Amity Institute Of Telecom Technology And Management

AN INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE REPORT BY
SnILVANGI SnAkMA
A16071080S3
8Ŧ1LCnŦ (LLLC1kCNICS Ǝ 1LLLCCMMUNICA1ICN) 8A1Cn 2008Ŵ12

INTERNSHIP WITH
ADVANCL LLVLL 1LLLCCM 1kAINING CLN1kL(AL11C)
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
ShŦ Cm Þa| S|nghţSDL(LWSD]SS1Þ)
DURING MAY - 1ULY 2011

CREDIT UNITS: 6 CREDITS


TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 INTRODUCTION
2.1 ANALYSIS OF THE COMPANY
3.1 INTRODUCTION OF EWSD
3.2 ARCHITECTURE
3.3 CALL SET UP IN EWSD
4.1 SUBSCRIBER ADMINISTRATION
4.2 DIRECTORY NUMBER
ADMINISTRATION
4.3 ANALOG SUBSCRIBER
ADMINISTRATION
5.1 CONCLUSION
6.1 REFERENCES












1.1)INTRODUCTION
A graduate Irom a proIessional institution is expected to be expert in the respective Iield oI
specialization. To be proIessionally conIident and globally competitive the student must acquire
knowledge, both academically and practically. The knowledge that a student receives in the class
room is by and large theoretical, although increased emphasis is given on the practical training
also. But the real Iiled experience can be gained iI the academically sound student is exposed to
hands-on training in an industry under the guidance oI successIul proIessionals. It not only gives
proIessional conIidence to the students but also inculcates in them proIessional ethics. And that
is the aim oI internship training.
With the aim oI acquiring hands-on training in telecommunication sector, a Iast growing industry
globally, I joined the Advanced Level Telecom Training Centre (ALTTC), Ghaziabad. I had
thorough basic knowledge in the Iield oI Electronics and Telecommunication, gained Irom
knowledgeable, expert and dedicated teaching Iaculty in the Department oI Electronics and
Telecommunication, AMITY, Noida (UP). I was particularly interested to learn more about
EWSD, Fibre optical communication, Digital Switching & IN Services, GSM, CDMA, Broad
Band. I was inspired to join ALTTC Ior internship training because primarily oI two reasons:
one, it is a nationally renowned institution, and two, three oI my teachers are trained in this
institution and they are really exemplary in knowledge and teaching skills. AIter having joined
ALTTC and working in the excellent and well equipped labs I Iound that I had made a right
choice Ior my hands-on training in the Iield oI communication.
At ALTTC the training modules are tailored beIitting proIessional requirements. Hands-on
training on systems is encouraged. The inIrastructure, the labs, the Iaculty and their level oI
dedication, and other Iacilities provide a completely proIessional environment, simulating
conditions existing in the work environment.
During a period oI about 6 weeks, we underwent training on diIIerent aspects oI communication,
viz GSM, Broad Band, CDMA, EWSD.I was particularly interested getting training in
Electronische Wheler Systeme Digitale (EWSD) because it is the technology regarding how we
make a call in landline phones. So it really Iascinated me to study EWSD as me make so many
calls everyday and to know how it works was really interesting also it is the upcoming
technology in landline phones. We were imparted practical training along with some theoretical
aspects relevant to what we actually did during practical. It is said that engineers make the world.
Time spent in ALTTC has given me the conIidence to make world as better, eIIicient and
beautiIul place to live in.The training which I received Irom ALTTC has not only given me
conIidence but will also go a long way in shaping my Iuture career.





















2.1)Analysis of The Company
Telecommunications sector is growing at a Iast rate. The dependence oI people on the
telecommunications has also increased very much. The rapid growth in Indian telecom industry
has been contributing to India`s GDP at large. For building reliable telecommunication systems
a lot oI engineering and designing is required. An optimized system can only be designed aIter
proper planning and consideration oI each and every Iactor that can aIIect working oI the
system.BSNL is doing a great job in this regard.

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (abbreviated BSNL; )
Iormed in October, 2000, is World's 7th largest Telecommunications Company providing
comprehensive range oI telecom services in India: Wireline, CDMA mobile, GSM Mobile,
Internet, Broadband, Carrier service, MPLS-VPN, VSAT, VoIP services, IN Services etc.
Presently it is one oI the largest & leading public sector unit in India.

BSNL has installed Quality Telecom Network in the country and now Iocusing on improving it,
expanding the network, introducing new telecom services with ICT applications in villages and
wining customer's conIidence.It has about 46 million line basic telephone capacity, 8 million
WLL capacity, 52 Million GSM Capacity, more than 38302 fixed exchanges, 46565 BTS,
3895 Node B 3G BTS), 287 Satellite Stations, 614755 Rkm of OFC Cable, 50430 Rkm of
Microwave Network connecting 602 Districts, 7330 cities/towns and 5.6 Lakhs villages.

BSNL is the only service provider, making Iocused eIIorts and planned initiatives to bridge the
Rural-Urban Digital Divide ICT sector. In Iact there is no telecom operator in the country to beat
its reach with its wide network giving services in every nook & corner oI country and operates
across India except Delhi & Mumbai. Whether it is inaccessible areas oI Siachen glacier &
North-eastern region oI the country. BSNL serves its customers with its wide bouquet oI telecom
services.

BSNL is numero uno operator oI India in all services in its license area. The company oIIers vide
ranging & most transparent tariII schemes designed to suite every customer.
BSNL cellular service, CellOne, has 55,140,282 2G cellular customers and 88,493 3G customers
as on 30.11.2009. In basic services, BSNL is miles ahead oI its rivals, with 35.1 million Basic
Phone subscribers i.e. 85 per cent share oI the subscriber base and 92 percent share in revenue
terms.

BSNL has more than 2.5 million WLL subscribers and 2.5 million Internet Customers who
access Internet through various modes viz. Dial-up, Leased Line, DIAS, Account Less
Internet(CLI). BSNL has been adjudged as the NUMBER ONE ISP in the country.

BSNL has set up a world class multi-gigabit, multi-protocol convergent IP inIrastructure that
provides convergent services like voice, data and video through the same Backbone and
Broadband Access Network. At present there are 0.6 million DataOne broadband customers.
The company has vast experience in Planning, Installation, network integration and Maintenance
oI Switching & Transmission Networks and also has a world class ISO 9000 certiIied Telecom
TrainingInstitute.

Scaling new heights oI success, the present turnover of BSNL is more than Rs.351,820
million US $ 8 billion) with net profit to the tune of Rs.99,390 million US $ 2.26 billion)
for last financial year. The inIrastructure asset on telephone alone is worth about Rs.630,000
million (US $ 14.37 billion).
2007 has been declared as "Year oI Broadband" in India and BSNL is in the process oI providing
5 million Broadband connectivity by the end oI 2007. BSNL has upgraded existing Dataone
(Broadband) connections Ior a speed oI up to 2 Mbit/s without any extra cost. This 2 Mbit/s
broadband service is being provided by BSNL at a cost oI just US$ 11.7 per month (as oI 21 July
2008 and at a limit oI 2.5GB monthly limit with 0200-0800 hrs as no charge period). Further,
BSNL is rolling out new broadband services such as tripleplay.
BSNL is planning to increase its customer base to 108 million customers by 2010. With the
Irantic activity in the communication sector in India, the target appears achievable.
BSNL is a pioneer oI rural telephony in India. BSNL has recently bagged 80° oI US$ 580 m
(INR 2,500 crores) Rural Telephony project oI Government oI India.
On the 20th oI March, 2009, BSNL advertised the launch oI BlackBerry services across its
Telecom circles in India. The corporation has also launched 3G services in select cities across the
country. Presently, BSNL and MTNL are the only players to provide 3G services, as the
Government oI India has completed auction oI 3G services Ior private players. BSNL shall get
3G bandwidth at lowest bidder prices oI Rs 18,500 crore, which includes Rs 10,186 crore Ior 3G
and Rs 8313crore Ior BWA. BSNL management has paid this money under protest seeking
reIund.
BSNL also launched an Entertainment Portal called BSNL Hungama which provides contents
like music and music video to users Ior download. This Iunctions as a Iixed monthly plan. The
turnover, nationwide coverage, reach, comprehensive range oI telecom services and the desire to
excel has made BSNL the No. 1 Telecom Company oI India.

