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INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION
Day One
Day One
+ +Piping Systems Piping Systems
+ +Friction Losses Friction Losses
+ +Flow Rate limitation Flow Rate limitation
+ +Ashrae Ashrae & Carrier Guide Line & Carrier Guide Line
+ +Acceptable Practices Acceptable Practices
+ +Pipe Sizing Pipe Sizing
+ +Head Losses Calculation Head Losses Calculation
+ +Case Practice Case Practice
Day 2
Day 2
· · Pumps Pumps
· · Performance Curves Performance Curves
· · Power consumption & Power consumption &
Efficiency Curve Efficiency Curve
· · Pump Laws Pump Laws
· · Pumps & System Pumps & System
Curve Curve
· · NPSHR & NPSHA NPSHR & NPSHA
· · Pump Selection Pump Selection
· · Pumps Arrangements Pumps Arrangements
& their performance & their performance
Curve Curve
· · Case Studies Case Studies
WATER PIPING SYSTEM WATER PIPING SYSTEM WATER PIPING SYSTEM WATER PIPING SYSTEM
WATER PIPING SYSTEM WATER PIPING SYSTEM WATER PIPING SYSTEM WATER PIPING SYSTEM
Open System
Open System
+ +In this system, the water flows thru heat exchanger In this system, the water flows thru heat exchanger
and then exposed to atmosphere. and then exposed to atmosphere.
+ +such as in such as in Cooling tower and air washer Cooling tower and air washer. .
Closed system Closed system Closed system Closed system
Closed system Closed system Closed system Closed system
+ +In this system, the water flow is not exposed to the In this system, the water flow is not exposed to the
atmosphere at any point. atmosphere at any point.
+ +But some times contains an expansion tank that is But some times contains an expansion tank that is
open to the atmosphere but water area exposed is open to the atmosphere but water area exposed is
insignificant. Such as insignificant. Such as Chilled water system Chilled water system
Closed Water Piping System
Closed Water Piping System
+
+
Parallel Piping System Parallel Piping System Parallel Piping System Parallel Piping System
Parallel Piping System Parallel Piping System Parallel Piping System Parallel Piping System
4 4Reverse return piping Reverse return piping Reverse return piping Reverse return piping Reverse return piping Reverse return piping Reverse return piping Reverse return piping
4 4Reverse return header with direct Reverse return header with direct Reverse return header with direct Reverse return header with direct Reverse return header with direct Reverse return header with direct Reverse return header with direct Reverse return header with direct
return risers return risers return risers return risers return risers return risers return risers return risers
4 4Direct return piping Direct return piping Direct return piping Direct return piping Direct return piping Direct return piping Direct return piping Direct return piping
+
+
Compound Piping system Compound Piping system Compound Piping system Compound Piping system
Compound Piping system Compound Piping system Compound Piping system Compound Piping system
(Primary & Secondary System) (Primary & Secondary System) (Primary & Secondary System) (Primary & Secondary System)
(Primary & Secondary System) (Primary & Secondary System) (Primary & Secondary System) (Primary & Secondary System)
Reverse Return Piping
Reverse Return Piping
Reverse Return Headers with
Reverse Return Headers with
Direct Return Risers
Direct Return Risers
Direct Return Water Piping
Direct Return Water Piping
Primary & Secondary Piping
Primary & Secondary Piping
FRICTION LOSSES
FRICTION LOSSES
When water flows in a pipe, friction is
When water flows in a pipe, friction is
produced by the rubbing of water particles
produced by the rubbing of water particles
against each other and against the wall of
against each other and against the wall of
the pipe. This friction produced by the
the pipe. This friction produced by the
flowing water causes a loss in pressure,
flowing water causes a loss in pressure,
which is called Friction Loss.
which is called Friction Loss.
The Friction losses depends upon
The Friction losses depends upon
: :: :
: :: :
+ +Water velocity Water velocity
+ +Interior surface roughness Interior surface roughness
+ +Pipe length Pipe length
+ +Pipe diameter Pipe diameter
Flow Rate Limitation
Flow Rate Limitation
¯
¯
Services
Services
¯
¯
Erosion
Erosion
¯
¯
Noise
Noise
¯
¯
Installation Cost
Installation Cost
¯
¯
Operating Cost
Operating Cost
All above limit Maximum and
All above limit Maximum and
minimum velocities in piping
minimum velocities in piping
system.
system.
Recommended Water
Recommended Water
Velocities
Velocities
Based on Services
Based on Services
4
4
Pump Discharge
Pump Discharge
8
8


