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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Go through the Syllabus in detail. Go through the previous year questions. Sort out the question papers according to the syllabus and chapter wise. Get an idea how the questions are be asked. Please remember, the question pattern may vary, but the answer to the question is same.. The Questions are supposed to ask the basic concept of the particular subject. Questions are generally categorized as: very easy to answer, easy to answer, moderately difficult and very difficult. Focus on the areas where maximum question been asked. Do practice papers and test series question papers as much as possible before the exams; and trying doing it according to str ict exams time frame. 10. Get professional help to do all the above.

Public Administration Selection of a proper and better optional subject for the Civil Service Exam (PT and Main) is a difficult problem for the aspirants of Civil Services in the present competitive scenario. It could be decided only on the basis of proper information regarding the subject. The basis for the selection of any optional subject are: specifically defined and comparatively small syllabus, easy availability of study material, interesting and popularity of the subject, scoring nature of the subject, availability of experienced guide etc.

The syllabus of public administration is relatively short as well as it is well-defined .The study material is easily available and compact in nature. It, being a popular and scoring optional subject, has got easy availability of experienced guidelines .The scientific and logical nature of the subject helps to prepare the subject for Preliminary and Main examination within less time comparatively .This helps the candidates for the preparation of Essay and General Studies papers with extra time and ensures

better performance and marks in the examinations. Thus, the Public Administration is a popular and successful optional subject for the preliminary and main examination in Civil Service Examination. The students of Political Science have extra edge in this subject, as the Public Administration is the offspring of Political Science .Henceforth, there are many similarities between the two in their subject matter. The knowledge and concepts of Political Science are used in this subject for variation in the style of presentation of the answers .It is, of course, more scoring and has got concise syllabus than the other subjects. The portion of Indian Administration is very much related to the constitut ional aspects of India .So the study of Public Administration as an optional subject is very much helpful for the Indian Polity portion of General Studies i n the Preliminary and Main Examination as well. Now days the questions of Indian Polity in the Main examination have the applied and administrative nature and implications .The Public Administration makes such answers more relevant.

The study of Indian Administration, specifically the units of Welfare Administration, Local Administration, Administrat ive Reformsin India, Law and Order Administration, District Administration, Role of public sector in the perspective of lib

eralization etc.






the Essay Papers with better understanding of problems and solution aspects with practical approach with difference .Of course, the practical understanding gives them an edge in interview as well ,which makes the space sure in the success list. The most important aspect of Public Administration is that it has only TWELVE TOPICS in the Preliminary Examination with proper specification of the sub-topics which could easily be prepared within 4-5 months span of time only. Of course this less consumption of time gives the candidate ample space for the SELF STUDY and REVISION without which the success is a nightmare. The conceptual nature of the subject helps the candidates accommodating and retaining the facts easily. Similarly, the syllabus SIX of Main Examination has The got


UNITS in two papers.


preparation of the subject requires only 50-55% of the syllabus prepared for the answers in the examination. The strategic preparation with the proper and experienced guidelines make the candidates preparation comparatively effective and easy for the three long questions and two comment questions in each paper .

The experienced guidelines help the candidates' analytical approach to develop properly in right direction .These help the candidatesto score more in less consumption of time and ensures list differently. Last but not the least and most importantly, the study of Public Administration enables you and your performance more SYSTEMATIC, PRACTICAL, ORGANISED, RELEVANT AND WELL ARTICULUTED in every walk of your life. As the study of Public Administration is related to those phenomenon which are commonly reflected in our lives. So, the study of Public Administration "brings the difference differently "in you which is the REAL WIN .Your selection is just the by-product of your serious efforts with the Public Administration. the WONDER SPACE in the final success As it has been well said

:Winners do not do different things rather they do things


I would like to reiterate what I have quoted earlier also ."Winners do not do different things, they do things differently. The knack is putting you in the shoes of the examiner. A little understanding of the psychology of the examiner can be done by putting yourself in the examiner's place. What you would like in

any answer sheet? Clarity of though, lucidity, good content, well expressed views & compacted language. In short, good Communication Skill (Written Communication) so that the answer script could speak for itself.

The reason why I began with writing skill is that it is the most important component in the preparation for the Main Examination. There are many intelligent students, well versed with knowledge about their subject matter and yet they do not score in the Main Examination. What could be the reason? Of course, luck and destiny is there. However, another important reason is faulty writing skill.

Thus, Civil Services Examination requires a two-pronged strategy to components CONTENT (a) (b) (c) Manipulating the facts as per INVOLVES THE hit the in FOLLOWING target detail. THINGS: Facts. requirement. Content and Writing Skill. Now I willtake up both these



(d) Something new, in terms of knowledge base or linkages.

