THE CHANGING BUXA CULTURE: A STUDY OF INDIAN TRIBE IN CULTURAL DYNAMICS

Subhash Chandra Verma Senior Lecturer Department of Sociology Government Post Graduate College Rudrapur -263153 Uttrakhand ,India (Affiliated to Kumaun University Nainital INDIA) Emai - subhashvermaphd@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT
. Buxa tribe is one of those tribal Indian communities which have not more advance ness and there is very few research work has done on this tribe. Buxa tribe lives in Himalayan Tarai region of north India. Population of the Buxa tribe in Uttrakhand state is 28601; it is 13.63% of tribal population and 0.48% of total population. Buxa people like changing so they are struggling for advance ness. At present some Buxas are attracting to other religions like Christian, Sikhism etc. They are conversing themselves in these religions. At present new generation of the Buxa community is not so interesting in their own traditional systems. There are many other communities existing in Buxa area by industrialization and Business, so the process of cultural exchange is running in Buxa area. Buxa people are attracting to new and charming life style. At present some Buxa youth are ignoring their traditional food and accepting some fast foods rapidly. Buxa people like changing so they are struggling for advance ness. But people of other tribes of this area (Bhotia and Jaunsari etc) are aggressive more than Buxa People because generally Buxa people do not like to go in advanced cities for education. Key Words- Tribe, Buxa, People, Culture, Awareness

Methodology
This is a observation and interview based study and presented in Exploratory and Descriptive Research Design with help of related secondary data. I have used interview and observation mainly as per requirements. Author is working in Buxa area since 10 years and there are many Buxa students are in Authors College. So the author is continuous in touch the Buxas. Deeply observation of the Buxa society is very helpful in this research work. I have been visited more than 10 Buxa villages in Udham singh Nagar, Dehradun and Haridwar districts of Uttrakhand State of India. We have also used the related literature as secondary data for making some statements in this article. There is enough research work has been done on the The Tharu tribe of this region but research works and literature on the Buxa tribe are not available. Any famous researcher did not done research on the Buxa tribe. That is why the enough secondary data is not available for references. I am trying to do research on a broad scale on this tribe.

Introduction
There are many Tribal communities existed in every region of India. Indian tribes are very backward communities in the economic, educational, and political, matter. The Indian tribes are mostly needy for higher education, fast economic growth, social justice, and political awareness, but for all of these there is a basic and compulsory need is well and advanced communication. It is true that its is era of advanced technology and global communication but its it true too that most Indian Tribal communities are suffering from lack of well and advanced communication till now. Most tribes are struggling for food and cloths only in this advanced era, its very sad and thinkable situation for all of civilized people, Government, and social workers etc. All tribal communities deserve more and special treatment specially People generation in applied position not in written only or not in lectures. Tribal people are very poor in matter of higher education, awareness and advanced communication systems and technology. If the peoples are suffering from lack of higher education and communication, how can we think about real and fast development of tribes? Buxa people are trying to connect with stream of development but lack of higher education and advanced communication is a big problem in their way. India is a country of various struggling and backward communities. There are many tribal communities are struggling for keep their identity and rights in every part of India. Indian tribes are very backward communities by the economic, educational, political, and social point of view. The Indian tribes are mostly needy for higher education, fast economic growth, social justice, and political awareness, but for all of these there is a basic and compulsory need is well and advanced communication. It is true that its is era of advanced technology and global communication but its it true too that most Indian Tribal communities are suffering from lack of well and advanced communication till now. Most tribes are struggling for food and cloths only in this advanced era, its very sad and thinkable situation for all of civilized people, Government, and social workers etc. All tribal communities deserve more and special treatment specially Youth generation in applied situation. Tribal youth is very poor in matter of higher education, awareness and advanced communication systems and technology. There are five tribes are scheduled in Uttrakhand, Jaunsari, Tharu, Bhotia, Buxa and Vanraji. Buxa tribe is one of those tribal Indian communities which have not more advance ness and there is very few research work has done on this tribe. In matter of published work there is only Amir Hasan’s book ‘The Buxas’ is available till now. Some dissertations related with this community are available in Kumaun University Naintal but all these works are unpublished and old. At present there is no any work is still running on this tribal community. That is why there is a big need of deep and dominant research work on the Buxa tribe. There is enough research work is available or still running on other tribes of this area for example- Bhotia, Tharu, and Vanraji. Dr. D.N. Majumadar, Dr.S.K. Srivastav, Dr.B.S.Bisht, and many others have done more research work on those tribes but Buxa tribe has lack of research. A good and deep research work will be very helpful in solution of many problems of Buxa tribe and also helpful for policy makers for tribal development.
After the Indian independence, for instance, various systems of reservations for low castes, tribes and other "backward" castes and classes have been introduced. This is known as the Indian quota system. The Buxas in India were given special treatment according to the various classifications made by the authorities. In 1950, they were classified as a "scheduled caste", whereas in 1954 they were categorized as a

