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Tom Mathew

B. Tech IV Semester Transportation Systems Engineering Civil Engineering Department Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Powai, Mumbai 400076, India August 24, 2011

CE415 Transportation Engineering II

Contents

1 Transportation systems analysis 2 Introduction to Travel Demand Modeling 3 Data Collection 4 Trip Generation 5 Trip Distribution 6 Modal Split 7 Trip Assignment 8 Fundamental parameters of traﬃc ﬂow 9 Fundamental relations of traﬃc ﬂow 10 Traﬃc stream models 11 Traﬃc data collection 12 Microscopic traﬃc ﬂow modeling 13 Modeling Traﬃc Characteristics 14 Macroscopic traﬃc ﬂow modeling 15 Cell transmission models 16 Traﬃc intersections 17 Traﬃc signs 18 Road markings 1 9 14 22 27 37 44 53 62 71 82 90 100 108 110 120 128 134

Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay

1

August 24, 2011

19 Traﬃc rotaries 20 Traﬃc signal design-I 21 Traﬃc signal design-II 22 Traﬃc signal design-III 23 HCM Method of Signal Design 24 Coordinated signal design 25 Area Traﬃc Control 26 Parking 27 Congestion Studies

145 154 166 176 179 184 195 197 208

CE415 Transportation Engineering II

1. Transportation systems analysis

**Chapter 1 Transportation systems analysis
**

1.1 Goal of Transportation System Analysis

In the last couple of decades transportation systems analysis (TSA) has emerged as a recognized profession. More and more government organizations, universities, researchers, consultants, and private industrial groups around the world are becoming truly multi-modal in their orientation and are as opting a systematic approach to transportation problems.

1.1.1

Characteristics

1. Multi-modal: Covering all modes or transport; air, land, and sea and both passenger and freight. 2. Multi-sector: Encompassing the problem,s and viewpoints of government, private industry, and public. 3. Multi-problem: Ranging across a spectrum of issues that includes national and international policy, planning of regional system, the location and design of speciﬁc facilities, carrier management issues, regulatory, institutional and ﬁnancial policies. 4. Multi-objective: National and regional economic development, urban development, environment quality, and social quality, as well as service to users and ﬁnancial and economic feasibility. 5. Multi-disciplinary: Drawing on the theories and methods of engineering, economics, operation research, political science, psychology, other natural and social sciences, management and law.

1.1.2

Context

1. Planning range: Urban transportation planning, producing long range plans for 5-25 years for multi-modal transportation systems in urban areas as well as short range programs of action for less than ﬁve years. 2. Passenger transport: Regional passenger transportation, dealing with inter-city passenger transport by air, rail, and highway and possible with new modes. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 1 August 24, 2011

1:1 Predication is only a part of the process of analysis and technical analysis is only a part of the broader problem. International transport: Issues such as containerization.1. choice of diﬀerent modes of rail and truck. institutional contexts and technical perspectives their is an underlying unity: a body of theory and set of basic principles to be utilizes in every analysis of transportation systems.4 Role of TSA The methodological challenge of transportation systems is to conduct a systematic analysis in a particular situation which is valid. 2011 . 4.5 Inﬂuence of TSA: Applications Transportation system analysis can lead to diﬀerent application specialties and they include: 1. delicately and deliberately in the complex fabric of society to use transport eﬀectively in coordination with other public and private actions to achieve the goals of that society.3 Goal of TSA In spite of the diversity of problems types. For this the analyst must have substantial understanding of the transportation systems and their interaction with activity systems.1.1. practical. and relevant and which assist in clarifying the issues to debated. marine transportation Tom Mathew. and the role of the professional transportation system analysis is to model the process of bringing about changes in the society through the means of transport. The core of this is the transportation system analysis approach. highway engineering 2. This approach is to intervene. 1. Freight transport: routing and management. The core of the system analysis is the prediction of ﬂows. freight transportation 3. 1. Refer Fig. which requires understanding of the basic theoretical concepts and available empirical knowledge. The focus of this is the interaction between the transportation and activity systems of region. Transportation systems analysis Flow Prediction Predication of other impacts Process of analysis Role of system analyst Figure 1:1: Role of transportation system analyst 3. inter-modal co-ordination. IIT Bombay 2 August 24.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 1. 1. which must be complemented by the predication for other impacts.

etc.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 4. technical analyst 2. port planning and development 7.1. project managers 3. environmental impacts 1.6 Inﬂuence of TSA: Methodologies Transportation system analysis can also lead to diﬀerent methodological specialties and they include: 1. Among them four critical dimensions of change in transportation system can be identiﬁed. policy analysis and implementation 4. estimation and forecasting 2. transportation economics 9. policy analyst 1.7 Inﬂuence of TSA: Methodologies Finally. community interaction 4.2. which form the background to develop a right perspective. IIT Bombay 3 August 24. transportation regulation 8. transportation management 5. mobility. transportation system analysis can lead to diﬀerent professional specialties and they include: 1. Tom Mathew.2 1. 2011 . urban planning and development 5. Transportation systems analysis 1. land-use management 1. Demand analysis.1. transportation system performance like delays. airport planning 6. 3. waiting time.1 The Scope of TSA Background: A changing world The strong interrelationship and the interaction between transportation and the rest of the society especially in a rapidly changing world is signiﬁcant to a transportation planner.

Change in operational policy: Variety of policy options designed to improve the eﬃciency. Tom Mathew. only two alternatives (bus transit and rail transit) were considered for urban transportation. MRTS. The basic premise is the explicit treatment of the total transportation system of region and the interrelations between the transportation and socioeconomic context. This follows the following steps for the analysis of transportation system: • S1 Consider all modes of transportation • S2 Consider all elements of transportation like persons. road pricing etc.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 1. transfer points and mid-block travel etc. As an example consider the the study of inter-city passenger transport in metro cities. new modes like LRT. MRTS. egress. poor. earlier. the pattern of demand changes. Now. • Consider all modes: i. IIT Bombay 4 August 24. • Consider service provided for access. intra-city transit like taxis. leisure. Change in values of the public: Earlier all beneﬁciaries of a system was monolithically considered as users. • S4 Consider the total tip for every ﬂows for every O-D over all modes and facilitates. not one system can be beneﬁcial to all. such as incentive for car-pooling. etc. etc oﬀer a variety of alternatives. • Consider all elements like direct and indirect links. goods. air. transfer points. work trip. the terminal. • S3 Consider all movements of movements of passengers and goods for every O-D pair. income. Once all these components are identiﬁed. etc. and land-use pattern changes. private automobiles. terminals. now new system like LRT. paths in the network facilities in which vehicles are going. 1. 2011 . 3.e rail. Change in the demand: When the population. P1 The total transportation system must be viewed as a single multi-modal system.2 Basic premise of a transportation system The ﬁrst step in formulation of a system analysis of transportation system is to examine the scope of analytical work. the planner can focus on elements that are of real concern. and political system of the region. • Consider diverse pattern of O-D of passenger and good. Transportation systems analysis 1. carriers (vehicles). But. 2. 4. etc. road. Changes in the technology: As an example. P2 Considerations of transportation system cannot be separated from considerations of social. vehicles that can operate. young. both in the amount and spatial distribution of that demand. instead one must identify the target groups like rich. autos. buses. economic. trucks.2. urban transit.

• Current F will also cause changes over time in T due to changes in A Note that A is not a simple variable as it looks. volume or passenger/goods.2. political.4 Intervening TAF system The mode of fulﬁlling the objective of intervening the system of TAF is important.2. housing. routes. IIT Bombay 5 August 24. • Current F will cause changes over time in A through the pattern of T and through the resources consumed in providing T . Tom Mathew. 1:2 and can be summaries as follows: • F is determined by T and A. Also note that transportation is not the sole agency causing changes in A. The three major player in the TAF system are: • User The users of the transportation system will decided when where and how to travel. Transportation aﬀect the growth and changes of socio-economic system. land-use. schools. schedule. economic. etc. A The socio-economic activity system like work. Activity system is deﬁned as the totality of social. and other transactions taking place over space and time in a given region. The whole system of interest can be deﬁned by these basic variables: T The transportation system including diﬀerent modes. and will triggers changes in transportation system. Transportation systems analysis T Transportation System F 1 Flows A Activity System 2 Figure 1:2: Relationship between T . etc.3 Interrelationship of T&A Transportation system is tightly interrelated with socio-economic system. routes. facilities. etc. Three kinds or relationships can be identiﬁed as shown in Fig.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 3 1. • Operator The operator of a particular facility or service operator will decide the mode of operation. etc. 1. facilities like highways. A and F 1. 2011 . F The ﬂow pattern which includes O-D.

construction of new facilities. etc. the choice of school is aﬀected by the transportation facility. fares. Organizational policy (eg. sky bus. articulated bus. 2011 . 5. 2. Their intervention can be in either transportation or activity system.). and political actors in the activity system decide when. The decision can be travel by train or bus. 3. increase frequency or subsidy). etc. increase the ﬂeet size). etc. On the other hand. signalized or ﬂyover at an intersection). Other options Most of the social. when (time) and how (mode) to travel. shortest distance route or shortest travel time route. governing law. grid or radial). subsidies. some of the activity options are: 1. Network (eg. The impacts of the transportation and activity options mentioned above diverse impact as illustrated in ﬁg. IIT Bombay 6 August 24. 1:3 Tom Mathew. how. Travel demand which is the aggregate result of all the individual travel decisions. Transportation systems analysis Impacts User TAF Operator Systemm GovtGovernment Phycal Activity Options Travel Other options Functional Figure 1:3: Impact of TAF system • Government Government will decided on taxes. Link characteristics (eg. For example.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Transport Options Technology Network Links Vehicles Operations Policy 1. economic. The transportation options available to impart changes in the system are: 1. Vehicles (eg. 2. System operating policy (eg. or the price of real estate inﬂuenced by the transportation facilities. 4. private or public transit system in a city). and 6. or where to conduct activities. Technology (eg.

the ﬂow pattern that will actually occur can be found by the solution of service function and demand function: = = ⇒ (T. fare. The basic hypothesis underlying this statement is that there is a market for transportation which can be separated out from other markets. S) (1.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 1. which gives the volume of ﬂow as function of activity system and level of service. Transportation systems analysis 1. T ) V o.e. 2011 . 1:2). A. following relations can be stated. S) (V o . T ′ = T ± ∆T A′ = A ± ∆A ⇒ F → F′ (1. comfort.. i. the ﬁrst indicated the service characteristics expressed by F like travel time. S o 7 i. A establishes demand function.e. A particular change in transportation system will be deﬁned in terms of changes in T . V = fd (A.2. August 24. i. speciﬁcation of transportation system T at any point in time and of activity system A implies the pattern of ﬂows. S o ).e. A) ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ Tom Mathew. Speciﬁcation of the activity system options.5 Prediction of ﬂows Any proposed change in transportation system will trigger a change in system activity which needs a procedure to predict the impacts. etc.e. which is denoted as S and the volume of ﬂow in the network denoted as V . F = (V.e. fd ) [f (A. IIT Bombay S V fj (T. S = fj (T. The impact depend upon the pattern of ﬂows resulting from particular ﬂows. Consider present transportation system T and activity system A. Introducing two more variables.3) 3.2) 2. V ) fd (A. (fj .4) for a particular T and A. 1.1) Initially. This is type 1 relationship and can be separated out from type 2 and type 3 relationships (Fig. and F exist in an equilibrium. V ) (1. T . S) (1. i. The core of any TSA is th prediction of changes in ﬂows which is the most signiﬁcant impact of change in transportation system. i. fd . The ﬂow pattern F consists of the volume V using the system and level of service S. Speciﬁcation of transportation system T establishes service function fj which indicate how the level of service varies as a function of the transportation option and the volume of ﬂows. F .

A constant Fd Fd Vo Vo V1 Figure 1:4: Graphical representation of ﬂow prediction The above relations are shown in Fig. 2011 . 1:4. Tom Mathew. Introduction to Travel Demand Modeling S(t) Fj S(t) T constant A constant Fd S(t) Fj S(t) Fj Fj’ to to to T.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 1. IIT Bombay 8 August 24.

