On Instrumentation Submitted by

SACHIN SARASWAT (0812735411) (4th year)
In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree Of




IIMT Engineering College Meerut

This is to certify that the work which is being presented in the training report titled ”Thermocouple, RTD, Pressure, Flow & Level Measuring Instruments Etc.” partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of B.Tech and submitted to the department of electronics and instrumentation Engineering, IIMT

ENGINEERING COLLEGE, is an authentic record of the work carried out by SACHIN SARASWAT, Roll no.-0812735411 of academic session 2011-2012. AEI,4th year, during the

Prof. ATAL KUMAR RAI (Training in charge) A.E.I.Deptt.

Prof. AMIT SINGH (Head of department) A.E.I.Deptt.

The training has been completed with the enormous cooperation of many personalities. I am thankful to all of them for their co-operation. I express my sincere thanks to management of IFFCO, who help me to carryout the vocational training & field exposure as well as for providing me facilities during the training. I am very thankful to the officer & technicians of the IFFCO who help me directly or indirectly for the completion of training particularly. Mr. D. Kalia Mr. R. Mishra Mr. K.K. Pandey Manager (Training) Dy. Manager (Training) Training Officer

I want to thank my respected “Training and Placement Officer” teacher and friends for their encouragement and support. Then I would like to thank Mr. Amit Singh Sir, H.O.D., AEI Department, IIMT Engineering College, Meerut I would also like to express my gratitude towards faculty of our department, whose guidance and critical examination helped a lot in completing the report. SACHIN SARASWAT (0812735411)





8 million tones of nitrogen and 2. strengthens cooperative fertilizer distribution system and educating. 1997. training and guiding the for improving agriculture productivity.INTRODUCTION ABOUT IFFCO INDIAN FARMERS FERTILIZER COOPERATIVE LTD. . established on 3rd November.9 million tones of phosphate nutrients as on March 31. India is the third largest fertilizer producer in the world. The Indian fertilizer industry has been supplying a substantial portion of the growing demand of fertilizers within the country. The installed capacity has reached a level of around 9. 1967 as a multi unit cooperative with board objective of augmenting fertilizer production ensuring fertilizer available at farmers door step.

Indian Farmers Fertilizer Cooperative Limited (IFFCO) accounts for 64% of the installed capacity of Nitrogen and the total of the Phosphate capacity in the cooperative sector. Gujarat. IFFCO presently owns giant units at  KALOL  KANDLA  PHULPUR  AONLA  PARADEEP Gandhi Nagar. phosphoric and complex fertilizers.000 societies. most of them being village cooperative. Gujarat. Bareilly. spread in all over India.7 % for nitrogen and 10. The cooperative sector has come to play a significant role in the Indian fertilizer industry. Allahabad. Besides. Orissa. It is federation of over 35. Gandhiham.There are 60 large size fertilizer plants in the country. manufacturing a wide range of nitrogenous. In terms of nutrients. The organization in the sense that the farmers owners represented through their village cooperative also become its customers of its production. . there are 81 medium and small scale single superphosphate units. Ghiyanagar. the share of cooperative sector in the installed capacity is 19.2 % for phosphate. Jagatsinghpur.

It commissioned the ammonia urea plant Kalol and NPK/DAP plant at Kandla both in the state of Gujrat in 1975. The annual installed capacity of the Pt was 1. Another ammonia urea plant was set up at Phulpur in the state of U. The bylaws of the society provide a broad framework form the act of IFFCO as a co-operatives society. 1967 as a multiunit co-society engaged in production and distribution of fertilizers. The other unit at Aonla was commissioned in1988.ORIGIN OF IFFCO During mid-sixties the cooperative section in India was responsible for distribution of 70% of fertilizer consumed in the country. . a new cooperative society was conceived to specifically eater to the requirements of the farmer. in 1981. In 1993 IFFCO and drawn up a major extension program of all the four plants over ages of IFFCO vision 2000. The main emphasis is on production and distribution of fertilizers. Indian Farmers Fertilizers Cooperatives Limited was created on November 3.P.62 million tones of urea NPK/DAP equivalent to 209 thousand tones of phosphate. This sector has adequate infrastructure to distribute fertilizers but has no production facilities of its own and hence dependent on public/private sector for its supplies. To overcome this lacuna and to bridge the demand supply gap in the country.