1. Conceptual understanding - of the subject matter is most important. Give a layman's interpretation to the concepts and relate it with mundane example for long-term memory. 2. Facts -After conceptual understanding, the second step is memorizing the important facts. For example - some importanttheoretical aspectsare to be memorized to attempt any question related to the spatial analysis of the subject matter. 3. Manipulating the facts as per the need of the question to reach desired inference. Herein selection and picking up the right direction and relevant fact becomes important with analysis. 4. Something New - new diagrams, new ideas, original ideas, new content, latest reports, linkages etc. However, one has to be cautious that a balance is maintained and the ideas are not too radical and should be well integrated with the answer. Writing Skill: 1. Be short and precise. 2. Writing should be legible and neat. 3. Grammatical errors should be avoided. 4. Simple language. 5. Neat diagrams and maps, whenever it is required, should be incorporated in the answer.

Writing skill does not mean a decorative language, having extraordinary vocabulary. It means that the ideas should be well expressed in a lucid manner. Simple language but a speaking Languageisthe demand i.e. the answer sheet should speak out everything for itself with requisite words, depends on the nature of the subject matter. There should be no ambiguity in the answers. Writing skill comes through practice.Writing skill is also based on your knowledge base and conceptual understanding. This only can give flow and lucidity to your answers. The conceptual understanding will make your answer well organised and well integrated. Thus, writing skill and content both should complement and supplement each other. Writing skill has its base in content and content needs writing skill to be well expressed.


1. Underline the key words. 2. Underline the latest updates that you have incorporated in your answer. 3. Highlight the Reports of Commissions, new researches and approaches in that field, etc. if you have quoted them in you answer. 4. Make some lucid diagrams to make your presentation effective. But remember that the diagrams need to be well

integrated with your answer. You can do this by simply incorporating a statement like - this can be diagrammatically represented as follows. 5. Each topic has some key words and the examiner expects you to write them. 6. Another, crucial factor which many of us tend to overlook is the selection of the first answer. Remember. "FIRST IMPRESSION IS THE LAST IMPRESSION",hence your first answer should be your best answer, i.e., one in which you have command and also have SOMETHING NEW to give - in the form of linkages, recent reports, diagrams, maps etc. 7. Try to integrate the statement of the question, somewhere in you answer. Either begin with it or end with it. This makes your answer FOCUSSED and well knit. 8. Last, but not the least, just before your examinations give your precious three to four hours to those things which are the dynamic aspects of your preparation. This includes the latest updates, reports, diagrams etc. Even glancing over these things at the last moment makes them alive and fresh in you memory (provided you have read them earlier) and they can be reproduced more authentically in the examination. This will definitely make the Difference. These are the EIGHT GOLDEN RULES for fetching marks in PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. These are not merely to be memorized and retold to others, these need to be applied in writing answers. So the thrust should be on writing answers and

getting them evaluated. The more you practice the better answers you would be able to write. Next, I switch over to the question of reading list. But remember"It is not wide reading but useful reading that tends to excellence".

Tips for General Studies 1. 2. 3. 4. Read newspapers (Indian Express, The Hindu) and magazines (Frontline, Economic And Political Weekly) carefully, this will expand your knowledge base and give good command and writing skill. Always prepare a synoptic note, separately. Otherwise it would be wasted. Preparation for General studies should be done hand in hand while preparing for optional papers. NCERT books should be studied carefully along with the specialised advanced books; articles and journals.


