprovincialis within 2-23 min (22.5 ºС) after addition. DOI 10.1023/A:1013378505630. 48. 2001 Ostroumov S.A. Responses of Unio tumidus to mixed chemical preparations and the hazard of synecological summation of anthropogenic effects. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, Volume 380, Numbers 1-6, p. 492-495. ISSN 0012-4966 (Print) 1608-3105 (Online). DOI 10.1023/A:1012344026176. 49. 2001 Ostroumov S.A. Responses of Unio tumidus to a mixture of chemicals and the hazard of synecological summation of anthropogenic effects (Reagirovanie Unio tumidus pri vozdeistvii smesevogo himicheskogo preparata i opasnost sinekologicheskogo summirovaniya antropogennyh vozdeistviy). — DAN. 2001. Vol. 380. No. 5. P. 714-717. In Russ., translated into English: 50. 2001 Ostroumov S.A. Inhibitory analysis of regulatory interactions in trophic webs. — Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 377, 2001, p. 139–141 (in Eng.). [The author suggest to use the methodology of inhibitory analysis to study interactions in trophic chains. Among new facts: the cationic surfactant TDTMA 1 mg/L inhibited the filtration rate of juveniles of marine bivalves Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the removal of cells of the algae Monochrysis lutheri from water (50 min, 26˚C). Water quality improving]. DOI 10.1023/A:1019218026198. 51. 2001 Ostroumov S.A. Imbalance of the factors which control the abundance of unicellular plankton under the anthropogenic impact. — DAN (Doklady Akademii Nauk). 2001. Vol. 379. No.1. P. 136-138. 4 tables. Bibliogr. 12 refs. In Russ. Translated into English: Imbalance of factors providing control of unicellular plankton populations exposed to anthropogenic impact. — Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001. Vol. 379, P. 341-343. 4 tables. Bibliogr. 12 refs. (Translated from DAN 2001. Vol. 379. P.136-138). ISSN 00124966 [a new parameter and formula to measure the removal of cells from water: the efficiency of cell elimination from water, ECE; factors of regulation of unicellular plankton abundance (Tab.1); effects of surfactants and detergents on phytoplankton abundance (Tab.2); 7 detergents inhibit the filtration of 3 species of marine and freshwater molluscs (Tab.3); the bivalves (marine mussels) Mytilus galloprovincialis eliminates from water the cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and algae Pavlova lutheri = M. lutheri as a result of filtration (comparing the two processes at the same time, Tab. 4). Water quality improving]. DOI 10.1023/A:1011600213221. 52. 2001 Ostroumov S.A. Hazard of synergy at the synecological summation of man-made impacts. -DAN. 2001. Vol.380. No. 6. P. 847-849 [new type of man-made hazards]. In Russian. Translated into English: 53. 2001 Ostroumov S.A. Effects of sodium dodecylsulphate on molluscs that were cultivated under the conditions of aquaculture, in connection with the assessment of the potential hazard of surfactants // Toxicol. Bulletin. 2001. No. 6. p. 30-35. 54. 2001 Ostroumov S.A. Effects of amphiphilic chemicals on marine organisms filterfeeders.—DAN. 2001. Vol. 378. No. 2. P. 283-285 [new bioeffects of surfactants on bivalves]. Trans. into English: 55. 2001 Ostroumov S.A. Effect of amphiphilic chemicals on filter-feeding marine organisms.- Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, Volume 378, Numbers 1-6, pp. 248-250. DOI 10.1023/A:1019270825775.

