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Karate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Karate (空手 ? ) ( listen ) or karate-do (空手道 ? ) is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Islands from indigenous fighting methods and Chinese kenpō.[1][2] It is primarily a striking art using punching, kicking, knee and elbow strikes and open-handed techniques such as knife-hands and ridge-hands. Grappling, locks, restraints, throws, and vital point strikes are taught in some styles.[3] A karate practitioner is called a karateka.

Karate (空手)

1 History 1.1 Okinawa 1.2 Japan 2 Practice 2.1 Kihon 2.2 Kata 2.3 Kumite 2.4 Dojo Kun 2.5 Conditioning 2.6 Sport 2.7 Rank 3 Philosophy 4 Etymology 4.1 Chinese Hand 4.2 Empty Hand 4.3 Nomenclature 5 Issues 5.1 Dishonest practice 5.2 Kata and Kobudo 6 Karate outside Japan 6.1 Korea 6.2 Soviet Union 6.3 United States 6.4 United Kingdom 7 Film and popular culture 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Hanashiro Chomo

Also known as Focus Hardness Country of origin

Karate-dō (空手道) Striking full contact

Japan (Ryukyu Islands from indigenous fighting methods and Chinese kenpō[1][2] and further explored in Japan) Creator Sakukawa Kanga; Matsumura Sōkon; Itosu Ankō; Arakaki Seishō; Higaonna Kanryō; Gichin Funakoshi Parenthood Chinese martial arts, indigenous martial arts of Ryukyu Islands (Naha-te, Shuri-te, Tomari-te) Olympic No Sport


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to escape Japanese military 2 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ . particularly Fujian Province. The forms he created are common across nearly all styles of karate. Members of the Okinawan upper classes were sent to China regularly to study various political and practical disciplines. Chojun Miyagi. and Seikichi Toguchi.[6] Further influence came from Southeast Asia— particularly Sumatra. and nunchaku may have originated in and around Southeast Asia. tonfa. Java. and Tomari-te. Five Ancestors.[5] Each area and its teachers had particular kata." written as 唐手. and principles that distinguished their local version of ti from the others. are also factors that furthered the development of unarmed combat techniques in Okinawa.Karate . Many Okinawan weapons such as the sai." This was the first known recorded reference to the art of "Tudi. Traditional karate kata bear a strong resemblance to the forms found in Fujian martial arts such as Fujian White Crane.php?title=Karate&printable=yes Okinawa See also: Okinawan martial arts Karate began as a common fighting system known as "ti" (or "te") among the pechin class of the Ryukyuans. He created the ping'an forms ("heian" or "pinan" in Japanese) which are simplified kata for beginning students. Kenwa Mabuni. originator of kusanku kata).wikipedia."[7] In 1881 Higaonna Kanryo returned from China after years of instruction with Ryu Ryu Ko and founded what would become Naha-te. including Gichin Funakoshi. under the guidance of Kosokun. Around the 1820s Sakukawa's most significant student Matsumura Sokon (1809–1899) taught a synthesis of te (Shuri-te and Tomari-te) and Shaolin (Chinese 少林) styles.' enforced in Okinawa after the invasion of the Shimazu clan in 1609. the free encyclopedia http://en. Ankō Itosu Grandfather of Modern Karate In addition to the three early ti styles of karate a fourth Okinawan influence is that of Kanbun Uechi (1877–1948). The incorporation of empty-handed Chinese wu shu into Okinawan martial arts occurred partly because of these exchanges. At the age of 20 he went to Fuzhou in Fujian Province. Matsumura's style would later become the Shorin-ryū style. Miyazato Ei'ichi. Sakukawa Kanga (1782–1838) had studied pugilism and staff (bo) fighting in China (according to one legend. These forms were taught to children at the elementary school level. Itosu is sometimes referred to as "the Grandfather of Modern Karate. The political centralization of Okinawa by King Shohashi in 1429 and the 'Policy of Banning Weapons. His students became some of the most well known karate masters. but rather many practitioners with their own methods. After trade relationships were established with the Ming dynasty of China by Chuzan King Satto in 1372. Meitoku Yagi. China. Itosu's influence in karate is broad." which meant "Sakukawa of China Hand. and Melaka. These are kusanku and chiang nan. Naha-te. techniques. and Choki Motobu. named after the three cities from which they emerged.Wikipedia. In 1901 Itosu helped to get karate introduced into Okinawa's public schools. One surviving example is the Motobu-ryu school passed down from the Motobu family by Seikichi Uehara.[4] Early styles of karate are often generalized as Shuri-te.[2] There were few formal styles of ti. pronounced "Gōjūken" in Japanese).org/w/index. and Gangrou-quan (Hard Soft Fist. In 1806 he started teaching a fighting art in the city of Shuri that he called "Tudi Sakukawa. Chojun Miyagi taught such well-known karateka as Seko Higa (who also trained with Higaonna). Itosu adapted two forms he had learned from Matsumara. A group of 36 Chinese families moved to Okinawa around 1392 for the purpose of cultural exchange and shared their knowledge of the Chinese martial arts. One of his students was the founder of Goju-ryu. Matsumura taught his art to Itosu Ankō (1831–1915) among others. many forms of Chinese martial arts were introduced to the Ryukyu Islands by the visitors from China.

