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beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, with smaller quantities of sulfur, oxygen andnitrogen.[ As geological processes apply pressure to dead biotic material over time, under suitable conditions it is transformed successively into:
Peat, considered to be a precursor of coal, has industrial importance as a fuel in
some regions, for example, Ireland and Finland. In its dehydrated form, peat is a highly effective absorbent for fuel and oil spills on land and water
Lignite, also referred to as brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost
exclusively as fuel for electric power generation. Jet is a compact form of lignite that is sometimes polished and has been used as an ornamental stone since the Upper Palaeolithic
Sub-bituminous coal, whose properties range from those of lignite to those of
bituminous coal are used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power generation. Additionally, it is an important source of light aromatic hydrocarbons for the chemical synthesis industry.
Bituminous coal, dense sedimentary rock, black but sometimes dark brown, often
with well-defined bands of bright and dull material, used primarily as fuel in steamelectric power generation, with substantial quantities also used for heat and power applications in manufacturing and to make coke
Steam coal is a grade between bituminous coal and anthracite, once widely used as
a fuel for steam locomotives. In this specialized use it is sometimes known as seacoal in the U.S. Small steam coal (dry small steam nuts or DSSN) was used as a fuel for domestic water heating
Anthracite, the highest rank; a harder, glossy, black coal used primarily for residential
and commercial space heating. It may be divided further into metamorphically altered bituminous coal and petrified oil, as from the deposits in Pennsylvania
Graphite, technically the highest rank, but difficult to ignite and is not so commonly
used as fuel: it is mostly used in pencils and, when powdered, as a lubricant.
The classification of coal is generally based on the content of volatiles. However, the exact classification varies between countries. According to the German classification, coal is classified as follows:
German English Volatiles % C H O S Heat Classification Designation Carbon % Hydrogen % Oxygen % Sulfur % content
0-3.0 7.5 4.5 5.75 <2. It is a brownish black in color.6 9.3 ~1 <33910 Gaskohle Gas coal 28-35 85-87.5 ~1 <34960 Fettkohle Fat coal 19-28 87.3-4.2-2.5-3. From the softest to the hardest they are: 1) Lignite coal Lignit Briquette The softest of the four types of coal.8 34-17 0.75 2.0-4.8-5.5 ~1 35380 Anthrazit Anthracite 7-12 >91.kJ/kg Braunkohle Lignite 45-65 60-75 6.5-90.2 ~1 <35380 Esskohle Forge coal 14-19 89.5-4.5-91. very crumbly and primarily used for the generation of electricity.8 ~1 <35380 Magerkohle Non baking 10-14 coal 90.8 >9.5 4.5 ~1 <35300 Different Types of Coal There are four major types of coal.5 4. Because of its .5-3 <28470 Flammkohle Flame coal 40-45 75-82 6.0 3.8-7.8-3.6-5.0-5.0-5.5-89.5 <3.5 5.8 ~1 <32870 Gasflammkohl Gas flame e coal 35-40 82-85 5.
In areas where other fuels are scarce." Lignite is the result of millions of tons of plants and trees that decayed in a swampy atmosphere about 5070 million years ago. Lignite with a fossil embedded See article of Otto C. and storage stability. The heating content of lignite is approximately 4. the production of brown coal far exceeds that of bituminous coal.g. . Although xyloid lignite may sometimes have the tenacity and the appearance of ordinary wood it can be seen that the combustible woody tissue has experienced a great modification. The first is xyloid lignite orfossil wood and the second form is the compact lignite or perfect lignite. Lignite can be separated into two types.000-8. but lignite has not been exploited to any great extent. Kopp on Lignite in the Encyclopedia Britannica. ease of handling..color.about 35 percent. it is often referred to as "brown coal. because it is inferior to higher-rank coals (e. It is reducible to a fine powder by trituration and if submitted to the action of a weak solution of potash it yields a considerable quantity of ulmic acid. The carbon content of lignite is 25%-35% and it has a very high water content .000 Btu's per pound. It has been estimated that nearly half of the world's total proven coal reserves are made up of lignite and subbituminous coal. bituminous coal) in calorific value.