12 FPS
12 FPS
4
4
Pump Suction
Pump Suction
4
4


7 FPS
7 FPS
4
4
Header
Header
4
4


15 FPS
15 FPS
4
4
Riser
Riser
3
3


10 FPS
10 FPS
4
4
Drain Line
Drain Line
4
4


7 FPS
7 FPS
4
4
General Service
General Service
5
5


10 FPS
10 FPS
4
4
City Water
City Water
3
3


7 FPS
7 FPS
Erosion Erosion Erosion Erosion
Erosion Erosion Erosion Erosion
+
+
Erosion in water piping system is
Erosion in water piping system is
the impingement on inside surface
the impingement on inside surface
of pipe of rapidly moving water
of pipe of rapidly moving water
containing air bubbles, sand and
containing air bubbles, sand and
other solid matter.
other solid matter.
+
+
Due to this impingement, pipes
Due to this impingement, pipes
gets eroded over a period of time
gets eroded over a period of time
if
if
Recommended velocity not
Recommended velocity not
maintained in piping systems.
maintained in piping systems.
MAXIMUM WATER VELOCITY TO MAXIMUM WATER VELOCITY TO MAXIMUM WATER VELOCITY TO MAXIMUM WATER VELOCITY TO
MAXIMUM WATER VELOCITY TO MAXIMUM WATER VELOCITY TO MAXIMUM WATER VELOCITY TO MAXIMUM WATER VELOCITY TO
MINIMIZE EROSION MINIMIZE EROSION MINIMIZE EROSION MINIMIZE EROSION
MINIMIZE EROSION MINIMIZE EROSION MINIMIZE EROSION MINIMIZE EROSION
Normal Operation
Normal Operation
Velocity Range
Velocity Range
4
4
1500 Hrs/Year
1500 Hrs/Year
15 FPS
15 FPS
4
4
2000
2000
“
“
14 FPS
14 FPS
4
4
3000
3000
“
“
13 FPS
13 FPS
4
4
4000
4000
“
“
12 FPS
12 FPS
4
4
6000
6000
“
“
10 FPS
10 FPS
4
4
8000
8000
“
“
8 FPS
8 FPS
Noise Generation
Noise Generation
Velocitydependent noise in piping systems
results from any or all of four sources:
¯Turbulence
¯Cavitation
¯Release of entrained air
¯Water hammer
In investigations of flowrelated Noise, Marseille,
Ball and Webster and Rogers reported that
velocities on the order of 10 to 17 10 to 17 fps lie within the
range of allowable noise levels for residential and
commercial buildings.
Ashrae Ashrae Ashrae Ashrae
Ashrae Ashrae Ashrae Ashrae
Recommendations Recommendations Recommendations Recommendations
Recommendations Recommendations Recommendations Recommendations
For
For
Hydronic System
Hydronic System
¯ ¯
Friction Loss Rate should be taken as
Friction Loss Rate should be taken as
1 to
1 to
4
4
Feet/100 feet of Pipe
Feet/100 feet of Pipe
Eq.Length
Eq.Length
.
.
¯
¯
A Value of
A Value of
2.5 Feet/100
2.5 Feet/100
Feet is the mean
Feet is the mean
to which most systems are designed.
to which most systems are designed.
¯
¯
For 2 Inch and below pipes, Velocity limit
For 2 Inch and below pipes, Velocity limit
is
is
4 FPS.
4 FPS.
¯
¯
For above pipes,
For above pipes,
FLR limit is
FLR limit is
4 Feet/100
4 Feet/100
Feet.
Feet.
And
And
¯ ¯As per Carrier Guide Line FLR is 8 As per Carrier Guide Line FLR is 8 10 feet /100 10 feet /100
feet and velocity limit 10 FPS. feet and velocity limit 10 FPS.
PIPE SIZING CRITERIA PIPE SIZING CRITERIA PIPE SIZING CRITERIA PIPE SIZING CRITERIA
PIPE SIZING CRITERIA PIPE SIZING CRITERIA PIPE SIZING CRITERIA PIPE SIZING CRITERIA
+
+
Water Flow
Water Flow
+ +Based on Cooling load on respective AHU Based on Cooling load on respective AHU
/FCU/BCU /FCU/BCU
+ +Can be calculated as: Can be calculated as:
Tonnage X 24 Tonnage X 24
Flow In GPM= Flow In GPM=  
Temperature difference Temperature difference
+
+
Friction Loss Rate / Velocity Limitation
Friction Loss Rate / Velocity Limitation
specified by consultant or ASHRAE.
specified by consultant or ASHRAE.
Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method
Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method
Step
Step