and the rise of Japanese expansionism (1905–1945). and Shinken Taira (from left to right) Japan was invading China at the time. iaido from iaijutsu and Taido from Taijutsu. These were mostly political changes. rather than changes to the content of the forms. Funakoshi changed the names of many kata and the name of the art itself (at least on mainland Japan). Kanken Tōyama.wikipedia. prominent teachers who also influenced the spread of karate in Japan included Kenwa Mabuni. It includes Japan's annexation of the Okinawan island group in 1872. Like most martial arts practiced in Japan. wanshu as empi.Karate . The modernization and systemization of karate in Japan also included the adoption of the white uniform that consisted of the kimono and the dogi or keikogi—mostly called just karategi—and colored belt ranks. and so on. chinto as gankaku. the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895). the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905). and Kanbun not just a study of the technical aspects of fighting. karate made its transition from -jutsu to -dō around the beginning of the 20th century. the three naihanchi forms became known as tekki. While there he studied under Shushiwa. Actually many Okinawans were actively teaching. During this time period.[8] He later developed his own style of Uechi-ryu karate based on the Sanchin. Funakoshi had trained in two of the popular branches of Okinawan karate of the time. incorporating some ideas about distancing and timing into his style. He always referred to what he taught as simply karate. Genwa Nakasone. Shorin-ryū and Shorei-ryū. 1930s) Kanken Toyama. Kenwa Mabuni. judo from jujutsu. Funakoshi also gave Japanese names to many of the kata. and Sanseiryu kata that he had studied in China. the free encyclopedia http://en. Takeshi Shimoda." The dō suffix implies that karatedō is a path to self knowledge. In Japan he was influenced by kendo. Gichin Funakoshi.Wikipedia. founder of Shotokan karate. Funakoshi was a student of both Asato Ankō and Itosu Ankō (who had worked to introduce karate to the Okinawa Prefectural School System in 1902). and are thus equally responsible for the development of karate. Choki Motobu. Hironori Ohtsuka. Masters of karate in Tokyo (c. thus the change of the art's name to "way of the empty hand. doing so to get karate accepted by the Japanese budo organization Dai Nippon Butoku Kai. although Funakoshi did introduce some such changes. as aikido is distinguished from aikijutsu. but in 1936 he built a dojo in Tokyo and the style he left behind is usually called Shotokan after this dojo. kendo from kenjutsu.[9] Japan See also: Japanese martial arts Gichin Funakoshi. Seisan. This was a turbulent period in history in the region. The "dō" in "karate-dō" sets it apart from karate "jutsu". seisan as hangetsu. He was a leading figure of Chinese Nanpa Shorin-ken at that time. the annexation of Korea. The five pinan forms became known as heian. Choki Motobu. is generally credited with having introduced and popularized karate on the main islands of Japan. and Funakoshi knew that the art of Tang/China hand would not be accepted. Chojun Miyagi.php?title=Karate&printable=yes conscription. Both of these Gichin Funakoshi Founder of Shotokan Karate 3 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ .

He experimented with other. Gojū-ryū karate. His prowess in martial arts led him to become the Chief Instructor of Shindō Yōshin-ryū jujutsu at the age of 30." Many other karate organizations based are descended from the Kyokushin curriculum. In the following years. In 1944. in turn. where he saw Funakoshi's karate. By 1929. physical toughness. The name means. while not very popular in Okinawa. This recognition meant a departure for Ohtsuka from his medical practice and the fulfilment of a life's ambition—to become a full-time martial artist.php?title=Karate&printable=yes innovations were originated and popularized by Jigoro Kano." The style. They were so impressed with his style and commitment that they acknowledged him as a high-ranking instructor. and named by him on January 15. kendo. Shōrin-ryū. Ohtsuka thought that the full spirit of budō. In 1922. Okinawan karate at this time was only concerned with kata. Ohtsuka's personalized style of Karate was officially registered in 1938 after he was awarded the rank of Renshi-go. He blended the practical and useful elements of Okinawan karate with traditional Japanese martial arts techniques from jujitsu and kendo. and aikido. which led to the birth of kumite. The World Karate Federation recognizes these styles of karate in its kata list Shōtōkan-ryū Shitō-ryū Gōjū-ryū Wadō-ryū The World Union of Karate-do Organizations (WUKO)[10] recognizes these styles of karate in its kata list. many variations of the system formed and exist to this day. Hironori Ohtsuka attended the Tokyo Sports Festival. and practical application of karate techniques to self-defense situations. or free fighting. Wadō-ryū karate was officially recognized as an independent style of karate. full-force sparring. in karate. literally. and Kobudo. Ohtsuka was registered as a member of the Japan Martial Arts Federation. which concentrates on defence and attack. was missing.Karate . Gōjū-ryū. 4 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ . Shōtōkan-ryū. Shitō-ryū. the free encyclopedia http://en. Wadō-ryū. spread to the United States via the Marines stationed on the island after they returned home. Because of its emphasis on physical. Isshin-ryū is a style of Okinawan karate founded by Shimabuku Tatsuo. Isshin-ryū karate is largely a synthesis of Shorin-ryū karate. and that kata techniques did not work in realistic fighting situations. Kyokushin taught a curriculum that emphasized contact. and has also spread to other countries. the founder of judo and one of the men Funakoshi consulted in his efforts to modernize karate. In 1934. and an assistant instructor in Funakoshi's dojo. The next year the Japan Martial Arts Federation asked all the different styles to register their names. a student of Motobu Choki. Funakoshi was. Ohtsuka was so impressed with this that he visited Funakoshi many times during his stay. Kyokushin is now often called "full contact karate. Ohtsuka registered the name Ohtsuka set up a medical practice dealing with martial arts injuries. A new form of karate called Kyokushin was developed in 1964 by Masutatsu Oyama (who was born a Korean. and agreed to teach him. Ohtsuka was appointed Japan's Chief Karate Instructor.Wikipedia. Ohtsuka thought that there was a need for this more dynamic type of karate to be taught. After the passing of Shimabuku. Uechi-ryū. "one heart method. more combative styles such as judo. He presented a demonstration of Wado-ryu karate for the Japan Martial Arts Federation. Choi Yeong-Eui). impressed by Ohtsuka's enthusiasm and determination to understand karate. and he decided to leave Funakoshi to concentrate on developing his own style of karate: Wadō-ryū. 1956.wikipedia.

