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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Karate (空手 ? ) ( listen ) or karate-do (空手道 ? ) is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Islands from indigenous fighting methods and Chinese kenpō. It is primarily a striking art using punching, kicking, knee and elbow strikes and open-handed techniques such as knife-hands and ridge-hands. Grappling, locks, restraints, throws, and vital point strikes are taught in some styles. A karate practitioner is called a karateka.
1 History 1.1 Okinawa 1.2 Japan 2 Practice 2.1 Kihon 2.2 Kata 2.3 Kumite 2.4 Dojo Kun 2.5 Conditioning 2.6 Sport 2.7 Rank 3 Philosophy 4 Etymology 4.1 Chinese Hand 4.2 Empty Hand 4.3 Nomenclature 5 Issues 5.1 Dishonest practice 5.2 Kata and Kobudo 6 Karate outside Japan 6.1 Korea 6.2 Soviet Union 6.3 United States 6.4 United Kingdom 7 Film and popular culture 8 See also 9 References 10 External links
Also known as Focus Hardness Country of origin
Karate-dō (空手道) Striking full contact
Japan (Ryukyu Islands from indigenous fighting methods and Chinese kenpō and further explored in Japan) Creator Sakukawa Kanga; Matsumura Sōkon; Itosu Ankō; Arakaki Seishō; Higaonna Kanryō; Gichin Funakoshi Parenthood Chinese martial arts, indigenous martial arts of Ryukyu Islands (Naha-te, Shuri-te, Tomari-te) Olympic No Sport
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Java. Further influence came from Southeast Asia— particularly Sumatra. and principles that distinguished their local version of ti from the others. Itosu's influence in karate is broad. The political centralization of Okinawa by King Shohashi in 1429 and the 'Policy of Banning Weapons. The forms he created are common across nearly all styles of karate. techniques. Ankō Itosu Grandfather of Modern Karate In addition to the three early ti styles of karate a fourth Okinawan influence is that of Kanbun Uechi (1877–1948).Karate . Each area and its teachers had particular kata. Kenwa Mabuni." This was the first known recorded reference to the art of "Tudi. Members of the Okinawan upper classes were sent to China regularly to study various political and practical disciplines. Itosu adapted two forms he had learned from Matsumara. Sakukawa Kanga (1782–1838) had studied pugilism and staff (bo) fighting in China (according to one legend.wikipedia.org/w/index. One surviving example is the Motobu-ryu school passed down from the Motobu family by Seikichi Uehara. One of his students was the founder of Goju-ryu. These forms were taught to children at the elementary school level. His students became some of the most well known karate masters. but rather many practitioners with their own methods. Chojun Miyagi taught such well-known karateka as Seko Higa (who also trained with Higaonna). and Gangrou-quan (Hard Soft Fist. These are kusanku and chiang nan.Wikipedia. Matsumura's style would later become the Shorin-ryū style. and Choki Motobu. pronounced "Gōjūken" in Japanese). China. named after the three cities from which they emerged. In 1806 he started teaching a fighting art in the city of Shuri that he called "Tudi Sakukawa. and nunchaku may have originated in and around Southeast Asia.' enforced in Okinawa after the invasion of the Shimazu clan in 1609. the free encyclopedia http://en. and Seikichi Toguchi. In 1901 Itosu helped to get karate introduced into Okinawa's public schools. Around the 1820s Sakukawa's most significant student Matsumura Sokon (1809–1899) taught a synthesis of te (Shuri-te and Tomari-te) and Shaolin (Chinese 少林) styles. A group of 36 Chinese families moved to Okinawa around 1392 for the purpose of cultural exchange and shared their knowledge of the Chinese martial arts. tonfa. Matsumura taught his art to Itosu Ankō (1831–1915) among others. Chojun Miyagi. He created the ping'an forms ("heian" or "pinan" in Japanese) which are simplified kata for beginning students. Traditional karate kata bear a strong resemblance to the forms found in Fujian martial arts such as Fujian White Crane. At the age of 20 he went to Fuzhou in Fujian Province. There were few formal styles of ti. The incorporation of empty-handed Chinese wu shu into Okinawan martial arts occurred partly because of these exchanges. including Gichin Funakoshi.php?title=Karate&printable=yes Okinawa See also: Okinawan martial arts Karate began as a common fighting system known as "ti" (or "te") among the pechin class of the Ryukyuans. originator of kusanku kata). Five Ancestors. and Tomari-te. Meitoku Yagi." In 1881 Higaonna Kanryo returned from China after years of instruction with Ryu Ryu Ko and founded what would become Naha-te. Itosu is sometimes referred to as "the Grandfather of Modern Karate. many forms of Chinese martial arts were introduced to the Ryukyu Islands by the visitors from China. After trade relationships were established with the Ming dynasty of China by Chuzan King Satto in 1372. to escape Japanese military 2 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ . are also factors that furthered the development of unarmed combat techniques in Okinawa." written as 唐手." which meant "Sakukawa of China Hand. Miyazato Ei'ichi. and Melaka. under the guidance of Kosokun. Early styles of karate are often generalized as Shuri-te. particularly Fujian Province. Naha-te. Many Okinawan weapons such as the sai.