Germany. Where Mechanised lignite mining began in the 1890s. by 1940. by 1940. Lignite is mined in so-called open pit mines. the first bucket-wheel excavator was commissioned in 1933 and. output was over 60Mt/y from 23 surface mines. began in the 1890s. The Rhenish (Rhineland) lignite-mining region covers an area of some 2. brown coal continued to lose moisture. 2) Sub-bituminous coal Sub-bitumous coal Under greater pressure and heat.500km2 to the west of Cologne and is one of the world's most important lignite-mining regions. output was over 60Mt/y from 23 surface mines. the first bucketwheel excavator was commissioned in 1933 and. output was over 60Mt/y from 23 surface mines. The carbon content of coal increased as water was lost. the Russian Federation and the US. The properties of sub-bituminous coal range from those of "lignite" (with a lower carbon . mechanised lignite mining began in the 1890s. The Garzweiler Strip Mine in Germany and also visit: Rhineland Lignite Mining. by 1940. the first bucket-wheel excavator was commissioned in 1933 and.The worlds biggest Lignite or Brown Coal Producers are Germany.
Like lignite. To put that in perspective. Subbituminous coal is primarily used for steam-electric power generation. The carbon content of bituminous coal is generally from 45%-85%. It is not yet coal.000 Btu's per pound.50015. It can be stored on the ground for long periods of time without creating environmental problems. Its heat value ranges from 10. an essential ingredient in making steel. The carbon content of sub-bituminous coal runs from 35%-45% and its heat value generally ranges from 8. does not produce volatile gases and does not deteriorate. that will take a couple of million years. Anthracite makes excellent home heating fuel because it burns cleanly. 16) by the Greek scientist Theophrastus (c. Early use AS fuel The earliest reference to the use of coal as fuel is from the geological treatise On stones (Lap. its primary use is in the generation of electricity. It averages 85%-95% carbon content and has the highest heating value of the four types of coal. it is also used in making coke or coking coal. that is roughly one and onehalf times as much heat as the same volume of oil and four times as much as seasoned hard-maple firewood. 371–287 BC): .discovered in 1769 .000 Btu's per pound . uptill here I am going to Coiba we speak monday • Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. This is a medium soft coal that contains much less moisture than lignite and is not nearly as crumbly.content) to those of "bituminous coal" (with a higher carbon content). Anthracite coal .000 Btu's per pound. Greg.is the hardest of the four types. • • • • Bituminous coal contains even less moisture than the subbituminous type.greater than either lignite or the subbituminous types. In addition to being used for electrical generation.000-13. It is not uncommon to find anthracite that produces well in excess of 15.