Requirements for examinations vary among schools. Typically this is performance in unison of a technique or a combination of techniques by a group of karateka. and knowledge of application. kata (forms). one of the basic karate correct beginning and especially ending. The various moves have multiple interpretations and applications. 5 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ . Kihon may also be prearranged drills in smaller groups or in pairs. Kihon Karate styles place varying importance on kihon. Weapons (kobudō) is important training activity in some styles. Vigorous arm movements enhance cardiovascular fitness and upper body strength. Because the applicability for actual self-defense is so flexible there is no definitively correct way to interpret all one or more of these styles. The longer kata require the karateka to learn many complex movements. confidence." Kata is a formalized sequence of movements which represent various attack and defense postures. Even the same instructor will teach a particular kata slightly differently as the years pass. dachi. Kata Kata (型:かた) means literally "shape" or "model. Karate training is commonly divided into kihon (basics or fundamentals). virtue. or as self defense training. That is why only high ranking practitioners are qualified to judge adequate form for their own style. The Japanese terminology for grades or ranks is commonly used. Practice See also: Okinawan kobudo and Japanese martial arts#Philosophical and strategic concepts Karate can be practiced as budo.[11] Modern Japanese style training emphasizes the psychological elements incorporated into a proper kokoro (attitude) such as perseverance. This practice develops leg strength. Some kata use low and wide stances. as a sport. and leadership skills. correct posture.Wikipedia.Karate . as a combat sport. To attain a formal rank the karateka must demonstrate competent performance of specific required kata for that level. Some of the Choki Motobu in Naihanchicriteria for judging the quality of a performance are: Absence of missteps. crispness and smoothness. and gracefulness. correct stances speed and power. Kata vary in number of movements and difficulty.wikipedia. Budōkan. Physical routines were a logical way to preserve this type of knowledge. Many schools would be affiliated with. Traditional karate places emphasis on self development (budo). the free encyclopedia http://en. Sport karate places emphasis on exercise and competition. These postures are based on idealized combat applications.php?title=Karate&printable=yes Kyokushinkai. Diligent training and correct mindfulness lead to real understanding of combat principles. and kumite (sparring). fearlessness. Kata with the same name are often performed differently in other styles of karate. or heavily influenced by. Kata are taught with minor variations among schools of the same style.

[14] All practices vary depending upon the school and the teacher.[17] International competition is well organized. in 1940. sporting attitude. kumite was not part of karate training. power. Levels of physical contact during sparring vary considerably. speed."[15] In pre-World War II Okinawa. In free sparring (Jiyu Kumite). The WKF has developed common rules governing all styles. and stress management. The nigiri game is a large jar used for developing grip strength. and muscle coordination. The national WKF organisations coordinate with their respective National Olympic Committees. Karate does not have 2012 Olympic status. rank and sex of the participants. flexibility. In structured kumite (Yakusoku . the two participants have a free choice of scoring techniques. WKF karate competition has two disciplines: sparring (kumite) and forms (kata) Competitors may enter either as individuals or as part of a team.prearranged). take-downs and sweeps are also allowed.wikipedia. anaerobic exercise. Sparring in armour (bogu kumite) allows full power techniques with some safety.[16] Shigeru Egami relates that. Evaluation for kata and kobudo is performed by a panel of judges. some karateka were ousted from their dojo because they adopted sparring after having learned it in Tokyo. The makiwara is a striking post." Kumite is practiced both as a sport and as self-defense training. the preferred win is by knockout. Sport kumite is free or structured with no-contact or light contact and points are awarded by a referee.[13] Sport Karate emphasises aerobic Sport Gichin Funakoshi (船越 義珍) said. The allowed techniques and contact level are usually determined by the age. stamina. "There are no contests in karate. awareness/zanshin. 6 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ . Full contact karate has several variants. In the 117th IOC Session (July 2005). The World Karate Federation (WKF) is recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as being responsible for karate competition in the Olympic games.php?title=Karate&printable=yes Kumite Sparring in Karate is called kumite (組手:くみて). In Kickboxing variants ( for example K-1). karate received more than half of the votes. Knockdown karate (such as Kyokushin) uses full power techniques to bring an opponent to the ground. The form ends with one devastating technique (Hito Tsuki). but not the two-thirds majority needed to become an official Olympic sport. Conditioning Okinawan karate uses supplementary training known as hojo undo. This utilizes simple equipment made of wood and stone. Points are awarded based on the criteria: good form. The bout runs for a fixed time (2 to 3 minutes. the free encyclopedia http://en.) The time can run continuously (Iri Kume) or be stopped for referee judgment. These guidelines apply both in the dojo (training hall) and in everyday life. Depending upon style. good timing and correct distance. two participants perform a choreographed series of techniques with one striking while the other blocks. It literally means "meeting of hands.Karate .[12] Dojo Kun In the bushidō tradition dojo kun is a set of guidelines for kareteka to follow. Free sparring is performed in a marked or closed area. vigorous application.Wikipedia. agility. These supplementary exercises are designed to increase strength.