and Sanseiryu kata that he had studied in China. the free encyclopedia http://en. Both of these Gichin Funakoshi Founder of Shotokan Karate 3 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ .php?title=Karate&printable=yes conscription. Choki Motobu. The "dō" in "karate-dō" sets it apart from karate "jutsu". Genwa Nakasone. Hironori Ohtsuka. Choki Motobu. the three naihanchi forms became known as tekki. 1930s) Kanken Toyama. kendo from kenjutsu. Funakoshi also gave Japanese names to many of the kata. Gichin Funakoshi. Japan See also: Japanese martial arts Gichin Funakoshi. Kenwa Mabuni. These were mostly political changes. This was a turbulent period in history in the region. although Funakoshi did introduce some such changes. thus the change of the art's name to "way of the empty hand.org/w/index. Like most martial arts practiced in Japan. the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905). He always referred to what he taught as simply karate. the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895). Seisan. Masters of karate in Tokyo (c.Wikipedia. and Funakoshi knew that the art of Tang/China hand would not be accepted. and Kanbun Uechi. Kanken Tōyama. wanshu as empi.Karate . He later developed his own style of Uechi-ryu karate based on the Sanchin. judo from jujutsu. Shorin-ryū and Shorei-ryū.wikipedia. and the rise of Japanese expansionism (1905–1945). The five pinan forms became known as heian. the annexation of Korea. The modernization and systemization of karate in Japan also included the adoption of the white uniform that consisted of the kimono and the dogi or keikogi—mostly called just karategi—and colored belt ranks. In Japan he was influenced by kendo. Actually many Okinawans were actively teaching." The dō suffix implies that karatedō is a path to self knowledge. Funakoshi had trained in two of the popular branches of Okinawan karate of the time. Funakoshi changed the names of many kata and the name of the art itself (at least on mainland Japan). founder of Shotokan karate. Takeshi Shimoda. is generally credited with having introduced and popularized karate on the main islands of Japan. karate made its transition from -jutsu to -dō around the beginning of the 20th century. iaido from iaijutsu and Taido from Taijutsu. seisan as hangetsu. Chojun Miyagi. doing so to get karate accepted by the Japanese budo organization Dai Nippon Butoku Kai. not just a study of the technical aspects of fighting. During this time period. Funakoshi was a student of both Asato Ankō and Itosu Ankō (who had worked to introduce karate to the Okinawa Prefectural School System in 1902). as aikido is distinguished from aikijutsu. He was a leading figure of Chinese Nanpa Shorin-ken at that time. but in 1936 he built a dojo in Tokyo and the style he left behind is usually called Shotokan after this dojo. rather than changes to the content of the forms. prominent teachers who also influenced the spread of karate in Japan included Kenwa Mabuni. incorporating some ideas about distancing and timing into his style. It includes Japan's annexation of the Okinawan island group in 1872. and are thus equally responsible for the development of karate. While there he studied under Shushiwa. and so on. chinto as gankaku. and Shinken Taira (from left to right) Japan was invading China at the time.