Ten Steps 1. 2. 3. 4. Read the basic books first, rather than going for journals and foreign authors etc. whether 'Preliminary Examination' or 'Mains', what is required as a first step is the mastering of the BASICS (A,B, C) of the subject. So, first step requires mastering these. . While reading, focus has to be on CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING rather than simply memorising the facts. The Facts are easier to memorise if the concepts are clear. Memorising the FACTS (even the conceptual words, books-authors etc. If one has the subject in the Preliminary Examination). Using Mnemonics or other interesting methods which suits your style can do this. Make your flashcard or one registerin which all your facts are intact and you can revise them anytime. Rather than simply collecting new fact everyday, focus should be on revising what you have with you. Only when that is memorised thoroughly move on the new facts. Even when you are reading the new material, keep coming to the old materials in between. This is very important, else during the examination, you will remember that you have read something like this somewhere but "what was it exactly" might not come to your mind and the memory of it will remain only as a faint image. This has to be checked. The ultimate success depends on `what all you have read' but 'how much you retain it'. Howfar you have practice, by making maps & diagrams as well organising the event in chronological manner? This is very crucial and should not he neglected. Solve as many questions as possible. One should solve all the previous years' questions of UPSC and solve them again and again. Many of the questions are repeated. Even if the same questions are not repeated in the same words, quite often the areas remain the same. 5. 6. Analyse the previous year UPSC question paper thoroughly and try to chalk out the areas of the question.'Also write down these questions topic wiseand keep going through them again and again. Mark the mistakes, which you commit while solving these questions. Do not overlook them and do not lie to yourself that "it was a careless mistake". Even if it was a careless mistake like overlooking the word "not" in the question, be cautious that you sh ould not repeat it in the examination hall. Also analyse your mistake thoroughly whether it was due to lack of conceptual understanding or it was forgetting the facts. Master your weakness after analysing them. 7. 8. NOTE OF CAUTION-Do not read the guide first and then the basic books. It has to be the other way round. First the basic books like NCERT class VI to XII even older version is better one. Some questions in the Preliminary examination are also asked from the Main Syllabus. Thus, the right approach is to first cover the Mains 9. syllabus and February onwards focus on the Preliminary. (Note - Do not read journals and extra analytical material from February onwards. Sometimes one tends to get confused due to this). Special emphasis has to be given on the Assertion and Reasoningtype and solve as many of them as possible during you preparation. (Remember and practice the exact causative factor). 10. Last but not he least,discusswith your friend. Discussion helps a lot provided it is honest discussion with the motive to help the other and in turn getting help. Else it can be disastrous also. These are broadly some tips, which can help you in the Preliminary Examination. However, what matters most is the mental calmness and cool, which you maintain in the examination hall. Do not panic if you do not know any question. Apply your mind.Though not always, but most of the times the questions can be rightly solved if

one maintains his cool and analyses it logically. Apply the method of eliminationand this can arrive at many times the right answer. However, ultimately what matters is giving your best shot and leaving the rest on him.

Paper I: Chapter-I: Introduction Mohit Bhattacharya: New Horizons of Public Administration Nicholas Henry : Public Administration and Public Affairs Special Issues of Indian Journal of Public Administration Chapter-II: Theories of Administration D. Ravindra Prasad, V.S. Prasad and P. Satyanarayana : Administrative Thinkers D. Gvishiani Organisation and Management: A Critique of Western Theories. Chapter-III: Structure of Public Organisations : R.K. Jain : Public Sector Undertakings; and Mohit Bhattacharya : New Horizons of Public Administration Chapter-IV: Administrative Behaviour Paul Hersey : Organisational Behaviour OR Stephen P. Robbin : Organisational Behaviour Chapter-V: Accountability and Control: Mohit Bhattacharya : New Horizons of Public Administration Special Issues of Indian Journal of Public Administration on Accountability Chapter-VI: Administrative Law: Massey :Administrative Law OR M.P. Jain :Administrative Law Chapter-VII: Administrative Reforms: P.R. Dubbashi : Administrative Reforms G.E. Gaiden :Administrative Reforms

Chapter-VIII: Comparative Public Administration: Ferrel Heady : Public Administration-A Comparative Perspective OR R.K. Arora : Comparative Public Administration Chapter-IX: Development Administration: Ferrel Heady : Public Administration - A Comparative Perspective OR R.K. Arora : Comparative Public Administration Chapter-X: Public Policy : IGNOU Lessons on Public Policy R. K. Sapra : Public Policy

Chapter-XI: Personnel Administration: O Glenn :Stahl : Public Personnel Administration S. L. Goel : Personnel Administration in India. Chapter-XII: Financial Administration M. J. K. Thavaraj : Public Financial Administration OR G.S. Lal :Financial Administration in India IGNOU Lessons on Financial Administration

Paper II: Chapter-I: Evolution of Indian Administration B.N. Puri Administrative History of India (Vol. I, II and III) Chapter-II: Constitutional Framework D. D. Basu An Introduction to the Constitution of India Chapter-III: Union Government and Administration A. Avasthi Central Administration Chapter-IV: State Government and Administration J.D. Shukla State Administration Chapter-V: District Administration T.N. Chaturvedi District Administration; and Special Issue of Indian Journal of Public Administration on District Administration Chapter-VI: Local Government S.R. Maheswari Local Government in India Chapter-VII: Public Sector in India R. K. Jain Public Sector Undertakings Annual Survey on Public Sector of Department of Public Enterprises Chapter-VIII: Public Services S.L. Goel Personnel Administration in India Chapter-IX: Control of Public Expenditure M. J. K. Thavaraj Financial Administration IGNOU Lessons on Financial Administration Chapter-X: Administrative Reforms P.R. Dubbashi Administrative Reforms S. R. Maheswari Administrative Reforms Special Issue of Indian Journal of Public Administration on Administrative Reforms Chapter-XI: Machinery for Planning A. Avasthi Central Administration Chapter-XII: Administration of Law and Order K. K. Sharma Law and Order Administration in India K. J. Guha Roy, District Policing Chapter-XIII: Welfare Administration Annual Reports of Department of Social Welfare