but testing may include everything learned at that point. national. and experience." Funakoshi believed that one should be "inwardly humble and outwardly gentle. and international organizations that hold competitions. In the Kyū/Dan system the beginner grades start with a higher numbered kyū (e. age." It is understood that one blow from a real expert could mean death. The demonstration is an application for new rank (shinsa) and may include kata. primacy.php?title=Karate&printable=yes whereas sparring is judged by a head referee.wikipedia. He stated that Karate practitioners must "never be easily drawn into a fight. and coordination.. This is done by listening and being receptive to criticism.[20] Etymology Hypothetically." Only by behaving humbly can one be open to Karate's many lessons. rank in belt in front of his Rank In 1924 Gichin Funakoshi founder of Shotokan Karate adopted the Dan system from judo founder Jigoro Kano[19] using a rank scheme with a limited set of belt colors. 9th Kyū) and progress toward a lower numbered kyū. Speed and power are added at higher grades. balance. gender.Karate . and/or kumite (sparring). Dan-grade karateka are referred to as A young student graduates up a yudansha (holders of dan rank). or 'beginning dan') to the higher dan grades. the free encyclopedia http://en. Testing consists of demonstration of techniques before a panel of examiners. The Dan progression continues from 1st Dan (Shodan. The World Union of Karate-do Organizations (WUKO)[18] offers different styles and federations a world body they may join.Wikipedia. self-defense. routines. Philosophy Gichin Funakoshi interpreted the "kara" of Karatedo to mean "to purge [oneself] of selfish and evil thoughts. Chinese Hand Karate was originally written as Chinese hand in kanji. bunkai. without having to compromise their style or size. There are other regional. To separate fact from fancy requires understanding issues of nationalism. The WKF accepts only one organization per country. It is clear that those who misuse what they have learned bring dishonor upon themselves. tameshiwari (breaking). The WUKO accepts more than one federation or association per country. lineage." He taught that indecisiveness is a weakness. Kyū ranks stress stance. organizations. It was later changed to a homophone meaning empty 7 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ .. He promoted the character trait of personal conviction. and philosophy. or just new information. He considered courtesy of prime importance. He said that "Karate is properly applied only in those rare situations in which one really must either down another or be downed by him. In "time of grave public crisis. one must have the courage. Kyū-grade karateka are referred to as "color belt" or mudansha ("ones without dan").g. This will vary by school. Requirements of rank differ among styles. and schools. For only with a clear mind and conscience can [the practitioner] understand that [knowledge] which he receives. any unarmed combat system could accurately be called "karate" since the Japanese phrase literally means "empty hand. Other Okinawan teachers also adopted this practice. Minimum age and time in rank are factors affecting face a million and one opponents.. Black belt testing may also include a written examination." This is not necessarily an acceptable conclusion. usually with assistant referees at the side of the sparring area." Funakoshi did not consider it unusual for a devotee to use Karate in a real physical confrontation no more than perhaps once in a lifetime. Yudansha typically wear a black belt. Sparring matches are typically divided by weight.