Mathematical model is the most common type when with the help of variables. There are large number of factors that aﬀect the performance of the system. IIT Bombay 9 August 24. parameters. Therefore we resort to models which are some simpliﬁed.2 Transport modeling Modeling is an important part of any large scale decision making process in any system. Introduction to Travel Demand Modeling Chapter 2 Introduction to Travel Demand Modeling 2. the most important aspect of transportation planning. Modeling could be either physical. model aircrafts used in wind tunnel is an example of physical models. We may also point to advance trends in demand modeling.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 2. symbolic. psychology. Transport modeling is the study of the behavior of individuals in making decisions regarding the provision and use of transport.1 Overview This chapter provides an introduction to travel demand modeling. the concept of equilibrium. It is not possible for the human brain to keep track of all the player in system and their interactions and interrelationships. The important objective is that models seek to isolate key relationships. Drawing time-space diagram of vehicle movement is a good example of symbolic models. geography. at the same time complex enough to reproduce key relationships of the reality. and not to replicate the entire structure. or mathematical In physical model one would make physical representation of the reality. In symbolic model. Therefore. with the complex relations could be represented with the help of symbols. No model is a perfect representation of the reality. can be considered as examples of mathematical model. sociology. transport modeling tools have evolved from many disciplines like economics. the concept of transport demand and supply. For example. 2011 . 2. Tom Mathew. First we will discuss about what is modeling. and statistics. Newton’s equations of motion or Einstein’s equation E = mc2 . and the traditional four step demand modeling. and equations one could represent highly complex relations. unlike other engineering models.

the choice of the mode. and the beneﬁt of transportation on the non-monetary terms(time in particular). 2011 . the supply function takes the form in which C is the unit cost associated with meeting a demand T. if the estimated demand is loaded to the system. supply function will answer the question what will be the level of service of the system. The base decisions include the choice of destination. we will discuss only the classical transport model popularly known as four-stage model(FSM). Although various modeling approaches are adopted.4 Travel demand modeling Travel demand modeling aims to establish the spatial distribution of travel explicitly by means of an appropriate system of zones. Introduction to Travel Demand Modeling Supply Cost Equilibrium Demand Volume Figure 2:1: Demand supply equilibrium 2. and not a need in itself. the supply function encapsulates response of the transport system to a given level of demand. That is. given a market price C. the notions of demand and supply could be applied. It is a normal practice to plot the supply and demand curve as a function of cost and the intersection is then plotted in the equilibrium point as shown in Figure 2:1 The demand for travel T is a function of cost C is easy to conceive. modal split. people travel not for the sake of travel. Thus. In the area of travel demand and the associated supply of transport infrastructure. The most common supply function is the link travel time function which relates the link volume and travel time. The general form of the four stage model is given in Figure 2:2. The classical approach deﬁnes the supply function as giving the quantity T which would be produced. Modeling of demand thus implies a procedure for predicting what travel decisions people would like to make given the generalized travel cost of each alternatives. The classic model is presented as a sequence of four sub models: trip generation. and the choice of the route.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 2. IIT Bombay 10 August 24. 2. In other words. However. but to practice in activities in diﬀerent locations The concept of equilibrium is central to the supply-demand analysis. Since transport demand is a derived demand. trip distribution. we must be aware of the fact that the transport demand is a derived demand.3 Transport demand and supply The concept of demand and supply are fundamental to economic theory and is widely applied in the ﬁeld to transport economics. trip Tom Mathew.

This is essentially slicing the trip matrix for various modes generated to a mode speciﬁc trip matrix. on what mode they are going. by mode m is determined. will Tom Mathew.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 2. The classical model would also be viewed as answering a series of questions (decisions) namely how many trips are generated. Introduction to Travel Demand Modeling Database Network Base−year data. shopping space. and leisure facilities of each zone. the probability pm|ij of trips going to zone j is computed and subsequently the trips Tij ** from zone i to zone j by all modes and all routes are computed. Next. which allows the lower level choices to be made conditional on higher choices. For example. where they are going. each trip matrix is assigned to the route network of that particular mode using the trip assignment models. In the succeeding step the trips are allocated to diﬀerent modes based on the modal attributes using the modal split models. the mode choice model compute the probability pm|ij of choosing mode m based on the travel cost Cjm * from zone i to zone j. route choice is conditional on the mode choice. economic activity like employment. The step will give the loading on each link of the network. the route choice gives the trips Tijmr from zone i to zone j by mode m through route r can be computed. Similarly. 2011 . as stated earlier. The current approach is to model these decisions using discrete choice theory. The database also include the current (base year) levels of population. educational. trip matrix Future planning data Figure 2:2: General form of the four stage modeling assignment. The models starts with deﬁning the study area and dividing them into a number of zones and considering all the transport network in the system. Finally the travel demand is loaded to the supply model. Finally. Based on the aggregate travel cost Cij ** from zone i to the destination zone j. The next step is the allocation of these trips from each zone to various other destination zones in the study area using trip distribution models. The output of the above model is a trip matrix which denote the trips from each zone to every other zones. and ﬁnally which route they are adopting. This hierarchical choices of trip is shown in Figure 2:3 The highest level to ﬁnd all the trips Ti originating from a zone is calculated based on the data and aggregate cost term Ci ***. zones data Trip generation Trip distribution Modal split Trip assignment Output link flows. IIT Bombay 11 August 24. Then the trip generation model is evolved which uses the above data to estimate the total number of trips generated and attracted by each zone.

IIT Bombay 12 August 24. travel demand modeling aims at explaining where the trips come from and where they go. 2011 . The purpose of the network is usually measured in travel time which could be converted to travel cost. What is the ﬁrst stage of four-stage travel demand modeling? (a) Trip generation (b) Trip distribution (c) Modal split Tom Mathew. Link travel time function relates travel time and 2. Introduction to Travel Demand Modeling Trip frequency (Ci∗∗∗) Destination choice Cij ∗ ∗ Mode choice Cijm∗ Route choice Cijmr pj|i pm|ij pr|ijm Supply model network performance Figure 2:3: Demand supply equilibrium produce a performance level.6 Problems (a) link volume (b) link cost (c) level of service (d) none of the above 1. 2. 2. This process helps to understand the eﬀects of future developments in the transport networks on the trips as well as the inﬂuence of the choices of the public on the ﬂows in the network.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Ti∗∗∗ Tij∗∗ Tijm∗ Tijmr Data 2.5 Summary In a nutshell. one could feed this back into the higher levels to achieve real equilibrium of the supply and demand. Although not practiced ideally. It provides a zone wise analysis of the trips followed by distribution of the trips.and what modes and which routes are used. split the trips mode wise based on the choice of the travelers and ﬁnally assigns the trips to the network.

Link travel time function relates travel time and √ (a) link volume (b) link cost (c) level of service (d) none of the above 2. 2011 . Data Collection 2.CE415 Transportation Engineering II (d) Traﬃc assignment 2. What is the ﬁrst stage of four-stage travel demand modeling? (a) Trip distribution √ (b) Trip generation (c) Modal split (d) Traﬃc assignment Tom Mathew. IIT Bombay 13 August 24.7 Solutions 1.

and may take years for the data collection. 2011 . This chapter covers three important aspects of data collection. deﬁning the study area. many practical considerations like availability of time and money also has a strong bearing on the survey design. and transport network characteristics. enumerated as below. an important tool for forecasting future demand and performance of a transportation system. Therefore. In this section. the four-stage modeling is less suitable for the management and control of existing software. data analysis. family size.2. and data analysis. was developed for evaluating large-scale infrastructure projects. household data collection. Tom Mathew.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 3. 3. Socio-economic data: Information regarding the socio-economic characteristics of the study area. namely. Here the data requirement is very high. survey design. 1. In addition. Important ones include income. and a sound understanding of the study area. 3. a brief discussion of other important surveys is also presented. etc. skill. since data requirement is inﬂuenced by these.2 Survey design Designing the data collection survey for the transportation projects is not easy. It requires considerable experience. It is also important to know the purpose of the study and details of the modeling approaches. they require information about travelers of the area inﬂuenced by the system. Finally. we will discuss the basic information required from a data collection. meticulous planning and systematic approach are needed for accurate data collection and processing.1 Overview The four-stage modeling. IIT Bombay 14 August 24. Further. and model development. vehicle ownership.1 Information needed Typical information required from the data collection can be grouped into four categories. Since these models are applied to large systems. This information is essential in building trip generation and modal split models. dividing the area into zones. Data Collection Chapter 3 Data Collection 3.

The service inventories include data on public and private transport networks. In short. and travel time measurements. the direction of travel. establishments at commercial and industrial zones. especially for the assignment models. traﬃc signals. The study area need not be conﬁrmed by political boundaries.3 Zoning Once the study area is deﬁned. especially the trip distribution models. the study area can be deﬁned to encompass the area of expected policy impact. etc. This data is especially useful for trip generation models.2. out of. Data Collection 8 6 7 4 5 9 Figure 3:1: zoning of a study area 2. destination. Travel surveys: Origin-destination travel survey at households and traﬃc data from cordon lines and screen lines (deﬁned later). and through the study area. IIT Bombay 15 August 24. 2011 .2 Study area Once the nature of the study is identiﬁed. the cost of the travel. into. The boundary of the study area is deﬁned by what is called as external cordon or simply the cordon line. but bounded by the area inﬂuenced by the transportation systems.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 2 1 3 3. 3. Tom Mathew. The latter include the traﬃc ﬂow. Land use inventory: This includes data on the housing density at residential zones. speed. Network data: This includes data on the transport network and existing inventories.2. These particulars are useful for the model calibration. it is then divided into a number of small units called traﬃc analysis zones (TAZ) or simply zones. A sample of the zoning of a study area is shown in ﬁgure 3:1 Interactions with the area outside the cordon are deﬁned via external stations which eﬀectively serve as doorways to trips. 4. 3. 3. Former data include the number of trips made by each member of the household. Transport network data includes road network. The zone with in the study area are called internal zones. junctions etc. These data will be used primarily for the calibration of the models. study area should be deﬁned such that majority of trips have their origin and destination in the study area and should be bigger than the area-of-interest covering the transportation project.

CE415 Transportation Engineering II

3. Data Collection

Zones are modeled as if all their attributes and properties were concentrated in a single point called the zonecentroid. The centroids are connected to the nearest road junction or rail station by centroid connectors. Both centroid and centroid connectors are notional and it is assumed that all people have same travel cost from the centroid to the nearest transport facility which is the average for a zone. The intersection from outside world is normally represented through external zones. The external zones are deﬁned by the catchment area of the major transport links feeding to the study area. Although the list is not complete, few guidelines are given below for selecting zones. 1. zones should match other administrative divisions, particularly census zones. 2. zones should have homogeneous characteristics, especially in land use, population etc. 3. zone boundaries should match cordon and screen lines, but should not match major roads. 4. zones should be as smaller in size as possible so that the error in aggregation caused by the assumption that all activities are concentrated at the zone centroids is minimum.

3.2.4

Network

Transport network consists of roads,junctions, bus stops, rails, railway station etc. Normally road network and rail network are represented separately. Road network is considered as directed graph of nodes and links. Each node and links have their own properties. Road link is normally represented with attributes like starting node, ending node, road length, free ﬂow speed, capacity, number of lanes or road width, type of road like divided or undivided etc. Road junctions or nodes are represented with attributes like node number, starting nodes of all links joining the current node, type of intersection (uncontrolled, round about, signalized, etc.). Similarly public transport network like bus transit network and rail network are represented, but with attributes relevant to them. These may include frequency of service, fare of travel, line capacity, station capacity etc. This completes the inventory of base-year transportation facility.

3.3

Household data

To understand the behavior and factors aﬀecting the travel, one has got the origin of travel when the decision for travel is made. It is where people live as family which is the household. Therefore household data is considered to be the most basic and authentic information about the travel pattern of a city. Ideally one should take the details of all the people in the study to get complete travel details. However, this is not feasible due to large requirement of time and resources needed. In addition this will cause diﬃculties in handling these large data in modeling stage. Therefore, same sample households are randomly selected and survey is conducted to get the household data. Higher sample size is required fro large population size, and vice-versa. Normally minimum ten percent samples are required for population less than 50,000. But for a population more than one million require only one percent for the same accuracy. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 16 August 24, 2011

CE415 Transportation Engineering II

3. Data Collection

3.3.1

Questionnaire design

The next step in the survey is the questionnaire design. A good design will ensure better response from the respondent and will signiﬁcantly improve the quality of data. Design of questionnaire is more of an art than a science. However few guiding principles can be laid out. The questionnaire should be simple, direct, should take minimum time, and should cause minimum burden to the respondent. Traditional household survey has three major sections; household characteristics, personal characteristics, and trip details. Household characteristics This section includes a set of questions designed to obtain socioeconomic information about the household. Relevant questions are:number of members in the house, no.of employed people, number of unemployed people, age and sex of the members in the house etc., number of two-wheelers in the house, number of cycles, number of cars in the house etc., house ownership and family income. Personal characteristics This part includes questions designed to classify the household members(older than 5) according to the following aspects:relation to the head of the household (e.g. wife, son), sex, age, possession of a driving license, educational level, and activity. Trip data This part of the survey aims at detecting and characterizing all trips made by the household members identiﬁed in the ﬁrst part. A trip is normally deﬁned as any movement greater than 300 meters from an origin to a destination with a given purpose. Trips are characterized on the basis of variables such as: origin and destination, trip purpose, trip start and ending times, mode used, walking distance, public-transport line and transfer station or bus stop (if applicable).