BSNL SERVICES
O BSNL LANDLINE
O FIXED LINE PRE-PAID
O BSNL PCO
O PHONE PLUS SERVICE
O NEW TELEPHONE CONNECTION
O PERMANENT CONNECTION
O CONCESSION IN RENTALS
O SHIFT OF TELEPHONE
O SAFE CUSTODY OF TELEPHONES
O TRANSFER OF TELEPHONE
O TELEPHONE TARIFF
O HELP DESK
O BSNL MOBILE

O 3G SERVICES

O BSNL WLL

O INTERNET SERVICES

O BSNL BROADBAND

O BSNL MANAGED NETWORK SERVICES

O GLOBAL CONFERENCING

O BSNL MPLS-VPN

O ISDN

O LEASED LINE

O INTELLIGENT NETWORK

O VIDEO CONFERENCING

O AUDIO CONFERENCING

O ENTERPRISE SOLUTION

O TELEX/TELEGRAPH

O EPABX

O DATA COMMUNICATION
BSNL also has many training institutes. Most popular among them are:
(1) Advance Level Telecom Training Centre (ALTTC),Ghaziabad
(2) Bharat Ratna Bhimrao Ambedkar Institute oI Telecom Training
(BRBRAITT),Jabalpur
(3) Regional Telecom Training Centre (RTTC),Hyderabad
I planned to do my summer internship at ALTTC.









ALTTC
Advanced Level Telecom Training Centre (ALTTC), Ghaziabad is the apex training institute oI
BSNL. An ISO 9001: 2008 accredited institute, ALTTC was set up as a joint venture oI
International Telecommunication Union, Geneva, UNDP and the Government oI India in 1975.
ALTTC Iunctions on the Irontiers oI telecom technology, Iinance and management and imparts
training to the leaders in the business. The strength oI ALTTC lies in the state oI art labs,
massive inIrastructure and trained, talented and qualiIied human resource pool.
The Centre's Mission statement is To Deliver Excellence Through Training .
The training areas cover vast spectrum oI topics such as Digital Switching and IN, Mobile
Communication: GSM, 3G CDMA Data communication: Broadband and Networking, Optical
Networks: SDH, DWDM, NGN, Access Networks, Management, Telecom Finance, InIormation
Technology, Building Science (Civil and Electrical) and Telecom Network Planning.
Advanced Level Telecommunication Training Center, Ghaziabad - India, located about 30 Km.
Irom New Delhi, is a selI-contained campus Iull oI liIe and amenities. It is spread over a lush
green landscape oI over 80 acres oI land. Besides main building complex which houses the
administrative oIIices, class rooms and laboratories, there are elaborate Iacilities like hostel Ior
trainees, residential complex, shopping center, bank, Wi-Fi Connectivity is available and
Participants bringing their Laptops with them, will be provided with USB Adaptors at the
Hostel and post oIIice etc.
ALTTC has excellent Iacilities Ior training. The lecture rooms at the ALTTC are equipped with
modern teaching aids. Emphasis is given on simulation oI conditions existing in the work
environment. Hands-on training on systems is encouraged. CBT packages are available Ior selI
paced learning.
ALTTC has well equipped laboratories /model exchanges Ior Training in switching systems. The
Iacilities include switching systems laboratories equipped with C-DoT, Ericsson's AXE-10,
Fujitsu's FETEX-150, Siemens's EWSD and Alcatel's E-10B systems.
ALTTC is equipped with well organized library containing books on telecommunication,
computer, management and others. Also having internet Iacility.
ALTTC is equipped with a variety oI In-door and Out-door sports activities- Lawn Tennis
O Table Tennis
O Billiards
O Badminton (In-door court)
O Basket-Ball
O TV Room, Books etc.
There are three well Iurnished hostels providing residential Iacilities to around 400 participants.
Wi-Fi Iacility is also provided to the students.











INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE
3.1) INTRODUCTION OF EWSD
The Department oI Telecommunications had announced ambitious plans Ior the addition oI 7.5
million lines to the existing 5.8 million by the end oI the 8th plan (1992-97) as compared to only
3.2 million in 1982-92.

Consequent upon delicensing oI the Telecom. equipment and throwing it open to Ioreign
investments, six new technologies were planned to be validated. These Ioreign suppliers set up
their validation exchanges, each oI 10,000 lines capacity (including two RSUs oI 2K each), at
diIIerent places, e.g. EWSD oI Siemens (Germany) at Calcutta, AXE-10 oI Ericsson (Sweden) at
Madras, Fetex-150 oI Fujitsu (Japan) at Bombay, OCB-283 oI Alcatel (France) at Delhi etc.

EWSD is one oI the technologies selected Ior TAX and is also the technology Ior Intelligent
Network and Mobile Communication. This article gives a general introduction to the EWSD
system, its Ieatures, architecture and Iacilities.
EWSD Digital switching system has been designed and manuIactured by M/s Siemens,
Germany. The name is the abbreviated Iorm oI German equivalent oI Electronic Switching
System Digital (Electronische Wheler Systeme Digitale). ESWD entered the world market in
1981, it was one oI the Iirst Iully digital switching systems. By 1994 some 85 million ports in
EWSD technology had been put into service by about 200 operating companies in 85 countries.
This international market success is based on the extraordinary reliability and high economic
eIIiciency oI ESWD, its continually advancing state oI the art technology and ever growing
number oI Ieatures Ior
subscribers and operating. EWSD switch can support maximum 2,50,000 subscribers or 60,000
incoming, outgoing or both way trunks, when working as a pure tandem exchange.
With its universality and Ilexibility, EWSD can be used economically in diIIerent network
structures as a network node oI variable size Ior switching the most varied
types oI inIormation and can be adapted Ilexibly to changing requirements.The dynamic capacity
oI the system can handle a traIIic load oI up to 25.600 erlangs with 2.5 million BHCA(Busy hour
call attempts). So EWSD oIIers adequate reserves oI capacity oI any application that may arise in
practice.The EWSD is a highly successIul digital electronic switch system. It is a powerIul and
Ilexible Ior public communication networks and over 250 million EWSD switching nodes have
been deployed since its introduction in the telecommunications Iield.The EWSD switching
system employs a Iully digital design concept. It provides a wide and expandable range oI
Ieatures and services, an extensive saIeguarding concept and a high data transmission quality.
The EWSD switching system is designed with a modular approach in every component used in
the system. The EWSD is divided into three parts-soItware,hardware, and physical structure. The
soItware, hardware and physical units oI the EWSD are modular in design.
Modules M:X): Smallest units in the system. The type oI module depends on the hardware
subsystem in which they are used.


Fig1)-Physical Structure

FramesF:X): Group oI modules oI certain hardware subsystem Iorm a Irame.
Racks R:X): Frames together Iorm a rack.
Rack Row: Line oI racks Iorm a rack row.
Fig(1) clearly shows that the physical structure uses a modular concept. The node is divided into
Iour sections. The hardware architecture is designed in such a way that every subsystem oI it has
same design i.e. modules, Irames, racks.
ADVANTAGES

1) It provides eIIective saIeguarding.
2) It gets Ilexibly adapted to the network environment.
3) It provides cost eIIicient adaptation to the Iuture changes.
4) There is a simpliIication oI installation and maintenance.
5) It provides a variable range oI Ieatures.

3.2) SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
The hardware oI the EWSD is designed to have Ilexibility oI expansion in the system to the
Iuture requirements without halting the operation oI the switch and to have the simplicity oI
installation.For these reasons modular concept is used in hardware architecture.The EWSD
switch is divided into Iour major subsystems which are Iurther divided into subparts.The Iour
major subsystems are:
1) Access
2) Switching Network
3) Signaling network
4) Coordination complex

The main hardware units oI an EWSD switch are as under:-
(1) Digital line unit (DLU) - Iunctional unit on which subscriber lines are terminated.
(2) Line/Trunk Group (LTG) - Digital Trunks and DLUs are connected to LTGs.







&C

Common channel signaling/ Signaling
System Network Control
È
Access
Switcbing
Wtwork












Fig(2)- The access function determined by the network environment are handled
DLUs and L1Gs Ŧ


(3) Switching Network (SN) - All the LTGs are connected to the SN which interconnects the line
and trunks connected to the exchange in accordance with the call requirement oI the subscribers.
CCNC and CP are also connected to SN.