[24] Karate outside Japan 8 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ . In this context dō is usually translated as "the way of. But in 1935. Empty Hand The original use of "Chinese hand. [22] In 1933. It implies that these arts are not just fighting systems but contain spiritual elements when promoted as disciplines. "karate" was written as "唐手" (Chinese hand). and way. At that time referring to Chinese origins of karate was considered politically incorrect. The original use of the word karate in print is attributed to Anko Itosu. and kendo (剣道:けんどう)." “Chinese fist." Since there are no written records it is not known definitely whether the kara in karate was originally written with the character 唐 meaning China or the character 空 meaning empty.Wikipedia. the Okinawan art of karate was recognized as a Japanese martial art by the Japanese Martial Arts Committee known as the "Butoku Kai". a large number of disreputable.php?title=Karate&printable=yes hand. path.. This is a book by Hanashiro Chomo (1869–1945) which was published in August 1905. the free encyclopedia http://en. Kata and Kobudo Many applications from karate kata seem very mysterious or impractical.[21] Thus the word karate was originally a way of expressing "Chinese hand.[23] Nomenclature Another nominal development is the addition of dō (道:どう) to the end of the word karate. It is used in many martial arts that survived Japan's transition from feudal culture to modern times. both in mass media and reality. In the early 20th century Japan did not have good relations with China. Commonly referred to as a "McDojo" or a "Black Belt Mill.Karate . Nathan Johnson claims that most antique karate kata were developed for use with weapons rather than as open hand techniques. fraudulent. the masters of the various styles of Okinawan karate conferred to decide a new name for their art. He wrote it with the kanji 唐手: からて (Tang Dynasty hand) rather than the present usage of 空手:からて (empty hand)." "Tang hand. The first documented use of a homophone of the logogram pronounced kara by replacing the character meaning Tang Dynasty (唐 から) with the character meaning empty (空 から) took place in Karate Kumite. or misguided teachers and schools have arisen over the last approximate 40 years." these schools are commonly headed by martial artists of either dubious skill or business ethics." or "martial art from China. During the time when admiration for China and things Chinese was at its height in the Ryukus it was the custom to use the former character when referring to things of fine They decided to call their art "karate" written in Japanese characters as "空手" (empty hand). Issues Dishonest practice Due to the popularity of martial arts. Dō is a suffix having numerous meanings including road. judo (柔道:じゅうどう).” or "Chinese techniques" (depending on interpretation of 唐手) reflects the documented Chinese influence on karate. Thus karatedō is more than just empty hand techniques. The kanji representing it remained in use in Okinawa as a way to refer to China generally.. route.wikipedia. The Tang Dynasty of China ended in AD 907. Until 1935." Examples are aikido (合気道:あいきどう). In 1932 Japan attacked China and occupied its northern territory. It is The Way Of The Empty Hand. It should be noted that use of the written character is possibly linked to the origins of karate from China.

but under strict government regulations. began teaching in the United States. many Korean martial arts schools were founded by masters with training in Chinese. only after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1992 did independent karate schools resume functioning. In 1970 Paul Arel founded Kokondo Karate which is a sister style of Jukido Jujitsu developed in 1959. Failing to suppress these uncontrolled groups. In 1966. United Kingdom In the 1950s and 1960s. the Soviet Karate Federation was disbanded and all karate became illegal again. founder of Gosoku-ryu. Louis Kowlowski.[27] In 1973. For example. During the occupation. In the 1960s. Richard Kim (Shorinji-ryu). After regaining independence from Japan. In 1945 Robert Trias opened the first martial arts school in the United States in Phoenix. and so federations were formed and national tournaments in authentic styles began. It should be noted that contemporary taekwondo is technically very different from karate (e. Bruce Terrill. and Peter Urban (Goju-kai) all began instructing in the US. etc).[26] Karate also provided an important comparative model for the early founders of taekwondo in the formalization of their art inheriting some kata and the belt rank system. Ken Pittaway (Isshinryu). a significant figure in taekwondo history.[28] United States After World War 2. relocated the International Karate Association from Tokyo to California. Takayuki Kubota. In 1965. Gordon Doversola (Okinawa-te). Edward Kaloudis. John Pachivas. Don Nagle (Isshin-ryu). more jumps. karate practice became legal again. relies much more on legs than hands.[30] Takayuki Mikami were sent to New Orleans by the JKA in 1963. the free encyclopedia http://en. and Korean martial arts.Wikipedia. Anthony Mirakian (Goju-ryu). members of the US military learned karate in Okinawa or Japan and then opened schools in the USA. Jay Trombley (Goju-ryu). Hong Hi Choi. involves high kicks on the heels. the government banned karate—together with all other foreign martial arts—endorsing only the Soviet martial art of during Khruschev's policy of improved international relations. Gosei Yamaguchi (Goju-ryu). the USSR's Sport Committee formed the Karate Federation of USSR in December 1978. Arizona. a co-founder of the JKA and student of Masatoshi Nakayama.Karate . however. Cecil Paterson (Wado-ryu). In the 1950s.g. Allen Steen. Bill Pogue (Isshinryu). Teruyuki Okazaki (Shotokan). the influence of karate on Korean martial arts is a contentious issue. Tatsuo Suzuki began teaching Wadō-ryū in London. Soviet Union Karate appeared in the Soviet Union in the mid-1960s. Steve Armstrong. William Dometrich (Chito-ryu).php?title=Karate&printable=yes Korea Due to past conflict between Korea and Japan. several Japanese karate masters began to teach the art in the United Kingdom. The first Shotokan clubs were opened in Moscow's universities.[29] In 1961 Hidetaka Nishiyama.[27] On 17 May 1984. Japanese. George Mattson (Uechi-ryu). Sea Oh Choi (Hapkido). a Shuri-ryu karate dojo. In 1989. This accomplishment earned him the title of “Father of American Karate”.[31] In 1964. members of the former British Karate Federation established the Karate Union of Great Britain (KUGB) under Hirokazu Kanazawa as chief 9 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ . most notably during the Japanese occupation in the 20th century. many Koreans went to Japan[25] and were exposed to Japanese martial arts. studied Shotokan karate in Japan.wikipedia. Ed Parker (Kenpo). and J Pat Burleson all began teaching martial arts around the country.

