Objective to Workshop
A Better Understanding of:

What is Involved in a Hearing Conservation Program:
– – – – – Noise Monitoring Audiometric Testing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Program Training Requirements Engineering and Administrative Controls

Legislative Requirements
– Existing – Proposed

PRE-TEST True or False? Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) has no signs or pain? True .

PRE-TEST True or False? Noise levels are measured in Decibels? True .

PRE-TEST True or False? How noise effects your hearing depends on how old you are? False. and Duration is What Affects Your Hearing . Intensity.

PRE-TEST True or False? Exposure to 85 or more dB over an eight hour workday can mean risk of hearing loss? True .

the Type depends on the Noise and Type of Job you do .PRE-TEST True or False? The type of hearing protection you wear depends on comfort? False.

PRE-TEST True or False? Proper hearing protection can reduce the incoming noise levels? True .

the noise level at your workplace is probably greater than 85 dB’s? True .PRE-TEST True or False? If you have to shout to talk to someone who is just two or three feet away.

Noise .

Interfere with Speech or Communication. and/or Cause Hearing Impairment .Unwanted Sound. Unwanted Because it can Cause Annoyance.Noise .

in Steel it’s 5000 meters/sec .At Sea Level the Speed of Sound is 344 meters/sec.

Sound Intensity is the Degree of Strength Measured in Decibels (dB) .

.The Decibel Scale is logarithmic and is an expression of Sound Pressures which is actually what is Measured.

Since Decibels are Logarithmic. then for an increase of every 3 dB’s the actual Intensity Doubles. 88 dB has twice the Sound Pressure as 85 dB .

Existing Legislation uses a 5 dB Exchange Rate the Proposed Legislation uses a 3 dB Exchange rate. .

What are some Common Noise Producers: Barely Audible Watch Ticking Street With out Traffic Normal Conversation Typical Rock Concert Jackhammer 10 dB 20 dB 40 dB 60 dB 100 dB 120 dB Jet Engine (800 ft away) 120 dB .


Low Frequencies represent Bass Sounds High Frequencies represents High Pitch Sounds such as Whistles.Frequency is the Number of Cycles/second. . These Cycles are called Hertz (Hz).

Effects of Noise on the Human Ear .

you lose the ability to hear them .You don’t get used to Loud Noises.

Never underestimate the harm Noise can cause .

Everyday Noise can be harmful to your Hearing .

Sound Waves/Pressure Waves travel through the air and vibrate the Eardrum in the Outer Ear down to the fluid of the Cochlea .

The Vibrations reach the Cochlea and are transmitted as Energy by Tiny Hair Cells. and Sensed as Noise in the Brain. .

Too much Noise damages the Hair Cells in the Inner Ear .

The Hair Cells are flexible and don’t bounce back after Damage has Occurred .

that is Equivalent to 0.The Human Ear is a Phenomenal Instrument It can Detect an Atmospheric Pressure Changes between 20 uPa .0029 psi .> 0.>20 Pa.0000000029 psi .

example long term exposure to elevated levels of noise. Noise Induced Hearing Loss. example rifle shot.There are two ways to reduce your Capacity to Hear Acoustical Trama. . explosion jet engine.

Only becomes apparent after permanent damage has occurred. . Usually goes unnoticed until too late.NIHL (Noise Induced Hearing Loss) Painless even though hearing loss is taken place.

Threshold Shift Is the difference between the hearing loss measured in an audiogram from an original base line. . or the shift as compared to average hearing capabilities of an average person.

There two types of threshold shift

Permanant Temporary

Temporary Threshold Shift (TTS)

Is only temporary and Normal Hearing Capacity usually returns within 24 hours Is a clear sign that you are being exposed to dangerous Noise Levels

Permanant Threshold Shift (PTS)

Is the condition where the hair cells have lost their resilience to bounce back permanantly

Unfortuantely most people don’t experience TTS and PTS occurs silently and overtime.

If you have been in a Noisy environment and you noticed that your ability to hear has been comprimised for more than a week chances are it’s permanant.

and safety warnings.You develop specific hearing limitations such as high frequency hearing loss 3rd . not being able to hear what your childern are excited about.You develop the inability to distinguish between consonants. isolating individuals into their own world. missing family functions.You may only be able to hear loud sounds 2nd . .Consequenses may Surprise You 1st .

Tinnitus (Ringing in the Ears) Is Permanant And can be as small as a faint whistle to a loud constant roar .