they burn like charcoal.In Roman Britain. where coal from the Midlands was transported via the Car Dyke for use in drying grain. In 1700. • There is no evidence that the product was of great importance in Britain before the High Middle Ages. so identified in a charter of King Henry IIIgranted in 1253. particularly in Northumberland. It was. as the steam engine took over from the water wheel. Seacoal Lane and Newcastle Lane where coal was unloaded at wharves along the River Fleet." because it came from mines.In Eschweiler. • Outcrop coal was used in Britain during the Bronze Age (3000–2000 BC). however. and in the Fenlandsof East Anglia. (See Industrial processes below for modern uses of the term.• Among the materials that are dug because they are useful.  Evidence of trade in coal (dated to about AD 200) has been found at the inland port of Heronbridge. 5/6 of the world's coal was mined in Britain. Mineral coal came to be referred to as "seacoal" in the 13th century. where it has been detected as forming part of the composition of funeral pyres. Coal cinders have been found in the hearths of villasand military forts. Britain would have run out of suitable sites for watermills by the 1830s.  Initially the name was given because much coal was found on the shore. They are found in Liguria… and in Elis as one approaches Olympia by the mountain road. there . once set on fire. In 1947. when underground mining fromshafts or adits was developed. with the exception of two modern fields. after about AD 1000. The alternative name was "pitcoal. near Chester.) • These easily accessible sources had largely become exhausted (or could not meet the growing demand) by the 13th century. Rhineland. coal from Newcastle was shipped to London for the smiths and lime-burners building Westminster Abbey. having fallen from the exposed coal seams on cliffs above or washed out of underwater coal outcrops. the development of the Industrial Revolutionthat led to the large-scale use of coal. the wharf where the material arrived in London was known as Seacoal Lane. are still in existence. and. those known as coals are made of earth. In the west of England contemporary writers described the wonder of a permanent brazier of coal on the altar of Minerva at Aquae Sulis (modern day Bath) although in fact easily accessible surface coal from what became the Somerset coalfield was in common use in quite lowly dwellings locally. Without coal. deposits of bituminous coal were used by the Romans for the smelting of iron ore. "the Romans were exploiting coals in all the major coalfields in England and Wales by the end of the second century AD". and they are used by those who work in metals. dated to around AD 400. but by the time of Henry VIII it was understood to derive from the way it was carried to London by sea. In 1257–59. Evidence of coal's use for iron-working in the city during the Roman period has been found.
 The emergence of the supercritical turbine concept envisions running a boiler at extremely high temperatures and pressures with projected efficiencies of 46%. but by 2004 this had shrunk to some 5. which is then used to spin turbines which turn generators and create electricity. World coal consumption was about 6. Simple cycle steam turbines have topped out with some of the most advanced reaching about 35% thermodynamic efficiency for the entire process. When coal is used for electricity generation. 68. but there was little extensive use until the 11th century. Clean coal technology.3 million tons in 2006.98 billion short tons by 2030. The USA consumes about 14% of the world total. • In ancient China.7% of China's electricity comes from coal. especially "grandfathered" plants. India produced about 447. The furnace heat converts boiler water to steam. Old coal power plants.were some 750.[22 Today s use Coal as fuel Further information: Electricity generation. using 90% of it for generation of electricity. and in 2008 approximately 49% of the United States' electricity came from coal. At least 40% of the world's electricity comes from coal. coal was used as fuel by the 4th century AD. China produced 2. The thermodynamic efficiency of this process has been improved over time.000 miners.000 miners working in around 20 collieries. with further theorized . it is usually pulverized and then combusted (burned) in a furnace with a boiler. are significantly less efficient and produce higher levels of waste heat. Increasing the combustion temperature can boost this efficiency even further.38 billion tons in 2006.75 billion short tons in 2006and is expected to increase 48% to 9. and Global warming Coal is primarily used as a solid fuel to produce electricity and heat through combustion. Coal electricity.
. Coking coal and use of coke Main article: Coke (fuel) Coke oven at a smokeless fuel plant inWales. low-sulfur bituminous coal from which the volatile constituents are driven off by baking in an oven without oxygen at temperatures as high as 1. consumption is increasing and maximal production could be reached within decades (see World Coal Reserves.832 °F) so that the fixed carbon and residual ash are fused together. which was well-developed in Russia (since the Soviet Union time). United Kingdom Coke is a solid carbonaceous residue derived from low-ash.increases in temperature and pressure perhaps resulting in even higher efficiencies. below). Other ways to use coal are combined heat and power cogeneration and an MHD topping cycle. However. is sufficient for many years. including highly polluting. bituminous). An experimental way of coal combustion is in a form of coalwater slurry fuel (CWS. CWSsignificantly reduces emissions saving the heating value of coal. Metallurgical coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.  The total known deposits recoverable by current technologies. The coking coal should be low in sulphur and phosphorus so that they do not migrate to the . More than 40% of the world's electricity production uses coal.000 °C (1. low energy content types of coal (i. lignite.e.