literally. After the passing of Shimabuku. spread to the United States via the Marines stationed on the island after they returned home. Okinawan karate at this time was only concerned with kata. was missing. and an assistant instructor in Funakoshi's dojo." Many other karate organizations based are descended from the Kyokushin curriculum. more combative styles such as judo. Shōtōkan-ryū. and practical application of karate techniques to self-defense situations. Isshin-ryū is a style of Okinawan karate founded by Shimabuku Tatsuo. This recognition meant a departure for Ohtsuka from his medical practice and the fulfilment of a life's ambition—to become a full-time martial artist. the free encyclopedia http://en. Kyokushin is now often called "full contact karate. Ohtsuka thought that the full spirit of budō. or free fighting. Ohtsuka was so impressed with this that he visited Funakoshi many times during his stay. Ohtsuka set up a medical practice dealing with martial arts injuries. Gōjū-ryū. Hironori Ohtsuka attended the Tokyo Sports Festival. Shitō-ryū. which concentrates on defence and attack. the founder of judo and one of the men Funakoshi consulted in his efforts to modernize karate. Ohtsuka was registered as a member of the Japan Martial Arts Federation. "one heart method. and aikido. A new form of karate called Kyokushin was developed in 1964 by Masutatsu Oyama (who was born a Korean. a student of Motobu Choki. and named by him on January 15. Funakoshi was. Ohtsuka was appointed Japan's Chief Karate Instructor. Wadō-ryū karate was officially recognized as an independent style of karate. while not very popular in Okinawa. In 1934. The World Karate Federation recognizes these styles of karate in its kata list Shōtōkan-ryū Shitō-ryū Gōjū-ryū Wadō-ryū The World Union of Karate-do Organizations (WUKO) recognizes these styles of karate in its kata list.Wikipedia. and he decided to leave Funakoshi to concentrate on developing his own style of karate: Wadō-ryū. physical toughness.php?title=Karate&printable=yes innovations were originated and popularized by Jigoro Kano. 4 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ . He experimented with other. where he saw Funakoshi's karate. Ohtsuka thought that there was a need for this more dynamic type of karate to be taught. which led to the birth of kumite. Gojū-ryū karate. Kyokushin taught a curriculum that emphasized contact. and agreed to teach him.wikipedia. in karate. His prowess in martial arts led him to become the Chief Instructor of Shindō Yōshin-ryū jujutsu at the age of 30. Ohtsuka registered the name Wado-Ryu." The style. Uechi-ryū. By 1929. The next year the Japan Martial Arts Federation asked all the different styles to register their names. He blended the practical and useful elements of Okinawan karate with traditional Japanese martial arts techniques from jujitsu and kendo. They were so impressed with his style and commitment that they acknowledged him as a high-ranking instructor.Karate . many variations of the system formed and exist to this day. kendo. In 1944. Wadō-ryū. in turn. Ohtsuka's personalized style of Karate was officially registered in 1938 after he was awarded the rank of Renshi-go. Choi Yeong-Eui). The name means.org/w/index. Because of its emphasis on physical. In the following years. and that kata techniques did not work in realistic fighting situations. and Kobudo. and has also spread to other countries. Isshin-ryū karate is largely a synthesis of Shorin-ryū karate. 1956. He presented a demonstration of Wado-ryu karate for the Japan Martial Arts Federation. Shōrin-ryū. In 1922. full-force sparring. impressed by Ohtsuka's enthusiasm and determination to understand karate.