Chapter-XIV: Major Issues in Indian Administration Special Issue of Indian Journal Public Administration on Indian Administration, Retrospect and Prospect and on Good Governance.

(Source: UPSC facebook page) All of these can be studies in ample detail through resources available online for free (are available at studyshare)

Sociology references

PAPER - I 1 Herton and Hunt, Sociology Mcgraw- Hill International, Singapore 1984 2 Abrahamson Mark, Urban Sociology - Prentice-Hall Inc, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1980 3 Haris C. C., The Sociology Enterprises : A Disscussion of Fundamental Concept - St. Martin Press Inc., New York, 1980 4 Wilson John, Introduction to Social Movements - Basic Books, NY , 1998. 5 Hamilton , Malcom, B. The Sociology of Religion - Routledge, London , 1995. 6 Williams, Malcom, Science and Social Science : An Introduction Routledge, London , 2000. 7 D.K.S. Roy, Social Development and the Empowerment of Mariginalised Groups: Perspectives and Strategies Sage, New Delhi - 2001 8 Harris C.C., The Family - Allen and Unwin, London - 1977 9 Andreas Hess, Concept of Social Stratification, European and American Models Palgrave, Houndmills, NY , 2001 10 Giddens, Anthony, Capitalisation and Modern Social Theory - University Press Cambridge, 1971 11 Smelser, N.J.The Sociology of Economic Life Prentice Hall, New Delhi - 1988. 12 Haralombos, M, and Heald, R,M. Sociology : Themes and Perspectives Oxford. Delhi - 1980. 13 Randall Collins, Theoretical Sociology Harcourt Brace and Company, Florida, 1996. 14 Bottomore. T.B. Sociology : A GFuide of problem and Literature Allen and Unwin, London - 1972. 15 Etzioni, Amitali, Modern Organization Prentice Hall, NY, 1995 16 Cuff, Sharrock, and Francis, Perrspective in Sociology Routledge, NY 1995 PAPER - II 1 Mandelbaum, David, Society in India Press Berkreley, 1970 2 Srivnivas M N Caste in Modern India and Other Essays Asia Publishing House, Bombay -1962 3 Srinivas M N Social Change in Modern India Berkeley,University of California Press 1966 4 Srinivas and Shah, The Myth of the self sufficiency of the Indian Village The Economic weekly, 12:1375-1378 5 Beteille Andre Sociology Oxford, New Delhi - 2002 6 Beteille Andre, The idea of Natural, Inequality and other Essays Oxford, Delhi - 1987 7 Beteille Andre, Essay in Contemporary Sociology Oxford, Delhi- 1987 8 Beteille Andre, Social Inequality of Indian Penguine London - 1978 9 Singh Yogender Cultural Change in India Rawat, Jaipur, 2002 10 Singh Yogender, Modernization of Indian Tradition Thompson Press, New Delhi - 1973. 11 Unnithan T K , Indra Dev and Singh, Y, (eds) Towards a Sociology of Culture in India Prentice Hall, new Delhi 1965 12 Gupta, Dipasnkar, Interrograting Caste Penguine, New Delhi - 2000 13 Shah A M Family in Contempory India Orient Longman, New Delhi - 2001 14 Chandrani and Chandrani, Essay in Rural Sociology Rawat, Jaipur -2000 15 Desai, Neera, and Krishnaraj, Women and Society in India New Delhi - 1990 16 Singer Milton and Cohen B.S. Structure and chasnge in Indian Society Weener Grin Foundation for Anthropological Research 1968 17 Sharma K L (ed) Sociolo Inequilities in Indian , Profiles of Caste Class, Power and Sociol Mobility Rawat, Jaipur 19945 18 Gallenter Masrc, Competing, Inequalities Oxford, NY 1998 19 Joshi, P C Sociol Science and Development: Quest for Relevence Hasr-Anand Publication, Delhi 1995

(Source: UPSC facebook page) All of these can be studies in ample detail through resources available online for free (are available at studyshare)