56. 2001 Ostroumov S.A. Amphiphilic chemical inhibits the ability of molluscs to filter water and to remove the cells of phytoplankton. — Izvestia RAN. Ser. Biology. 2001. No.1: 108-116. Translated into English: 57. 2001 Ostroumov S. A. An amphiphilic substance inhibits the mollusk capacity to filter out phytoplankton cells from water. - Biology Bulletin, 2001,Volume 28, Number 1, p. 95102. The effect of synthetic anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS, 4 mg/l) on the kinetics of water filtration by mussel Mytilus edulis was studied. A suspension of algae Isochrysis galbana was added to the vessel with the mussels, and their filtration activity was measured by counting the concentration of the algae cells in the experimental vessels. Algae concentration was measured every 30 min for an hour and a half. The inhibiting effect on the mollusk filtration rate (FR) was qualitatively described. After the first 30 min filtration at 4 mg/l initial SDS concentration, the cell density was 322% of the control. The inhibiting effect was observed later as well. Due to FR inhibition in the vessels with the above specified initial SDS concentration, the algae cell density was 6.4 and 14.7 times that of the control after 1 and 1.5 h, respectively. Thus, SDS can decrease the natural capacity of aquatic ecosystems for self-purification and disturb other aspects of ecosystem functioning through inhibiting the filtration activity of mussels. The obtained data are discussed in the context of environment and hydrosphere protection from pollution, water quality improving. [MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica distributed by Springer Science+Business Media LLC. ISSN 10623590 (Print) 1608-3059 (Online)]. DOI 10.1023/A:1026671024000. 58. 2000 Ostroumov S.A., Kolesnikov M.P. Biocatalysis of matter transfer in a microcosm is inhibited by a contaminant: effects of a surfactant on Limnea stagnalis. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2000, 373: 397-399. 59. 2000 Ostroumov S.A. Tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TDTMA). — Toxicological Bulletin (in Russ., Toxicologicheskiy Vestnik = Toxicological Review, Moscow, ISSN 0869-7922). 2000. No. 3. P. 34-35. [The cationic surfactant TDTMA 1 mg/L inhibited the filtration rate of juveniles of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam., when grazing (feeding on) the algae Monochrysis lutheri; the removal of the algae Monochrysis lutheri was decreased]. 60. 2000 Ostroumov S.A. Inhibitory analysis of the regulatory interactions in food webs. — DAN. 2000, vol. 375. no. 6, pp. 847-849 (in Russ.). Translated into English: 61. 2000 Ostroumov S.A. Detergents "Lotos-Extra" and "Tide-Lemon". — Toxicological Bulletin (in Russ., Toxicologicheskiy Vestnik = Toxicological Review, Moscow, ISSN 0869-7922). 2000. No. 4. P.35-37 [the new sublethal effects on the filtration by Mytilus galloprovincialis of the detergents, Lotos-Extra 25 and 50 mg/L, Tide-Lemon 33 and 43 mg/L; decrease in the filtration rate, no increase in mortality]. 62. 2000 Ostroumov S.A. Aquatic ecosystem: a large-scale, diversified bioreactor with the function of water self-purification. — DAN (Doklady Akademii Nauk). 2000. Vol. 374. No.3, P. 427-429. In Russ. Translated into English: 63. 2000 Ostroumov S.A. An aquatic ecosystem: a large-scale diversified bioreactor with a water self-purification function.—Doklady Biological Sciences, 2000. Vol. 374, P. 514-516. 3 tables. Bibliogr. 15. ISSN 0012-4966. [Contribution of the main groups of aquatic organisms (heterotrophic bacteria, fungi, cyanobacteria and microalgae, protozoans, higher plants, invertebrates, fish and amphibians) to water self-purification, maintaining the natural purification potential of ecosystems, water quality improving: comparison and analysis (Tabl.1). Relatively small effects of the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 4-5 mg/L on marine bacteria Hyphomonas sp. MHS-3 (5 mg/L) and Hyphomonas sp. VP-6 (5-10 mg/L), a significant inhibition by Triton X-100 of filtration by bivalves (marine mussels) Mytilus edulis (4 mg/L), and by the freshwater mussels Unio tumidus (5 mg/L). Inhibitory effects of the cationic surfactant TDTMA 1 mg/L on mussels M. galloprovincialis (Tabl.2); inhibition of feeding: effects of TX100 1-5 mg/L on Unio tumidus, TDTMA 1-2 mg/L on U. pictorum; TDTMA 1 mg/L, SDS 1.7 mg/L, detergents 6.7 – 50 mg/L, shampoo AHC 5-60 mg/L (sublethal concentrations) on M. galloprovincialis; (Tabl. 3). "Sublethal concentrations of contaminants may inhibit vital activities of other organisms involved in the function of an ecosystem as an analogue of a bioreactor. This finding provides a deeper insight into the mechanisms of anthropogenic impact on biosphere. The concept put forward in this work