Kata vary in number of movements and difficulty. Many schools would be affiliated with. To attain a formal rank the karateka must demonstrate competent performance of specific required kata for that level. or heavily influenced by.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia http://en. Some of the Choki Motobu in Naihanchicriteria for judging the quality of a performance are: Absence of missteps. Diligent training and correct mindfulness lead to real understanding of combat principles. dachi. The Japanese terminology for grades or ranks is commonly used. The longer kata require the karateka to learn many complex movements. confidence. This practice develops leg strength. correct posture. and knowledge of application. Physical routines were a logical way to preserve this type of knowledge. correct stances speed and power. Kihon may also be prearranged drills in smaller groups or in pairs. Practice See also: Okinawan kobudo and Japanese martial arts#Philosophical and strategic concepts Karate can be practiced as budo. and kumite (sparring). and leadership skills. as a combat sport. Traditional karate places emphasis on self development (budo). fearlessness. Sport karate places emphasis on exercise and competition. one of the basic karate correct beginning and especially ending. Because the applicability for actual self-defense is so flexible there is no definitively correct way to interpret all kata. Kata Kata (型:かた) means literally "shape" or "model. Modern Japanese style training emphasizes the psychological elements incorporated into a proper kokoro (attitude) such as perseverance. These postures are based on idealized combat applications.Karate . Budōkan. one or more of these styles. Kata are taught with minor variations among schools of the same style. crispness and smoothness. 5 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ .org/w/index. The various moves have multiple interpretations and applications. Typically this is performance in unison of a technique or a combination of techniques by a group of karateka. virtue. Even the same instructor will teach a particular kata slightly differently as the years pass. kata (forms). Kata with the same name are often performed differently in other styles of karate. Requirements for examinations vary among schools. Kihon Karate styles place varying importance on kihon. Vigorous arm movements enhance cardiovascular fitness and upper body strength. as a sport. Some kata use low and wide stances. Karate training is commonly divided into kihon (basics or fundamentals). That is why only high ranking practitioners are qualified to judge adequate form for their own style. and gracefulness. or as self defense training. Weapons (kobudō) is important training activity in some styles.php?title=Karate&printable=yes Kyokushinkai.Wikipedia." Kata is a formalized sequence of movements which represent various attack and defense postures.
take-downs and sweeps are also allowed. stamina. awareness/zanshin. sporting attitude. Sport Gichin Funakoshi (船越 義珍) said. two participants perform a choreographed series of techniques with one striking while the other blocks.org/w/index. Karate does not have 2012 Olympic status.Wikipedia. the two participants have a free choice of scoring techniques.prearranged). In structured kumite (Yakusoku .wikipedia. kumite was not part of karate training. The makiwara is a striking post. some karateka were ousted from their dojo because they adopted sparring after having learned it in Tokyo. but not the two-thirds majority needed to become an official Olympic sport. Knockdown karate (such as Kyokushin) uses full power techniques to bring an opponent to the ground. The WKF has developed common rules governing all styles. karate received more than half of the votes. Sport kumite is free or structured with no-contact or light contact and points are awarded by a referee. speed. the preferred win is by knockout. The bout runs for a fixed time (2 to 3 minutes. agility. In Kickboxing variants ( for example K-1). It literally means "meeting of hands. Sport Karate emphasises aerobic exercise.php?title=Karate&printable=yes Kumite Sparring in Karate is called kumite (組手:くみて).Karate . Evaluation for kata and kobudo is performed by a panel of judges." In pre-World War II Okinawa. International competition is well organized. The allowed techniques and contact level are usually determined by the age. Dojo Kun In the bushidō tradition dojo kun is a set of guidelines for kareteka to follow. Shigeru Egami relates that. Levels of physical contact during sparring vary considerably. and stress management. good timing and correct distance. Depending upon style. Points are awarded based on the criteria: good form. the free encyclopedia http://en. The form ends with one devastating technique (Hito Tsuki). Conditioning Okinawan karate uses supplementary training known as hojo undo. The nigiri game is a large jar used for developing grip strength. vigorous application. This utilizes simple equipment made of wood and stone. Free sparring is performed in a marked or closed area. rank and sex of the participants. These guidelines apply both in the dojo (training hall) and in everyday life.) The time can run continuously (Iri Kume) or be stopped for referee judgment. The World Karate Federation (WKF) is recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as being responsible for karate competition in the Olympic games. WKF karate competition has two disciplines: sparring (kumite) and forms (kata) Competitors may enter either as individuals or as part of a team. flexibility. anaerobic exercise. The national WKF organisations coordinate with their respective National Olympic Committees. These supplementary exercises are designed to increase strength. In the 117th IOC Session (July 2005). "There are no contests in karate. All practices vary depending upon the school and the teacher." Kumite is practiced both as a sport and as self-defense training. in 1940. In free sparring (Jiyu Kumite). 6 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ . Sparring in armour (bogu kumite) allows full power techniques with some safety. and muscle coordination. Full contact karate has several variants. power.