3.3.2

Survey administration

Once the questionnaire is ready, the next step is to conduct the actual survey with the help of enumerators. Enumerators has to be trained ﬁrst by brieﬁng them about the details of the survey and how to conduct the survey. They will be given random household addresses and the questionnaire set. They have to ﬁrst get permission to be surveyed from the household. They may select a typical working day for the survey and ask the members of the household about the details required in the questionnaire. They may take care that each member of the household should answer about their own travel details, except for children below 12 years. Trip details of children below 5 years are normally ignored. Since the actual survey may take place any time during the day, the respondents are required to answer the question about the travel details of the previous day. There are many methods of the administration of the survey and some of them are discussed below: 1. Telephonic: The enumerator may use telephone to ﬁx an appointment and then conduct detailed telephonic interview. This is very popular in western countries where phone penetration is very high. 2. Mail back: The enumerator drops the questionnaire to the respondent and asks them to ﬁll the details and mail them back with required information. Care should be taken to design the questionnaire so that it is self explanatory. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 17 August 24, 2011

CE415 Transportation Engineering II

3. Data Collection

3. Face-to-face In this method, the enumerator visits the home of the respondent and asks the questions and ﬁlls up the questionnaire by himself. This is not a very socially acceptable method in the developed countries, as these are treated as intrusion to privacy. However, in many developed countries, especially with less educated people, this is the most eﬀective method.

3.4

Data preparation

The raw data collected in the survey need to be processed before direct application in the model. This is necessary, because of various errors, except in the survey both in the selection of sample houses as well as error in ﬁlling details. In this section, we will discuss three aspects of data preparation; data correction, data expansion, and data validation.

3.4.1

Data correction

Various studies have identiﬁed few important errors that need to be corrected, and are listed below. 1. Household size correction It may be possible that while choosing the random samples, one may choose either larger or smaller than the average size of the population as observed in the census data and correction should be made accordingly. 2. Socio-demographic corrections It is possible that there may be diﬀerences between the distribution of the variables sex, age, etc. between the survey, and the population as observed from the census data. This correction is done after the household size correction. 3. Non-response correction It is possible that there may not be a response from many respondents, possible because they are on travel everyday. Corrections should be made to accommodate this, after the previous two corrections. 4. Non-reported trip correction In many surveys people underestimate the non-mandatory trips and the actual trips will be much higher than the reported ones. Appropriate correction need to be applied for this.

3.4.2

Sample expansion

The second step in the data preparation is to amplify the survey data in order to represent the total population of the zone. This is done with the help of expansion factor which is deﬁned as the ratio of the total number of household addressed in the population to that of the surveyed. A simple expansion factor Fi for the zone i could be of the following form. Fi = a b−d (3.1)

Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay

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CE415 Transportation Engineering II

3. Data Collection

where a is the total number of household in the original population list, b is the total number of addresses selected as the original sample, and d is the number of samples where no response was obtained.

3.4.3

Validation of results

In order to have conﬁdence on the data collected from a sample population, three validation tests are adopted usually. The ﬁrst simply considers the consistency of the data by a ﬁeld visit normally done after data entry stage. The second validation is done by choosing a computational check of the variables. For example, if age of a person is shown some high unrealistic values like 150 years. The last is a logical check done for the internal consistency of the data. For example, if the age of a person is less than 18 years, then he cannot have a driving license. Once these corrections are done, the data is ready to be used in modeling.

3.5

Other surveys

In addition to the household surveys, these other surveys are needed for complete modeling involving four stage models. Their primary use is for the calibration and validation of the models, or act as complementary to the household survey. These include O-D surveys, road side interviews, and cordon and screen line counts.

3.5.1

O-D survey

Sometime four small studies, or to get a feel of the O-D pattern without doing elaborate survey, work space interviews are conducted to ﬁnd the origin-destination of employers in a location. Although they are biased in terms of the destination, they are random in terms of the mode of travel.

3.5.2

Road side interviews

These provide trips not registered in a household survey, especially external-internal trips. This involves asking questions to a sample of drivers and passengers of vehicles crossing a particular location. Unlike household survey, the respondent will be asked with few questions like origin, destination, and trip purpose. Other information like age, sex, and income can also be added, but it should be noted that at road-side, drivers will not be willing to spend much time for survey.

3.5.3

Cordon and screen-line survey

These provide useful information about trips from and to external zones. For large study area, internal cordon-line can be deﬁned and surveying can be conducted. The objective of the survey is primarily to collect the origin and destination zones and for this many suitable methods can Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 19 August 24, 2011

However. 3. 3.6 Summary Data collection is one of the most important steps in modeling. Various corrections should be made in data collection before they are used in modeling. Data Collection be adopted. particularly census zones. less time consuming and should be designed such that the required information is obtained with less burden on the respondent. The data that is useful for developing trip generation models is 2.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 3. (d) zones should have regular geometric shape.7 Problems (a) Travel survey data (b) Land-use inventory data (c) Network data (d) None of these 1. Survey design is discussed in detail. but should not match major roads. like either sides of a river. Finally. (c) zone boundaries should match cordon and screen lines. Screen lines divide the study area into large natural zones. Only if accurate data is available. Questionnaire should be simple. IIT Bombay 20 August 24. these counts are primarily used for calibration and validation of the models. population etc. 2011 . (b) zones should have homogeneous characteristics. It could be either recording the license plate number at all the external cordon points or by post-card method. especially in land use. with few crossing points between them. Household data gives important information required for data collection. Which of the following is not a criterion for zoning? (a) zones should match other administrative divisions. Data collected should be prepared well before application. other types of surveys are also discussed.8 Solutions (a) Travel survey data 1. 3. modeling becomes successful. The data that is useful for developing trip generation models is Tom Mathew. The procedure for both cordon-line and screen-line survey are similar to road-side interview.

(c) zone boundaries should match cordon and screen lines. especially in land use. particularly census zones. √ (d) zones should have regular geometric shape Tom Mathew.CE415 Transportation Engineering II √ (b) Land-use inventory data (c) Network data (d) None of these 2. Which of the following is not a criterion for zoning? 3. Trip Generation (a) zones should match other administrative divisions. (b) zones should have homogeneous characteristics. 2011 . IIT Bombay 21 August 24. but should not match major roads. population etc.

home based trip. Trip production is deﬁned as all the trips of home based or as the origin of the non home based trips. where as the word “trip” denotes an outward and return journey. Trip Generation Chapter 4 Trip Generation 4. non home based trip. trip attraction and trip generation. Journey is an out way movement from a point of origin to a point of destination. We will attempt to clarify the meaning of journey. trip production.1 Types of trip Some basic deﬁnitions are appropriate before we address the classiﬁcation of trips in detail. and the two main modeling approaches. Trip Production Home Production Attraction Attraction Work Home based trips Production Work Attraction Attraction Shop Production Non−home based trips Figure 4:1: trip types Tom Mathew. trip time of the day. 2011 .CE415 Transportation Engineering II 4. 4. factors aﬀecting trip generation. The trip generation aims at predicting the total number of trips generated and attracted to each zone of the study area. In other words this stage answers the questions to “how many trips” originate at each zone. IIT Bombay 22 August 24. In this section basic deﬁnitions. from the data on household and socioeconomic attributes. namely growth factor modeling and regression modeling are discussed. If either origin or destination of a trip is the home of the trip maker then such trips are called home based trips and the rest of the trips are called non home based trips. and by person type.1 Overview Trip generation is the ﬁrst stage of the classical ﬁrst generation aggregate demand models. See ﬁgure 4:1 Trips can be classiﬁed by trip purpose.1.

vehicle ownership and house hold size. The personal trip attraction.2 Factors aﬀecting trip generation The main factors aﬀecting personal trip production include income. The third way of classiﬁcation is based on the type of the individual who makes the trips. The trips can be classiﬁed based on the purpose of the journey as trips for work. commercial and other services. being a small proportion are not normally treated separately.2) where the subscript ” d” denotes the design year and the subscript ”c” denotes the current year. Although the latter comprises about 20 percent of trips. trips for education. number of sales and area of commercial ﬁrms. This is important since the travel behavior is highly inﬂuenced by the socio economic attribute of the traveler and are normally categorized based on the income level. residential density and accessibility are also considered for modeling at zonal levels.1. The models have the following basic equation: Ti = fi ti (4. on the other hand. their contribution to the congestion is signiﬁcant. In addition factors like value of land. The broad classiﬁcation is into peak trips and oﬀ peak trips. house hold structure and family size. trips for shopping. Freight trips are inﬂuenced by number of employees. In trip generation modeling in addition to personal trips. The growth factor fi depends on the explanatory variable such as population (P) of the zone . Tom Mathew. IIT Bombay 23 August 24. 2011 . All the above trips are normally home based trips and constitute about 80 to 85 percent of trips. average vehicle ownership (V). freight trips are also of interest. vehicle ownership.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 4. average house hold income (I) . Among these the work and education trips are often referred as mandatory trips and the rest as discretionary trips.2 Growth factor modeling Growth factor modes tries to predict the number of trips produced or attracted by a house hold or zone as a linear function of explanatory variables. The rest of the trips namely non home based trips. trips for recreation and other trips. At the zonal level zonal employment and accessibility are also used. 4. The simplest form of fi is represented as follows fi = Pid × Iid × Vid Pic × Iic × Vic (4.1) where Ti is the number of future trips in the zone and ti is the number of current trips in that zone and fi is a growth factor. Trip Generation generation models are found to be accurate if separate models are used based on trip purpose. The second way of classiﬁcation is based on the time of the day when the trips are made. is inﬂuenced by factors such as roofed space available for industrial. 4.

Tom Mathew. But for internal trips . The above equations are called multiple linear regression equation. The trip rates of the corresponding household is as shown in the table below. regression methods are more suitable and will be discussed in the following section.... all household will have a car.4) where ai ’s are the coeﬃcient of the regression equation and can be obtained by doing regression analysis. Trip Generation Given that a zone has 275 household with car and 275 household without car and the average trip generation rates for each groups is respectively 5. x2 .0 = 2062.3) The general form of a trip generation model is Where xi’s are prediction factor or explanatory variable.5 trips / day. and the solutions are tedious to obtain manually. no.. 2. ﬁnd the growth factor and future trips from that zone. Growth factor Fi = Vid Vic = 550 275 = 2. Therefore the number of trips in the future will be 550 house holds × 5 trips per day = 2750 trips per day .5 = 4125 trips / day. Assuming that in the future. 2011 . x3 . It was found that the household size are 1.0 Therefore.. assuming that the population and income remains constant.0 × 2062. Fit a linear equation relating trip rate and household size. IIT Bombay 24 August 24. If we think intuitively. 3 and 4.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Example 4. + ak xk (4. . 4. It may be noted from the above example that the actual trips generated is much lower than the growth factor method. The above example also shows the limitation of growth factor method.xk ) (4. the trip rate will remain same in the future. .. of future trips Ti = Fi ti = 2. However for the purpose of illustration. an example with one variable is given. Therefore growth factor models are normally used in the prediction of external trips where no other methods are available..xi .5 + 275 × 5.ai xi .5 trips per day.3 Regression methods Ti = f (x1 .0 and 2.. Example Let the trip rate of a zone is explained by the household size done from the ﬁeld survey. Solution Current trip rate ti = 275 × 2. The most common form of trip generation model is a linear function of the form Ti = a0 + a1 x1 + a2 x2 + ..

Growth factor modeling and regression methods can be used to predict the trips.3 ((12 × 90) − (30)2 ) y − b¯ = 3. It gives an idea about the total number of trips generated to and attracted from diﬀerent zones in the study area. Tom Mathew. a and b are the coeﬃcients. and x is the household size.58 30/12 = 2.5 nΣxy − ΣxΣy nΣx2 − (Σx)2 ((12 × 127) − (30 × 43)) = 1.5 = +0.58 − 1.3x − 0.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Household size(x) 1 2 3 Trips 1 2 4 per 2 4 5 day(y) 2 3 3 Σy 5 9 12 4 6 7 4 17 4. Trip Generation Solution The linear equation will have the form y = bx + a where y is the trip rate. IIT Bombay 25 August 24.33 ¯ x 1.33 4. For a best ﬁt.3 × 2. b is given by b = a Σx Σx2 Σy Σxy = = = = = + + + = y = ¯ x = ¯ b = = a = y = ¯ nΣxy − ΣxΣy nΣx2 − (Σx)2 y − b¯ ¯ x 3 × 1 + 3 × 2 + 3 × 3 + 3 × 4 = 30 3 × (12 ) + 3 × (22 ) + 3 × (32 ) + 3 × (42 ) = 90 5 + 9 + 12 + 17 = 43 1×1+1×2+1×2 2×2+2×4+2×3 3×4+3×5+3×3 4×6+4×7+4×4 127 43/12 = 3.4 Summary Trip generation forms the ﬁrst step of four-stage travel modeling. They are discussed in detail in this chapter. 2011 .