emphasizes that intactness of the whole range of biological diversity of hydrobionts is required to provide effective functioning of an ecosystem as an analog of a water selfpurification bioreactor. Therefore, the cost estimates of ecosystems and biota should be increased" (p.516)]. 64. 1998 Ostroumov S.A., Donkin P., Staff F. Filtration inhibition induced by two classes of synthetic surfactants in the bivalve mollusk Mytilus edulis // Doklady Biological Sciences, 1998. Vol. 362, P. 454-456. Effects of anionic surfactant SDS 0.5-4 mg/L during 30-60 min, and of the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 4 mg/L during 60 and 120 min on marine mussels M. edulis. SDS 1, 2, and 4 mg/L after 30-90 min inhibited the filtration rate and removal of the cells of algae Isochrysis galbana from water. Triton X-100 4 mg/L also inhibited the filtration rate and removal of the cells of Isochrysis galbana during 60-120-min incubation. Water quality improving 65. 1998 Ostroumov S.A. Biological filtering and ecological machinery for self-purification and bioremediation in aquatic ecosystems: towards a holistic view. // Rivista di Biologia/ Biology Forum. 1998. 91: 247-258. [Analysis of the role of biological filtering in maintaining the natural purification potential of ecosystems and water quality improving. Anionic surfactant SDS 1 mg/L inhibited filtration (35-95 min, 16°С) of marine bivalves (mussels) Mytilus edulis and removal of the cells of algae Isochrysis galbana from water. Amount of cells that stayed in water unfiltered after 95 min, was 3 times as much as the amount of cells in the control without SDS]. 66. 1998 Ostroumov S.A. Biological filtering and ecological machinery for self-purification and bioremediation in aquatic ecosystems: towards a holistic view // Rivista di Biologia / Biology Forum. 1998. 91: 247-258. [An innovative analysis of the role of organisms in water filtration in ecosystems. Water filtration is a key component of ecological biomachinery for water self-purification, maintaining the natural purification potential of ecosystems, water quality improvement. Among new facts: the synthetic surfactant SDS 1 mg/L inhibited filtration (35-95 min, 16°С) by bivalves Mytilus edulis and the removal of the cells of algae Isochrysis galbana out of water. The amount of unfiltered cells that stayed in water after 95 min, was 3 times as much as the amount of cells in the control without SDS]. Abstracts in English and Italian. 67. 1997 Ostroumov S.A., Donkin P., Staff F. Inhibition by the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate, of the ability of mussels Mytilus edulis to filter and purify sea water. Vestn. Mosk. Univ. (Biol.). [=Bulletin of Moscow University. Ser. Biology]. 1997. No. 3, pp. 30-36. Effects of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) on the filtering rate of the mussels were studied. Anionic surfactant SDS (1, 2 and 4mg/L) inhibited water filtration by bivalves Mytilus edulis and removal from water of cells of algae Isochrysis galbana; the incubation time was 30-90 min (Tables 1 and 2). Aliquats of the alga Isochrysis galbana suspension were added to the beakers with mussels and sea water, and the filtering activity was measured by counting the algal cells at 30 min intervals during 1.5 h. After the first 30 min period, the cell density was 135% of that in the control at the initial SDS concentration 1 mg/L and 198% at 2 mg/L. A still greater difference in the algal cell concentration between the experiment and the control was observed when the SDS concentration was increased to 4 mg/L: it was 3 times higher after the first 30 min period, 6 times higher after 60 min and more than 14 times higher after 90 min. It is inferred that by inhibiting the filtering activity of the mussels SDS may reduce the natural self-purification capacity of aquatic ecosystems. The list of parameters of the ecosystem that may be changed under the effect of synthetic surfactants is given in Table 3. The experimental findings are discussed in the context of environmental protection and water quality improving with reference to literature data. 68. 1992 Ostroumov, S. A. and V. S. Khoroshilov (1992). Biological activity of waters polluted with a liquid surfactant-containing detergent. Izvestiya Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk, Seriya Biologicheskaya. No. 3: 452-458. 69. 1991 Yablokov A. V., Ostroumov S. A. Conservation of Living Nature and Resources: Problems, Trends, and Prospects. Berlin, New York et al. Springer. 1991. 272 p. Bibliogr.: p. 227-248. ISBN 3-540-52096-1; ISBN 0-387-52096-1. This work examines the problems arising from the deterioration of the environment and covers the issues of conservation at the molecular-genetic, the ontogenetic, the species-population and the ecosystem levels. The

