Branches of philosophy

The following branches are the main areas of study[8]  Metaphysics is the study of the nature of reality, including the relationship between mind and body, substance and accident, events and causation. Traditional branches are cosmology andontology.  Epistemology is concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge, and whether knowledge is possible. Among its central concerns has been the challenge posed by skepticism and the relationships between truth, belief, and justification.  Ethics, or "moral philosophy", is concerned primarily with the question of the best way to live, and secondarily, concerning the question of whether this question can be answered. The main branches of ethics are meta-ethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics. Meta-ethics concerns the nature of ethical thought, such as the origins of the words good and bad, and origins of other comparative words of various ethical systems, whether there are absolute ethical truths, and how such truths could be known. Normative ethics are more concerned with the questions of how one ought to act, and what the right course of action is. This is where most ethical theories are generated. Lastly, applied ethics go beyond theory and step into real world ethical practice, such as questions of whether or not abortion is correct. Ethics is also associated with the idea of morality, and the two are often interchangeable.  Logic is the study of valid argument forms. Beginning in the late 19th century, mathematicians such as Gottlob Frege focused on a mathematical treatment of logic, and today the subject of logic has two broad divisions: mathematical logic (formal symbolic logic) and what is now called philosophical logic.

Logic The branch of philosophy that analyzes inference. The study of the principles of reasoning, especially of the structure of propositions as distinguished from their content and of method and validity in deductive reasoning. The science or art of exact reasoning, or of pure and formal thought, or of the laws according to which the processes of pure thinking should be conducted; the science of the formation and application of general notions; the science of generalization, judgment, classification, reasoning, and systematic arrangement; correct reasoning. ( top of page Symbolic Logic A treatment of formal logic in which a system of symbols is used to represent quantities and relationships. Also called mathematical logic. ( top of page Ethics The philosophical study of moral values and rules. The study of the general nature of morals and of the specific moral choices to be made by a person; moral philosophy. A set of principles of right conduct. A theory or a system of moral values. ( Examples: Kant and Deontology, Mill and Utilitarianism, Ethical Egoism, Aristotle and Virtue Ethics. top of page

which hath that for title. Metaphysics is distinguished as general and special." But the schools take them for "books of supernatural philosophy. the knowledge of which is altogether independent of experience. in the schools. and its extent and validity." for the word metaphysic will bear both these senses. also. with reference to its abstract and universal conditions. --Hobbes. the science of the conceptions and relations which are necessarily implied as true of every kind of being. but it is in another sense: for there it signifieth as much as "books written or placed after his natural Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that studies knowledge. phylosophy in general. as being part of the philosophy of Aristotle. this questions translates into issues of scientific methodology: how can one develop theories or models that are better than competing theories? It also forms one of the pillars of the new sciences of cognition. Commonly. as. a systematic exposition of those notions and truths. or followed. It is the science of real as distinguished from phenomenal being. (dictionary. the science of being. ontology. fact and value. of morals. . would constitute the science of metaphysics. substance and attribute. or the science of first principles. According to Kant. Special metaphysics is the science of one kind of being. (dictionary. as distinguished from the science of determined or concrete being. as an attempt to develop computer programs that mimic a human's capacity to use knowledge in an intelligent way. It attempts to answer the basic question: what distinguishes true (adequate) knowledge from false (inadequate) knowledge? top of page Epistemology The branch of philosophy that studies the nature of knowledge. and from artificial intelligence. called metaphysics. which developed from the information processing approach to psychology. or of politics. its presuppositions and foundations. first principles. General metaphysics is the science of all being as being.Metaphysics The branch of philosophy that examines the nature of reality. the part which treated of physics. The term was first used by the followers of Aristotle as a name for that part of his writings which came after. including the relationship between mind and matter. the metaphysics of chemistry.

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