(4) Coordination Processor (CP) - It is used Ior system-wide coordination Iunctions, such
as, routing, zoning, etc. However each subsystem in EWSD carryout practically all
the tasks arising in their area independently.
(5) Common Channel Signaling Network Control (CCNC) Unit or Signaling System
Network Control (SSNC)- This unit Iunctions as the Message TransIer Part
(MTP) oI CCS#7. The User Part (UP) is incorporated in the respective LTGs.
Block diagram oI EWSD is given on previous page. It also shows
that the most important controls are distributed throughout the system. This
distributed control reduces the coordination overheads and the necessity oI
communication between the processors. It results in high dynamic perIormance
standard.
For inter-processor communications , 64 kbps semipermanent connections are set through
SN. This avoids the necessity Ior a separate interprocessor network.

3.2.1) DIGITAL LINE UNIT DLU)
DLU is used to connect the subscribers to the switch and to concentrate the subscribers` traIIic in
the direction oI the EWSD network node. These can be installed as part oI the network node in
an exchange (local) or as remote connection units in the vicinity oI a subscriber group called as
remote DLU. Remote DLUs can be installed in permanent buildings, in containers or in shelters
(Ior small groups oI subscribers).The short subscriber lines obtained in this manner and the
concentration oI subscriber traIIic to the network node on digital and Iiber-optic transmission
links result in an economical subscriber network with optimum transmission quality. The DLU is
an intermediate stage Ior the connection oI the external environment to the exchange. The lines
that are connected to it are subscriber lines, ISDN lines and digital subscriber lines. On the other
side oI the DLU, towards the EWSD side, it has PDC links going towards the LTG. These lines
are also called external interIaces to the DLU. Besides these there are internal interIaces present
in it also which are used to connect its internal components. These interIaces include the voice
and data speech highway with a data rate oI 4096 Kbps and a control network with a data rate oI
136Kbps. These two networks are duplicated Ior saIeguarding purposes.The DLU and LTG are
connected to each other in three diIIerent modes via 2, 3, or 4 PDC links namely:
(1) Direct
(2) Crossover
(3) Random

One DLU is connected to two diIIerent LTGs Ior the reasons oI security. A local DLU is
connected to two LTGs via two 4 Mbps (64 TSs) links, each towards a diIIerent LTG. In case oI
remote DLUs, maximum 4 PDCs oI 2 Mbps (32 TSs) are used per DLU, two towards each LTG.
Hence total 124 channels are available between a DLU and the two LTGs, out oI which 120
channels are used Ior user inIormation (speech or data) and signaling inIormation is carried in
TS16 oI PDC0 and PDC2. In case oI a local DLU interIace, TS32 carries the signaling inIorma-
tion.

Within the DLU, the analog subscribers are terminated on SLMA (Subscriber Line Module
Analog) cards (module). Similarly Digital (ISDN) subscribers are terminated on the SLMD
modules. Each module can support 16 subscribers, hence has 16 SLCA/SLCDs (Subscribers
Line Circuit Analog/Digital) and one processor SLMCP.
One DLU can carry traIIic oI 100 Erlangs. A standard rack oI DLU (local ) can accommodate
two DLUs oI 952 subscribers each. In case the link between a remote DLU and the main
exchange is broken, the subscribers connected to the remote DLU can still dial each other but
metering will not be possible in this case. For emergency service DLU-controller (DLUC)
always contain up-to-date subscribers data. Stand Alone Service Controller card (SASCE) is
provided in each R-DLU Ior switching calls in such cases ( call setup and release Ior analog and
ISDN subscribers and enables DTMF dialling Ior push-button subscribers). This card is also used
Ior interconnecting a number oI remotely situated DLUs (maximum 6), in a cluster, called a
Remote Control Unit (RCU), so that subscribers connected to these remote DLUs can also talk to
each other in case the link oI more than one DLU to the main exchange is broken.






CS
PDC2 with CCS
PDC1 without CCS
PDC0 with CCS

Subscriber lines
and PBX lines for
small and med-
ium-sized PBXs
Remote
application
Local
application
4Mbps
SN LTG


LTG
4 Mbps
DLU
DLU

Subscriber lines
and PBX lines for
small and
medium-sized













3.2.1.1) DLUG
The latest version oI the DLU which is used in the EWSD switches these days is DLUG. It is the
most powerIul subscriber line concentrator unit. The enhancements oI the DLUG are in the terms
oI increased number oI subscribers that can be connected to a single module. The increase is
both in the digital as well as analog subscribers.Using a single module oI SLMA & SLMD up to
32 analog subscribers and 16 digital subscribers respectively can be connected. This is because
oI the increase in the number oI the SLCA and SLCD in the module. In addition to this
there is 50° reduction in the space requirements in the per analog subscriber line. The power
consumption is also lowered by 30° to 1050W at maximum load. It can be connected to Iour
LTGs with 16 PDCs with a provision oI one signalling channel (CCS) per LTG. It can handle
up to 390 Erlangs oI traIIicŦ

3.2.2) LINE TRUNK GROUP LTG)
The Line/Trunk Groups are the interIaces between the Switching Network and the network
environment oI the exchange which maybe analog or digital. It may be connected to trunks as
well as a DLU. The LTG is connected to both the planes oI the switching network to improve
saIeguarding. II the link between the LTG and one oI the switching network Iails, call processing
will continue unrestrictedly.
The line/trunk groups (LTG) Iorms the interIace between the digital environment oI an EWSD
exchange and the switching network (SN).Maximum traIIic handling capacity per LTG is 100
Erlang. The LTGs are connected in any oI the Iollowing ways :
(i) Via 2/4 Mb/s PDCs with remote/local DLUs to which subscribers are connected
(ii) Via 2 Mbps digital access lines to other digital exchanges in the network ( MF R2
Trunks, CCS#7 Trunks)
(iii) Via Primary rate Access lines to ISDN PBXs (ISDN subscribers with PA)
(iv) V5.2 Trunks, Announcements Trunks, OCANEQ, X.25 Links Ior PSPDN, IP
(SSP)
The LTG has Iollowing Iunctions:
1) It receives and evaluates the inIormation oI trunks and subscriber lines.
2) It also sends signals and tones. It sends and receives messages Irom and to the coordination
processor (CP) and the group processor.
3) It adapts the line conditions (transmission Iormat) to the 8Mbits /sec highway oI the SN.
4) It detects LTG Iaults.
5) It detects Iaults on the exchange internal link interIaces during call processing.
6) It reports Iaults and routine messages to the coordination processor.
7) It evaluates the Iaults and initiates processes, such as blocking the LTG.

3.2.2.1) LTGP
LTGP is the latest one and is characterized by improved perIormance and a much compact
design. In LTGP all the basic Iunctions oI Iour LTGs are combined on the single module. This
type has the capacity oI receiving 16 PDC links Irom DLU and other exchanges.

3.2.3) SWITCHING NETWORK
DiIIerent peripheral units oI EWSD, i.e., LTGs, CCNC, MB are connected to the Switching
Network (SN) via 8192 kbps highways called SDCs (Secondary Digital Carriers), which have
128 channels each. The SN consists oI several duplicated Time Stage Groups (TSG) and Space
Stage Groups (SSG) housed in separate racks. Connection paths through the TSGs and SSGs are
switched by the Switch Group Controls (SGC) provided in each TSG and SSG, in accordance
with the switching inIormation Irom the coordination processor (CP). The SGCs also
independently generate the setting data and set the message channels Ior exchange oI data
between the distributed controls.
The switching network is always duplicated (planes 0 and 1). Each connection is switched
simultaneously through both planes, so that a standby connection is always immediately
available in the event oI a Iailure.
Each TSG can accommodate 63 SDCs Irom LTGs and one SDC to MB. One SDC is extended
Irom SGC oI each TSG and SSG towards MB. Thus one TSG can handle upto 63 LTGs. The
switching network can be expanded in small stages by adding plug-in modules and cables and iI
necessary by assigning extra racks.
Optimized switching network conIigurations are available in a range oI sizes. The smallest
duplicated SN:63 LTG conIiguration which can handle 30,000 subscriber lines or 7,500 trunks
when Iully equipped is installed in a single rack and can handle 3150 erlangs traIIic. In its
maximum conIiguration, the EWSD switching network has 8 TSGs and 4 SSGs (in 12 Racks) to
connect 504 LTGs and has a traIIic - handling capacity oI 25,200 erlangs. SNs Ior 126 LTGs and
252 LTGs are also available which can handle 6300 and 12600 erlangs traIIic respectively.
SN(B) has only 5 types oI modules and each TSG and SSG is accommodated in only two shelves
oI the respective racks. Remaining Iour shelves accommodate LTGs.
MAIN FUNCTIONS:
O Speech Path Switching
O Message Path Switching
O CCS#7 signaling channels connection (NUC)

3.2.3.1) SWITCHING
The primary Iunction oI a switching system is to establish a connection between two points. The
major component oI the switching system or exchange is the switching matrix. Apart Irom the
switching matrix, the switching system consists oI many other Iunctions to perIorm call
processing.