CE415 Transportation Engineering II 4.67 30/12 = 2. The trip rate (y) and the corresponding household sizes (x) from a sample are shown in table below.533 ((12 × 90) − (30)2 ) y − b¯ = 4.5 nΣxy − ΣxΣy nΣx2 − (Σx)2 ((12 × 163) − (30 × 56)) = 1. y = 0.819 Tom Mathew.533x When average household size =3.837 ¯ x 0.533 × 2.533 × 3.837 + 1.25 = 5.25. Compute the trip rate if the average household size is 3. number of trips becomes. Σx Σx2 Σy Σxy = = = = + + + = y = ¯ x = ¯ b = = a = y = 3 × 1 + 3 × 2 + 3 × 3 + 3 × 4 = 30 3 × (12 ) + 3 × (22 ) + 3 × (32 ) + 3 × (42 ) = 90 7 + 12 + 16 + 21 = 56 1×1+1×3+1×3 2×3+2×4+2×5 3×4+3×5+3×7 4×5+4×8+4×8 163 56/12 = 4. 2011 . Trip Distribution 4.67 − 1.837 + 1. Householdsize(x) 1 2 3 4 1 3 4 5 3 4 5 8 3 5 7 8 Trips per day(y) Solution Fit the regression equation as below.5 = 0. IIT Bombay 26 August 24.25 (Hint: use regression method).5 Problems 1.

The cells of each row i contain the trips originating in that zone which have as destinations the zones in the corresponding columns. Growth factor model is a method which respond only to relative growth rates at origins and destinations and this is suitable for short-term trend extrapolation. the model is said to be doubly constrained. The sum of the trips in a row should be equal to the total number of trips emanating from that zone. 5.2. These generated trips from each zone is then distributed to all other zones based on the choice of destination. This is a two dimensional array of cells where rows and columns represent each of the zones in the study area.1 Deﬁnitions and notations Trip matrix The trip pattern in a study area can be represented by means of a trip matrix or origindestination (O-D)matrix. In some cases. the model is called singly constrained. The notation of the trip matrix is given in ﬁgure 5:1. In gravity model. The sum of the trips in a column is the number of trips attracted to that zone. there will be information about only one of these constraints. Tom Mathew. This is called trip distribution which forms the second stage of travel demand modeling.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 5. There are a number of methods to distribute trips among destinations. 2011 . Tij is the number of trips between origin i and destination j. Trip Distribution Chapter 5 Trip Distribution 5. that is the task of ﬁxing their parameters so that the base year travel pattern is well represented by the model.2 5. These two constraints can be represented as: j Tij = Oi i Tij = Dj If reliable information is available to estimate both Oi and Dj . Oi is the total number of trips between originating in zone i and Dj is the total number of trips attracted to zone j.1 Overview The decision to travel for a given purpose is called trip generation. we start from assumptions about trip making behavior and the way it is inﬂuenced by external factors. and two such methods are growth factor model and gravity model. IIT Bombay 27 August 24. An important aspect of the use of gravity models is their calibration.

3 5.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 5. n Tni Attractions D1 where Dj = .. Limitation is that the same growth factor is assumed for all zones as well as attractions.... then we can only assume that it will apply to each cell in the matrix. Advantages are that they are simple to understand. . Ti2 ... .. .. ij ij tt is the waiting time at stops. .. .. . 1 T11 T21 .. and a1 . . . Trip Distribution 5. Fij is the fare charged to travel between i and j. Tnj ... Oi . ... . On T ij Tij . Tij .. ... n T1n T2n . are the weights attached to each element of the cost function...... Tij is the expanded total number of trips. time or money units. . . . . and they are useful for short-term planning.1 Growth factor methods Uniform growth factor If the only information available is about a general growth rate for the whole of the study area. .. This cost element may be considered in terms of distance.. Dn Oi = j Tij .2. Tn2 D2 i Tij .. a2 . Dj . . 2011 . This can be represented as cij = a1 tv + a2 tw + a3 tt + a4 Fij + a5 φj + δ (5.. j T1j T2j .. and T = Figure 5:1: Notation of an origin-destination trip matrix Tom Mathew.. .. The equation can be written as: Tij = f × tij (5. . . Tnn . . tw is the walking time to and from stops. . φj is the ij parking cost at the destination. .. . .. . .2) where f is the uniform growth factor tij is the previous total number of trips... ..2 Generalized cost One of the factors that inﬂuences trip distribution is the relative travel cost between two zones.. IIT Bombay 28 August 24. . 5.. .. Tin Productions O1 O2 .. Zones 1 2 ... . and δ is a parameter representing comfort and convenience.. It is often convenient to use a measure combining all the main attributes related to the dis-utility of a journey and this is normally referred to as the generalized cost of travel. Ti1 2 T12 T22 .1) ij ij ij where tv is the in-vehicle travel time between i and j. that is a uniform growth rate. ..3.

4 119. With bj solve for ai to satisfy trip generation constraint. Tom Mathew. multiplying the growth factor with each of the cells in the matrix gives the solution as shown below.3.8 101.3) In such cases.2 327. One of the methods of solving such a model is given by Furness who introduced balancing factors ai and bj as follows: Tij = tij × ai × bj (5. totals for each column are calculated and compared with the target values. Set bj = 1 2.6 5.4 124. 1 2 3 Dj 1 2 3 26 39 36.6 31.6 44. Therefore. After applying these corrections to say each row. With ai solve for bj to satisfy trip attraction constraint.3.2 33. ﬁnd the expanded origin-constrained growth trip table. 92 and 82 respectively and those terminating at zones 1. 2011 . 2. Repeat steps 2 and 3 till convergence.8 101. This implies that there are two constraints for that model and such a model is called doubly constrained growth factor model.3. 2. 4.2 28. Trip Distribution 5. and 3 of a study area are 78.3 and the base year trip matrix is as given below.4 46. 1 2 3 dj 1 20 36 22 88 2 30 32 34 96 3 oi 28 78 24 92 26 82 78 252 Solution Given growth factor = 1. 3.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 5.6 106.8 41. The procedure is given below: 1.2 Example Trips originating from zone 1. correction coeﬃcients are calculated and applied as necessary. 96 and 78 respectively. Update matrix and check for errors. and 3 are given as 88.4 Oi 101. a set of intermediate correction coeﬃcients are calculated which are then appropriately applied to cell entries in each row or column. If the diﬀerences are signiﬁcant. 5.3 Doubly constrained growth factor model When information is available on the growth in the number of trips originating and terminating in each zone. If the growth factor is 1. we know that there will be diﬀerent growth rates for trips in and out of each zone and consequently having two sets of growth factors for each zone. IIT Bombay 29 August 24.

3. 2. Dj = 102+118+106 = 326. Compute the trip matrix for the horizon year using doubly constrained growth factor model using Furness method. 4. The limitations are: 1. i. Similarly 1 Dj are the actual attractions from the zone j and Dj are the calculated attractions from that zone.49 Further T11 = t11 × a1 = 20 × 1. then ﬁnd Tij = ai × tij So a1 = 98/78 = 1. The ﬁrst step is to ﬁx bj = 1. Oi = 98+106+122 = 326. etc.15 = 41. Solution The sum of the attractions in the horizon year. Do not consider changes in travel cost.26 = 25. Example The base year trip matrix for a study area consisting of three zones is given below. IIT Bombay 30 August 24. Simple to understand. and 122 respectively. Multiplying a1 with the ﬁrst row of the matrix. Therefore we can proceed. a2 with the second row and so on. The sum of the productions in the horizon year. 5. Preserve observed trip pattern.4 Advantages and limitations of growth factor model The advantages of this method are: 1. matrix obtained is as shown below. 1 2 3 dj 1 20 36 22 88 2 30 32 34 96 3 oi 28 78 24 92 26 82 78 252 The productions from the zone 1.2. 106 respectively. ai = Oi /oi . Trip Distribution 1 1 Here the error is calculated as: E = |Oi − Oi | + |Dj − Dj | where Oi corresponds to the 1 actual productions from zone i and Oi is the calculated productions from that zone. Useful in short term-planning. 3. 118. Depends heavily on the observed trip pattern. The attractions from these zones are expected to increase to 102. It cannot explain unobserved trips.26 a2 = 106/92 = 1. Similarly T12 = t12 × a2 = 36 × 1. 3. Not suitable for policy studies like introduction of a mode. They both are found to be equal.15 a3 = 122/82 = 1. Tom Mathew. and ﬁnd balancing factor ai . i. 2011 .e.4.e.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 5. 106.2 and 3 for the horizon year is expected to grow to 98. 2.

IIT Bombay 31 August 24.28 98 41.03 = 25.76 47.67 − 122| + |102.6 106 32.04 102 118 106 1 1 2 3 Oi Oi 25.8 27.18 98 42.94 1.76 47.18.18 − 98| + |105.74 − 118| + |105.26 = 0.96 + 35.68 − 106| = 1.4 + 32.74 122 99.96 etc. ﬁnd bj = Dj /d1 and Tij = tij × bj ..38 = 1.29 121.53 36.36 − 102| + |117.18 98 42.53 + 36.29 121.78 = 99.62 102 118 106 5.69 98.38 125.64 34.2 × 1.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 1 2 3 d1 j Dj 1 2 3 oi 25. Trip Distribution Also d1 = 25.32 5.66 38.96 35. This function is called deterrence function because it represents the disincentive to travel as distance (time) or cost increases.2 37.93 106 33.74 105.93 106 33. Error = |Oi − Oi | + |Dj − dj | Error = |98.96 35.62 40.70 105. F = G M1 M2 / d2 Analogous to this.67 122 102.59 28.78 50. 2011 . Tij = Ai Oi Bj Dj f (cij ) where Ai and Bj are the balancing factors.67 122 1.4 36. Newton’s gravitational law says. Tij = C Oi Dj / cn Introducing ij some balancing factors.64 34.36 117.8 35.26 101.62 40. For example b1 = 102/99.59 28. Some of the versions of this function are: f (cij ) = e−βcij f (cij ) = c−n ij f (cij ) = c−n × e−βcij ij Tom Mathew.03.78 102 118 106 326 1 2 3 dj Dj 1 Therefore error can be computed as .53 36. The matrix is as shown below: 1 2 3 bj Dj 1 2 3 oi Oi 25. j 1 b2 = 118/125.94 etc. Also Oi = 25. f (cij ) is the generalized function of the travel cost.2 + 41.4 Gravity model This model originally generated from an analogy with Newton’s gravitational law.69 = 98.68 325.T11 = t1 1 × b1 = 25.03 0.70 105.93 − 106| + |121.38 j In the second step.69 98.

Find Bj using equation 5. Dj = Bj Dj i Ai Oi f (cij ) (5.7) Bj depends on Ai which can be found out by the following equation: Ai = 1 j Bj Dj f (cij ) (5.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 5. Therefore we can treat singly constrained model as a special case which can be derived from doubly constrained models. 2011 . Singly constrained versions can be produced by making one set of balancing factors Ai or Bj equal to one. Tom Mathew. Compute the error as E = |Oi − Oi | + |Dj − Dj | where Oi corresponds to the actual 1 productions from zone i and Oi is the calculated productions from that zone. Similarly 1 Dj are the actual attractions from the zone j and Dj are the calculated attractions from that zone. As seen earlier.8) We can see that both Ai and Bj are interdependent. ﬁnd Ai using equation 5. second one is called power function where as the third one is a combination of exponential and power function. through some iteration procedure similar to that of Furness method.5) Therefore.8 2. Set Bj = 1. Again set Bj = 1 and ﬁnd Ai .6) From this we can ﬁnd the balancing factor Bj as Bj = 1 i Ai Oi f (cij ) (5. The procedure is discussed below: 1. Therefore. Repeat these steps until the convergence is achieved. The general form of these functions for diﬀerent values of their parameters is as shown in ﬁgure. the model has the functional form. here also we have singly and doubly constrained models. IIT Bombay 32 August 24. Hence we will limit our discussion to doubly constrained models. The expression Tij = Ai Oi Bj Dj f (cij ) is the classical version of the doubly constrained model. the problem can be solved. Trip Distribution The ﬁrst equation is called the exponential function. Tij = Ai Oi Bj Dj f (cij ) Tij = i i Ai OiBj Dj f (cij ) (5.7 1 1 3.4) But Tij = Dj i (5. As in the growth factor model. also ﬁnd Bj . 4.