At IFFCO. thirst forever improving the service to the farmers and harnessing of mother earth’s bounty to drive hunger away from India in an ecologically sustainable manner is the prime mission. The entire activities of distribution. to increase food grain production in the country. essential agro-inputs for crop-production are made available to the farmer through a chair of 167 farmers service centre.The expansion projects at Aonla.000 co-operative societies. IFFCO today is a leading player in India’s fertilizer industry and is making substantial contribution to the efforts of the India Govt. . sales and promotion are coordinated by marketing central office (MCO) ar New Delhi assisted by marketing office in the fields. The distribution of IFFCO fertilizers is undertaken through over 35. Kalol and Phulpur have been completed on schedule. which has heralded realization of all the objectives so forth undervision-2000. In addition. The latest feather in the cap of IFFCO was completion of Kandlo phase-II on 5th August 1999.

AONLA UNIT Toward increasing the fertilizer production under the overall nation planning for utilization of natural gas in Bombay High. AONLA was built in a record time of 36 months and started its commercial urea. a major program for setting up six new gas based fertilizer unit was established by Govt. Fig:.ANOLA Unit . The IFFCO. Production on 16th July 1988. Aonla II stated commercial production on 25th December. IFFCO.9 lakes ton of urea. Aonla was one of the plant established by Govt. of India along HBJ gas pipe line. 1996. The plant achieved a new record by attaining nearly 98% capacity utilization in very first year of its commercial production . of India its annual capacity is 14.

1996 Fig:. 1996 Aonla-II Ammonia Plant Urea Plant COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION Aonla-I Aonla-II Urea Plant Urea Plant July 16. 1988 Dec 25. 1996 Nov 16. 1988 Nov 16.HIGH LIGHT OF IFFCO AONLA UNIT COMMISIONNING Aonla-I Ammonia Plant Urea Plant May 15.ANOLA Unit . 1988 May 18.

000cubic meter/day . Distance from New Delhi Nearest Airport Area under Plant Area under Township 260 KM New Delhi 260 Hectares 220 Hectares MAIN FEATURES Plant Capacity Consultant Ammonia 2 X 1350 MT/day HaldorToposoe. Denmark Urea MAJOR INPUT 2 X 1100 MT/day SnamProgetti. Italy Natural Gas Water 3. Although the land almost falls in the Gangetic Delta. the area is generally barren due to the alkaline nature and higher content of clay in the soil. The total land acquired is 1273 acres for factory and township.3Million Cubic meter/day 55.LOCATION The site of Aonla project is 28 km south west of Bareilly on Bareilly-Aonla road.

IMPORTANT FIGURES: Plant and Townships area 1273 Acres Project actual cost 660 CroresRs. (Aonla II) 8th January 1985 (Aonla I) 1st January 1994 (Aonla II) 16th July 1988 (Aonla I) 25th December 1996 (Aonla II) Zero Date Date of counterseal production . (Aonla I) 955 CroresRs.

shopping complex & other associated facilities like water & power supply have been provided. In addition to the residential accommodation. Urea Plant.AONLA PROJECT Aonla Project of IFFCO is one of the six natural gas based fertilizer plants set up in the country on the H. . pipe-line which runs through 4 states.26 Lakh tons of Urea per year with plant capacity of 1350 tons per day ammonia & 2200 tons per day of Urea. are also created. an Upasana Kendra has been built in the heart of the township. Recreation club. To meet the socio-religion Feelings requirements.J.B. Township for the project personals has been constructed to provide 80% satisfaction of staff. This project has been designed to produce 7. Laboratory. Instruments. other amenities like hospitals. In addition to these infrastructure facilities such as Railway Siding etc. Consumable Products. Storage for spares. bank. Inert Gas Plant. The site is 28Km southwest of Bareilly on Bareilly-Aonlaroad. other offsite facilities like Water Supply & Treatment System.The total land acquired is 1273 acres for factory & township. and Air Compressor etc. post office. Bagging Plants.Ammonia Plant. sport complex. Steam Generation & Power Generation Plant. school up to 12th class. The project consists of Main plants.

5). Implementation of Aonla-I project has been taken as a model for future projects by Government of India. 4). 2).AWARDS 1). 6). Adjudged first in the country for excellence in energy conservation and management by Ministry of Power (Fertiliser sector). IFFCO Aonla unit has been certified for ISO-9002 & ISO-14001 by M/s KPMG & M/s BVQI respectively. IFFCO – Aonla-I has received commendation certificate in appreciation of the efforts made in the field of energy conservation in fertilisers sector for the year 1995 from Ministry of Power. . 8). IFFCO Aonla-I has bagged two prestigious national awards – one for best project implementation (second prize) by Ministry of Programme implementation. Lucknow and Delhi in its national network presented the story of the Aonla-I project highlighting project completion and its other social activities. Doordarshan. Govt. 7). of India for the year 1993. ASCI. Govt. Hyderabad has adopted implementation of Aonla-I project as a model case study for their general management level courses. National productivity council has presented a certificate of merit to IFFCO Aonla-I in the year 1995 in recognition of the performance in productivity during the year 1993-94. Govt. 3). of India and other for technical film “New Horizons – Aonla project ” by FAI. of India.

