What is Refrigeration? Refrigeration is defined as the branch of science that deals with the process reducing or maintaining the temperature of a space or material below the temperature of the surrounding.

Types of refrigeration
Vapor compression refrigeration (VCR) system. Vapor absorption refrigeration system. Pulse tube refrigeration system. Magnetic refrigeration system. Electric refrigeration system. Air refrigeration system. Acoustic refrigeration system.

Who invent Refrigeration? In 1805, Oliver Evens of US proposed a system in his book, which states the system where ice would be made using a volatile fluid (ether). But he never went beyond proposing such a system.

The first inventor

The man who designed the first working VCR. British Patent :6662 in 1835. Refrigerant : Ethyl ether. The design was executed into a working model by JOHN HAQUE

First vapor compression refrigerator

motors research lab developed the first CFC for Frigadaire corporation of dayton ohio.

Year:1930 and 1931. Ref. name: K-21, K-11,K-12. (After are called Freon,R).

CFC in transition.
In 1987 the environmental protection activists are delivered the Montreal Protocol. Which is amended from 1990,1992 to suppress the CFC ,ccl4 ,Halons(2000) and methyl chloraform(2005) for the reason of ozone depletion.

Ozone depletion and Global warming of CFC

Alternate refrigerants
HCFC(R-22),HFC(134-a) and azeotropic mixtures of DME are consider for alternatives. R-22,R-23,R-142b and R-152 are mentioned in the Montreal protocol

Food preservation. Medicine preservation. Electronics industries. Space research. Cold treatment of metals. Surgical anesthesia. Sports (skaters, hockey). Construction industry (concrete cooling). Chemical industries.

A simple vapor-compression refrigeration cycle is shown vapor. schematically

VCR cycle(ideal)
1-2 Compression. Reversible adiabatic process. May be dry or wet compression. 2-3 Cooling and Condensing. Reversible const. pressure process. Initially desuperheated and condensed. Ending with saturated liquid. 3-4 Expansion. Adiabatic throttling process but not isentrophic. Enthalpy constant. 4-1 Evaporation. Const pressure reversible process. The saturation temp. at this pr. Being below the temp of the surrounding.

Actual vapor compression cycle.

Components of VCR
Compressors. Condensers. Expansion Devices. Evaporators.

Types of compressors
Reciprocating compressors. Centrifugal compressor. Rotary compressor. Screw compressor. Scroll compressor.

Reciprocating compressors
TYPES Hermatic compressors. Semi hermatic compressors. Open type compressors.

Hermatic compressor
All small units used in house hold refrigeration are hermatic. Fully sealed so that no leakage in the compressor. Motor is cooled with refrigerant vapor. Repairing not possible. Moisture should be dehydrated before charging. Range (MAX to 7.5 TR)

Semi – hermatic compressors.
Larger herm. sealed units have the removable cylinder head so that the valve and pistons can be serviced. Range(5 to 25 TR).

Open type compressor.
Motor and compressor unit are separated. Leakage is more. Range(20 to 75 TR)

Used in large capacity plants (beyond 150 TR). Normally used Refrigerants R-11,R-113.(Only low density refrigerants). Vibration less. High Density require high tip speed.

Scroll compressor
The spirals are rotating in opposite direction i.e one is stationary another is arbitrary. Range (Min to 70 TR).

Rotary compressors



Range (min to 7.5 TR). It require high degree of manufacturing precision.

Screw compressor.
The profiles of two opposite screws are used for compression. Range(50 to 200 TR)

Water-cooled condensers. Shell-and-tube condenser. vertical-shell-and-tube condensers. Shell and coil condenser. Double-pipe condenser. Evaporative condensor.

Shell-andShell-and-tube condenser
Horizontal type.
The most commonly used type Receiver may provide after condenser. Heads may be removable.

Vertical type.
Found primarily on Large plants NH3 as refrigerant. Less floor space. Easy cleaning

Shell-and-coil condenser.
Uses a helical water coil in the shell instead of tubes.

Double – pipe condenser.
Heat transfer rate low. Consists of two concentric tubes (water- inner refrigerant- annular) .

evaporative condenser.
The discharge gas from the compressor condenses inside a bank of tubes over which water is sprayed. WBT of air is used for heat transfer.

Air cooled condensers
All low capacity units used ACC because of their simplicity. A finned coil over which air blown and refrigerant condensed in the tubes. Require no water. No corrosion. DBT controls the condensing temperature.

Expansion devices
Capillary tube. Constant pressure expansion valve. Thermostatic expansion valve. Float valve. Thermal electric expansion valve.

Capillary tube.
A Capillary tube ia a tube 2 to 20 ft long with inside dia. 0.025 to 0.090 inches. It serves at lower TR. The pressure drop because of friction and acceleration in the coil. No moving parts and inexpensive. Susceptive to clogging by foreign matter. Designed only one operating condition causes starving and flooding.

Thermostatic expansion valve
Superheat in the evaporator controls the valve. Both metering and throttling are done. Power fluid actuates the valve seat. Too large results hunting and flood out.

Cont. pr.expansion valve (automatic)
Operates with senses the evaporator pressure. Evaporator pr increase results the wide valve opening ie. Allows flooding. Evaporator Pr lower results partial valve opening. Ie. allows starving.

Thermal electric expansion valve.


An evaporator in a refrigeration system is a heat exchanger which transfer heat from the substance being cooled to a boiling refrigerant.

Natural convection. Forced convection. * Fan forces. * Pump forces. Flooded evaporator. Liquid chiller. Direct expansion coil.

FloodedFlooded-Tube Evaporator.

Direct expansion coil evaporator


Capacity control methods.

On-off control.

Small capacity units.

Hunting (Too frequent). Less costly precise Control possible. Less costly precise control possible. Not favor due to discharge temp. increase Less costly non precise not favor for the same reason Energy efficient costly.


Back pressure regulation.

Energy inefficient.


Hot gas by- pass

Energy inefficient.


Condenser pressure

Energy inefficient.


Speed (varying the speed of comp.)

All types


Cylinder/unit unloading.

More than one unit/cylinder used

Combination of 5,6 gives advantages.

Leak testing methods
Leak detection in the system either inward or outward. For all refrigerants soap bubble detection method used.(particularly for HC. For ammonia sulfur candle test used. (held near white smoke is formed. Dampened phenophthalein paper turns red with contact NH3 vapor. A halide torch used to detect the halocorbon refrigerant leakage.

Formation of frost on the evaporator coil due to low outer surface temp cause ,
• •

Excessive frost blocks the passages. Loss in effectiveness (Heat Transfer.).

Three major methods for defrosting the coils. • Done by warm air. • Done by hot gas.

Multi pressure system.

Multi pressure system.

Cascade system


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