Philosophy Gichin Funakoshi interpreted the "kara" of Karatedo to mean "to purge [oneself] of selfish and evil thoughts." It is understood that one blow from a real expert could mean death. It is clear that those who misuse what they have learned bring dishonor upon themselves. routines. The WKF accepts only one organization per country. balance. He promoted the character trait of personal conviction. Testing consists of demonstration of techniques before a panel of examiners. Kyū ranks stress stance.. Etymology Hypothetically. and coordination. Speed and power are added at higher grades. Dan-grade karateka are referred to as A young student graduates up a yudansha (holders of dan rank). self-defense. Requirements of rank differ among styles. tameshiwari (breaking). organizations.to face a million and one opponents. In "time of grave public crisis. Minimum age and time in rank are factors affecting promotion. It was later changed to a homophone meaning empty 7 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ . the free encyclopedia http://en." Only by behaving humbly can one be open to Karate's many lessons.Wikipedia. There are other regional. This will vary by school. any unarmed combat system could accurately be called "karate" since the Japanese phrase literally means "empty hand. In the Kyū/Dan system the beginner grades start with a higher numbered kyū (e. The demonstration is an application for new rank (shinsa) and may include kata. bunkai. national.wikipedia. This is done by listening and being receptive to criticism. and philosophy. and schools. 9th Kyū) and progress toward a lower numbered kyū. The WUKO accepts more than one federation or association per country. without having to compromise their style or size. Yudansha typically wear a black belt. He stated that Karate practitioners must "never be easily drawn into a fight. and/or kumite (sparring). and international organizations that hold competitions. Sparring matches are typically divided by weight." He taught that indecisiveness is a weakness. The World Union of Karate-do Organizations (WUKO) offers different styles and federations a world body they may join.." This is not necessarily an acceptable conclusion. or just new information.Karate . The Dan progression continues from 1st Dan (Shodan. Other Okinawan teachers also adopted this practice. primacy.org/w/index. Kyū-grade karateka are referred to as "color belt" or mudansha ("ones without dan"). Rank In 1924 Gichin Funakoshi founder of Shotokan Karate adopted the Dan system from judo founder Jigoro Kano using a rank scheme with a limited set of belt colors. but testing may include everything learned at that point. age. rank in belt in front of his dojo. lineage. or 'beginning dan') to the higher dan grades.g.. usually with assistant referees at the side of the sparring area." Funakoshi believed that one should be "inwardly humble and outwardly gentle. He said that "Karate is properly applied only in those rare situations in which one really must either down another or be downed by him." Funakoshi did not consider it unusual for a devotee to use Karate in a real physical confrontation no more than perhaps once in a lifetime.php?title=Karate&printable=yes whereas sparring is judged by a head referee. gender. Chinese Hand Karate was originally written as Chinese hand in kanji. Black belt testing may also include a written examination. For only with a clear mind and conscience can [the practitioner] understand that [knowledge] which he receives. and experience. He considered courtesy of prime importance. one must have the courage. To separate fact from fancy requires understanding issues of nationalism.
route. The Tang Dynasty of China ended in AD 907. It is used in many martial arts that survived Japan's transition from feudal culture to modern times. and way. judo (柔道:じゅうどう). At that time referring to Chinese origins of karate was considered politically incorrect. Kata and Kobudo Many applications from karate kata seem very mysterious or impractical. the masters of the various styles of Okinawan karate conferred to decide a new name for their art.php?title=Karate&printable=yes hand. The original use of the word karate in print is attributed to Anko Itosu.. But in 1935.. Empty Hand The original use of "Chinese hand. Commonly referred to as a "McDojo" or a "Black Belt Mill. It should be noted that use of the written character is possibly linked to the origins of karate from China. path.org/w/index. Issues Dishonest practice Due to the popularity of martial arts.” or "Chinese techniques" (depending on interpretation of 唐手) reflects the documented Chinese influence on karate. They decided to call their art "karate" written in Japanese characters as "空手" (empty hand).Karate . Until 1935. Thus the word karate was originally a way of expressing "Chinese hand. fraudulent. In this context dō is usually translated as "the way of." “Chinese fist. This is a book by Hanashiro Chomo (1869–1945) which was published in August 1905." or "martial art from China. Nathan Johnson claims that most antique karate kata were developed for use with weapons rather than as open hand techniques. Thus karatedō is more than just empty hand techniques. In the early 20th century Japan did not have good relations with China. and kendo (剣道:けんどう)." these schools are commonly headed by martial artists of either dubious skill or business ethics. the Okinawan art of karate was recognized as a Japanese martial art by the Japanese Martial Arts Committee known as the "Butoku Kai"." Since there are no written records it is not known definitely whether the kara in karate was originally written with the character 唐 meaning China or the character 空 meaning empty.  In 1933. It implies that these arts are not just fighting systems but contain spiritual elements when promoted as disciplines. He wrote it with the kanji 唐手: からて (Tang Dynasty hand) rather than the present usage of 空手:からて (empty hand). The first documented use of a homophone of the logogram pronounced kara by replacing the character meaning Tang Dynasty (唐 から) with the character meaning empty (空 から) took place in Karate Kumite." Examples are aikido (合気道:あいきどう). Dō is a suffix having numerous meanings including road. "karate" was written as "唐手" (Chinese hand). the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia. In 1932 Japan attacked China and occupied its northern territory. or misguided teachers and schools have arisen over the last approximate 40 years. The kanji representing it remained in use in Okinawa as a way to refer to China generally.Wikipedia. Karate outside Japan 8 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ . both in mass media and reality. Nomenclature Another nominal development is the addition of dō (道:どう) to the end of the word karate. During the time when admiration for China and things Chinese was at its height in the Ryukus it was the custom to use the former character when referring to things of fine quality. a large number of disreputable. It is The Way Of The Empty Hand." "Tang hand.