IFFCO A onla unit has won the NSCI safety award-2000 (PrasansaPuraskar) from National Safety Council of India. rd 12). 13) . C) Utilization of excess steam from one plant to another. 11) .W. which is a major heat sink. Fertiliser Association of India has awarded the Best Article Award (3 prize) for the article Maintenance and Inspection of a Modern Fertiliser Plant. B) In-house minor modifications for energy conservation schemes involving small investments. 14) .National Energy conservation Award-2003 (Certificate of Merit) .IFFCO Aonla unit-I has been selected for National Energy Conservation Award. D) Continuous efforts to reduce steam consumption of condensing turbines. thereby reducing heat loss to C.9).NSCI Safety Award-2002 (PrashansaPatra) . The salient features of the strategy being followed at Aonla to reduce energy consumption are: A) Incorporation of proven energy conservation schemes involving large investments. 10).IFFCO Aonla unit has won the FAI award for excellence in safety for the year 2001-2002. Government of India. . 2002 (Certificate of Merit) in fertiliser sector by Ministry of Power.

G) Trimmed operation of cooling towers to achieve most optimum cooling water temperature. .E) Measures to reduce unproductive energy consumption during start up. F) Modifying some of the operational procedures to reduce energy consumption.

    The instrumentation used in chemical treatment or conversion industries is called process instrumentation. Measurement along with controlling facility is called control system. . The variable that is object of measurement as well as control is called measured variable or controlled variable.CONCEPT OF INSTRUMENTATION In any manufacturing process or production units the technology of using instruments for the measurement and controlling of physical and chemical properties of the materials is called Instrumentation. The variable that affects the value of measured or controlled variable is called manipulated variable Every scientific and technical discipline develops a language of its own to convey information and ideas. In general instruments and instrumentation items are identified and represented by a system of letters and number of simple basic pictorial symbols.

 Performance Performance is the ability of an Instrument to read without change in accuracy for day’s weeks.  Repeatability Repeatability of an instrument means the instrument will read the same reading on the scale regardless of how the point of measurement is approached. which will show little wear.  Accuracy Accuracy is the difference between the reading of the Instrument and the true values of that which is measured. This means fast or slow. Upscale or Downscale. is important. Sensitivity must be many times greater than the accuracy and is determined largely by friction and other losses on the moving mechanical parts of the Instruments. It is the smallest change that will cause effective motion of the measuring element. Accuracy is expressed as a percentage of the top scale value regardless of where the reading is taken on the scale.GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEASUREMENTS The instrument that is used for measurements shall have static and dynamic characteristics as explained below. If the instrument is reading 49 instead of 50 in upward scale then it should read same on downscale reading also. Performance means that the instrument must be built of the material which will not corrode.  Sensitivity Sensitivity of an Instrument is the ability to respond to a small change in the value being measured. If it is reading 51 units then the error is called as HYSTERISIS. which is due to the frictional losses. and months. . and which do not change in physical characteristics.

Each system has its own merits. alarm sand plant safety which are essential for modern process industry. trending of control variables. The dominant factor in current Instrumentation. heat & material balance. is the impact of microprocessor based computers. There are. yet none of them has not demonstrated universally superior in all applications It is who. Pneumatic versus Electronic Instrumentation. conventional monitoring. . Local versus central control. logging. PLC microprocessor based DCS. Today plants are being built by using latest available technology and advance concept of control system such as DDC. DCS control system. to-day plants with old but operable control system.MEASUREMENT IN PROCESS INDUSTRIES Instrumentation is now in a state of flux in the field of industry as well as in the field of technology. if they are being built to-day a lot of changes would be made. a application engineer select judiciously among these system which best fit the criteria under which he is working. history for analysis purpose. Minicomputer system. Computer versus conventional control system soon. calculation. In last two decade. to perform economic optimization. there have been many debates among Instrumentation and control system technology about the relative merits of various types of instrumentation control systems. which are old but profitable. being used to control directly.