"backward class". Since 1967, the Buxas - together with five other "tribes" in Uttar Pradesh - were declared an indigenous people and "scheduled tribe" (Adivaasi). Many other so-called "tribes" have started to call themselves Adivaasi and mobilised politically into what is known as the Adivaasi movements. The term Adivaasi has more and more taken root and is used for tribe or ethnic group in India, whereas jati is generally used with the meaning caste

Geographical area and History of Buxa tribe
Buxa tribe lives in Himalayan Tarai region of north India. Buxa are a formidable lor constituting a majority in Ramnagar, Bajpur, and Kashipur blocks of the Nainital and Udham Singh Nagar districts. Claim to be related to Parwar Rajput community they are hindi speaking populace. These people live in small clusters with majority 61 % in Udham Singh Nagar (Former Nainital district) district and about 32% in the district Dehradun. The Buxa tribe is a sub part of Tharu tribe but as a lowest clan of The Tharus. Tharu and Buxa both have same socio-cultural specialties. There are 5 Tribes existed in Uttrakhand state (Jaunsari, Buxa,Tharu, Bhotia, & Banraji) and Buxa tribe has third place by population. Population of the Buxa tribe in Uttrakhand state is 28601; it is 13.63% of tribal population and 0.48% of total population. The origin of the Buxa is not clear. Some Buxas claim them to be migrants from the ‘Dharanagari’ Desert in Rajasthan, India. Others say that these are the descendants of the children who were born out of the liaisons between the Rajput women and their servants who fled the Muslman invaders.
(Srivastava 1958:14) The Rajputs have for long been an important symbol for lowerstatus groups on the subcontinent who sought upward mobility. Since Rajputs are regarded as "the true representatives of the traditional Kshatriya class" (Sinha 1962:36), many tribes and castes have traced their origins to the Rajputs. This has been termed Rajputisation, Kshatriyasation and Thakurisation. In Rajasthan today, untouchables (Dalits), tribals and "other backward castes" (castes that are not untouchable but considered backwards in various ways) claim descent from, or historical association with the Rajput clans (cf. Jenkins 1996). Even Muslims claim Rajput descent, and this indicates, Jenkins argues, that Rajput has become an independent ideal, rather than a class within Hindu society (ibid.).They are, however,

somewhat Mongoloid in their facial features. Tharus & Buxas related with Mongoloid race (Majumadar 1941:33) and Rajputs have different (Aryan) race. Government of India has been accepted this community as a Scheduled Tribe.

Social organization among Buxa Tribe
There is a well social system in this community just like The Tharus because the Buxas are also a part of Tharu tribe but it has some differences in mater of social order, so the Buxas are treated as separate tribal community. Women have high reputation, enough social and economic rights in their family system. This community has paternal family system but women have high position and more rights, this is a mark able fact. Love marriage, Re- marriage, widow- marriage also accepted with their traditional marriage system. The Panchayat system is very strong in this tribe; head of panchayat called ‘Padhan’ in local Buxa language. Buxas have very friendly nature, every Buxa people have a best friend in their life, male best friend of male called as ‘Meet’ or ‘Dilbar’ and female best friend of female called as ‘Sangan’. Buxas treat