6 MJ/kg). hard.metal. light oils. Gasification Main articles: Coal gasification and Underground coal gasification Coal gasification can be used to produce syngas. This syngas can then be converted into transportation fuels like gasoline and diesel through the Fischer-Tropsch process. Some cokemaking processes produce valuable by-products that include coal tar. making ammonia. and porous and has a heating value of 24. This process has been conducted in both underground coal mines and in coal refineries. where any carbonaceous fuel can be used to make sponge or pelletised iron. (Coal) + O2 + H2O → H2 + CO If the refiner wants to produce gasoline.8 million Btu/ton (29. a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) gas. During gasification. Coke from coal is grey. oxygen and water molecules oxidize the coal into carbon monoxide (CO) while also releasing hydrogen (H2) gas. the coal is mixed with oxygen and steam (water vapor) while also being heated and pressurized. the alternative route to is direct reduced iron. However. ammonia. or upgrading fossil fuels. During the reaction. Alternatively. the syngas is collected at this state and routed into a Fischer-Tropsch . which resembles coke but contains too many impurities to be useful in metallurgical applications. and "coal gas". This technology is currently used by the Sasol chemical company of South Africa to make gasoline from coal and natural gas. Petroleum coke is the solid residue obtained in oil refining. which is why coking coal is so important in making steel using the conventional route. The product is cast iron and is too rich in dissolved carbon. and so must be treated further to make steel. The coke must be strong enough to resist the weight of overburden in the blast furnace. the hydrogen obtained from gasification can be used for various purposes such as powering a hydrogen economy.
At present. the safer natural gas is used instead. the SRC-I and SRC-II (Solvent Refined Coal) processes and the NUS Corporation hydrogenation process. In the process of low-temperature carbonization. by using the Fischer-Tropsch process. however. Hydrogenation processes are the Bergius process. In the past. In the direct liquefaction processes. the coal is either hydrogenated or carbonized. which was piped to customers to burn for illumination. and then into a liquid. Alternatively.S. heating. coal can be converted into a gas first. and cooking. the syngas is fed into the water gas shift reaction where more hydrogen is liberated. If hydrogen is the desired end-product. governmentfunded corporation established in 1980 to create a market for alternatives to imported fossil fuels (such as coal gasification). Liquefaction Main article: Coal liquefaction Coal can also be converted into liquid fuels such as gasoline or diesel by several different processes. The Synthetic Fuels Corporation was a U. coal is coked at temperatures between 360 °C (680 °F) and 750 °C (1. If coal liquefaction is . coal was converted to make coal gas. methanation and liquefaction. The coal tar is then further processed into fuels. The corporation was discontinued in 1985.reaction. An overview of coal liquefaction and its future potential is available. Coal liquefaction methods involve carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the conversion process.380 °F). These temperatures optimize the production of coal tars richer in lighter hydrocarbons than normal coal tar. CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 High prices of oil and natural gas are leading to increased interest in "BTU Conversion" technologies such as gasification.
the result is lifecycle greenhouse gas footprints that are generally greater than those released in the extraction and refinement of liquid fuel production from crude oil. If CCS technologies are employed. For most future synthetic fuel projects.done without employing either carbon capture and storage technologies or biomass blending. Sequestration will. While the molten metal is in the mould the coal burns slowly. known in this application as sea coal. pre-combustion technology can be used in place of or as a supplement to post-combustion technologies to control emissions from coal-fueled boilers. Depending on the situation. add to the cost of production. however. a paste or liquid with the same function applied to the mould before casting. Carbon dioxide sequestration is proposed to avoid releasing it into the atmosphere. releasing reducing gases at pressure and so preventing the metal from penetrating the pores of the sand. reductions of 5-12% can be achieved in CTL plants and up to a 75% reduction is achievable when co-gasifying coal with commercially demonstrated levels of biomass (30% biomass by weight) in CBTL plants. Sea coal . include sequestration in their process designs. Currently all US and at least one Chinese synthetic fuel projects. Refined coal Main article: Refined coal Refined coal is the product of a coal-upgrading technology that removes moisture and certain pollutants from lowerrank coals such as sub-bituminous and lignite (brown) coals. It is also contained in mould wash. Industrial processes Finely ground bituminous coal. It is one form of several pre-combustion treatments and processes for coal that alter coal's characteristics before it is burned. The goals of pre-combustion coal technologies are to increase efficiency and reduce emissions when the coal is burned. is a constituent of foundry sand.