practical instruments use electronic methods of cold-junction compensation to adjust for varying temperature at the instrument terminals. Properties such as resistance to corrosion may also be important when choosing a type of thermocouple. are supplied with standard connectors. and can measure a wide range of temperatures. Thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor for measurement and control and can also be used to convert a heat gradient into electricity. . Where the measurement point is far from the measuring instrument. Different alloys are used for different temperature ranges. and so improve the precision and accuracy of measurements. thermocouples are self powered and require no external form of excitation. The main limitation with thermocouples is accuracy and system errors of less than one degree Celsius (C) can be difficult to achieve. interchangeable. Thermocouples for practical measurement of temperature are junctions of specific alloys \which have a predictable and repeatable relationship between temperature and voltage.TEMPERATURE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS THERMOCOUPLE A thermocouple is a device consisting of two different conductors (usually metal alloys) that produce a voltage proportional to a temperature difference between either end of the pair of conductors. Any junction of dissimilar metals will produce an electric potential related to temperature. Thermocouples are usually standardized against a reference temperature of 0 degrees Celsius. the intermediate connection can be made by extension wires which are less costly than the materials used to make the sensor. They are inexpensive. In contrast to most other methods of temperature measurement. Electronic instruments can also compensate for the varying characteristics of the thermocouple.

.Figure: .Measuring circuit for Thermocouple.

THERMISTOR A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance varies significantly with temperature. Thermistors differ from resistance temperature detectors (RTD) in that the material used in a thermistor is generally a ceramic or polymer. Figure :-Thermistor Thermistors are widely used as inrush current limiters. RTDs are useful over larger temperature ranges. self-resetting over current protectors. and self-regulating heating elements. temperature sensors. The temperature response is also different. more so than in standard resistors. while thermistors typically achieve a higher precision within a limited temperature range [usually −90 °C to 130 °C. while RTDs use pure metals. Thermistor symbol . The word is a portmanteau of thermal and resistor.

Assuming. They are the most reliable form at extremely low temperatures. They generally do not suffer from significant hysteresis or strain gauge effects. There are many categories. They are slowly replacing the use of thermocouples in many industrial applications below 600 °C. and wire-wound types are the most widely used. they are often called platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs). then: Where ΔR = change in resistance ΔT = change in temperature k = first-order temperature coefficient of resistance ∆R = K ∆T RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR Resistance thermometers. They have very reproducible results at low temperatures. As they are almost invariably made of platinum. carbon resistors. that the relationship between resistance and temperature is linear. also called resistance temperature detectors or resistive thermal devices (RTDs). • Carbon resistors are widely available and are very inexpensive. are temperature sensors that exploit the predictable change in electrical resistance of some materials with changing temperature. due to higher accuracy and repeatability. film. . as a first-order approximation.

Film thermometer. Figure: . •Wire-wound thermometers can have greater accuracy. Such devices have improved performance although the different expansion rates of the substrate and platinum give "strain gauge" effects and stability problems. the layer may be extremely thin. .• Film thermometers have a layer of platinum on a substrate. especially for wide temperature ranges. perhaps one micrometer. The coil diameter provides a compromise between mechanical stability and allowing expansion of the wire to minimize strain and consequential drift. Advantages of this type are relatively low cost (the high cost of platinum being offset by the tiny amount required) and fast response.

Wire wound thermometer Coil elements have largely replaced wire-wound elements in industry.Coil wound element . the primary standard upon which ITS-90 is based. Figure: . held in place by some mechanical support which lets the coil keep its shape.Figure: . This design is similar to that of a SPRT. while providing the durability necessary for industries. This design has a wire coil which can expand freely over temperature.

392 ohm/°C as well as a variety of others are also available. The sideways displacement of the strip is much larger than the small lengthways expansion in either of the two metals. . The sensitivity of a standard 100 ohm sensor is a nominal 0. BIMETALLIC STRIP A bimetallic strip is used to convert a temperature change into mechanical displacement. or in some cases brass instead of copper. and the temperature-to-electrical resistance relationship for platinum resistance thermometers is IEC 60751:2008.The current international standard which specifies tolerance. The strips are joined together throughout their length by riveting. In some applications the bimetal strip is used in the flat form. The different expansions force the flat strip to bend one way if heated. and in the opposite direction if cooled below its initial temperature. The strip consists of two strips of different metals which expand at different rates as they are heated. and are called Pt100 sensors ('Pt' is the symbol for platinum).385 ohm/°C. The metal with the higher coefficient of thermal expansion is on the outer side of the curve when the strip is heated and on the inner side when cooled.375 and 0. usually steel and copper. RTDs with a sensitivity of 0. it is wrapped into a coil for compactness. The greater length of the coiled version gives improved sensitivity. brazing or welding. By far the most common devices used in industry have a nominal resistance of 100 ohms at 0 °C. This effect is used in a range of mechanical and electrical devices. In others.