3.2.3.2) SWITCHING-BASIC CONCEPT
Switching matrix is the hardware that provides the connectivity between any input - output line
pair. There may be n inlets and m outlets and these inlets/outlets may be connected to subscriber
lines or trunk lines (see Iigure 3).

Fig(3)-Switching Matrix
When all the input lines and output lines are connected to subscribers then the switch provides
the connectivity among the subscribers connected. In this case, there can be n/2 simultaneous
conversations that can be connected by the switching matrix. This type oI a switch is said to be
non-blocking, in other words, no subscriber is denied a connection Ior want oI switching
resources. Normally, not all the subscribers converse simultaneously. Hence, a switch is
designed to cater to the average number oI simultaneous calls that is expected. This design may,
occasionally, bring up a situation when there is no Iree switching path available, when a
subscriber requests a connection. This is called a blocking switch in which the number oI
simultaneous connections possible is less than the maximum number oI simultaneous
conversations possible.


3.2.3.3) SWITCHING TECHNIQUES
DiIIerent methods are employed to establish the required connection in an exchange. The two
most widely used methods are time switching and space switching. Space switching was
exclusively used in electromechanical switching systems and with the advent oI digital
technology, time switching has become a popular option. Also, to increase the switching capacity
combination oI time and space switching methods are also employed. This is called combination
switching.

3.2.3.4) COMBINATION SWITCHING
There are some limitations in both time and space switching that can be overcome by multistage
and combination switching.These structures also permit to increase the switching capacity Ior a
given technology. A combination switch can be built by a number oI stages oI time (T) and space
(S) switches. A three-stage combination switch in which time stages are placed on either side oI
a space stage is reIerred to as TST switch.Other multistage typical conIigurations include TSST,
TSSSST and TSTSTSTS.











FIG4)
3.2.4) COORDINATION COMPLEX
The EWSD system incorporates largely independent subsystems with a separate microprocessor
control. The coordination processor handles the coordination oI these microprocessor controls
and data transIer between them. The coordination complex has been divided into diIIerent units
Ior coordinating diIIerent parts oI the EWSD. These parts will be discussed in the Iollowing
sections.

3.2.5) COORDINATION PROCESSOR
For making the EWSD a Ilexible and powerIul system the EWSD the diIIerent subsystems oI the
EWSD are designed with their own separate controls. The common control unit CP controls all
the common system procedures and coordinates the operating, saIeguarding and the switching
processes. The coordination processor (CP) handles the data base as well as conIiguration and
coordination Iunctions, e.g.:
O Storage and administration oI all programs, exchange and subscriber data.
O Processing oI received inIormation Ior routing, path selection, zoning, charges
O Communication with operation and maintenance centres
O Supervision oI all subsystems, receipt oI error messages, analysis oI supervisory result
messages, alarm treatment, error messages, alarm treatment, error detection, error
location and error neutralization and conIiguration Iunctions.
O Handling oI the man-machine interIaceŦ
The CP113C is multiprocessor and can be expanded in stages. In the CP113C, two or more
identical processors operate in parallel with load sharing. The rated load oI n processors is
distributed among n¹1 processors. This means that iI one processor Iails, operation can continue
without restriction (redundancy mode with n¹1 processors).
The Basic Iunctional units oI CP 113C are as Iollows:
O Base Processor (BAP) Ior operation & maintenance and call processing,
O Common Memory (CMY)- 64 to 1024 MB in 4 memory banks consisting
oI 4 Mb DRAM chips.
O Input / Output Controller (IOC) - 2 to 4 IOCs coordinate and supervise
accessing oI CMY by IOPs.
O ATM Bridge Processor (AMP) II a SSNC (EWSD powernode) is
connected, the AMP is used (usually instead oI the second IOC pair). It
represents the interIace between the ATM equipment in the SSNC and the
CP. Its task is to convert the ATM oriented data streams Irom SSNC to the
internal EWSD Iormat.
O Input/output processors (IOP) - Various types oI IOPs are used to connect
the
CP113C to the other subsystems and Iunctional units oI the exchange as well as to the
external mass storage devices (EM i.e., MDD, MTD, MOD), the two O&M terminals
(OMT/ BCT), to OMC via data lines etc. Maximum 12 IOPs can be connected to one IOC. The
Iigure is shown on next page.The other Iunctional units oI CP 113C are call processors (CAPs)
which deal only with call processing Iunctions. Hardware wise they are similar to BAPs .

3.2.6) MESSAGE BUFFER MB)
It is use Ior coordinating internal message traIIic between the CP, the SN, the LTGs and the
CCNC in an exchange. The message buIIer serves as an interIace adapter Ior the internal
inIormation exchange between
1) coordination processor
2) Switching network
3) Line trunk group
The MB has 1-4 message buIIer groups (MBG) depending on the system size. The MBG are also
duplicated. The latest version oI the message buIIer is MB (D) aIter MB (B). The MBB is
designed to match the processing capacity oI the coordination processor CP113C. The MBB
provides a very high transmission capacity, especially in the message buIIer Ior the line/trunk
group (MBU: LTG).

3.2.7) CENTRAL CLOCK GENERATOR CCG)
It is use Ior the synchronization oI the exchange and, where necessary, the network. The CCG is
extremely accurate (10
-9)
. It can,however, be synchronized even more accurately by an external
master clock (10
-11
). For the transIer oI digital inIormation in a network, synchronized
Iunctional sequences oI all participating units is an absolute requirement. Accurate clock pulses
must be provided Ior all exchanges with in the digital network. This task is handled by the CCG
which synchronizes the clock generators in the Iunctional units. II all the clock generators are
Iailed nothing would work. It would not be possible to operate the exchange Irom the O&M
center, to route speech channels, to record billing data or to display the time at the system panel.
Tones would not be generated and above all the evaluation oI the dialed inIormation would not
take place. For this reason CCG is duplicated. One CCG operates as the master and the other as
slave. The slave is phase locked with the master, thus ensuring a continuous clock supply iI the
master Iails. The CCG is synchronized to the external reIerence Irequency. Then the CCG
synchronizes all the components oI EWSD to the reIerence Irequency.

3.2.8) SYSTEM PANEL
The system panel provides a continuous overview oI the operational status oI a EWSD
system.The system panel indicates Iaults visibly and audibly. It also displays the processing load
oI the CP, the time and the date. The display area includes 7- segment displays, light emitting
diodes and keys. It is organized into display areas Ior LTG, SN, CP & CCNC, external
equipment,system internal conditions and the system panel itselI. The displayed processor load is
a measure Ior the traIIic load handled by the EWSD system. The system panel also displays
alarms like critical alarm, major alarm, minor alarm, minor alarm combined with the major
alarm. To turn oII the alarm simply depress the accept key. Upto eight system panels can be
connected to the EWSD exchange. It can be remote and may be connected to the system also.
The system panel consists oI the Iollowing Iunctional units:

SYSTEM PANEL DISPLAY SYPD): It is use to display system internal alarms and the CP
load. It thus provides a continuous overview oI the state oI the system. The SYP also displays
external alarms such as Iire and air-conditioning system Iailure Ior example. It is installed in the
Equipment Room or in the Exploitation Room

SYSTEM PANEL CONTROL SYPC): The SYPC handles the input/output control Ior up to 8
SYPDs,24 external supervisory units like smoke detectors, 24 external Iailuers signaling units.


3.2.9) OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE TERMINALS
It is use Ior Input/output. Two OMTs/ BCTs are provided Ior O&M Iunctions.



3.2.10) EXTERNAL MEMORY EM)
It is use Ior
O Programs and data that do not always have to be resident in the CP
O An image oI all resident programs and data Ior automatic recovery
O Call charge and traIIic measurement data.
To ensure that these programs and data are saIeguarded under all circumstances, the EM is
duplicated. It consists oI two magnetic disk devices (MDD). The EM also has a magneto optical
disk ( MOD) and/or magnetic tape device (MTD), Ior input and output.