several Japanese karate masters began to teach the art in the United Kingdom. the free encyclopedia http://en. the Soviet Karate Federation was disbanded and all karate became illegal again. Hong Hi Choi. during Khruschev's policy of improved international relations. Ken Pittaway (Isshinryu). the influence of karate on Korean martial arts is a contentious issue. Richard Kim (Shorinji-ryu). Teruyuki Okazaki (Shotokan). etc). Soviet Union Karate appeared in the Soviet Union in the mid-1960s. founder of Gosoku-ryu. karate practice became legal again. Takayuki Mikami were sent to New Orleans by the JKA in 1963. the government banned karate—together with all other foreign martial arts—endorsing only the Soviet martial art of sambo.g. In 1964. In 1970 Paul Arel founded Kokondo Karate which is a sister style of Jukido Jujitsu developed in 1959. In 1961 Hidetaka Nishiyama. and Peter Urban (Goju-kai) all began instructing in the US. In the 1960s. and J Pat Burleson all began teaching martial arts around the country. Edward Kaloudis.Wikipedia. involves high kicks on the heels. and Korean martial arts.Karate . Arizona. Takayuki Kubota. Japanese. Karate also provided an important comparative model for the early founders of taekwondo in the formalization of their art inheriting some kata and the belt rank system. the USSR's Sport Committee formed the Karate Federation of USSR in December 1978. many Korean martial arts schools were founded by masters with training in Chinese. In 1989.wikipedia. Gosei Yamaguchi (Goju-ryu). Bill Pogue (Isshinryu). In 1965. more jumps. most notably during the Japanese occupation in the 20th century. Steve Armstrong. It should be noted that contemporary taekwondo is technically very different from karate (e. After regaining independence from Japan. many Koreans went to Japan and were exposed to Japanese martial arts. Bruce Terrill. a significant figure in taekwondo history. Don Nagle (Isshin-ryu). William Dometrich (Chito-ryu). Failing to suppress these uncontrolled groups. Allen Steen. For example. only after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1992 did independent karate schools resume functioning. The first Shotokan clubs were opened in Moscow's universities. In 1973. In 1966. Ed Parker (Kenpo). United Kingdom In the 1950s and 1960s. On 17 May 1984. Gordon Doversola (Okinawa-te).org/w/index. This accomplishment earned him the title of “Father of American Karate”. relocated the International Karate Association from Tokyo to California. relies much more on legs than hands. In the 1950s. Tatsuo Suzuki began teaching Wadō-ryū in London. United States After World War 2. Louis Kowlowski. studied Shotokan karate in Japan. Jay Trombley (Goju-ryu). In 1945 Robert Trias opened the first martial arts school in the United States in Phoenix. began teaching in the United States. Anthony Mirakian (Goju-ryu). During the occupation. Cecil Paterson (Wado-ryu). members of the US military learned karate in Okinawa or Japan and then opened schools in the USA. but under strict government regulations. and so federations were formed and national tournaments in authentic styles began. George Mattson (Uechi-ryu).php?title=Karate&printable=yes Korea Due to past conflict between Korea and Japan. members of the former British Karate Federation established the Karate Union of Great Britain (KUGB) under Hirokazu Kanazawa as chief 9 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ . however. John Pachivas. a co-founder of the JKA and student of Masatoshi Nakayama. a Shuri-ryu karate dojo. Sea Oh Choi (Hapkido).