.Bimetallic Strip. Diagram of a bimetallic strip showing how the difference in thermal expansion in the two metals leads to a much larger sideways displacement of the strip.Figure: .

The pressure exerted by the weight is 100 pounds per square inch. Gauge pressure 2. Types of Pressure – 1. P = F/A Example: If an object weighing 100 pounds rest on one square inch area. The force produced per unit area is then called the pressure of the fluid. When a fluid is contact with a boundary. it produce a force at right angle to that boundary.PRESSURE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS DEFINITION OF PRESSURE: The force acting on unit area is defined as pressure. Absolute pressure . Differential pressure 3.

.7 Psi. as at two sides of the bourdon tube pressures are the same. therefore.7 = 44. The pressure inside is then 0 PSI absolute. The gauge will show no reading because the bourdon tube deflection is usually proportional to the difference in pressure between the inside and outside of the bourdon tube. The pressure read by your pressure gauge in the instance is called the gauge pressure.7 Psi all together the pressure gauge reads only 30 Psi.e. A barometer is measure the pressure of atmosphere with reference to vacuum (as the datum). That is absolute pressure is the total pressure exerted by the fluid. Imagine a vessel completely exhausted of all air or gases. the total pressure being measured from zero pressure as the datum point. 30 Psi above 14. .7 psi above 0.ABSOLUTE PRESSURE: The absolute pressure of a fluid is the difference between the pressure of the fluid and absolute zero pressure. But. 14. Then the internal pressure inside the vessel is 14. Now admit air until the inside pressure is the same as the atmospheric pressure outside the vessel. The absolute pressure in the vessel now is 30 +14. then this pressure of 30 Psi is above that of the atmosphere i. GAUGE PRESSURE: Connect a bourdon pressure gauge to the vessel. if the air is then compressed inside the vessel by some means so that the gauge shows a reading of 30 Psi. the pressure in excess of that of the atmosphere of Stating the facts in another form: Absolute pressure = Gauge pressure+Atmosphere Pressure at the time and place of measurement. The zero of the absolute pressure corresponds to a complete absence of pressure.e. Gauge pressure is.7-psi absolute i.

such that the entire tube tends to straighten out or uncoil. and thus involving moderate stresses within the elastic range of easily workable materials. and it was widely adopted because of its superior sensitivity. As a special case of differential pressure “gauge pressure” is the algebraic difference between the absolute pressure exerted by a fluid and the pressure exerted by the atmosphere. the strain of the material of the tube is magnified by forming the tube into a C shape or even a helix. Eugene Bourdon patented his gauge in France in 1849. as it is pressurized. Although this change in cross-section may be hardly noticeable.DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE: It is defined as the algebraic difference between Atmospheric and Gauge Pressures. and accuracy. elastically. linearity. Edward Ashcroft purchased . BOURDON TUBE The Bourdon pressure gauge uses the principle that a flattened tube tends to change to a more circular cross-section when pressurized.

the linkage length and initial position. all provide means to calibrate the pointer to indicate the desired range of pressure for variations in the behaviour of the Bourdon tube itself. A small diameter pinion gear is on the pointer shaft. Bourdon tubes measure gauge pressure. Bernard Schaeffer in Magdeburg.Bourdon's American patent rights in 1852 and became a major manufacturer of gauges. Also in 1849. But in 1875 after Bourdon's patents expired. The positioning of the indicator card behind the pointer. When the measured pressure is rapidly pulsing. so the motion is magnified further by the gear ratio. see below). vacuum is sensed as a reverse motion. Differential pressure can be measured by gauges containing two different Bourdon tubes. with connecting linkages. as opposed to absolute pressure. an orfice restriction in the connecting pipe is frequently used to avoid unnecessary wear on the gears and provide an average reading. the closed end moves in an arc. Some aneroid barometers use Bourdon tubes closed at both ends (but most use diaphragms or capsules. . relative to ambient atmospheric pressure. when the whole gauge is subject to mechanical vibration. Germany patented a successful diaphragm (see below) pressure gauge. the initial pointer shaft position. the entire case including the pointer and indicator card can be filled with an oil or glycerin. a flattened thin-wall. which together with the Bourdon gauge. such as when the gauge is near a reprocating pump.1% of full scale. In practice. Typical high-quality modern gauges provide an accuracy of ±2% of span. and this motion is converted into the rotation of a (segment of a) gear by a connecting link which is usually adjustable. his company Schaeffer and Budenberg also manufactured Bourdon tube gauges. As the pressure increases. and a special highprecision gauge can be as accurate as 0. closed-end tube is connected at the hollow end to a fixed pipe containing the fluid pressure to be measured. revolutionized pressure measurement in industry.