3.2.11) COMMON CHANNEL SIGNALING NETWORK
CONTROLLER CCNC)
A maximum oI 254 common signaling channels can be connected to the CCNC via either digital
or analog links. The digital links are extended Irom the LTGs over both planes oI the duplicated
switching network and multiplexers to the CCNC. The CCNC is connected to the switching
network via two 8 Mbps highways (SDC: CCNC). Between the CCNC and each switching
network plane, 254 channels Ior each direction oI transmission are available (254 channel pairs).
The channels carry signaling data via both switching network planes to and Irom the LTGs at a
speed oI 64 kbps. Analog signaling links are linked to the CCNC via modems.
For reasons oI reliability, the CCNC has a duplicated processor (CCNP) which is connected to
the CP by means oI similarly duplicated bus system. The CCNC consists oI :
O Upto 32 signaling link terminal (SILT) groups, each with 8 signaling links and
O One duplicated common channel signaling network processor (CCNP).
The Iunctions oI the CCNC depend on its position in a signaling link. In the originating or desti-
nation exchange in associated signaling, it operates as signaling end point (SEP) and in transit
exchange in quasi-associated signaling, it operates as a signaling transIer point (STP).
The CCNC, equipped in one rack can handle upto 48 signaling links. Equipments handling upto
96 signaling links can be equipped in additional racks.











3.2.11.1) SIGNALING SYSTEM NETWORK CONTROL
In the EWSD powernode the SSNC takes over the control oI the SS7 network (instead oI CCNC
as was used in EWSD Classic). Here SSNC can be used as signaling end point (SEP) or
signaling transIer point (STP) as was also done by CCNC.
In Contrast to the CCNC, the SSNC is equipped with its own O&M interIace to the Netmanager
NetM and with back-up memories (magnetic disk / magneto-optic disk). ThereIore with regard to
the OAM, it is independent oI the CP. Thus it is possible to also use the SSNC outside oI EWSD
as a stand-alone Signaling TransIer Point STP.

3.3) CALL SETUP IN THE EWSD
The call setup in the EWSD switching system involves interaction oI the various hardware
subsystems. An overview oI the call setup and the sequence oI various steps are explained in this
part.Let us consider subscriber A wants to call the subscriber B. To call subscriber B the
CCS via
digital data
links
CCS via
analog
data links
0 31 0 31
0 7
0 7
SÌLT group 31 SÌLT group 0
CCNP 0 CCNP 1
CP bus system
ig{Ź]-ommonbannWSignaingWtworkontro
Multiplexer

Modem
subscriber A initiates a number oI call processing events by liIting the handset. The various steps
involved in completion oI the call are:
1) When A liIts the handset the analog subscriber line circuit detects the oII hook condition.
2) The A-SLMCP scans the SLCA and detects request Ior a connection. The A-SLMCP reports
this situation to the DLUC.
3) The DLUC then Iorwards the seizure message via digital interIace in the DLU and A-DIU in
the A-LTG to the group processor.
4) The GP checks its database Ior the data associated with the A subscriber and assigns time slot
on one oI the PCM links and reports this inIormation to the A-SLMCP.
5) A-SLMCP causes the SLCA to loop back the send time slot to the receive slot (test loop). The
A-GP through connects to group switch in order to perIorm the speech channel loop test Irom the
A-LTG to the A-SLCA in the A-DLU and back to the A-LTG. The test tone Ior the loop test is
provided by the tone generator in the A-SU. AIter the successIul completion oI test the A-
GPselects the Iree time slot to the SN and sends the seizure message to the CP. Also A-GP
commands the A-SLMCP to set up the speech path in the SLCA.
6) In the next step the tone generator in the A-SU sends the dialing tone to the A SLCA. A code
receiver in the A-SU is ready Ior the receipt oI the dialing digits. A subscriber hears this dial
tone.The subscriber then dials the number and the A-SU receives the dialed digits.
7) The A-SU transIers received digit code to the A-GP. AIter the Iirst digit is received the A-GP
disconnects the dial tone. The data received by the A-GP is then transIerred to the CP.
8) The CP then checks its database and checks whether the B-subscriber is idle. The CP
identiIies the DLU, SLCA and the connection oI the B-subscriber selects one oI the two LTGs to
which DLU is connected and iI the line is idle, marks the B-subscriber busy.
9) The CP determines a path through the SN Ior the connection between the A-LTG and B-LTG
and sends the setup commend to the SGC. It also inIorms the B-LTG with the seizure command
about the speech channels (A-LTG-SN, SN-B-LTG), B-port number etc. The B-LTG loops the
assigned speech channels. The CP inIorms the A-LTG in a setup command about the zone and
the partner`s side (port, speech, and channel) and causes the A-LTG to perIorm a cross oIIice
check (COC) between A-LTG & B-LTG. With the aid oI a report the A-GP inIorms the B-GP
about the successIul COC and connects the subscriber`s speech channels through the A-GS.
So Iar the call has been setup Irom the B-LIU. However the connection Irom the B-LTG to the
B-SUB is still missing.
10) Now the connection between the B-LTG and the B-SUB is setup. For setting the connection
the same steps are Iollowed Irom 1 to 5. AIter step 5 the B-GP sends the ringing command to the
B-DLUC. The B-DLUC instructs the SLMCP to apply the ringing voltage B subscriber. The
BGP Iorwards a switch command to the B-GS to send the ringing tone to the A subscriber.The A
subscriber receives the ringing tone Irom the B-SU.
11) The B subscriber accepts the call by liIting the handset. The B-SLCA detects the loop
closure. The B-SLMCP scans the B-SLCA and recognizes that B subscriber wants to accept the
call i.e. has gone oII-hook. The B-SLMCP reports the lop closure to the B-DLUC. The B-DLUC
removes the ringing tone current and Iorwards the message to the B-GP. The B-GP disconnects
the ringing tone and connects the speech through the B-GS.
12) The B-GP reports the answer to the A-GP. Due to this report the initiates the charging
procedure.
13) Finally the connection is established. It seems that the process will take time but the
experience shows that the connection is set up in Iew seconds. The A-GP stores the call charges
and stores in one oI the registers and transIers to the CP at the end oI the call. The whole process
involved in establishing requires interaction between the various parts oI the hardware as
explained in steps. In the daily liIe establishing the call seems to very simple but the system
required to establish this call involves a great complexity both in architecture and the process
designed Ior call set up.











Fig6)-block diagram of CCNC




4.1) SUBSCRIBER ADMINISTRATION
Subscriber administration in the EWSD system includes:
O Directory number administration
O Analog subscriber administration
O ISDN subscriber administration
O Analog PBX administration
O ISDN PBX administration
Each subscriber is assigned Iields in the database which hold both the call processing
inIormation and inIormation Ior subscriber data. Prior to creation oI a subscriber line, the
corresponding Iields contain initial values.
When data are entered using MML commands, the database is updated to make the new data
available to call processing. It is also possible to modiIy existing data Iields, i.e. to add Iurther
data or to modiIy or delete individual data items.
II a subscriber line is canceled, all Iields are reset to their initial values and the port is then
available Ior creation oI a new subscriber line.

4.2) DIRECTORY NUMBER ADMINISTRATION
The conIiguration and maintenance oI directory numbers and other related Iunctions are
perIormed only at the initial installation and commissioning oI the exchange or in the case oI
expansions or modiIications. Following items are administrated in directory number
administration.
1)LOCAL AREA CODE
The local area code consists oI the national traIIic discrimination code and the actual local area
code. Each local exchange is assigned at least one local area code. However, upto 50 local
networks can be created with the corresponding 50 local area codes.The local area code must be
speciIied in any MML command that contains a directory number Iound in a multiple directory
number volume (required parameter).
Each LAC is created with the command ENTR AREACODE. It may be assigned to one or
several DLU (prerequisite Ior DLU stand alone service).