100 Masters of 10 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ . pp. Chapter 9 covers Motobu-ryu and Bigeikan. After Enoeda’s death in 2003. ^ a b Higaonna. Traditional Karatedo Vol. the KUGB elected Andy Sherry as Chief Instructor.wikipedia. grappling. Mark (1989). The Karate Kid (1984) is a film relating the fictional story of an American adolescent's introduction into karate. By the 1970s. pp.html history of Okinawan Karate 3. Kanazawa left the UK after 3 years and Enoeda took over. wrist locks. Okinawan Karate. the free encyclopedia http://en. Film Stars and Their Styles Practitioner Sonny Chiba Sean Connery Fumio Demura Dolph Lundgren Michael Jai White Martial Art Style Goju Ryu & Kyokushin Kyokushin Shito ryu Kyokushin Kyokushin / Shotokan / Goju ryu Jean-Claude Van Damme Shotokan See also Comparison of karate styles Japanese martial arts Karate stances Karate kata Okinawan martial arts List of martial arts References 1. ISBN 0-7136-5666-2. Traditional Karatedo Vol. and it was credible to show Western experts of unarmed combat as unaware of Eastern martial arts of this kind. footnote #4 (http://www. pp. Page 165.html) ^ Hokama. Morio (1985).Karate . strikes and kicks in a gentle manner to neutralize an attack. ^ Bishop. For example Chojun Miyagi adapted Rokkishu of White Crane into Tensho ^ Patrick McCarthy. a new association split off from KUGB.Wikipedia. In 1950s popular fiction. 1 Fundamental Techniques.jp/023/eng /001/001/index.org/w/index.com /thinking_outside_the_box. teaching at a dojo in Liverpool. ISBN 0-7136-5666-2. ISBN 0-87040-595-0. 2.koryu-uchinadi. pp. 6.jp/023/eng/009/001/index. karate was at times described to readers in near-mythical terms. Keinosuke Enoeda came to England at the same time as Kanazawa. 1 Fundamental Techniques. Tetsuhiro (2005)." 4. Mark (1989).php?title=Karate&printable=yes instructor and affiliated to JKA. two 'ti' styles with grappling and vital point striking techniques. martial arts films had formed a mainstream genre that propelled karate and other Asian martial arts into mass popularity.wonder-okinawa. 153–166. 19. Film and popular culture Karate spread rapidly in the West through popular culture. 7. Motobu-ryu & Seikichi Uehara ^ Higaonna. Shortly after this. ^ Bishop. Morio (1985). 17. Mark (1989). 8.htm) ^ Kanbun Uechi history (http://www. JKA England.wonderokinawa. 9. ISBN 0-7136-5666-2. pp. ^ Bishop. 5. 28. Okinawan Karate. ISBN 0-87040-595-0. 154. Okinawan Karate. ^ a b c http://www. Seitoku Higa: "Use pressure on vital points.