1
1
¯ ¯Make a layout sketch showing individual Make a layout sketch showing individual
AHU,FCU and BCU on Master layout plan. AHU,FCU and BCU on Master layout plan.
Step
Step


2
2
¯ ¯Mark selected /design flow on individual AHU, Mark selected /design flow on individual AHU,
FCU and BCU. FCU and BCU.
Step
Step


3
3
¯ ¯Review layout sketch w.r.t. space available , Review layout sketch w.r.t. space available ,
other services,economy and consultant other services,economy and consultant
concurrence. concurrence.
¯ ¯Conclude layout. Conclude layout.
Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method
Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method Pipe Sizing Method
…… …… …… ……
…… …… …… ……
.. .. .. ..
.. .. .. ..
Step
Step


4
4
¯ ¯Starting from most remote terminal working Starting from most remote terminal working
towards the pump, Mark the Cumulative flow in towards the pump, Mark the Cumulative flow in
mains and branch circuits. mains and branch circuits.
Step
Step


6
6
¯ ¯Select pipe size for required Flow and as per Select pipe size for required Flow and as per
selected Friction Loss Rate from Friction chart for selected Friction Loss Rate from Friction chart for
respective application. respective application.
¯ ¯Re Re check Chart water velocity with recommended check Chart water velocity with recommended
velocity. velocity. If within limit.Selection is ok. If within limit.Selection is ok.
¯ ¯
Repeat for other flow requirements.
Repeat for other flow requirements.
Friction Loss Rate Vs Flow Charts
Friction Loss Rate Vs Flow Charts


Sch
Sch
. 40 pipes
. 40 pipes
Head Loss & Calculation
Head Loss & Calculation
It is the total loss of pressure energy due to
It is the total loss of pressure energy due to
friction/resistance offered by Pipes & Fittings
friction/resistance offered by Pipes & Fittings
in the piping system
in the piping system
T
T
he
he
Head Loss
Head Loss
is equal to the
is equal to the
Total
Total
Frictional Losses
Frictional Losses
in highest resistant
in highest resistant
circuit of piping system.
circuit of piping system.
&To Calculate Head Loss, Calculate the Total
Frictional Losses
&of pipes
&of fittings
&of equipments
Valve & Fitting Losses
Valve & Fitting Losses
+
+
Valves & Fitting cause pressure losses greater
Valves & Fitting cause pressure losses greater
than those caused by the pipe alone.
than those caused by the pipe alone.
+
+
Fitting Losses are frequently expressed in
Fitting Losses are frequently expressed in
Equivalent length of pipe,
Equivalent length of pipe,
+
+
It can be expressed as per following equation
It can be expressed as per following equation
h = K x V
h = K x V
2
2
/
/
2g
2g
¯
¯
h
h