00425 0.31 0. Trip Distribution The productions from zone 1.6429 i 1 1 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 3 2 3 j Ai 0.0 0.00527 0.02 0.0 1.10) August 24.2829 0.31 0.8 1.38 118 46.00 102.31 0.3117 0. 106.1978 0.0 1.5 1.00425 0.42 32. The function f (cij ) can be written in the matrix form as: Table Oi 98 106 122 98 106 122 98 106 122 5:2: Step2: Computation of parameter Bj f (cij ) Ai Oi f (cij ) Ai Oi f (cij ) Bj = 1/ Ai Oif (cij ) 1.0 1 Bj Dj f (cij ) 0.00462 0.62 51.00425 3 189.0188 1.00 81.00527 Tom Mathew.0 0. 122 and attractions to zone 1.0 1.00462 0.44 0.0 1.2 1. This can be Table 5:1: Step1: Computation of parameter Ai Bj Dj f (cij ) Ai = DJ f (cij ) Bj Dj f (cij ) 102 118 106 102 118 106 102 118 106 1.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Example 5.44 0.00 0.69 0.86 70.44 1.00462 2 235.694 0.3124 1.69 1.0 1.2 and 3 are 102.69 0.54 0.64 31.0 0.0458 0.44 1. 106.4505 1.2 1.44 0.31 0.0 33 (5. where Ai is obtained from the previous step.308 0.92 106 216.69 0.31 0.8 (5.0 1.0 0.44 0.1982 0. IIT Bombay 1.9) 1.00527 found out as Bj = 1/ Ai Oi f (cij ).0 Solution The ﬁrst step is given in Table 5:1 The second step is to ﬁnd Bj . 2 and 3 are 98.0 1.00527 0.4523 0. 118.9815 1.0 0.00425 0.1404 0. 2011 .9562 0.00462 0.9618 1.28 i 1 j 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Bj 1.0 1. The detailed computation is given in Table 5:2.0 1. The function f (cij ) is deﬁned as f (cij ) = 1/c2 The cost matrix is as shown ij below 1.69 1.5 1.0 0.0 1.0397 0.

03 5.11) For eg. doubly constrained model is explained in detail.0397 × 0.8 1.0 1. Growth factor methods and gravity model are used for computing the trip matrix.5 Summary The second stage of travel demand modeling is the trip distribution. 5. Similar is the case with attractions also.19|+|122−122.01.5 1.919 69.989 105.43 0.00527 122 1.40 0. 2 and 3 are 110. In gravity model.9562 1.6 Problems The trip productions from zones 1.989|+|106−105. Oi is the actual productions from the 1 zone and Oi is the computed ones. considering singly constrained model as a special case of doubly constrained model.489 Then Tij can be computed using the formula Tij = Ai Oi Bj Dj f (cij ) (5.0 Compute the trip matrix using doubly constrained gravity model. Provide one complete iteration.83 21.157 0.987| = 2.00425 106 21. 2011 .0397 0.01 35. 122 and 114 respectively and the trip attractions to these zones are 120.11|+|118−117.96 50.407|+|106−105.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Table 5:3: Step3: Final Table 1 2 3 Ai Oi 48. Trip matrix can be used to represent the trip pattern of a study area.407 105.0188 102 118 106 102.24 15. 1 1 Therefore error can be computed as . The cost matrix is given below. Singly constrained models and doubly constrained growth factor models are discussed. Similar is the case with attractions also. Oi is the actual productions from the zone and Oi is the computed ones.489|+||102−102.00462 98 32.8 1.11 117. T11 = 102 × 1.2 1.5 1. Tom Mathew. The function f (cij ) = c1 ij 1. Error = |Oi − Oi | + |Dj − Dj | Error = |98 − 98. and 118 respectively.19 122. The results are 1 shown in table 5:3.0 1.987 5.108. IIT Bombay 34 August 24. Trip Distribution 1 2 3 Bj Dj 1 Dj 1 Oi 98.14 31.00462 × 98 × 1 = 48.2 1.

T11 = 102 × 1.01.0 0.555 0.2962 0555 0.0 0.555 0.454 i 1 j 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Bj 1. IIT Bombay 35 August 24.0397 × 0.0 1.555 0.00363 2 286.667 0.00389 found out as Bj = 1/ Ai Oif (cij ).0 1.60 72. This step is given 1 in Table 5:6 Oi is the actual productions from the zone and Oi is the computed ones.667 1. Similar is the case with attractions also. The function f (cij ) can be written in the matrix form as: 1.667 0.833 0.706 66. 2011 .00348 3 256.636 0.833 0.3536 0.44346 i 1 1 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 3 2 3 j Ai 0. where Ai is obtained from the previous step.0 1.0 0.3993 0.036 118 275.00389 0.00 120.833 0.0 0.555 0.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 5. Oi is the actual productions from the 1 zone and Oi is the computed ones.2216 0.2832 0.00348 0. Trip Distribution Solution The ﬁrst step is given in Table 5:4 The second step is to ﬁnd Bj .00363 0.00 89.00348 0.0 1.00389 0.0 0.0 0.00348 0.00363 0.667 0.66 0.00462 × 98 × 1 = 48.0 1.9483 1.0 1 Bj Dj f (cij ) 0.9994 1.048 0.833 1.833 0. This can be Table 5:4: Step1: Computation of parameter Ai Bj Dj f (cij ) Ai = DJ f (cij ) Bj Dj f (cij ) 120 108 118 120 108 118 120 108 118 1.00389 Tom Mathew.667 0. Similar Table Oi 110 122 114 110 122 114 110 122 114 5:5: Step2: Computation of parameter Bj Ai Oi f (cij ) Bj = 1/ Ai Oif (cij ) f (cij ) Ai Oi f (cij ) 1.13) For eg.0 Then Tij can be computed using the formula Tij = Ai Oi Bj Dj f (cij ) (5.96 108 78.2465 0.12) (5.05 0.00363 0.833 0.9494 0.0 1.054 1.667 1.00 0.0 1.4245 1.0 1.555 1.964 65.3326 1.49 99.

57 121.876 107.57| + |122 − 121.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Table 5:6: 1 2 48.00348 122 0.17| + |114 − 115| + |120 − 119.9494 120 108 119.92 Final Table Ai Oi 0.10 42.515 Tom Mathew.01 34.32 1. Error = |Oi − Oi | + |Dj − Dj | Error = |110 − 109. IIT Bombay 36 August 24.15 1.048 0.00363 110 0.95 Step 3: 3 27. 2011 .92| = 2.17 115 is the case with attractions also.00389 114 5.53 29.876 + |108 − 107.95| + |118 − 117.56 35.53 30.21 55. 1 1 Therefore error can be computed as . Modal Split 1 2 3 Bj Dj 1 Dj 1 Oi 109.054 118 117.43 43.

1 Overview The third stage in travel demand modeling is modal split. The chapter ends with some discussion on future topics in mode choice problem. This is because of the key role played by public transport in policy making. IIT Bombay 37 August 24. Modal Split Chapter 6 Modal Split 6. On the other hand.2 Mode choice The choice of transport mode is probably one of the most important classic models in transport planning. Again in public transport. ie binary mode choice and multinomial mode choice. The trip matrix or O-D matrix obtained from the trip distribution is sliced into number of matrices representing each mode. Two types of mode choice models will be discussed in detail. 6. 6. private transport is highly ﬂexible. In addition. the fuel is used more eﬃciently. Main characteristics of public transport is that they will have some particular schedule. Also they have more social beneﬁts like if more people begin to use public transport . It aﬀects the general eﬃciency with which we can travel in urban areas. It has better accessibility also. It is important then to develop and use models which are sensitive to those travel attributes that inﬂuence individual choices of mode. there will be less congestion on the roads and the accidents will be less. is probably the single most important element in transport planning and policy making.3 Factors inﬂuencing the choice of mode The factors may be listed under three groups: 1. Tom Mathew. Then a brief discussion on the classiﬁcation of mode choice will be made. Public transport modes make use of road space more eﬃciently than private transport. frequency etc. The issue of mode choice. we can travel with low cost. 2011 . therefore. First the signiﬁcance and factors aﬀecting mode choice problem will be discussed. It provides more comfortable and convenient travel.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 6. Characteristics of the trip maker : The following features are found to be important: (a) car availability and/or ownership.

Tom Mathew. Modal Split (c) household structure (young couple. Quantitative factors are: (a) relative travel time: in-vehicle. (b) relative monetary costs (fares. (e) decisions made elsewhere. fuel and direct costs). (c) availability and cost of parking Qualitative factors which are less easy to measure are: (a) comfort and convenience (b) reliability and regularity (c) protection. the objective of transportation planning was to forecast the growth in demand for car trips so that investment could be planned to meet the demand. 6. etc. Such a model is called trip-end modal split model.CE415 Transportation Engineering II (b) possession of a driving license. In this way diﬀerent characteristics of the person could be preserved and used to estimate modal split. Characteristics of the transport facility: There are two types of factors. 6. (b) Time of the day when the journey is undertaken.1 Types of modal split models Trip-end modal split models Traditionally. for example the need to use a car at work. When personal characteristics were thought to be the most important determinants of mode choice. take children to school. (c) Late trips are more diﬃcult to accommodate by public transport. the journey to work is normally easier to undertake by public transport than other journeys because of its regularity and the adjustment possible in the long run.4. 2. couple with children. The modal split models of this time related the choice of mode only to features like income. security A good mode choice should include the most important of these factors. residential density and car ownership. 2011 .4 6. waiting and walking times by each mode.One is quantitative and the other is qualitative. Characteristics of the journey: Mode choice is strongly inﬂuenced by: (a) The trip purpose. attempts were made to apply modal-split models immediately after trip generation.). 3. for example. (d) income. IIT Bombay 38 August 24. retired people etc. (f) residential density.

if public transport is available and there is little congestion. then that mode has more probability of being chosen. if c2 .CE415 Transportation Engineering II 6.there are three cases: 1. where the travel choice between two modes is made. if c2 . and δ is a parameter representing comfort and convenience. This is beneﬁcial for long term modeling.c1 is positive.2 Trip-interchange modal split models This is the post-distribution model. If the travel cost is low. ij ij 2. φj is the ij parking cost. 6. tw is the walking time to and from stops. would have no eﬀect on modal split according to these trip-end models. ij ij tt is the waiting time at stops.4.c1 = 0 . then mode 1 is chosen. Fij is the fare charged to travel between i and j. 6.5 Binary logit model Binary logit model is the simplest form of mode choice. Modal Split The advantage is that these models could be very accurate in the short run. The traveler will associate some value for the utility of each mode.3 Aggregate and disaggregate models Mode choice could be aggregate if they are based on zonal and inter-zonal information. we have disutility also. They can be called disaggregate if they are based on household or individual data.4. The disutility here is the travel cost. Limitation is that they are insensitive to policy decisions example: Improving public transport. ij ij 3.2) 1 then the proportion of trips by mode 1 from zone i to zone j is(Pij ) Let c1 be the cost of ij traveling from zone i to zonej using the mode 1.1) where tv is the in-vehicle travel time between i and j. IIT Bombay 39 . 6. Let there be two modes (m=1. restricting parking etc. then mode 2 is chosen. if c2 . then both modes have equal probability. This can be represented as cij = a1 tv + a2 tw + a3 tt + a4 tnij + a5 Fij + a6 φj + δ ij ij ij (6. that is modal split is applied after the distribution stage. if the utility of one mode is higher than the other.2) August 24. then that mode is chosen. It is also possible to include policy decisions. 2011 Tom Mathew. But in transportation.c1 is negative. This has the advantage that it is possible to include the characteristics of the journey and that of the alternative modes available to undertake them. and c2 be the cost of traveling from zonei to ij zone j by mode 2. ij ij This relationship is normally expressed by a logit curve as shown in ﬁgure 6:1 Therefore the proportion of trips by mode 1 is given by 1 Pij = 1 Tij /Tij = e−βcij e−βcij + e−βcij 1 2 1 (6.

Table 6:2: tu ij ar 20 bus 30 ai .1 0.5 c2 − c 1 ij ij Figure 6:1: logit function Table 6:1: tu ij car 20 bus 30 ai 0.06 . and the fare that is collected from the mode bus. The graph in ﬁgure 6:1 shows the proportion of trips by mode 1 (Tij /Tij ) against cost diﬀerence.06 0.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 6. Modal Split p1 ij 1.03 Trip characterisitcs tw tt fij φj ij ij 18 4 5 3 9 0. If the fare of the bus is reduced to 6.08 . Example Let the number of trips from zone i to zone j is 5000.1 This functional form is called logit.04 0.03 Binary logit model tw tt fij φj ij ij 18 4 5 3 9 .18 .1 example: solution cij pij Tij 2.52 2600 2. then ﬁnd the fare collected. where cij is called the generalized cost and β is the parameter 1 for calibration.0 B 2 B1 0.475 2400 Tom Mathew.1 . and two modes are available which has the characteristics given in Table 6:1.04 . IIT Bombay 40 August 24. 2011 . Compute the trips made by mode bus.