book offers suggestions concerning changes in practice in agriculture, industry and recreation. 70. 1991 Ostroumov, S. A. and V. N. Maksimov (1991). A bioassay of surfactant solutions based on the disturbance of seedling adhesion to the substrate and the development of root hairs of the rhizodermis. - Izvestiya Akademii Nauk, Seriya Biologicheskaya, No.4, p. 571575. 71. 1990 Ostroumov, S. A. and L. S. Samoilenko (1990). Assessment of the efficiency of biotechnological destruction of anionic surfactant using biological tests. - Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta Seriya 16 (Biologiya), No. 3, p. 74-78. 72. 1990 Ostroumov, S. A. and A. N. Tret'yakova (1990). Effect of environmental pollution with a cationic surfactant on some algae and Fagopyrum esculentum Moench sprouts. – Ekologiya, No. 2: 43-46. 73. 1989 Yablokov A. V., Ostroumov S. A. Conservacion de la Naturaleza Viva. 1989. Moscu (Moscow).Vneshtorgizdat Press. Editorial Científico-Técnica. 238 p., fig., tab. Bibliogr.: p. 234-235 (in Spanish). 74. 1976 Drachev L. A., V. N. Frolov, A. D. Kaulen, E. A. Liberman, S. A. Ostroumov, V. G. Plakunova, A. Y. Semenov and V. P. Skulachev. Reconstitution of Biological Molecular generators of electric current. Bacteriorhodopsin. - J. Biol. Chem., 1976 Vol. 251, Issue 22, 7059-7065. [1. Photoinduced generation of electric current by bacteriorhodopsin, incorporated into the planar phospholipid membrane, has been directly measured with conventional electrometer techniques. 2. Two methods for bacteriorhodopsin incorporation have been developed: (a) formation of planar membrane from a mixture of decane solution of phospholipids and of the fraction of violet fragments of the Halobacterium halobium membrane (bacteriorhodopsin sheets), and (b) adhesion of bacteriorhodopsin-containing reconstituted spherical membranes (proteoliposomes) to the planar membrane in the presence of Ca2+ or some other cations. In both cases, illumination was found to induce electric current generation directed across the planar membrane, an effect which was measured by macroelectrodes immersed into electrolyte solutions on both sides of the membrane. 3. The maximal values of the transmembrane electric potential were of about 150 mV at a current of about 10(-11) A. The electromotive force measured by means of counterbalancing the photoeffect by an external battery, was found to reach the value of 300 mV. 4. The action spectrum of the photoeffect coincides with the bacteriorhodopsin absorption spectrum (maximum about 570 nm). 5. Both components of the electrochemical potential of H+ ions (electric potential and delta pH) across the planar membrane affect the bacteriorhodopsin photoelectric response in a fashion which could be expected if bacteriorhodopsin were a light-dependent electrogenic proton pump. 6. La3+ ions were shown to inhibit operation of those bacteriorhodopsin which pump out H+ ions from the La3+-containing compartment. 7. The photoeffect, mediated by proteoliposomes associated with thick planar membrane, is decreased by gramicidin A at concentrations which do not influence the planar membrane resistance in the light. On the contrary, a protonophorous uncoupler, trichlorocarbonylcyanidephenylhydrazone, decreases the photoeffect only if it is added at a concentration lowering the light resistance. The dark resistance is shown to be higher than the light one, and decreases to the light level by gramicidin. 8. A simple equivalent electric scheme consistent with the above results has been proposed]. 75. 1974 Drachev L. A., A. A. Jasaitis, A. D. Kaulen, A. A. Kondrashin, E. A. Liberman, I. B. Nemecek, S. A. Ostroumov, A. Yu. Semenov, V. P. Skulachev. Direct measurement of electric current generation by cytochrome oxidase, H+-ATPase and bacteriorhodopsin. -Nature 1974, 249: 321 – 324 [doi:10.1038/249321a0]. A method for association of proteoliposomes with planar phospholipid membrane has been elaborated, by which operation of molecular electric generators, such as cytochrome oxidase, H+-ATPase and bacteriorhodopsin, can be followed using ordinary electrometer techniques.