jp/023/eng/009/001/index. Traditional Karatedo Vol. wrist locks.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia http://en. Film Stars and Their Styles Practitioner Sonny Chiba Sean Connery Fumio Demura Dolph Lundgren Michael Jai White Martial Art Style Goju Ryu & Kyokushin Kyokushin Shito ryu Kyokushin Kyokushin / Shotokan / Goju ryu Jean-Claude Van Damme Shotokan See also Comparison of karate styles Japanese martial arts Karate stances Karate kata Okinawan martial arts List of martial arts References 1. ^ a b Okinawan Karate. 7. Morio (1985). Mark (1989). strikes and kicks in a gentle manner to neutralize an attack. and it was credible to show Western experts of unarmed combat as unaware of Eastern martial arts of this kind. a new association split off from KUGB. ISBN 0-7136-5666-2. ^ Bishop. Mark (1989).php?title=Karate&printable=yes instructor[32] and affiliated to JKA. pp. For example Chojun Miyagi adapted Rokkishu of White Crane into Tensho ^ Patrick McCarthy. Okinawan Karate. ISBN 0-7136-5666-2. Tetsuhiro (2005). 5." 4. Kanazawa left the UK after 3 years and Enoeda took over. Morio (1985). Chapter 9 covers Motobu-ryu and Bigeikan. grappling. 19.html) ^ Hokama.koryu-uchinadi. karate was at times described to readers in near-mythical terms. 154. two 'ti' styles with grappling and vital point striking /thinking_outside_the_box. Motobu-ryu & Seikichi Uehara ^ Higaonna. 6. 1 Fundamental Techniques. pp. Seitoku Higa: "Use pressure on vital points. the KUGB elected Andy Sherry as Chief Instructor. pp. ^ Bishop. After Enoeda’s death in 2003.wonderokinawa. 17. 9. pp. The Karate Kid (1984) is a film relating the fictional story of an American adolescent's introduction into karate. Film and popular culture Karate spread rapidly in the West through popular /001/001/index. teaching at a dojo in Liverpool. pp. 1 Fundamental Techniques. In 1950s popular fiction. Page 165. Keinosuke Enoeda came to England at the same time as Kanazawa. 8.Wikipedia. 28.html history of Okinawan Karate 3. footnote #4 (http://www. ^ Bishop.Karate . ISBN 0-87040-595-0.[33] By the 1970s. 100 Masters of 10 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ . Shortly after this.wonder-okinawa. ISBN 0-87040-595-0.htm) ^ Kanbun Uechi history (http://www. martial arts films had formed a mainstream genre that propelled karate and other Asian martial arts into mass popularity. Mark (1989). 153–166. ISBN 0-7136-5666-2. Okinawan Karate. ^ a b c http://www. Traditional Karatedo Vol. 2. JKA England.