These effects include: Coal-fired power plants shorten nearly 24. that containmercury.800 from lung cancer ash. and other heavy metals Acid rain from high sulfur coal . thorium. Generation of hundreds of millions of tons of waste products. uranium. easing the process of breaking open holes for tapping the molten metal. When heated the coal decomposes and the bod becomes slightly friable. arsenic. flue gas desulfurization sludge.000 lives a year in the United States. including fly including 2.can be mixed with the clay lining (the "bod") used for the bottom of a cupola furnace.  Environmental effects Main article: Environmental effects of coal Aerial photograph of Kingston Fossil Plant coal fly ash slurry spill site taken the day after the event There are a number of adverse health and environmental effects of coal burning especially in power stations. bottom ash. and of coal mining.
2 423. a greenhouse gas.4 595.7 252.9 4.3 9 6 5 6 6 0 0 0 % 972.9 243. sometimes damaging infrastructure Uncontrollable underground fires which may burn for decades or centuries.4 244.2 627.7 4.4 535.5 328.3 309.9 556.3 132. 2802.8 216.3 % Russia 276. 2691. 1026.0 569.7 281.4 364. 2973.6 9 5 8 2 0 % China 35 USA India EU Austra lia 241 106 105 180 495 18 375. 2349. selenium.6 538.4 244.2 392.8 % 637.6 250.2 478. 1054.4 449.2 256.2 305.9 5. 2122.8 975.0 % 237. Coal is the largest contributor to the human-made increase of CO2 in the air Production of Coal by Country and year (million tonnes)  Reserve Country 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Shar Life e (years) 1834.7 298.6 253.9 5.6 607.7 399. 48.3 1008.9 6. Coal-fired power plants without effective fly ash capture are one of the largest Coal-fired power plants emit mercury. Interference with groundwater and water table levels Contamination of land and waterways and destruction of homes from fly ash spills Impact of water use on flows of rivers and consequential impact on other land-uses Dust nuisance Subsidence above tunnels. 2528.3 375.3 563.7 % Indon esia South Africa 114.8 % 119 .3 316.6 301.9 313.7 193.4 515. 3240.2 413. which causes climate such as Kingston Fossil Plant coal fly ash slurry spill sources of human-caused background radiation exposure human health and the environment change and global warming according to the IPCC and the EPA.1 592.4 407.9 240. 1063. 14.8 247.2 984.2 % 350. 1040.4 382.4 152.8 3.7 428. and arsenic which are harmful to Release of carbon dioxide.
9% 2.2 97.0 192.3 .7 6.8 28.0 103.8 36.6 255.5 28.4 38.3 .9 48.301 5.7 182.3 % 118 Major coal exporters Countries with annual export higher than 10 million tonnes are shown.9 110.5% Indonesia 107.4 78.7 68.5 98.3% 713.8 197.2 221. Exports of Coal by Country and year (million short tons)  Country Australia 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Share 238.342 6.087 1.4 74.2 19.4 33.000 1.8 51.6 16.8 20.3 47.0 1.5 30.2 23.9 86.035 6.1 32.073 1.5 25.7 14.4 112.7 73.1 201.5 278.2 83.0 95.0 288.7 93.4 27.3 .9 30.4 159.795 6.9 764.8 202.8% 5.3 1.6 .4 .2 115.4 27.8 .3 26.0 255.8 162.7 56.9% 6.9 86.0 50.9 144.5 % 43 84.4 35.716 6.5 68.6 31.8 111.2 % 223 163.5 156.3 28.9 207.5 68.4 31.273 100 .0% 59.2 25.7 27.5 26.0% Russia Colombia South Africa USA China Canada Vietnam Kazakhst an Poland Total 41.5 % 303 5.1 145.1 74.5% 3.9 12.1 31.573 6.0 135.6 96.6 103.0 .0 936.3 75.7 43.4 142.4% 1.2 78.2 261.9 228.5% 2.6 60.1 247.6% 2.2 1.3 .8 51.9 28.4 183.2 133.2 85.8 60.6 6.1 75.8 1.6 75.0 .1 100.8 131.8 11.0 55.0 268.8 .4 24.5 21.880 7.0 .4 130.Germ any Polan d Kazak hstan Total World 204.090 100% .9 192.5 72.4 74.