their best friend as real brother and sister. . Buxas are very host able and they respect their guests very much. They like to serve best and more food dishes for guests.
An important kinship unit among the Buxas is called gotyar, a word stemming from the Hindi word gotra and commonly translated as patriline or clan. The Buxa term for patriline is kurma and according to Hasan (1992), it is a word derived from Persian kunba, which means clan. The gotyar/kurma is solely an exogamous unit, based on patrilineal membership. The patriline is not a localised group, and the members may be dispersed over many villages and often do not know about each other. The gotyar, points out, is not a corporate group. It does not hold land or ritual sites in common, nor is it integrated by an overall lineage structure. The main function of the lineage is to define, in negative terms, with which one can marry. The core definition of a patriline is the pantheon of lineage gods (kuldevta). Each patriline is identified and distinguished by its deities. If the gods are similar, one belongs to the same patriline/ patriclan. The Buxas, thus, do not express kinship in terms of "shared blood or bone", something which is common among other groups in the region. The agnatic kinship of shared gotyar membership is ultimately anchored in and conceived in terms of a common relationship to shared deities. When marriage relations are negotiated, one of the first things to be checked is this pantheon. In addition to this exogamous character, the patriline may also be seen as a ritual unit in which the members worship the same lineage gods. This has mainly meaning on a local level, because there is no collective worship of these gods, but something each house is responsible for individually.

Changing Life Style
The Buxas love their folk arts. Buxa Songs, Buxa dance (Naach), Buxa tattoos, Buxa wall paintings, Buxa handicrafts, and Buxa magic is very interesting and special. They like contrast colures in dress and wall paintings for decoration of house. But at present new generation of the Buxa community is not so interesting in their own traditional systems. New generation is attracting to charming new life style. Buxa people like changing so they are struggling for advance ness. There are many other communities existing in Buxa area by industrialization and Business, so the process of cultural exchange is running in Buxa area. Buxa people are attracting to new and charming life style. They are ignoring their traditional tribal culture that's why the identity of old Buxa culture is near to finish. They must have to get advance education, communication, technology etc. but care of old culture is must too for keep their identity. Main food of Buxas is Fish and Rice but they also used Roti, Vegetables, Mutton, Chicken, Milk products and more others. However, since hunting is banded in forest they cannot use more nonvegetable food because of poverty they cannot afford expensive Mutton and chicken, but they use more and more fishes in their food. At present some Buxa youth are ingnoring their traditional food and accepting some fast foods rapidly. The Buxa youth those are studying in cities are mostly like to eat fast foods in market. Chinese fast food Chowmin and south Indian dish Dosa are mostly popular in these buxa youth.

Traditional dress of the Buxas is Dhoti Kurta for men and Lahnga Choli for women, so the mostly old generation Buxas wears these traditional dresses. But new generation do not like their traditional dresses. Mostly Boys and girls like new fashionable dresses.

Changing in Religious Life
Normally the Buxas are following their own tribal religious system and this is very similar to the Hindu religious system. Buxa people worship mainly their tribal Goddess called as ‘Bhuiyan’ or ‘Bhumsen’ with other Hindu God & Goddess. The Buxas are famous for their religious and magical activities. They worship all natural things like Earth, Rivers, Hills, Trees, Animals, Sun, Moon, stones etc. Master of religious and magical male activities called as Bharara or Bhagat and Female called as Bharari or Bhagatin. Every family has separate worship place in house it is called Thkurji. Head of family or authorized man- woman cleans it everyday and do worship and pray for blessing of whole family. The Buxas sacrifice and offer animals to holy God and Goddess. The Buxas mainly worship Goddess named as Bala Sundari, the wife of Thakurji. The Buxas like to do many magical activities for blessing their agriculture and cattle. Black and white both type of magic they like to use generally. At present some Buxas are attracting to other religions like Christian, Sikhism etc. They are conversing themselves in these religions. Some Buxas are following many other religious orders like Radha Swami, Nirankari, Sahaj Margi etc. Even they did not change their original Religion. These religious orders are collective forms of many good things of various famous religions like Hindu, Islam, Sikhism Christian, Buddhism, Jainism etc. There are many religious organizations are working in the Buxa area for extending their religious orders. Mainly the Christians are advance in this matter. There are many Churches have been existed in this Buxa area. New generation of Buxas is attractive to the other religious orders because some Buxa youth are ignoring their own traibal religion. They think that following of their own traditional religion is symbol of backwardness. The Christian and others are providing many facilities of education and jobs to the Buxa youth and providing economic grants too.