Exposure to Noise can Cause Fatigue Elevated Blood Pressure Tension and Nervousness Hearing Loss (NIHL) .

NIHL in these Frequencies are deemed to be the most impairing.Frequency Most everyday noises are in the 250 .3000 Hz range. High Frequencies are the most damaging and are responsible for the majority of NIHL. .

Noise Monitoring .

Exposure Monitoring must be done to First Quantify the Exposure both in Magnitude & Duration .

There are Three Types of Noise Surveys Area Surveys Personal Dosimetry Engineering Survey .

and Methodology. Calibration. and Use .Noise Surveys must be done by an Individual who is Competent They must Fully Understand the Applicable Legislation. Standards. And Equipment Selection.

Properly Calibrated .Noise Surveys Must be done with Approved Test Equipment.

56-94 “Procedures for the Measurement of Occupational Noise Exposure” Outlines the Procedures and equipment to be used to consistently monitor for noise in your workplace. .CSA Z107. However It does not outline the competency expected of the individual.

.Area Survey Can be used with either a Sound Level Meter or an Integrated Sound Level Monitor. It is useful for employee’s or groups that are relatively stationary in the Workplace. Measures the Noise in a given area and is generally plotted on a map.

example Maintenance Workers.Personal Dosimetry Is done with a Monitor that logs the all the Noise one particular individual is exposed to throughout the run of a shift. . Useful for employee’s who are not stationary and migrate from one part of the Workplace to another.

It can include TLV’s. and selection of Hearing Protection.Engineering Survey Equipment can either be an integrated Sound Level Monitor or a Personal Dosimeter. Is done to help with reducing Noise Through Engineering Controls. . but it also usually includes a a Frequency Filter as well.

When Enough is Enough .

These Levels are Called the Threshold Limit Values (TLV’s) and are Published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. .When Enough is Enough There are legislative requirements which dictate when action is to be taken by an Employer to Initiate a Hearing Protection Program.

Threshold Limit Values (TLV’s) Refer to the Levels of Exposure and Conditions under which it is believed that nearly all Heathly Workers may be Repeatedly exposed. day after day. Without Adverse Health Effects. .

Intensity. and Duration Equals Dose Doseage is what is Measured to Determine Risk for NIHL or to Determine a TLV. .

When we express Sound Levels in an Occupational Environment we are only Concerned with what the Human Ear Actually Hears This is What is Called the “A” Weighted Scale. and is expressed as dB(A). .

etc 80 dBA 85 dBA 90 dBA 95 dBA 100 dBA 105 dBA 110 dBA .What does PEI’s OHS Act say about Noise Exposure Limits: Continuous Noise 16 hrs 8 hrs 4 hrs 2 hrs 1 hr 0..5 hr 0.....25 hr .

NIHL can/will occur > 120 dB. generally is not a concern due to Dose > 85 dB. .The Critical Noise Levels we are most Concerned about is between 85 dB and 120 dB WHY? < 85 dB. Painful and accoustical Trama is a reality and people will inheritly protect themselves.

then Selection of Appropriate Controls is Needed .If the Exposure Exceeds either the Company Guidelines or Legislative Requirements.

Differences Between the Existing and New Proposed Legislation Although most of these are implied in the existing Legislation the New Legislation emphasises: A written Hearing Conservation Plan must be in Place for Workplaces >10 The Reduction of Noise Levels in the Workplace Clearer Direction on Monitoring and Audiometric Testing Shift to the 3 dB Exchange Rate Employee Training .

Audiometric Testing .

Employee’s needs to avoid high Levels of Noise 14 Hours prior to testing.Audiometric Testing Needs to be done Annually Tests the Minimum Level the Individual is able to Hear at Specific Frequencies. Is a good Measure of your Hearing Conservation’s Program Effectiveness. and will pick up un-noticed PTS. .

.Audiometric Testing cont.6-M90 “Pure Tone Air Conduction Threshold Audiometry for Hearing Conservation and.. CAN/CSA-Z107.. CAN3-Z107.4-M86 “Pure Tone Air Conduction Audiometers for Hearing Conservation and for Screening” Both Outline the Minimum Standards that outlines a Properly run Audiometric Testing Program ..

Engineering and Administrative Controls .

Administrative Controls Operate noisy machinery on shifts when fewer employees are present Rotate employees out of noisy environments for part of their shift .