.In the following illustrations the transparent cover face of the pictured combination pressure and vacuum gauge has been removed and the mechanism removed from the case.C type bourdon Tube. This particular gauge is a combination vacuum and pressure gauge used for automotive diagnosis: Figure :.

Ceramic and metallic diaphragms are used. open to a second port to measure differential pressure. welded pressure capsules with diaphragms on either side are often used. The amount of deflection is repeatable for known pressures so the pressure can be determined by using calibration. Shape: • • • • Flat Corrugated Flattened tube Capsule . The deformation can be measured using mechanical. or can be sealed against a vacuum or other fixed reference pressure to measure absolute pressure. Useful range: above 10-2 Torr (roughly 1 Pa) For absolute measurements. optical or capacitive techniques. The deformation of a thin diaphragm is dependent on the difference in pressure between its two faces. The reference face can be open to atmosphere to measure gauge pressure.DIAPHRAGM A second type of aneroid gauge uses the deflection of a flexible membrane that separates regions of different pressure.

. which means "without liquid". called an aneroid. altimeters. Other sensitive aircraft instruments such as air speed indicators and rate of climb indicators (variometers) have connections both to the internal part of the aneroid chamber and to an external enclosing chamber.BELLOWS In gauges intended to sense small pressures or pressure differences. These devices use the sealed chamber as a reference pressure and are driven by the external pressure. the gear train and needle may be driven by an enclosed and sealed bellows chamber. and the altitude telemetry instruments used in weather balloon radiosondes. altitude recording barographs.) This bellows configuration is used in aneroid barometers (barometers with an indicating needle and dial card). or require that an absolute pressure be measured. (Early barometers used a column of liquid such as water or the liquid metal mercury suspended by a vacuum.

Bellows .Fig:.

FLOW MEASURING INSTRUMENTS MAGNETIC FLOW METER Figure:. . Magnetic flowmeters will generally not work with hydrocarbons.Diagram showing Magnetic flow meter. distilled water and many non-aqueous solutions). Magnetic flowmeters are also ideal for applications where low pressure drop and low maintenance are required. A magnetic flow meter (mag flowmeter) is a volumetric flow meter which does not have any moving parts and is ideal for wastewater applications or any dirty liquid which is conductive or water based.

With insertion-style flowmeters. a magnetic field is established throughout the entire cross-section of the flow tube (Figure 1). it can be seen that the measuring element is exposed to the hydraulic conditions throughout the entire cross-section of the flowmeter. . Faraday's Formula: E is proportional to V x B x D where: E = The voltage generated in a conductor V = The velocity of the conductor B = The magnetic field strength D = The length of the conductor To apply this principle to flow measurement with a magnetic flowmeter. the magnetic field radiates outward from the inserted probe. As applied to the design of magnetic flowmeters. If this magnetic field is considered as the measuring element of the magnetic flowmeter. it is necessary first to state that the fluid being measured must be electrically conductive for the Faraday principle to apply. Faraday's Law indicates that signal voltage (E) is dependent on the average liquid velocity (V) the magnetic field strength (B) and the length of the conductor (D) (which in this instance is the distance between the electrodes).In the case of wafer-style magnetic flowmeters.Principle of Operation The operation of a magnetic flowmeter or mag meter is based upon Faraday's Law. which states that the voltage induced across any conductor as it moves at right angles through a magnetic field is proportional to the velocity of that conductor.

Using the two transit times up and down and the distance between receiving and transmitting transducers L and the inclination angle α. Ultrasonic flow meters are also being used for measurement of LNG flow. Recently.ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS Ultrasonic flow meters measure the difference of the transit time of ultrasonic pulses propagating in and against flow direction. Figure:. This time difference is a measure for the average velocity of the fluid along the path of the ultrasonic beam. this can be compared to the speed of sound empirically measured by an ultrasonic flow meter and for the purposes of monitoring the quality of the flow meter's measurements. By using the absolute transit times both the averaged fluid velocity and the speed of sound can be calculated. One can also calculate the expected speed of sound for a given sample of gas. Ultrasonic flow meters are also used for the measurement of natural gas flow. A drop in quality is an indication that the meter needs servicing.Schematic view of a Ultrasonic flow meter .