0 206.2 44. (2) CENTRAL COALFIELDS LTD.4% 4.1 107. (1) BHARAT COKING COAL LTD.2 7.4% 6.0 182.5 151.5 56.7 49.1 52.5% 94.056 1. (3) NORTHERN COALFIELDS LTD.9 10. LTD . Imports of Coal by Country and year (million short tons) Country Japan China South Korea India Taiwan Germany United Kingdom Total 2006 2007 2008 2009 Share 199.9 70.8 EASTERN COALFIELDS LTD.2 76. (7) NORTH EASTERN COALFIELDS.1 17.7 69.9 55.2 . (8) ( A UNIT UNDER CIL(HQ) ) SINGARENI COLLIERIES CO.5 .063 1.8 1.6 45.2 48.1% 991. Major coal importers Countries with annual import higher than 30 million tonnes are shown.7 64. (9) NEYVELI LIGNITE CORPORATION (10) India's Position in Minerals & Mining Sector .7 209. (4) WESTERN COALFIELDS LTD.0 84.6 56.6% 29.039 100% .1 109.5% 42.9 42.6 72.9 14. (6) MAHANADI COALFIELDS LTD. (5) SOUTH EASTERN COALFIELDS LTD.1 50.8 56.9 70.2% 4.
India produces as many as 86 minerals which include 4 fuels. and Ranks 8th in aluminium Major Players in the Mining Sector The major players in the mining sector are classified on the basis of the minerals produced by them namely. Neyveli Lignite Corporation. Kudremukh Iron Ore company. 3 atomic and 23 minor minerals (including building and other materials). • Iron Ore Sector: National Mineral Development Corporation. Orissa Mining Corporation. India ranks 5th in manganese ore and steel (crude). Mineral Exploration Corporation Ltd. Hindustan Copper Ltd (HCL). • Exploration of metals (copper. 10 metallic. IISCO. etc. Australia Rio-Tinto Minerals Development Ltd. etc. Hindustan Zinc Ltd. • Exploration and production of coal/lignite: Coal India Ltd. lead zinc): National Aluminium Company Limited (NALCO).. chromite and talc/steatite/pyrophillite. Canada Meridian Peak Resources Corpn. India ranks 3rd in coal & lignite and bauxite.. bauxite. Bharat Gold Mines Ltd (BGML). India ranks 2nd in barytes. 46 nonmetallic. UK . Oil and natural gas Corporation (ONGC). Steel Authority of India Ltd.. Rock-phosphate and barites mining: Rajasthan State Mines and Minerals Ltd. Copper-ore mining: Hindustan Copper Ltd. Bharat Aluminium Company Limited (BALCO). India ranks 4th in iron ore and kyanite/sillimanite. Andhra Pradesh Mining Development Corporation. iron ore. Canada Pebble Creek Resources Ltd. • • Bauxite mining and aluminium production: National Aluminium Company. India ranks 7th in zinc. chromite. Canada BHP Billiton. Global Mining Companies Operating in India • • • • • Transworld Garnet Co.
Netherlands .• • • • Metdist Group. USA De-Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd. South Africa Anglo American Exploration (India) BV. UK Phelps Dodge Exploration Corpn..