Cost function for bus= cbus = 0.3) Pij = m Σe−βcij 6.55 = 2750 bus Fare collected from the bus Tij × Fij = 2750×6 = 16500 The results are tabulated in table 6.1 = 2.08 +e−1. 2011 .18 Probability of choosing mode car (Equation)= pcar = ij Probability of choosing mode bus (Equation)= pbus = ij e−2.88 e−2.18 e−2.03 × 20 + 18 × 0.06 × 3 + 0. The equation for such a model can be written as: 1 e−βcij 1 (6.04 × 5 + 0.03 × 30 + 0.18 e−2.1 Example Let the number of trips from i to j is 5000.6.52 = 0.06 × 3 + 0.18 = 0.88 Probability of choosing mode bus (Equation)=pbus = ij e−1.88 = 0.1 × 9 = 2.6 Multinomial logit model The binary model can easily be extended to multiple modes. and three modes are available which has the characteristics given in Table 6:3: Compute the trips made by the three modes and the fare required to travel by each mode.52 = 2600 bus Proportion of trips by bus = Tij = 5000×0.475 = 2400 bus Fare collected from bus = Tij × Fij = 2400×9 = 21600 When the fare of bus gets reduced to 6.55 bus Proportion of trips by bus = Tij = 5000×0.08 Cost of travel by bus (Equation)=cbus = 0. 6.03 × 30 + 0.08 +e−2.06 + 4 × 0. Tom Mathew.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Solution The base case is given below.04 × 5 + 0. Modal Split Cost of travel by car (Equation)=ccar = 0. IIT Bombay 41 August 24.08 +e−2.475 car Proportion of trips by car = Tij = 5000×0.1 × 6 = 1.08 e−2.

3105 = 0.03 0.06 × 2 + 0.5657 = 2828.1.8 Cost of travel by bus (Equation)=cbus = 0.28 = 0.8 e−2.06 0.88 0.03 × 12 + 0.5 Solution Cost of travel by car (Equation)=ccar = 0.8 +e−1. proportion of trips by train.1 × 4 = 1.5×4 = 11314 Tom Mathew. Modal Split coeﬀ car bus train Table 6:4: Multinomial logit model problem: solution tv twalk tt Fij φij C eC pij Tij ij ij ij 0. IIT Bombay 42 August 24.06 0.1237 = 618.3105 1552.03 0.28 e−1.Tij = 5000×0.15 0.5×6 = 9315 train • Fare collected from mode train = Tij × Fij = 2828.04 0. Tij = 5000×0.1.1 × 6 = 1.5 12 10 2 4 .1 + 4 × 0.1 car 20 18 4 bus 30 5 3 6 train 12 10 2 4 - 6.28 Probability of choosing mode car (Equation)pcar = ij Probability of choosing mode bus (Equationpbus = ij e−2. 2011 .28 e−2.3105 = 1552.1 = 2.04 0.1237 618.28 0.1237 = 0.Tij = 5000×0.28 bus Proportion of trips by bus.5657 Probability of choosing mode train (Equation)= ptrain = ij car Proportion of trips by car.5657 2828.04 × 10 + 0.28 0.8 0.03 × 20 + 18 × 0.88 Cost of travel by train (Equation)=ctrain = 0.5 train Similarly.06 × 3 + 0.88 +e−1.8 +e−1.1 0.1 20 18 4 2.06 0.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Table 6:3: Trip characteristics tv twalk tt Fij φij ij ij ij coeﬃcient 0.5 30 5 3 6 .5 e−1.5 We can put all this in the form of a table as shown below 6:4: bus • Fare collected from the mode bus = Tij × Fij = 1552.03 × 30 + 0.04 × 5 + 0.88 e−2.88 +e−1.8 +e−1.1 0.88 +e−1.

05 × 35 + 0.05 0.2 × 6 = 6. Cost of travel by car=ccar = 0.85 +e−2.2 0.85 e−6.9403 e−6.2 × 8 = 4. Currently all trips are made by car.979 Trips carried by each mode car bus Case 1: Tij = 4200×0.85 +e−4.7 Summary Modal split is the third stage of travel demand modeling.00 Tij = 4200×0. Trip Assignment 6.02 = 84. pcar = ij = 0. Then.8 Problems 1.09 = 0.059 Probability of choosing bus.85 +e−4.04 0.32 Tij = 4200×0.85 Cost of travel by bus=cbus = 0. The total number of trips from zone i to zone j is 4200.07 × 6 + 0. 6.8 Hence train will attract more trips.09 Case 1: Considering introduction of bus.85 e−6.85 +e−2.0596 = 250.05 × 25 + 0.07 × 5 + 0. 2011 .2 × 6 = 2.96 = 0. IIT Bombay 43 August 24.2 car 25 22 6 bus 35 8 6 8 train 17 14 5 6 - 6.09 Cost of travel by trai=ctrain = 0. again use binary logit model to ﬁnd the trips when there is only car and train. Binary logit model and multinomial logit model are dealt in detail in this chapter.09 e−6. Probability of choosing car pcar = ij = 0. Government has two alternatives.05 × 17 + 0.04 × 8 + 0. Decide the best alternative in terms of trips carried. use binary logit model to ﬁnd the trips when there is only car and bus. The choice of mode is inﬂuenced by various factors.96 Case 2: Considering introduction of train. Finally compare both and see which alternative carry maximum trips.to introduce a train or a bus. Diﬀerent types of modal split models are there.07 0. The travel characteristics and respective coeﬃcients are given in table 6:5. pbus = ij e−4.9403 = 3949.2 × 22 + 0. Probability of choosing car.96 e−6.979 = 4115.02003 Probability of choosing train ptrain = ij e−2.04 × 14 + 0.96 e−6. Solution First.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Table 6:5: Trip characteristics tv twalk tt Fij φij ij ij ij coeﬃcient 0. if it is introduced. Tom Mathew.546 car train Case 2: Tij = 4200×0.

2011 . The fundamental aim of the traﬃc assignment process is to reproduce on the transportation system. To identify congested links and to collect traﬃc data useful for the design of future junctions.1) August 24. 4. the link speeds would be lower and the link travel time would be higher than those corresponding to the free ﬂow conditions.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 7. But if the link ﬂows were at the levels dictated by the assignment. or matrices. To estimate the volume of traﬃc on the links of the network and obtain aggregate network measures. The major aims of traﬃc assignment procedures are: 1. The inter zonal ﬂows are assigned to the minimum paths computed on the basis of free-ﬂow link impedances (usually travel time). To estimate inter zonal travel cost. 7. This can be seen in the graph shown below. A number of iterative procedures are done to converge this diﬀerence. Trip Assignment Chapter 7 Trip Assignment 7. That means traﬃc conditions worsen and congestion starts developing. So the minimum path computed prior to the trip assignment will not be the minimum after the trips ae assigned. To analyze the travel pattern of each origin to destination(O-D) pair. to be assigned is satisﬁed. The relation between the link ﬂow and link impedance is called the link cost function and is given by the equation as shown below: x β t = t0 [1 + α( ) ] k Tom Mathew. the average stream speed reduces from the free ﬂow speed to the speed corresponding to the maximum ﬂow.1 Overview The process of allocating given set of trip interchanges to the speciﬁed transportation system is usually referred to as trip assignment or traﬃc assignment. IIT Bombay 44 (7. the pattern of vehicular movements which would be observed when the travel demand represented by the trip matrix. 2. 3.2 Link cost function As the ﬂow increases towards the capacity of the stream.

respectively on the link. this model’s most important practical application is that it acts as a building block for other types of assignment techniques. In the absense of any ﬁeld data. In fact. traﬃc on links is assigned without consideration of whether or not there is adequate capacity or heavy congestion. Trip Assignment travel time flow (x) Figure 7:1: Two Link Problem with constant travel time function where t and x is the travel time and ﬂow. Example To demonstrate how this assignment works. The frequently used models all-or-nothing. IIT Bombay 45 August 24. Solution The travel time functions for both the links is given by: Tom Mathew. Also. user equilibrium assignment (UE). However.15. Let us suppose a case where travel time is not a function of ﬂow as shown in other words it is constant as shown in the ﬁgure below. This model is unrealistic as only one path between every O-D pair is utilized even if there is another path with the same or nearly same travel cost.3 All-or-nothing assignment In this method the trips from any origin zone to any destination zone are loaded onto a single. This model may also be used to identify the desired path : the path which the drivers would like to travel in the absence of congestion. The types of traﬃc assignment models are all-or-nothing assignment (AON).CE415 Transportation Engineering II 7. t0 is the free ﬂow travel time. etc. and k is the practical capacity. stochastic user equilibrium assignment (SUE). path between them. user equilibrium. and β = 4. minimum cost. capacity restraint assignment. and system optimum will be discussed in detail here.It has a limitation that it ignores the fact that link travel time is a function of link volume and when there is congestion or that multiple paths are used to carry traﬃc. following values could the assumed: α = 0. travel time is a ﬁxed input and does not vary depending on the congestion on a link.0. 2011 . system optimum assignment (SO). 7. The parameters α and β are speciﬁc the type of link and is to be calibrated from the ﬁeld data. This network has two nodes having two paths as links. incremental assignment. an example network is considered. this model may be reasonable in sparse and uncongested networks where there are few alternative routes and they have a large diﬀerence in travel cost.

and u is the minimum cost. Travel time functions are positive and increasing.2 fk ≥ 0. 2011 . 1. The user has perfect knowledge of the path cost. This means that all unused paths will have travel time greater than the minimum cost path. IIT Bombay 46 August 24. which states that no driver can unilaterally reduce his/her travel costs by shifting to another route. Trip Assignment 1 t2 = 15 x2 2 Figure 7:2: Two Link Problem with constant travel time function t1 = 10 t2 = 15 and total ﬂows from 1 to 2 is given by. User Equilibrium (UE) conditions can be written for a given O-D pair as: fk (ck − u) = 0 : ∀k ck − u >= 0 : ∀k (7.2) (7.3) where fk is the ﬂow on path k. ck is the travel cost on path k. then from equation 7.CE415 Transportation Engineering II x1 t1 =10 7. and u is the minimum cost. ck is the travel cost on path k. from equation 7.3 can have two states. Tom Mathew. This means that all used paths will have same travel time.2 fk = 0. q12 = 12 Since the shortest path is Link 1 all ﬂows are assigned to it making x1 =12 and x2 = 0. where fk is the ﬂow on path k. 2. Travel time on a given link is a function of the ﬂow on that link only. Equation 7. 3. If ck − u = 0. Assumptions in User Equilibrium Assignment 1. 7.4 User equilibrium assignment (UE) The user equilibrium assignment is based on Wardrop’s ﬁrst principle. If ck − u ≥ 0. 2.

CE415 Transportation Engineering II

7. Trip Assignment

The solution to the above equilibrium conditions given by the solution of an equivalent nonlinear mathematical optimization program, Minimize Z =

a xa 0

ta (xa )dx,

(7.4)

subjected to

k

rs fk = qrs

: ∀r, s

rs rs δa,k fk s k

xa =

r rs fk ≥ 0 xa ≥ 0

: ∀a

: ∀ k, r, s : a∈A

rs where k is the path, xa equilibrium ﬂows in link a, ta travel time on link a, fk ﬂow on path rs k connecting O-D pair r-s, qrs trip rate between r and sand δa,k is a deﬁnitional constraint and is given by r,s δa,k =

1 if link a belongs to path k, 0 otherwise

(7.5)

The equations above are simply ﬂow conservation equations and non negativity constraints, respectively. These constraints naturally hold the point that minimizes the objective function. These equations state user equilibrium principle.The path connecting O-D pair can be divided into two categories : those carrying the ﬂow and those not carrying the ﬂow on which the travel time is greater than (or equal to)the minimum O-D travel time. If the ﬂow pattern satisﬁes these equations no motorist can better oﬀ by unilaterally changing routes. All other routes have either equal or heavy travel times. The user equilibrium criteria is thus met for every O-D pair. The UE problem is convex because the link travel time functions are monotonically increasing function, and the link travel time a particular link is independent of the ﬂow and other links of the networks. To solve such convex problem Frank Wolfe algorithm is useful. Example Let us suppose a case where travel time is not a function of ﬂow as shown in other words it is constant as shown in the ﬁgure below.

x1 t1 = 10+3x1

1

t2 =15+2x2 x2

2

Figure 7:3: Two Link Problem with constant travel time function

Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay

47

August 24, 2011

**CE415 Transportation Engineering II Solution Substituting the travel time in equation yield to min Z(x) =
**

x1 0

7. Trip Assignment

10 + 3x1 dx1 + = 10x1 +

x2

0 2 3x1

15 + 2x2 dx2 2x2 2 2

2

+ 15x2 +

subject to x1 + x2 = 12 Substituting x2 = 12 − x1 , in the above formulation will yield the unconstrained formulation as below : min Z(x) = 10x1 + 3x2 2(12 − x1 )2 1 + 15(12 − x1 ) + 2 2

Diﬀerentiate the above equation x1 and equate to zero, and solving for x1 and then x2 leads to the solution x1 = 5.8, x2 = 6.2.