). the volume of blood flow can be estimated. Strainers are generally required to be installed in front of the meter to protect the measuring element from gravel or other debris that could enter the water distribution system. Due to limited accuracy this method is only suitable for applications that do not require a high accuracy. allowing for higher flow rates and less pressure loss than displacement-type meters. then reversing the direction of the beam and repeating the measurement. the speed is proportional to fluid velocity.Measurement of the Doppler shift resulting in reflecting an ultrasonic beam off the flowing fluid has also been used in the past. fire protection.Turbine flow meters are used for the measurement of natural gas and liquid flow. By passing an ultrasonic beam through the tissues. but the measuring element does not occupy or severely restrict the entire path of flow. The frequency of the transmitted beam is affected by the movement of blood in the vessel and by comparing the frequency of the upstream beam versus downstream the flow of blood through the vessel can be measured. bouncing it off a reflective plate. lpm. The flowing fluid impinges on the turbine blades. imparting a force to the blade surface and setting the rotor in motion. . The turbine tends to have all the flow traveling around it. When a steady rotation speed has been reached. and as master meters for the water distribution system. The flow direction is generally straight through the meter. etc. A wide-beam sensor can also be used to measure flow independent of the cross-sectional area of the blood vessel.The turbine wheel is set in the path of a fluid stream. Turbine meters are less accurate than displacement and jet meters at low flow rates. They are the meter of choice for large commercial users. The difference between the two frequencies is a measure of true volume flow. TURBINE FLOW METER The turbine flow meter (better described as an axial turbine) translates the mechanical action of the turbine rotating in the liquid flow around an axis into a user-readable rate of flow (gpm.

They are often approved by Underwriters Laboratories (UL) or Factory Mutual (FM) for use in fire protection.Diagram of turbine flow meter . Turbine meter bodies are commonly made of bronze. The meters are normally made of aluminum to be light weight. or where a permanent meter is not yet installed Fig:. or ductile iron. and are usually 3" capacity. cast Iron.2l/s however are affect greatly with dog mix interference.Fire meters are a specialized type of turbine meter with approvals for the high flow rates required in fire protection.Turbine meters are generally available for 1-1/2" to 12" or higher pipe sizes. they are accurate in normal working conditions to 0.Fire hydrant meters are a specialized type of portable turbine meter that are attached to a fire hydrant to measure water out of the hydrant. Internal turbine elements can be plastic or non-corrosive metal alloys. Utilities often require them for measurement of water used in construction. pool filling.

so the float will be pushed upwards. which measure flow rate by allowing the crosssectional area the fluid travels through to vary. the area around the float through which the medium flows increases. typically made of glass with a 'float'. inside that is pushed up by the drag force of the flow and pulled down by gravity. causing some measurable effect. However.ROTAMETER A rotameter is a device that measures the flow rate of liquid or gas in a closed tube. actually a shaped weight. Drag force for a given fluid and float cross section is a function of flow speed squared only. Fig:. .It belongs to a class of meters called variable area meters.A higher volumetric flow rate through a given area results in increase in flow speed and drag force. the flow speed and drag force decrease until there is mechanical equilibrium with the float's weight.Diagram of Rotameter A rotameter consists of a tapered tube. see drag equation. as the inside of the rotameter is cone shaped (widens).

or multiple scales on the same rotameter can be used. along with gravity.  Due to its reliance on the ability of the fluid or gas to displace the float. The float may be diagonally grooved and partially colored so that it rotates axially as the fluid passes. Floats are ideally designed to be insensitive to viscosity. Disadvantages  Due to its use of gravity. the center for an ellipsoid. Readings are usually taken at the top of the widest part of the float.Note that the "float" does not actually float in the fluid: it has to have a higher density than the fluid. The main property of importance is the density of the fluid. however. otherwise it will float to the top even if there is no flow. Either separate rotameters for different densities and viscosities may be used. graduations on a given rotameter will only be accurate for a given substance at a given temperature. Advantages  A rotameter requires no external power or fuel.  Rotameters normally require the use of glass (or other transparent material). with spheres and ellipsoids being the most common. This shows if the float is stuck since it will only rotate if it is free. This limits their use in many industries to benign fluids. with the fluid flowing upward. this is seldom verifiable from manufacturers' specifications. a rotameter must always be vertically oriented and right way up. or the top for a cylinder. otherwise the user cannot see the float. however. allowing for its widespread use. Some manufacturers use a different standard. .  A rotameter is also a relatively simple device that can be mass manufactured out of cheap materials. such as water.Floats are made in many different shapes. viscosity may also be significant. it uses only the inherent properties of the fluid. . to measure flow rate.