DIRECTORY NUMBERS
Directory numbers serve to identiIy subscribers. They may consists oI no more than 12 digits,
including the local area code. Directory number can be created as a single directory number or
as directory number blocks.
Directory numbers are set up and deleted normally in the blocks oI 10,100 or 1000. It is also
possible to create a single directory number. This is normally used as a pilot DN Ior PBX with
direct inward dialing. Any directory number set up in this way is can be used as the identiIication
oI subscribers or PBX lines The directory numbers are not activated until code points are created
Ior them. The code point Ior a directory number block contains the common digit combination oI
the block.
Example: Corresponding to a block oI 100 consisting oI the directory numbers
272200&&272299 oI the code point 2722.
For bulk connection oI subscribers it is possible to create subscribers in advance on a preparatory
basis and then create the code point at the time oI connection.It is preIerable to choose short
directory numbers Ior PBX lines because the extension number has to be transmitted as well as
the local area code and PBX directory number. In case oI large PBXs, it is possible that not all oI
the entire range oI numbers assigned to the PBX is needed.
By means oI directory number conservation it is possible to restrict the Iirst digit oI the extension
number, i.e. the tens group dialed aIter the PBX directory number. The remaining part oI this
tens group that is partially assigned Ior a PBX directory number can then be created Ior other
PBXs or other subscribers, and extended by another digit to increase the range oI numbers by a
Iactor oI ten.
3)DIRECTORY NUMBER ATTRIBUTES
The Ieature 'multiple local networks in one exchange¨ allows up to 50 diIIerent local networks
to be operated in one exchange.
In the case oI several complete local networks there are two categories oI local area codes:
O independent local area codes. e.g. 089 and 088
O local area codes derived or ' split oII¨ Irom each other (i.e. with common digit
sequences) e.g. 089 and 0898 and 08989.
The administration must ensure that the directory number volume is unique. This means that a
directory number (consisting oI local area code and subscriber directory number) may occur
once in all local networks oI the exchange and in the entire network. A distinction is thereIore
drawn between being unique in a country, unique in an exchange and unique in a local network.
EWSD provides the tools and the procedures Ior this purpose.
Unique and multiple directory number volume in case of several local networks in
one exchange

A directory number attribute can be used (MML command) to deIine whether the
directory number volume Ior an exchange with several networks should be unique or multiple. II
it is to be unique each subscriber directory number may occur only once in the exchange with
several local networks. II it is to be multiple, a subscriber number may occur several times in the
exchange, but oI course may occur only once per local network in the exchange.
,250
Unique directory number volume:
Local area code Directory numbers
089 24711 (PBX block)
247120.......247129 (10s block)
2471300.....2471399 (100s block)
24714000...24714999 (1000s block)

088 24715 (PBX block)
247160.........247169 (10s block)
2471700.......2471799 (100s block)
24718000....24718999(1000s block)
Multiple directory number volume:
Local area code Directory numbers
089 24711 (PBX block)
247120......247129 (10s block)
2471300....2471399 (100s block)
24714000..24714999 (1000s block)

088 24711 (PBX block)
247120.........247129 (10s block)
2471300.......2471399 (100s block)
24714000....24714999 (1000s block)
Ability to dial own local area code in the exchange
A distinction must be drawn here between:
O calls to the own local network in the exchange (local area code to which a subscriber is
assigned by the administration)
O calls to another local network in the exchange (local area code oI another local network
in the exchange)
As a general rule subscribers in an exchange are permitted to dial their own local area code Ior
calls to their own local network, but it is not necessary. The administration also has the
possibility oI using an MML command to disallow and allow again the Iacility Ior dialing the
local area code Ior calls to subscriber`s own local network.
II the directory number attribute Ior the directory number volume is 'unique¨, the local area code
can be dialed Ior a call to the subscriber`s own local network or to another local network in the
exchange.
II the directory number attribute Ior the directory number volume is ' multiple¨, the local area
code must be dialed Ior a call to another local networks in the exchange.
Handling of emergency call areas in an exchange with multiple local networks

Subscribers oI all the local networks in an exchange can have diIIerent emergency call areas
assigned to them according to their geographical location although the same emergency call
number is dialed. A separate emergency call area can be assigned to each local network.








In the above Iigure, local network 1 has emergency call area 1 assigned to it with the emergency
call number 110. Local network 2 has emergency call area 2 assigned to it with the emergency
call number 110.
Digit-zone conversion zoning dependent on originating local network)
When subscribers in one local network dial into another local network in the same exchange,
diIIerent charges may be demanded Irom the subscribers due to geographical location oI the
local networks.



Local
network 1
Local
network 1
Local
network 1
Local
network 2
Emergency
call area 1
Emergenc
y call area
Fig(7)














Subscriber A in Local network 1 dials into local network 3, belonging to zone 2. Subscriber B in
local network 2 dials into local network 3, belonging to zone 1. Subscriber C in local network 1
dials into local network 1, belonging to zone 1.
The originating local area code (local network index oI origin) is used Ior digit -zone conversion
just as it is Ior digit destination area conversion. This means that zoning can be carried out Ior all
the subscribers oI a local network without individual origin codes being necessary. This method
is simple Ior operating personnel as the MML inputs are analogous to those Ior digit conversion.
Remote control unit, RCU
An RCU, consisting oI upto six DLUs (digital line units), can maintain the emergency service oI
an exchange. The emergency service in an RCU is limited to one local network, however, iI an
exchange has multiple local networks, care should be taken to ensure that several local networks
are not serviced by one RCU.






Local Network 1
Local Network 2 Local Network 3
Zone 1 Zone 1
Zone 2
Fig(8)

4.3) ANALOG SUSCRIBER ADMINISTRATOR
A Subscrlber may only be creaLed lf Lhe followlng condlLlons have been meLŦ
O @he dlrecLory number musL be ln Lhe range of exlsLlng dlrecLory numbers and may noL
already be asslgned Lo anoLher subscrlberŦ
O @he porL musL be ºnoL connecLed"Ŧ
O @he Lype of clrculL found ln Lhe porL musL correspond Lo Lhe hardware requlred for Lhe
subscrlber llneŦ
SubsŦ daLa may be enLered whlle Lhe subscrlber ls belng creaLed (ck 5u8) or modlfled or
deleLed aL a laLer daLe (MOu 5u8)Ŧ
The subscriber may be assigned originating marks that are used routing and zoning.
SemlŴpermanenL subscrlber daLa can be dlsplayed by enLerlng a MML command (ulSÞ Su8)Ŧ
@ranslenL daLa can be dlsplayed by enLerlng command S@A@ Su8Ŧ
SU8SCkI8Lk CLASSLS CI SLkVICLS
@he followlng condlLlons musL be meL before classes of servlces may be enLeredť
O @he Lype of clrculL musL be compaLlble Lo Lhe classes of servlcesŦ
O @he llne caLegory musL be compaLlble Lo Lhe classes of servlcesŦ
O @he classes of servlces musL be compaLlble Lo one anoLherŦ
(eŦgŦ PoLllne lmmedlaLe and call walLlng )
@he dependencles and compaLlblllLy requlremenLs can be found ln Lhe relevanL commands ln
Lhe LxCPťCML manualŦ
@he modlflcaLlon of a subscrlber's dlrecLory number or equlpmenL number or equlpmenL
number does noL affecL exlsLlng classes of servlcesŦ
When a subscrlber ls canceledţ Lhe relevanL classes of servlces are also canceledŦ @he mosL
lmporLanL subscrlber classes of servlces (subscrlber feaLures) are descrlbed hereŦ
(4Ŧ3Ŧ1)CALL ICkWADING
Call Iorwarding is a Ieature that may be assigned to a subscriber during setup or upon subsequent
application. It allows calls that are destined Ior one subscriber (B1 called party) to be Iorwarded
to another directory number(B2 called party).














Three main diIIerent types oI call Iorwarding are available:
O Call Iorwarding immediately
All calls to the B1 called party are Iorwarded to the B2 called party regardless oI the status oI
B1. The B1 called party may still make outgoing calls.
O Call Iorwarding on busy
All calls to the B1 called party are Iorwarded to the B2 called party iI the B1 directory number is
busy.
O Call Iorwarding on don`t answer
All calls to the B1 called party are Iorwarded to B2 called party iI the B1 called party does not
reply within a speciIied time.
Call Iorwarding is usually activated and deactivated by the operator. II a subscriber wishes to use
this service (subscriber input), proper authorization may be granted by the operator. Canceling
the authorization and deactivating the diversion has no eIIect on an existing diverted call.
Only one call can be diverted Irom a subscriber line at one time. Any Iurther calls directed to this
B1 subscriber are given busy tone.






B1
called
B2 called party
or
operator
or
requested
connection forwarded connection
Fig(9)
A
calling party


'Operation¨ can have value(s) 'ACT(activation),DACT(deactivation), ENTR(entry oI directory
no to which call will be diverted),ENTRAC( entry oI directory no. to which call will be diverted
with activation .¨
Procedure Ior ACTIVATION/DEACTIVATION:

Dial 114 Iollowed by the telephone number Ior which the call is to be transIerred. He will get the
acceptance tone.

Dial 115 and wait Ior acceptance tone.