Head/Pressure loss in Feet
Head/Pressure loss in Feet
¯
¯
K
K


Geometry & Size dependent loss coefficient
Geometry & Size dependent loss coefficient
¯
¯
V
V


Average velocity of water
Average velocity of water
¯
¯
g
g


Gravitational force as 32.20
Gravitational force as 32.20
K Factors
K Factors


Screwed Fittings
Screwed Fittings
K Factors
K Factors


Flanged Fittings
Flanged Fittings
Fitting Losses in Equivalent Length of
Fitting Losses in Equivalent Length of
Pipe
Pipe
Valves Losses in
Valves Losses in
Eq
Eq
. Length of
. Length of
Pipes
Pipes
System Friction Losses System Friction Losses System Friction Losses System Friction Losses
System Friction Losses System Friction Losses System Friction Losses System Friction Losses
Relation between
Relation between
Flow & Head Losses
Flow & Head Losses
for a system
for a system: :
1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85 1.85      1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9
H2/H1 = (Q2/Q1) H2/H1 = (Q2/Q1) H2/H1 = (Q2/Q1) H2/H1 = (Q2/Q1) H2/H1 = (Q2/Q1) H2/H1 = (Q2/Q1) H2/H1 = (Q2/Q1) H2/H1 = (Q2/Q1)
Q1& Q2 = Flows Q1& Q2 = Flows Q1& Q2 = Flows Q1& Q2 = Flows Q1& Q2 = Flows Q1& Q2 = Flows Q1& Q2 = Flows Q1& Q2 = Flows
H1 & H2=Head Losses H1 & H2=Head Losses H1 & H2=Head Losses H1 & H2=Head Losses H1 & H2=Head Losses H1 & H2=Head Losses H1 & H2=Head Losses H1 & H2=Head Losses
Water Piping Diversity
Water Piping Diversity
+ When the air conditioning load is determined
for each exposure of a building, it is assumed that
the exposure is at peak load.
+ Since the sun load is at a maximum on one
exposure at a time, not all of the units on all the
exposures require maximum water flow at the same
time to handle the cooling load.
+ Units on the same exposure normally require
maximum flow at the same time; units on the
adjoining or opposite exposures do not.
+ Therefore, if the individual units are
automatically controlled to vary the water quantity,
the system water quantity actually required during
normal operation is less than the total water
quantity required for the peak design conditions for
all the exposures.
Diversity Application
Diversity Application
·
·
The principle of diversity allows the
The principle of diversity allows the
engineer to evaluate and calculate the
engineer to evaluate and calculate the
reduced water quantity.
reduced water quantity.
·
·
For applying diversity two conditions
For applying diversity two conditions
must be satisfied:
must be satisfied:
· ·
The water flow to the units must he
The water flow to the units must he
automatically controlled to compensate for
automatically controlled to compensate for
varying loads.
varying loads.
· ·
Diversity may only be applied to piping that
Diversity may only be applied to piping that
supplies units on more than one exposure.
supplies units on more than one exposure.
Diversity Application
Diversity Application
•Calculate Accumulated Flow in
exposure.
•Find Out Ratio of Accumulated flow
to Total Pump Flow.
•Apply this ratio to diversity Charts
and obtain diversity factor for the
particular section.
Diversity Application
Diversity Application
A Sample Project A Sample Project A Sample Project A Sample Project
A Sample Project A Sample Project A Sample Project A Sample Project
A schematic chilled water piping layout
A schematic chilled water piping layout
is enclosed for a G+4 Building.
is enclosed for a G+4 Building.
·
·
Please size the pipes for individual
Please size the pipes for individual
branch and headers.
branch and headers.
·
·
Calculate the total friction losses.
Calculate the total friction losses.
·
·
Select the Pumps:
Select the Pumps:
· · Option 1 Option 1  With single pumps operation With single pumps operation
· · Option 2 Option 2  With two pumps in operation With two pumps in operation