_5.wuko-karate. Gichin. External links Karate in the Okinawa Prefecture (http://www.php&lp=ru_en& btnTrUrl=Translate) 28. The Great Karate Myth. ^ Johnson. ISBN 0-7136-3402-2 pages = 25.judoinfo. "Legal Categories. 16. pp.com/karateranks.wuko-karate. pp.php) ".php?article_id=43) WKF Karate Records (http://www.com/topic/namesof-china) Names of China 22. 10. 1 Fundamental Techniques. Morio (1990). ^ Higaonna.com/page_08. New Paltz Karate Academy.Wikipedia.org/) 19. ^ Shigeru. 20.answers.newpaltzkarate.mastersoftherisingsun.World Union of Karate-Do Organizations (http://www.Karate . Kodansha International. Karate is a branch of judo. 14. Morio (1985).. ^ WUKO World Union of Karate-do Organizations (http://www. ^ a b karate-shotokan. Winning Karate Competition. ^ The Original Martial Arts Encyclopedia. David (1991).org/products /details/2220) ". Traditional Karatedo Vol. "Karate-Do Kyohan . 136.japanfocus. 29. Egami (1976). The Heart of Karate-Do.shotokanway. 26. and describes the Korean 'Oddjob' in these terms: Goldfinger said. pp.91-95) describes the protagonist James Bond. ^ For example.htm) 33. 113. Maurey (1998) What's In A Name? How the meaning of the term karate has changed. ^ nishiyama (http://www.org/images/stories /Downloads /wkf_competition_rules_english_version__5.allsouthkarate. ^ International Traditional Karate Federation (ITKF) (http://www. ^ WUKO . Traditional Karatedo Vol. ^ Higaonna.com/en/) Japanese Karate Masters Association of North America (http://www.net%2Fphp%2Fhis. pp. 24.net/php/his. the free encyclopedia http://en. ^ Mitchell. ^ World Karate Federation Competition Rules (http://www. Ian Fleming's book Goldfinger (1959. 25. ^ Hokama.org/eng/rules /rules_kata. Tetsuhiro (2005). pgs.wonder-okinawa.htm) ". Retrieved on 2007-02-19. 20. 170-197 30. ^ Funakoshi.net (http://babelfish.org/wiki/Karate" Categories: Combat sports | Dō | Gendai budo | Japanese martial arts | Karate | Martial arts by type | Okinawan martial arts | Sport in Japan Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from August 2007 | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements since October 2008 11 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ .html) 12. ^ http://www. 1 Fundamental Techniques.html) Goju Ryu Information extended to Okinawa and Japanese Karate (http://www.wikipedia.htm) Extensive explanation of Rank and Grade in Karate (http://www.net/pages /nishiyama. pp. 17. 21.php?article_id=43) All South Karate (http://www.org/tk. p.html.karate-iask.The Master Text" Tokyo.pdf) 13. 28. 18. 27.org/w/index. ^ "History of Shotokan (Russian) (http://karateshotokan. 1973. Such a description in a popular novel assumed and relied upon Karate being almost unknown in the West. but it is to judo what a spandau is to a catapult.wikipedia. Yoshiko. John Corcoran and Emil Farkas. ^ All Gojuryu Network (http://www. Inc.jp/023/eng/015/index. Traditional Karatedo Vol. ISBN 0-87040-595-0. Tae-young Kim.php?option=com_content&task=view& id=3&Itemid=2) 32.gojuryu.net /articles. ^ "A History Of Taekwon Do (http://utf. 4 Applications of the Kata.org/) Retrieved from "http://en. an expert in unarmed combat. Egami (1976). Retrieved on 2007-05-15. pp. 23.pdf) 11. Retrieved on 2008-06-30. Morio (1985)..com /index. 67. 111. 15. ISBN 0-87040-595-0.gojuryu.net/history.com /translate_url?doit=done&tt=url&intl=1&fr=bfhome&trurl=http%3A%2F%2Fkarateshotokan.whsites. The Wykeham Press.php?title=Karate&printable=yes Okinawan Karate. The Heart of Karate-Dō.yahoo.com/article /Article1SA. Nathan (2006).". pp. Okinawa: Ozata Print. ISBN 0-87011-816-1.net /articles. 19. ISBN 0-87011-816-1. Demographic Change and Japan’s Korean Residents in the Long Twentieth Century (http://www.itkf.karaterec.net) History of Ranking in Karate (http://www. ^ Shigeru. ISBN 0954960939. 100 Masters of Okinawan Karate. "Have you ever heard of Karate? No? Well that man is one of the three in the world who have achieved the Black Belt in Karate. ^  (http://www. ^ Nozaki.html) 31. Okinawa: Ozata Print. ^ International Association of Shotokan Karate (IASK) (http://www. Levitz. as utterly ignorant of Karate and its demonstrations.gojuryu.karateworld. Hiromitsu Inokuchi. ISBN 0-87040-848-9. ^ Higaonna.
Inc. the free encyclopedia http://en..wikipedia.Wikipedia.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.S. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity.Karate . a U. 12 of 12 23/12/2008 3:42 μμ . All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. at 14:10.php?title=Karate&printable=yes This page was last modified on 22 December 2008. (See Copyrights for details.org/w/index.