Status of awareness
The Buxa youth are very important wing of their community. They are playing very creative role in their community. But they are not connected with mainstream of development. Some people are trying to get higher education and advanced technology but in little number. They have neither advance ness nor keep awareness about their traditional culture. They must have to get advance education, communication, technology and new life style but care of traditional culture is must too for keep their own identity. People of other tribes of this area (Bhotia and Jaunsari etc) are aggressive more than Buxa People. Many Bhotia and Jaunsari peoples are working as administrative officers, professors, Doctors, Engineers, and Advocates etc. They are very advanced and also careful about their traditional culture. However, Buxa people are very poor in this matter. Generally Buxa people do not like to go in advanced cities for education. Nepalese Tribal people are more aware and advanced than Indian Buxa people because there are many people organizations and groups are active in Nepalese Tribal community for development and extension of education, technology, health care etc. According to Arjun Guneratne ‘its genesis

and development must be sought in the socioeconomic conditions-such as class relationships, the state, and the processes of modernization.”( Guneratne 1998:749-73)

Handicraft practice with Traditional Natural Resources
The Buxas are also femous for their handicrafts of natural resources. The Buxas use mostly the Bhabar grass in making of handicraft things.In Uttaranchal itself, Bhabar grass is a traditional resource utilized by the poorest of the poor, the Buxa tribe, which is heavily dependent on the grass economy for a major part of the year. The Buxas extract the bhabar in small quantities for conversion into ropes. In Nayagaon village, Laldhang , District Haridwar, today it is common practice that the contractors distribute the raw material to the Buxa villagers, who convert the raw fiber into rope and sell it back to the contractors for a going rate of upto Rs. 50 per dhari (approx. 5 kgs). In Laldhang, District Haridwar, the Buxas were provided with rope making machines a few years back at the intervention of CAPART. These machines are able to reduce the drudgery involved in conversion of the raw material to the rope. On an average, between their other household activities, the villagers use this foot pedal operated rotary mechanism combined with a feeding hopper to produce up till 3-5 kg of rope per day. Assuming an income of Rs. 50 per day, on an average, a family can earn uptill 1500 per month during the harvest season. However the demand is dwindling over the past few years, as cheaper plastic versions/ substitutes have flooded the market for ropes. At the same time, due to excessive degradation of forest lands, the annual production has drastically come down. The survey team of UBFDB (Uttaranchal Bamboo and Fiber Development Board) found during one of the craft surveys that in one particular Bhabar collection depot, the annual production 25 years back was up to 30000 quintals, while in 2005 it has shrunk to a measly 1000 quintals. (UBFDB-2006) This has direct bearing on the resource dependent community, the Buxas. If the fiber demand dwindles further, the Buxas will lose their source of livelihood, their unique craft skill, and the comfortable adaptability to the rope making machine. There is an urgent need to retain the craft skill of the Buxas in making bhabar ropes, at the same time ensuring sustainable supply of raw material and creation of new market/ applications for the resource so as to distribute the risks of catering to dwindling/competitive markets such as ropes or paper industry.

Conclusion
Buxa tribe is one of those communities of India which are affecting by cultural infection and demoralization. Buxa tribe is deeply attached with forest and nature but industrialization and modernization is very harmful for their own culture. Industries and other developing groups are capturing there lands and other natural resources and affecting their socio-economic and cultural life. Tribal communities are accepted as a scheduled community in Constitution of India so the Buxa tribe is also deserves the special Socio-economic and cultural care and treatment new generation of the Buxas is changing rapidly.

Aknowledgement

I am very thankful of all Buxa people those help in this study. I am especially thankful Buxa people Srikrishna and Hari singh of Koppa village and many other Buxa students those help me a lot in visit of Buxa villages and arranged all possible things for observation. I am also saying heartily thanks to Buxa people those were selected for study as samples. I am also thankful of University Grants Commission of India for providing grants for my Research Project about Tribal Youth.

References
Guneratne, A. 1994: The Tharus of Chitwan: Ethnicity, Class and the State in Nepal. Ph. D thesis presented at the Department of Anthropology, Chicago University, Illinois. Jenkins, R. 1996: "Rajput Hindutva". Paper presented at The 14th Conference on Modern South Asian Studies. Copenhagen: Aug. 21-24 1996. Hasan, A. 1992: Affairs of an Indian Tribe. The story of my Tharu Relatives. Lucknow: New Royal Book Company. Majumdar, D. N. 1944: The Fortunes of Primitive Tribes, Lucknow: Lucknow University Publishers Sinha, S. 1962: "State Formation and Rajput Myth in Tribal Central India". In Man in India. Vol. 42, 1 March 1962. Srivastava, S. K. 1958: The Tharus. A Study in Culture Dynamics. Agra: University Press.

UBFDB-2006 Uttaranchal Bamboo and Fiber Development Board, (http://www.ubfdb.org/naturalfibers_species.htm)

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