4.3.2)TRAFFIC RESTRICTIONS IN THE OUTGOING DIRECTIONS
This Ieature allows a subscriber to prevent all outgoing calls or all calls to a speciIic direction or
to a speciIic zone Irom being made Irom his or her telephone. The Ieature covers the Iollowing:
O service restrictions in the outgoing direction, Iully administration controlled.
O service restrictions in the outgoing direction, administration registration, subscriber
controlled.
O service restrictions in the outgoing direction, Iully subscriber controlled and selected.
The Iollowing terms have been used in this description:
Destination : End exchange oI called subscriber.
Zone : Geographical area containing all the end exchanges with the
same tariII regulations as seen Irom the originating exchange
TraIIic type : Calls to a particular destination. (DeIined using # DEST or
# ZOPT command)
Zone traIIic type : Calls to a particular zone.




4.3.2.1) MODE OF OPERATION

Service restriction in the outgoing direction distinguishes between destination-related and zone-
related restrictions. destination related and zone related restrictions can be entered and activated
in the exchange independently oI each other.
A restriction class can be assigned to a subscriber line. II a traIIic type or a zone traIIic type is
assigned to an activated restriction class, call attempts to this destination or zone are rejected.
The rejected calls can be diverted to an intercept service assigned to the traIIic type(e.g. tone,
announcement etc.)
A subscriber line can only have one restriction class activated at any time (either destination-
related or zone related).
Destination-related restrictions
The administration can assign one or more (max. 15) traIIic types to each restriction class(these
traIIic restriction classes are deIined using ENT# T#BLO command). CP call processing
determines the destination and hence the traIIic type Irom the dialing inIormation. (a national,
international, or intercontinental restriction etc. is recognized by the destination analysis).
one-related restrictions
The administration can assign one or more (max. 15) zone traIIic types to each restriction class
(again using ENT# T#BLO command these classes can be deIined). From the dialing
inIormation ' CP call processing¨ determines the zone, on the basis oI which a call is charged,
and Irom this determines the zone traIIic type. This enables outgoing calls to be barred on the
basis oI the zone. (A national, international or intercontinental restriction is recognised by the
zone analysis). Zone related barring oI the out going calls takes place only iI zoning is carried
out in a subordinate exchange. II zoning is carried out in a super-ordinate exchange, outgoing
calls are not barred.




4.3.3)THREE PARTY CONFERENCE SERVICE
'Three party service with three way conversation¨ Ieature enables the subscriber to hold an
existing connection while setting up another to a third subscriber. Three party conIerence service
is perIormed in the group switch oI the calling party LTG. With this Ieature it is possible to-
O switch between the Iirst and second connection
O end one oI the connections and retain the other
O set up a common speech path between all three subscribers























A-SUB performs
hook-flash ,gets dial
tone and dial 3
1. Normal call set up
A-SUB
(COS=

B-SUB in HOLD
no more speech
connection to
A-SUB
2. A-SUB performs hook flash
A-SUB gets
dial tone
3. A-SUB sets up a call to
second subscriber (C-SUB)
C-SUB
(ACTÌVE)
A-SUB
B-SUB
C-SUB
ACTÌVE
ACTÌVE
Fig(10)
B-SUB






In the Iigure(10), the mode oI operation oI three party service Ieature is explained. A calling
party (A-SUB) with this Ieature can put his partner into waiting position and sets up another call
to a diIIerent subscriber. This is called 'three party CALL status¨
The A-SUB establishes a three party conIerence Irom three party CALL status by perIorming a
hook Ilash and dialing 3 aIter special dial tone.
II either oI the two called parties (B-SUB or C-SUB) go on hook during an active three party
conIerence they are released individually. II the A-SUB goes on hook, the complete three party
conIerence is released.

Fig(11)
4.3.4)MALICIOUS CALL IDENTIFICATION FEATURE
The malicious call identiIication (MCI) Ieatures allow the origin oI malicious calls to be
identiIied. The malicious call identiIication service is activated via the subscriber classes oI
services. The Iollowing options are available:

O Call Identification unconditional

Malicious call data is saved Ior all incoming calls aIter call set-up has been completed.

O call identification on request
Malicious call data is only saved iI the called party activates identiIication dur during call set up
(e.g. by perIorming a hook Ilash).

None oI the possible options stated above oI MCI cause blocking oI the calling or the called
party`s line. Both subscribers can be accessed Ior both incoming and outgoing calls immediately
aIter an MCI connection.
4.3.4.1) FUNCTIONS INVOLVED IN MALICIOUS CALL IDENTIFICATION
II the called party has been assigned the malicious call identiIication class oI service, malicious
call data will be generated either automatically or upon request. This data record may contain the
Iollowing:
O date, time oI the day.
O directory number inIormation and associated directory numbers.
O calling party or called party trunk group number.
O calling party or called party line number.
O calling party or called party circuit identiIication code (CIC) and, as additional
inIormation, network indicator (NI) and signaling point code (SP code) where there is
networking with CCS7 signaling links.
This data is stored in the main memory in a cyclic buIIer. Once the buIIer is Iull, the data is
automatically transIerred to the call identiIication Iile on the magnetic disk. Operating personnel
may transIer manually the data stored in the buIIer using the command T#NS BUFFE#. Data
stored on the disk may be read out using display commands.
With MCI, an MCI alarm is also signaled at the system panel in the EWSD exchange provided
the MCI Ieature has been created with an MML command.
4.3.4.2) MALICIOUS CALL ADMINISTRATION















CP

CALL Process

Buffer ÌCMAL
SCOS=
CALÌDREQ
or

SYP
ENTR MALAD
ALARM = MALREQ
or
Turn off: ACCEP
CALÌD
Ìf full or
TRANS BUFFER:
TYPE= MAL;
ÌA.ÌCMAL
(cyclic file)
DÌSP MAL
SEL MAL
ENTR MALAD: DÌSP= MALREQ
or MALÌMM,
FEAT= DNDÌSP;
Fig(12)
Above diagram explains the various steps involved in the malicious call administration.
4.3.5)FIXED DESTINATION CALL HOT LINE)

This Ieature allows a subscriber to set up a call to a speciIied number (destination directory
number) simply by liIting the hand set. It comprises the Iollowing:
O Feature 1, Iixed destination call, immediate, administration controlled. A call is set up to
the destination number as soon as the subscriber liIts the hand set.

O Feature 2, Iixed destination call, with time-out, subscriber controlled. A call is set up to
the destination number iI the subscriber does not start dialing another number within a
Iixed time.
4.3.5.1) MODE OF OPERATION
The Iixed destination call Ieature means that the subscriber does not have to dial a number. The
subscriber line has a destination number permanently assigned to it. The destination number can
be up to 19 digits long and may not contain any special characters. It must be a complete
number; a partial number is not possible. Entry oI a new number overwrites the previous
destination number.Fixed destination calls are handled as normal calls. II a subscriber authorised
to use the Ieature has not deIined a destination number, he or she is treated as a normal
subscriber.
4.3.6)CALL WAITING
A subscriber in a stable call is inIormed that another call is waiting. This subscriber is then able
to interrupt the original call and accept the new one. Complete secrecy of communication
between the two callers is matained. The description covers:
O Feature 1, call waiting, indication controlled by the called subscriber, acceptance by
clearing. The subscriber can accept a waiting call. At the same time, the existing
connection is cleared down.
O Feature 2, call waiting, indication controlled by the called subscriber, acceptance without
clearing. The subscriber can accept a waiting call and simultaneously place the existing
connection on hold. He/she can then switch between the connections (hold Ior enquiry,
hold toggle), but only one connection is active at one time.
Procedure Ior activation/deactivation:

Dial 118 and get the acceptance tone similar to the engage tone but with a longer gap between the
beeps.

Dial 119 and get the acceptance tone.

4.3.6.1) TERMINOLOGY
The Iollowing terms are used in this description.
O Controlling party
The subscriber authorised Ior the Ieature.
(Waiting calls can be oIIered to this subscriber)
O Original call
The original connection between two subscribers, one oI whom has authorisation Ior call waiting
(controlling party).
O Waiting call
Connection between the waiting party (new calling party) and the controlling party.
O Talking connection
The currently active connection between two parties in the talk state.
(connection between controlling party and non controlling party who is on hold).
O Held connection
The currently inactive connection, having been placed on hold and not in talk state.
O Hook Ilash
A brieI interruption oI the subscriber loop made by tapping the switch hook Ior less than one
second.