7.5

System Optimum Assignment (SO)

The system optimum assignment is based on Wardrop’s second principle, which states that drivers cooperate with one another in order to minimize total system travel time. This assignment can be thought of as a model in which congestion is minimized when drivers are told which routes to use. Obviously, this is not a behaviorally realistic model, but it can be useful to transport planners and engineers, trying to manage the traﬃc to minimize travel costs and therefore achieve an optimum social equilibrium. Minimize Z =

a

xa ta (xa )

(7.6)

subject to

k rs fk = qrs : ∀r, s rs rs δa,k fk : ∀a

(7.7) (7.8) (7.9) (7.10)

xa =

r s k

rs fk ≥ 0 : ∀ k, r, s xa ≥ 0 : a ∈ A

rs xa equilibrium ﬂows in link a, ta travel time on link a, fk ﬂow on path k connecting O-D pair r-s, qrs trip rate between r and s.

Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay

48

August 24, 2011

CE415 Transportation Engineering II Example

7. Trip Assignment

To demonstrate how the assignment works, an example network is considered. This network has two nodes having two paths as links. Let us suppose a case where travel time is not a function of ﬂow or in other words it is constant as shown in the ﬁgure below.

x1 t1 = 10+3x1

1

t2 =15+2x2 x2

2

Figure 7:4: Two Link Problem with constant travel time function

Solution Substituting the travel time in equation , we get the following: min Z(x) = x1 ∗ (10 + 3x1 ) + x2 ∗ (15 + 2x2 ) = 10x1 + 3x1 2 + 15x2 + 2x2 2 Substituting x2 = x1 − 12 min Z(x) == 10x1 + 3x1 2 + 15(12 − x1 ) + 2(12 − x1 )2 (7.13) (7.14) (7.11) (7.12)

Diﬀerentiate the above equation to zero, and solving for x1 and then x2 leads to the solution x1 = 5.3,x2 = 6.7 which gives Z(x) = 327.55

7.6

Other assignment methods

Let us discuss brieﬂy some other assignments like incremental assignment, capacity restraint assignment, stochastic user equilibrium assignment and dynamic assignment.

7.6.1

Incremental assignment

Incremental assignment is a process in which fractions of traﬃc volumes are assigned in steps.In each step, a ﬁxed proportion of total demand is assigned, based on all-or-nothing assignment. After each step, link travel times are recalculated based on link volumes. When there are many increments used, the ﬂows may resemble an equilibrium assignment ; however, this method Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 49 August 24, 2011

CE415 Transportation Engineering II

7. Trip Assignment

does not yield an equilibrium solution. Consequently, there will be inconsistencies between link volumes and travel times that can lead to errors in evaluation measures. Also, incremental assignment is inﬂuenced by the order in which volumes for O-D pairs are assigned, raising the possibility of additional bias in results.

7.6.2

Capacity restraint assignment

Capacity restraint assignment attempts to approximate an equilibrium solution by iterating between all-or-nothing traﬃc loadings and recalculating link travel times based on a congestion function that reﬂects link capacity. Unfortunately, this method does not converge and can ﬂip-ﬂop back and forth in loadings on some links.

7.6.3

Stochastic user equilibrium assignment

User equilibrium assignment procedures based on Wardrop’s principle assume that all drivers perceive costs in an identical manner. A solution to assignment problem on this basis is an assignment such that no driver can reduce his journey cost by unilaterally changing route. Van Vilet considered as stochastic assignment models, all those models which explicitly allows non minimum cost routes to be selected. Virtually all such models assume that drivers perception of costs on any given route are not identical and that the trips between each O-D pair are divided among the routes with the most cheapest route attracting most trips. They have important advantage over other models because they load many routes between individual pairs of network nodes in a single pass through the tree building process,the assignments are more stable and less sensitive to slight variations in network deﬁnitions or link costs to be independent of ﬂows and are thus most appropriate for use in uncongested traﬃc conditions such as in oﬀ peak periods or lightly traﬃcked rural areas.

7.6.4

Dynamic Assignment

Dynamic user equilibrium,expressed as an extension of Wardrop’s user equilibrium principle, may be deﬁned as the state of equilibrium which arises when no driver can reduce his disutility of travel by choosing a new route or departure time,where disutility includes, schedule delay in addition in to costs generally considered. Dynamic stochastic equilibrium may be similarly deﬁned in terms of perceived utility of travel. The existence of such equilibrium in complex networks has not been proven theoretical and even if they exist the question of uniqueness remains open.

7.7

Summary

Traﬃc assignment is the last stage of traﬃc demand modeling. There are diﬀerent types of traﬃc assignment models. All-or-nothing, User-equilibrium, and System-optimum assignment models are the commonly used models. All-or-nothing model is an unrealistic model since only one path between every O-D pair is utilised and they can give satisfactory results only when the Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 50 August 24, 2011

Other assignment models are also brieﬂy explained.25Hencex2 = 12 − 7. 2011 . in the above formulation will yield the unconstrained formulation as below : min Z(x) = 12x1 + 3x2 5(12 − x1 )2 1 + 10(12 − x1 ) + min Z(x) = 4x2 − 58x1 + 480 1 2 2 Diﬀerentiate the above equation x1 and equating to zero.8 Problems Calculate the system travel time and link ﬂows by doing user equilibrium assignment for the network in the given ﬁgure 7:5. IIT Bombay 51 August 24. x1 t1 = 12+3x1 1 t2 =10+5x2 x2 2 Figure 7:5: Two link problem with constant travel time Solution Substituting the travel time in the respective equation yield to min Z(x) = x1 0 12 + 3x1 dx1 + = 12x1 + x2 0 3x2 1 10 + 5x2 dx2 5x2 2 2 2 + 10x2 + subject to x1 + x2 = 12 Substituting x2 = 12 − x1 . Wardrop’s second principle is utilized by System-optimum method and it tries to minimise the congestion by giving prior information to drivers regarding the respective routes to be chosen.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 7. User-equilibrium assignment is based on Wardrop’s ﬁrst principle and it’s conditions are based on certain assumptions.75 dx Tom Mathew. dz(x) = 0 − 58 + 8x1 = 0orx1 = 7. Verify that the ﬂows are at user equilibrium. 25 = 4. 7. Trip Assignment network is least congested.

25 = 33. Fundamental parameters of traﬃc ﬂow t1 = 12 + 3 × 7.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Travel times are 7.75t2 = 10 + 5 × 4.t1 = t2 It follows that the travel times are at user equilibrium. IIT Bombay 52 August 24. Tom Mathew. 2011 .e.75 = 33.75i.

ﬂow. and speed. has several parameters associated with it. 2011 . Thus the traﬃc stream itself is having some parameters on which the characteristics can be predicted. traﬃc stream is also non-uniform in nature.1 Overview Traﬃc engineering pertains to the analysis of the behavior of traﬃc and to design the facilities for a smooth. While the microscopic characteristics include the measures of separation.e.e. The parameters can be mainly classiﬁed as : measurements of quantity. The fundamental stream characteristics Tom Mathew. which helps the analyst in detecting any variation in ﬂow characteristicis. The driver or human behavior being non-uniform. Understanding traﬃc behavior requires a thorough knowledge of traﬃc stream parameters and their mutual relationships. It is inﬂuenced not only by the individual characteristics of both vehicle and human but also by the way a group of such units interacts with each other. The traﬃc stream parameters can be macroscopic which characterizes the traﬃc as a whole or microscopic which studies the behavior of individual vehicle in the stream with respect to each other. The traﬃc engineer. but for the purpose of planning and design. 8. The traﬃc stream parameters provide information regarding the nature of traﬃc ﬂow. i.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 8. In this chapter the basic concepts of traﬃc ﬂow is presented. the headway or separation between vehicles which can be either time or space headway. Traﬃc ﬂow. they can be grouped as measurement of quantity or quality as described above. like the ﬂow of water. the whole traﬃc stream can be assumed to move on an average speed of 40 kmph rather than 100 or 20 kmph. assumes that these changes are within certain ranges which can be predicted. Fundamental parameters of traﬃc ﬂow Chapter 8 Fundamental parameters of traﬃc ﬂow 8. density. Thus a ﬂow of traﬃc through a street of deﬁned characteristics will vary both by location and time corresponding to the changes in the human behavior. if the maximum permissible speed of a highway is 60 kmph. IIT Bombay 53 August 24. i. safe and economical operation of traﬃc. For example. As far as the macroscopic characteristics are concerned.2 Traﬃc stream parameters The traﬃc stream includes a combination of driver and vehicle behavior. which includes density and ﬂow of traﬃc and measurements of quality which includes speed.

which uses spot speed data as the basic input. running speed. Spot speed can be used to design the geometry of road like horizontal and vertical curves. If the journey speed is less than running speed. Spot speed can be measured using an enoscope.e. d is distance traveled in m in time t seconds. safe speed. 8. require the spot speed data. IIT Bombay 54 August 24.3. It can be determined by speeds extracted from video images by recording the distance traveling by all vehicles between a particular pair of frames. Fundamental parameters of traﬃc ﬂow are speed. ﬂow. d v= (8. 2011 .3. The running speed will always be more than or equal to the journey speed. To represent these variation. 8. design of signals.3 Speed Speed is considered as a quality measurement of travel as the drivers and passengers will be concerned more about the speed of the journey than the design aspects of the traﬃc. time mean speed and space mean speed.2 Running speed Running speed is the average speed maintained over a particular course while the vehicle is moving and is found by dividing the length of the course by the time duration the vehicle was in motion. i. These are discussed below. and congestion are the modern ﬁelds of traﬃc engineer. or has to wait till it has a clear road ahead. as delays are not considered in calculating the running speed 8. Accident analysis. and speed zone determination. this speed doesn’t consider the time during which the vehicle is brought to a stop. road maintenance.1) t where.1 Spot Speed Spot speed is the instantaneous speed of a vehicle at a speciﬁed location. v is the speed of the vehicle in m/s. journey speed.3 Journey speed Journey speed is the eﬀective speed of the vehicle on a journey between two points and is the distance between the two points divided by the total time taken for the vehicle to complete the journey including any stopped time.3. Mathematically speed or velocity v is given by. Location and size of signs. it indicates that the journey follows a stop-go condition with enforced acceleration and deceleration.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 8. and density and are discussed below. Tom Mathew. A uniformity between journey and running speeds denotes comfortable travel conditions. The spot speed here may vary from zero to some maximum in excess of the running speed. 8. It is deﬁned as the rate of motion in distance per unit of time. Important among them are spot speed. Speed of diﬀerent vehicles will vary with respect to time and space. several types of speed can be deﬁned. pressure contact tubes or direct timing procedure or radar speedometer or by time-lapse photographic methods. super elevation etc.