^ nishiyama (http://www. pp. / ^ Funakoshi. "Karate-Do Kyohan . 20. 26. and describes the Korean 'Oddjob' in these terms: Goldfinger said. 20. 25. Okinawa: Ozata ISBN 0-87040-595-0. ^ "History of Shotokan (Russian) (http://karateshotokan. ^ Mitchell. ^ Hokama.wonder-okinawa. History of Ranking in Karate (http://www. "Have you ever heard of Karate? No? Well that man is one of the three in the world who have achieved the Black Belt in Karate. ^ International Association of Shotokan Karate (IASK) (http://www.".org/eng/rules / (http://babelfish. Ian Fleming's book Goldfinger ( as utterly ignorant of Karate and its demonstrations.html) 31.gojuryu._5. ISBN 0-87040-848-9. 14. 27. but it is to judo what a spandau is to a catapult. 29. 17. ^ Shigeru. Morio (1990).html. ^ International Traditional Karate Federation (ITKF) (http://www.Wikipedia. 136. ^ a b karate-shotokan. the free encyclopedia http://en. The Great Karate Myth. Retrieved on Traditional Karatedo Vol.wikipedia. 19. Traditional Karatedo Vol. 1 Fundamental Techniques.php?article_id=43) WKF Karate Records (http://www.japanfocus. 4 Applications of the Kata. 100 Masters of Okinawan Karate. 1 Fundamental Techniques. Morio (1985). Egami (1976).wikipedia. pp.php&lp=ru_en& btnTrUrl=Translate) 28. ^ Johnson. Nathan (2006). /articles. ISBN 0-87011-816-1.The Master Text" Tokyo. ^ World Karate Federation Competition Rules (http://www. External links Karate in the Okinawa Prefecture (http://www. ^ [1] (http://www. ^ WUKO .allsouthkarate. /Downloads /wkf_competition_rules_english_version__5. "Legal Categories. ISBN 0954960939.answers. ^ The Original Martial Arts Encyclopedia. John Corcoran and Emil Farkas. Kodansha International.itkf. David (1991). 19. Inc. ^ Higaonna. ^ /" Categories: Combat sports | Dō | Gendai budo | Japanese martial arts | Karate | Martial arts by type | Okinawan martial arts | Sport in Japan Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from August 2007 | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements since October 2008 11 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ . The Heart of Karate-Dō. 111.91-95) describes the protagonist James Bond. The Heart of Karate-Do. 18.gojuryu. New Paltz Karate ^ All Gojuryu Network (http://www.htm) Extensive explanation of Rank and Grade in Karate (http://www. 170-197 30. pp.htm) 33.shotokanway. ISBN 0-87011-816-1. Morio (1985). The Wykeham Press. ^ Shigeru. Maurey (1998) What's In A Name? How the meaning of the term karate has changed. 113.php?title=Karate&printable=yes Okinawan Karate.gojuryu. ISBN 0-7136-3402-2 pages = /details/2220) ". Retrieved on 2007-05-15. 16. ^ Nozaki. Karate is a branch of judo. Retrieved from "http://en. Egami (1976).php) ". an expert in unarmed combat. Retrieved on pp.World Union of Karate-Do Organizations (http://www. 23.wuko-karate. Levitz. 15. 28. ISBN 0-87040-595-0. p..html) Goju Ryu Information extended to Okinawa and Japanese Karate (http://www. Traditional Karatedo /translate_url?doit=done&tt=url&intl=1&fr=bfhome&trurl=http%3A%2F%2Fkarateshotokan. Okinawa: Ozata Print.htm) ". ^ "A History Of Taekwon Do (http://utf.php?option=com_content&task=view& id=3&Itemid=2) Japanese Karate Masters Association of North America ( Names of China /index.pdf) 11. Tae-young Kim. 21.pdf) 13. ^ Higaonna. ^ Higaonna. Demographic Change and Japan’s Korean Residents in the Long Twentieth Century (http://www. Winning Karate Competition.php?article_id=43) All South Karate (http://www. pp.mastersoftherisingsun. Tetsuhiro (2005). ^ WUKO World Union of Karate-do Organizations (http://www.judoinfo. pgs. Hiromitsu Inokuchi.newpaltzkarate. Such a description in a popular novel assumed and relied upon Karate being almost unknown in the /articles. 1973.Karate . ^ For example.whsites.

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