Engineering Controls Enclosing noisy processes in sound absorbing rooms Using carpet. and sound damping walls Using rubber cushions or cardboard at the end of line chutes . resilient flooring.

.Engineering Controls cont. Replace noisy metal parts with quieter plastic or rubber components Eliminating vibration noise by placing heavy equipment on resilient pads ..

..Engineering Controls cont. Eliminate or Modify the Noise Source Substitute quieter Equipment or Processes .

Ensuring equipment is properly maintained At home.Engineering Controls cont... making sure equipment such as chainsaws and lawnmowers have built in noise reduction systems .

Personal Protective Equipment .

Various Styles * All Protector Styles have their own inherent Pro’s and Con’s . Molded. Pre-Molded. or Custom Canal Caps .Various Cap Styles Ear Muffs .Types of Hearing Protectors Include: Ear Plugs .Foam.

12 (1) of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations Outlines: That Hearing Protectors must be of an Approved Type This generally means they must meet a standard of some type CSA Z94.2-94 “Hearing Protectors” is what is commonly found in Island Workplaces There are other Standards such as ANSI (US).Section 45. and Several European Standards .

Hearing Protectors must be Selected for the Workplace. and the User Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) is what Manufactures uses to classify their Hearing Protectors it Represents the level the Hearing Protector will Reduce the Noise You need to ensure that the Hearing Protector will Adequately protect against the Various Frequencies at your workplace .

.Hearing Protectors must be Selected for the Workplace. B. CSA has taken it a step further and got Manufacturers to Class their Protectors into Three Classes A.. example Class AL. there is a Sub-Class designed to Protect in this Frequency denoted with an “L” as an Suffix. BL . & C When you are Exposed to Noise in the Low Frequency Band. and the User cont.

Fit.2-94 Outlines Selection.CSA Z94. and Use of Hearing Protectors . Care.

There are Several Considerations to be Aware of When Purchasing Hearing Protection Employee’s need to be consulted on the selection of PPE as they are the ones wearing them Some employee’s can’t wear some types due to Virtigo Every Style of Hearing Protector has it’s Pros’s and Con’s .

.Hearing Protectors and Engineering Controls need to be Selected in order to Ensure the Frequency Range Your Exposed to is Covered.

2 Guide to Hearing Protection Selection <85 dBA <89 dBA <95 dBA <105 dBA <110 dBA >110 dBA No Protection Required Class C Class B Class A Class A plug & Class B Muff Class A Plug & Class A Muff .Z94.

Over Kill in Protector Selection can be worse then not Enough Protection NRR or Class should not greatly exceed the users exposure Over Kill Promotes Users to Remove Thier Protectors to Talk It can Prevent the User from Hearing Critical Warnings or Alarms .

Wear Time vs Effectiveness 100 % Wear Time Ensures Protection 85% Wear Time translate into a reduce of effectiveness by 75% .


Don’t Take Your Hearing for Granted. You Can Protect Your Hearing Through: Effective Monitoring Administrative Controls Engineering Controls ALL WILL PROTECT YOUR HEARING But wearing appropriate PPE is the most important .

Hearing Conservation Plans .


fit. use. care and maintenance. Audiometric Testing Applicable Legislation . proper selection.Their purpose.Employee Training Must Include: Effects of Noise Hearing Protective Devises .

and Selection of PPE .Hearing Conservation Plan Includes: Noise Levels must be Known Annual Audiometric Testing PPE Program Training in the Care. Fit. Use.

.Hearing Conservation Plan Includes: cont.. Training on the Effects of Noise Exposure Engineering and Administrative Controls Inclusion of all Employee’s who are Exposed to Noise Ensure Purchasing Includes Noise Reduction in their Considerations .

Signage is an Excellent way to Notify Employee’s that they are Entering an area with Excessive Noise Levels. .

Occupational Health & Safety Organizational Structure George Stewart Director of Occupational Health & Safety Wilma Lewis Administrative Assistant Chris Keefe Industrial Hygiene Technologist Diana Clarke Educational Officer Enforcement Officers Vacant Western Prince Roger Walsh S’side/East Prince Wayne Corrigan Ch’town/W est Queens Ian Rodd Ch’town/East Queens Jim McInnis East Queens/Kings .


develop hearing conservation program Include employee’s in every aspect of your program Evaluate program ona regular basis .Conclusion Need to know what/how much noise you are dealing with Who is affected How best do we control the noise .

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