You are on page 1of 11

1.

Which of the following units could be used for power?


2

kg m s

kg m s

kg m s

kg m s

2 2
2 3

2 3

(Total 1 mark)

2.

A car pulls a trailer of weight 2500 N with a force of 20 N for a distance of 8 km along a
horizontal road.
How much work is done by the car in pulling the trailer?
A

160 J

20 000 J

160 000 J

20 000 000 J
(Total 1 mark)

3.

Information given about a ski lift states the following:


This lift transports 2800 people to the top each hour
The vertical rise is 420 m
The cable travels at 5.0 m s1
The maximum power consumption of the motor is 364 000 W

Pascal English School Larnaka

Assume throughout this question that the average mass of a skier plus equipment is 90 kg.
Show that the rate at which energy is converted to gravitational potential energy is about
300 000 W.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(3)

Show that the total kinetic energy given to the skiers on the lift in one hour is about 3 106 J.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

Calculate the rate, in watts. at which energy is converted to kinetic energy.


...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
Rate of energy conversion = ............................................... W
(1)

Pascal English School Larnaka

A student is asked to explain why the motor power consumption (364 000 W) is considerably
more than the rate at which energy is converted to gravitational potential energy
(about 300 000 W). His answer is kinetic energy and heat.
Discuss each of his answers in more detail.
Kinetic energy: .....................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................

Heat: .....................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 10 marks)

4.

One account of the origin of the term horsepower is as follows.


In the eighteenth century, James Watt manufactured steam engines. He needed a way to
demonstrate the benefits of these compared to the horses they replaced. He did some
calculations based on horses walking in circles to turn a mill wheel.
Watt observed that a horse could turn the wheel 144 times in one hour. The horse travelled in a
circle of radius 3.7 m and exerted a force of 800 N.

(a)

Show that the work done by the horse in turning the wheel through one revolution was
about 20 000 J.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(3)

Pascal English School Larnaka

(b)

Calculate the average power of the horse in SI units.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
Average power = ..............................................
(3)
(Total 6 marks)

5.

Two of the worlds biggest roller-coasters are Apollos Chariot in Busch Gardens, USA, and
The Big One in Blackpool, England. The principle of all roller-coasters is that gravitational
potential energy possessed by the vehicle at the top of a track is converted into kinetic energy at
the bottom.
In Apollos Chariot the vehicle drops a vertical distance of 64 m from rest.
1

Show that the expected speed of the vehicle at the bottom of the track is about 35 m s .
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(3)

State one assumption you have made in this calculation.


...............................................................................................................................................
(1)

The Busch Gardens brochure states that the speed of Apollos Chariot at the bottom is in fact
1
1
32.5 m s . Suggest and explain one reason why the speed might be less than 35 m s .
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

Pascal English School Larnaka

Calculate the efficiency of this energy conversion as the vehicle runs down the track.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
Efficiency = ...............................................
(3)

Vehicles on The Big One fall through an almost identical vertical distance to those on Apollos
1
Chariot; but the owners of The Big One claim that the speed at the bottom is 38 m s .
Assume their claim is truthful, and that the vertical falls are the same. Suggest how the vehicles
1
on The Big One could have a speed of 38 m s at the bottom.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 10 marks)

Pascal English School Larnaka

6.

The photograph shows a model of Warwolf, a siege engine used in the thirteenth century. It
was used to attack castles by firing missiles from a sling.

To operate this model, coins are placed in the basket and a small projectile is placed in the sling.
When the basket is released, it falls quickly, swinging the lever arm up and shooting the
projectile from the sling.

(a)

On one occasion the mass of coins placed in the basket is 0.41 kg. The basket falls
through a vertical distance of 7.0 cm.
Calculate the maximum amount of energy available to launch the projectile.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
Energy = ........................................................
(2)

Pascal English School Larnaka

(b)

An energy conversion calculation predicts a projectile speed of 16 m s . The projectile is


observed to fly out of the sling at an angle of 40 to the horizontal.
Resolve this velocity into horizontal and vertical components.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
Horizontal component = ....................................
Vertical component = ........................................
(3)

(c)

The predicted range is 27 m. When measured, the range is found to be only 8 m.


Air resistance and friction in the machine are possible reasons for the difference.
Without further calculation, explain another reason why the projectile does not go as far
as predicted.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

Pascal English School Larnaka

7.

The graph shows how kinetic energy varies with distance for a train accelerating from a station.

The quantity represented by the gradient of the graph is


A

acceleration

force

power

velocity
(Total 1 mark)

8.

A student is asked to determine the output of a motor as it lifts an object. He measures the
height through which the object is raised, the time taken and the weight of the object.
To find the power he must calculate
A

height weight time

height weight
time

time weight
height

weight
height time
(Total 1 mark)

Pascal English School Larnaka

9.

Three identical resistors are connected across a potential difference V so that one of them is in
parallel with the other two which are connected in series. The power dissipated through the first
one, compared to the power dissipated by each of the other two, is approximately
A

the same

half as much

twice as much

four times as much


(Total 1 mark)

10.

For each of the physical quantities in the table below add the missing information. The first one
has been done for you.
Physical quantity
force

Base units
kg m s

Vector or scalar
vector

displacement
gravitational potential
energy
power
(Total 3 marks)

Pascal English School Larnaka

11.

On the River Rhone there is a spectacular series of hydroelectric power plants at Gnissiat in the
French Jura mountains. At the visitor centre, the following information is given about the
biggest of the seven hydroelectric power plants:
Electrical energy supplied in one year
Height through which water falls
Maximum output
Average daily capacity

15

6.1 10 J
64.5 m
6
420 10 W
6 3
28 10 m

Show that the amount of water described as average daily capacity can provide energy of
13
about 2 10 J as it passes through this hydroelectric power plant.
3
(1 m of water has a mass of 1000 kg.)
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(2)

Calculate the efficiency of the system over one year.


...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
Efficiency = .........................................................
(3)

Calculate the average electrical power output over the whole year. (1 year = 3.16 10 s)
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
Power = ...............................................................
(2)

Pascal English School Larnaka

10

Suggest a reason why the power output varies over the course of a year.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 8 marks)

Pascal English School Larnaka

11