Capacitance level sensor. The sensors can be designed to sense material with dielectric constants as low as 1.LEVEL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS CAPACITANCE TYPE Figure:. Capacitance level sensors excel in sensing the presence of a wide variety of solids. 50) and liquid chemicals such as quicklime (dielectric constant approx. aqueous and organic liquids. The technique is frequently referred to as RF for the radio frequency signals applied to the capacitance circuit. . Sludges and slurries such as dehydrated cake and sewage slurry (dielectric constant approx. providing a solid state alternative to the aforementioned magnetic float switch for the “oil-water interface” application. Dual-probe capacitance level sensors can also be used to sense the interface between two immiscible liquids with substantially different dielectric constants. and slurries. 90) can also be sensed.1 (coke and fly ash) and as high as 88 (water) or more.

however. are subject to tremendous mechanical tension due to the weight of the bulk powder in the silo and the friction applied to the cable. The sensors emit high frequency (20 kHz to 200 kHz) acoustic waves that are reflected back to and detected by the emitting transducer.Appropriate choice of probe materials reduces or eliminates problems caused by abrasion and corrosion.Since capacitance level sensors are electronic devices. Turbulence. phase modulation and the use of higher frequencies makes the sensor suitable for applications in which dielectric constants are similar. Long conductive cable probes (20 to 50 meters long) suspended into the bin or silo. Correction factors can be applied to the level measurement to improve the accuracy of measurement. among other devices. For liquids prone to foaming and applications prone to splashing or turbulence. Point level sensing of adhesives and high-viscosity materials such as oil and grease can result in the build up of material on the probe. but this danger can be eliminated with proper design and grounding. and can be designed for high temperature and pressure applications. and pressures. simple to use. foam.Ultrasonic level sensors are also affected by the changing speed of sound due to moisture. and changes in the concentration of the process material also affect the ultrasonic sensor’s response. Such installations will frequently result in a cable breakage. capacitance level sensors can be designed with splashguards or stilling wells. The sensor contains no moving parts. Turbulence and foam prevent the . temperature. steam. ULTRASONIC LEVEL SENSOR Ultrasonic level sensors are used for non-contact level sensing of highly viscous liquids. as well as bulk solids.A significant limitation for capacitance probes is in tall bins used for storing bulk solids. easy to clean. this can be minimized by using a self-tuning sensor. They are also widely used in water treatment applications for pump control and open channel flow measurement. A danger exists from build up and discharge of a high-voltage static charge that results from the rubbing and movement of low dielectric materials. The requirement for a conductive probe that extends to the bottom of the measured range is problematic. chemical mists (vapors). is rugged.

or ladders to minimise false returns and the resulting erroneous response. Stilling wells and wave guides are used to prevent errors caused by these factors. brackets.sound wave from being properly reflected to the sensor. typically 150mm – 1m.Proper mounting of the transducer is required to ensure best response to reflected sound. remote wireless monitoring or plant network communications. continuous monitoring or both. Due to the presence of a microprocessor and relatively low power consumption. bin. there is also capability for serial communication from to other computing devices making this a good technique for adjusting calibration and filtering of the sensor signal. the hopper. and variations in concentration cause changes in the amount of energy in the sound wave that is reflected back to the sensor. It is known as the “blanking zone”.The requirement for electronic signal processing circuitry can be used to make the ultrasonic sensor an intelligent device. Fig:-Ultrasonic Level Sensors . Since the ultrasonic transducer is used both for transmitting and receiving the acoustic energy. or tank should be relatively free of obstacles such as weldments. depending on the range of the transducer. In addition. steam and chemical mists and vapors distort or absorb the sound wave. it is subject to a period of mechanical vibration known as “ringing”. The net result is a distance from the face of the transducer that is blind and cannot detect an object. Ultrasonic sensors can be designed to provide point level control. although most modern systems have sufficiently "intelligent" echo processing to make engineering changes largely unnecessary except where an intrusion blocks the "line of sight" of the transducer to the target.

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