4.3.6.2) MODE OF OPERATION
The controlling party can activate or deactivate the Ieature Ior his/her line. II the Ieature is
activated and a user is involved is a stable(two party) call, he/she will be inIormed by a call
waiting tone that another connection has been set up to the busy line.
The call waiting time (ringing time) can be set by means oI MML commands (normally 30
seconds). The call waiting tone cannot be heard by the non-controlling parties. The incoming
waiting call is treated as a ringing call (i.e. ringing tone, no call charge registration). Call waiting
can be used Ior only one call at a time. Further call attempts will be rejected with the busy tone
II a call is waiting, the controlling party can either
continue the original call
switch to the new two party call
switch to a three party connection
O Ignoring a waiting call
The controlling party can ignore a waiting call and continue original two party call.

O Call waiting with two- party call (Feature 1)
Accept new call, clear original call
The new controlling party can accept the waiting call. At the same time, the original call is
cleared (new two party call)
O Call waiting with three party connection (Feature 2)
Accept new call, place original call on hold
The controlling party can accept the waiting call and simultaneously place the original call on
hold. This creates a three party connection, in which only two parties are able to talk to each
other at any one time.
O Hold Ior inquiry
AIter the waiting call has been accepted in accordance with Ieature 2, the user can switch
between the two connections. Only one connection is active at a time. The party with inactive
connection is on hold and hears the hold tone. He/she cannot listen in to the active connection.
O Clear down oI connections
The subscribers in a three-party connection can disconnect at any time by going on-hook. II the
controlling party disconnects, he/she will be called by the inactive connection (ring back).


4.3.7)ABBREVIATED DIALING

You may be calling a Iew people Irequently.It is possible to program these numbers as
abbreviated codes oI 1 or 2 digits.A maximum oI 20 numbers can be programmed Ior
abbreviated dialing.It is ideal Ior STD/ISD.

PROCEDURE:

Step1 Select your short code Choose a short code Ior the number you dial Irequently e.g. '15'
Ior the number xxxxxx. (iI it's std no. std code+xxxxxx)
Step 2 Register short code Ior
a telephone no.
On your telephone dial 110 then the short code Iollowed by the
subscriber's number i.e. dial 110 15 xxxxxx.

You will shortly here an acceptance tone indicating that your code
is registered.
Step 3 To dial the number
using abbreviated code
Dial 111 then the short code to dial the number i.e dial 111 15
this will dial xxxxxx.
To cancel or re-allot the same
number
dial 110 15 yyyyyy (new tel. no) this will store code 15 Ior new
number yyyyyy overwriting the earlier no. xxxxxx.



4.3.8) AUTOMATIC WAKE-UP/REMINDER CALL SERVICE
When you want to be given reminder at a speciIic time, all you have to do is to call the exchange
and leave the time you want to be reminded. The Iacility allows you to initiate a call
automatically by the exchange at a Iixed time speciIied by the user oI the telephone.


Dial 116 (the registration code) Iollowed by the time you wish to be reminded or worken-up at
06.15am(06.15hrs), you will dial 1160615.

Dial 117 (the cancellation code) Iollowed by the time you booked the call.


4.3.9)NUMBER/CALL HUNTING SERVICE
II you have more than one telephone line, this Iacility is very helpIul Ior your caller. II the called
line is engaged, your caller does not have to disconnect and dial other line(s). This Iacility
automatically transIers the incoming call to whichever line is Iree.

4.3.10) CALLING LINE IDENTIFICATION PRESENTATION CLIP)
The subscriber has to buy separately the CLIP display device Irom market. Using this Iacility
you can see the number oI the calling party beIore liIting your telephone. Very useIul to trace
malicious caller. However, the CLIP instrument shall be procured and installed by the users
themselves.



4.3.11) CALLING LINE IDENTIFICATION CLI) ANNOUNCEMENT
SERVICE
Dial 164 and listen to the number oI the phone line that you have used to make the call. Very
useIul when in doubt about your phone number.

4.3.12) PHONE BELL CHECK
Dial 161 and aIter a Iew second replace the hand set. Your phone will ring very soon. UseIul
Ior checking Iunctioning or adjusting volume oI bell oI your phone.
4.3.13) ELECTRONIC LOCKING FOR STD/ISD
For 100° protection against improper use, you can lock your telephone electronically. Here,
you only know the secret code. You can lock/allow Local, STD or ISD calls in many way viz.
all calls allowed, only local calls allowed, only STD & Local calls allowed,all local calls barred
etc.


Register Secret Code Suppose you want to make 5555 your secret code. Follow this
procedure to register this:
Dial 123 5555 5555 then wait Ior the acceptance tone then
disconnect. Your code is registered.
Change secret code Suppose you want to change current code 5555 to 4444 then
Dial 123 5555 4444 then wait Ior the acceptance tone then
disconnect. Your new code(4444) is registered.
Bar/Open Facilities using Secret Codeexample 5555)
Bar STD/ISD calls Dial 124 5555 1 then wait Ior the acceptance tone then
disconnect. Now STD/ISD calls will be barred .
Open STD/ISD calls Dial 124 5555 0 then wait Ior the acceptance tone then
disconnect. Now STD/ISD calls can be made.
Open STD calls only Dial 124 5555 3 then wait Ior the acceptance tone then
disconnect. Now STD calls can be made.
Bar STD/ISD/manual
trunck calls
Dial 124 5555 2 then wait Ior the acceptance tone then
disconnect. Now STD/ISD/manual trunck calls will be barred
. (It will also bar calls to 95 level).
Bar local calls Dial 124 5555 4 then wait Ior the acceptance tone then
disconnect. Now localcalls will be barred .(applicable only iI
STD Facility is available).
Open local calls only Dial 124 5555 1 or 2 then wait Ior the acceptance tone then
disconnect. Now Local calls can be made.























5.1) CONCLUSION
Telecommunications sector is growing at a Iast rate. The dependence oI people on the
telecommunications has also increased very much. For building reliable telecommunication
systems a lot oI engineering and designing is required. An optimized system can only be
designed aIter proper planning and consideration oI each and every Iactor that can aIIect
working oI the system. The inIrastructure used Ior network elements in the network must also
be capable oI meeting real time requirements like traIIic variations due to time oI the day (day
or night) oI the network etc. For increasing the reliability and capability oI network elements
the inIrastructure involved becomes very complex and sophisticated. Due to the rising
complexity in the system it is desirable that the systems should be divided into modules or
subparts. These modules or subparts will help in reducing the complexity oI whole system and
limiting the complexity oI a particular subsystem to that part only. This kind oI approach can
be seen in EWSD system where whole system is being divided into many subsystems. This
also helps the switch designer while conIiguring the switch. In addition it also helps in
increasing the Ilexibility oI the system in terms oI easy expansion whenever required. By
making the individual network elements modular we can design and implement a complex
network with much more ease. This makes whole network modular as network is nothing but
the collection oI all these network elements. Thus the approach to design a network is to
recognize the network elements and design parameters based on the needs required in the
network and then start conIiguring the elements on the basis oI parameters given. From the Iirst
part oI thesis we can easily recognize these approaches. As EWSD is a modular approach we
can expand the capacity oI exchange by increasing the no. oI modules. For increasing the
capacity we need not to change the whole design oI exchange. So EWSD plays a great role
telecommunication.
Sure, wireless phones oIIer you convenience, letting you talk Irom virtually any location.
What you may not realize is that they can`t provide all the advantages oI landline phones.
That`s why the FCC says, 'A combination oI landline and wireless phone use may be the right
choice Ior you.¨
Landline phone service gives you:
Reliability: You can count on constant connections, since power outages won`t aIIect your
landline phone service.
Safety: 911 operators receive your exact location automatically when you call whether you
have the capability oI speaking or not.
Cost Savings: Enjoy unlimited local calling without having to worry about minutes or extra
charges.
Dependable Quality: When was the last time your landline phone dropped an important
phone call?
Directory Listings: When you subscribe to landline phone service, your number is listed in
the local phone book.
Hometown Connection: When you need help, Hamilton Telecommunications is close by to
provide local customer service. Plus, your communications dollars stay here to boost our local
economy.






6.1) REFERENCES
O http://www.alttc.bsnl.co.in/
O http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile¸ad¸hoc¸network
O http://www.bsnl.co.in/
O http://www.telecom.ntua.gr/~libero/svct2.pdI
O http://education .icn.siemens.com/doc/pdIs/b0200¸001¸i06.pdI
O http://www.sytechcorp.com/new¸site/SytechCorp/SyTechCorpXY/siemens.pdI