The measurement is carried out by counting the number of vehicles. But comparing day with day. which is useful in enabling predictions to be made. which are relatively stable with time and more or less constant from day to day.2 Types of volume measurements Since there is considerable variation in the volume of traﬃc. Time mean speed is a point measurement while space mean speed is a measure relating to length of highway or lane. i. Fundamental parameters of traﬃc ﬂow 8. One is ﬂow or volume. Weekdays.4 Time mean speed and space mean speed Time mean speed is deﬁned as the average speed of all the vehicles passing a point on a highway over some speciﬁed time period.e. nt . day to day.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 8. These trips are mainly the work trips. Volume variations can also be observed from season to season. Both mean speeds will always be diﬀerent from each other except in the unlikely event that all vehicles are traveling at the same speed. which is usually 8 to 10 per cent of total daily ﬂow or 2 to 3 times the average hourly volume.4. IIT Bombay 55 August 24. the mean speed of vehicles over a period of time at a point in space is time mean speed and the mean speed over a space at a given instant is the space mean speed. 2011 . patterns for routes of a similar nature often show a marked similarity. The most signiﬁcant variation is from hour to hour. which is deﬁned as the number of vehicles that pass a point on a highway or a given lane or direction of a highway during a speciﬁc time interval. several types of measurements of volume are commonly adopted which will average these variations into a single volume count to be used in many design purposes. month to month. 8. Volume will be above average in a pleasant motoring month of summer. i.3. hour to hour and within a hour is also as important as volume calculation. but will be more pronounced in rural than in urban area. Then the ﬂow q expressed in vehicles/hour is given by q= nt t (8.4 Flow There are practically two ways of counting the number of vehicles on a road. The peak hour observed during mornings and evenings of weekdays. 8.4. 8.1 Variations of Volume The variation of volume with time. Space mean speed is deﬁned as the average speed of all the vehicles occupying a given section of a highway over some speciﬁed time period.2) Flow is expressed in planning and design ﬁeld taking a day as the measurement of time. Tom Mathew. passing a particular point in one lane in a deﬁned period t.e. But this is the most consistent of all the variations and aﬀects the traﬃc stream characteristics the least. Saturdays and Sundays will also face diﬀerence in pattern.

or as little as two days. the distribution of traﬃc on road. IIT Bombay 56 August 24. 2011 . All which eventually determines the design of a highway and the related facilities. a season. Signiﬁcant among them are the time headway. and the ﬂuctuations in ﬂow.5 Density Density is deﬁned as the number of vehicles occupying a given length of highway or lane and is generally expressed as vehicles per km. volume is treated as the most important of all the parameters of traﬃc stream. An ADT is a valid number only for the period over which it was measured. From the ﬁgure. a few other parameters of traﬃc ﬂow can be derived.e. i. 3. It may be measured for six months. 8. It is computed by dividing the total weekday traﬃc volume for the year by 260. moving-car observer method. a month. Density is also equally important as ﬂow but from a diﬀerent angle as it is the measure most directly related to traﬃc demand. Thus.3) x This is illustrated in ﬁgure 8:1. One can photograph a length of road x. a week. The relationship between AAWT and AWT is analogous to that between AADT and ADT. in one lane of the road at that point of time and derive the density k as. Average Weekday Traﬃc(AWT) : An average 24-hour traﬃc volume occurring on weekdays for some period of time less than one year. Again it measures the proximity of vehicles in the stream which in turn aﬀects the freedom to maneuver and comfortable driving. Average Daily Traﬃc(ADT) : An average 24-hour traﬃc volume at a given location for some period of time less than a year. 2. the total number of vehicles passing the site in a year divided by 365. They are discussed one by one below. nx k= (8. Average Annual Daily Traﬃc(AADT) : The average 24-hour traﬃc volume at a given location over a full 365-day year.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 8. detector/sensor counting. Volume in general is measured using diﬀerent ways like manual counting. Fundamental parameters of traﬃc ﬂow 1. such as for a month or a season. and speed. nx . distance headway and travel time. the density is the number of vehicles between the point A and B divided by the distance between A and B. etc.6 Derived characteristics From the fundamental traﬃc ﬂow characteristics like ﬂow. density. Mainly the volume study establishes the importance of a particular route with respect to the other routes. 4. Tom Mathew. 8. count the number of vehicles. Average Annual Weekday Traﬃc(AAWT) : The average 24-hour traﬃc volume occurring on weekdays over a full year.

4) (8. hav is the average headway. Time headway is often referred to as simply the headway. Thus average headway is the inverse of ﬂow. Time headway is deﬁned as the time diﬀerence between any two successive vehicles when they cross a given point. nx 1 si = x But the density (k) is the number of vehicles nx at a distance of x. t. IIT Bombay 57 August 24.2 Distance headway Another related parameter is the distance headway. It involves the measurement from a photograph. it involves the measurement of time between the passage of one rear bumper and the next past a given point.7) Tom Mathew. If all headways h in time period.6. over which ﬂow has been measured are added then. 2011 . that is. Fundamental parameters of traﬃc ﬂow A Figure 8:1: Illustration of density 8.6.1 Time headway The microscopic character related to volume is the time headway or simply headway. that is k= nx = x nx nx 1 (8. It is deﬁned as the distance between corresponding points of two successive vehicles at any given time. Practically.5) where.6) si = 1 sav (8. If all th space headways in distance x over which the density has been measured are added.CE415 Transportation Engineering II B 8. nt 1 hi = t But the ﬂow is deﬁned as the number of vehicles nt measured in time interval t. 8. the distance from rear bumper of lead vehicle to rear bumper of following vehicle at a point of time. q= nt = t nt nt 1 hi = 1 hav (8.

Time space diagram can be plotted for a single vehicle as well as multiple vehicles. 8. This analysis will generate a graph which gives the relation of its position on a road stretch relative to time.1 Single vehicle Taking one vehicle at a time. In ﬁgure 8:2(b). the speed of a vehicle ﬂuctuates over time and the travel time represents an average measure. IIT Bombay 58 August 24. x) plane is a curve which is called as a trajectory. The trajectory provide an intuitive.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 8. The vehicle is moving at a smooth condition along the road way. 2011 . clear. in practice. 8. This plot thus will be between distance x and time t and x will be a functions the position of the vehicle for every t along the road stretch. Tom Mathew. As the speed increases. This graphical representation of x(t) in a (t. The average distance headway is the inverse of density and is sometimes called as spacing.7 Time-space diagram Time space diagram is a convenient tool in understanding the movement of vehicles. They are discussed below. the the distance x goes on increasing with respect to the origin as time progresses.7. Fundamental parameters of traﬃc ﬂow distance time (a) distance distance time (b) time (c) Figure 8:2: Time space diagram for a single vehicle Where.3 Travel time Travel time is deﬁned as the time taken to complete a journey. Thus travel time is inversely proportional to the speed. travel time required to reach the destination also decreases and viceversa. It shows the trajectory of vehicles in the form of a two dimensional plot. 8. In ﬁgure 8:2(a). and complete summary of vehicular motion in one dimension.6. sav is average distance headway. However. analysis can be carried out on the position of the vehicle with respect to time.

Therefore. the density is given as k= 4 vehicles x2 − x1 (8. volume is the number of vehicles counted for a particular interval of time. time ranging over an interval) are called time means and those taken at an instant over a space interval are termed as space means. time mean speed. Figure 8:3 shows the time-space diagram for a set of vehicles traveling at constant speed.8 Summary Speed. 8. In ﬁgure 8:2(c). A straight line denotes constant speed motion and curving sections denote accelerated motion. As per the deﬁnition. steeply increasing section of x(t) denote a rapidly advancing vehicle and horizontal portions of x(t) denote a stopped vehicle while shallow sections show a slow-moving vehicle. Fundamental parameters of traﬃc ﬂow the vehicle at ﬁrst moves with a smooth pace after reaching a position reverses its direction of movement. the vehicle in between becomes stationary and maintains the same position. the volume q is given as q= 3 vehicles t2 − t1 (8. density and volume. Hence. ﬂow and density are the basic parameters of traﬃc ﬂow. and if the curve is concave downwards it denotes acceleration. Similarly.2 Miultiple Vehicles Time-space diagram can also be used to determine the fundamental parameters of traﬃc ﬂow like speed.8) We can also ﬁnd volume from this time-space diagram. the vertical gap between any two consecutive lines represents space headway. the horizontal gap between the vehicles represented by the lines gives the time headway. From the ﬁgure 8:3 we can see that 6 vehicles are present between the time t1 and t2 . From the ﬁgure. an observer looking into the stream can count 4 vehicles passing the stretch of road between x1 and x2 at time t. From the ﬁgure. Diﬀerent measures of speed are used in traﬃc ﬂow analysis like spot speed. Space headway is deﬁned as the distance between corresponding points of two successive vehicles at any given time. time headway is deﬁned as the time diﬀerence between any two successive vehicles when they cross a given point. space mean speed etc. IIT Bombay 59 August 24. by deﬁnition is the number of vehicles per unit length. Thus. Thus. Another related deﬁnition which can be given based on the time-space diagram is the headway. It can also be used to ﬁnd the derived characteristics like space headway and time headway.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 8.e.7.. But a curve which is convex upwards denotes deceleration. 2011 . TimeTom Mathew.9) Again the averages taken at a speciﬁc location (i. 8. The reciprocal of density otherwise gives the space headway between vehicles at that time. Density. The reciprocal of ﬂow gives the average time headway between vehicles at that point.

The instantaneous speed of a vehicle at a speciﬁed location is called 2.CE415 Transportation Engineering II x2 spacing (s) distance 8. 2011 . 8. The instantaneous speed of a vehicle at a speciﬁed location is called √ (a) Spot speed (b) Journey speed (c) Running speed Tom Mathew. Fundamental parameters of traﬃc ﬂow headway(h) x1 t1 t Time t2 Figure 8:3: Time space diagram for many vehicles space diagram also can be used for determining these parameters. Speed and ﬂow of the traﬃc stream can be computed using moving observer method. Which of the following is not a derived characteristic? (a) Time headway (b) Distance headway (c) Travel time (d) Density 8. IIT Bombay 60 August 24.9 Problems (a) Spot speed (b) Journey speed (c) Running speed (d) Time mean speed 1.10 Solutions 1.

2011 .CE415 Transportation Engineering II (d) Time mean speed 8. IIT Bombay 61 August 24. Fundamental relations of traﬃc ﬂow 2. Which of the following is not a derived characteristic? (a) Time headway (b) Distance headway (c) Travel time √ (d) Density Tom Mathew.

The relationship between the fundamental parameters of traﬃc ﬂow will also be derived.1) where v is the spot speed of ith vehicle. This is derived as below. and let vi is the spot speed 1 of ith vehicle. Time mean speed and space mean speed and the relationship between them will be discussed in detail in this chapter. Consider unit length of a road. Then the time mean speed is given by.2) n i=1 qi where qi is the number of vehicles having speed vi . ts = Tom Mathew.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 9. If there are n such vehicles.3) August 24. 9. time mean speed is the average of all vehicles passing a point over a duration of time.1 Overview Speed is one of the basic parameters of traﬃc ﬂow and time mean speed and space mean speed are the two representations of speed. In addition. n i=1 (9.2 Time mean speed (vt) As noted earlier. n qi vi vt = i=1 . Let ti is the time the vehicle takes to complete unit distance and is given by vi . but spatial weightage is given instead of temporal. 2011 . vt = 1 n vi .3 Space mean speed (vs) The space mean speed also averages the spot speed. In many speed studies. It is the simple average of spot speed. and n is the number of observations. Time mean speed vt is given by. (9. 9. and n is the number of such speed categories. then the average travel time ts is given by. this relationship can be represented in graphical form resulting in the fundamental diagrams of traﬃc ﬂow. IIT Bombay Σti 1 1 = Σ n n vi 62 (9. Fundamental relations of traﬃc ﬂow Chapter 9 Fundamental relations of traﬃc ﬂow 9. speeds are represented in the form of frequency table.

for the ﬁrst speed range. then.5 7 108. which is the mean of the speed range. vt = Σvi = 50+40+60+54+45 = n 5 249 = 49. 2011 .qi and vi are also tabulated.Therefore. First. Therefore. For example. Fundamental relations of traﬃc ﬂow qi No.54 and 45.45 total 12 142 3.5 0 0 0 4 14-17 15. n i=1 qi vs = n qi (9.5 4 30.4) This is simply the harmonic mean of the spot speed. the average speed is computed. (9.5 0.8 Space mean speed is the harmonic mean of spot speed.28 If tav is the average travel time.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 9. speed range frequency 2-5 1 6-9 4 10-13 0 14-17 7 Solution The time mean speed and space mean speed can be found out from the frequency table given below. If the spot speeds are expressed as a frequency table.5) i=1 vi where qi vehicle will have vi speed and ni is the number of such observations. vi = 2+5 = 3. Find the time mean speed and space mean speed.0 0. then ﬁnd the time mean speed and space mean speed. The terms vi .29 2 6-9 7. 40.82 Example 2 The results of a speed study is given in the form of a frequency distribution table. then average speed vs = vs = n n 1 i=1 vi 1 . IIT Bombay 63 August 24. vs = Σn1 = 5 1 1 1 1 1 + 40 + 60 + 54 + 45 50 5 = 5 0. average speed. Example 1 If the spot speeds are 50.5 seconds. Solution Time mean speed vt is the average of spot speed.5 1 3. speed range average speed (vi ) volume of ﬂow (qi ) vi qi vi 1 2-5 3.12 vi = 48.54 3 10-13 11. 60. The volume of 2 qi ﬂow qi for that speed range is same as the frequency.5 2. ts Therefore from the above equation. Tom Mathew.

the number of slow moving vehicles observed at A in one hour ns will be 60/5 = 12 vehicles. Therefore.3 m/s This is same as 30 the harmonic mean of spot speeds obtained at location A. . Therefore. by deﬁnition. and the second set at 20m/s with 100 m spacing. space mean speed is always lower than the time mean speed. space mean speed weights slower vehicles more heavily as they occupy the road stretch for longer duration of time. space mean speed can be computed as. .6) August 24. ie vs = 12× 1 24 1 = 13. Similarly. space mean speed is preferred over time mean speed. q = k × vs Tom Mathew. by deﬁnition.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 10 m/s 50 20 m/s 100 10 m/s 50 20 m/s 10 m/s 50 9. in many fundamental traﬃc equations. IIT Bombay 64 (9. . It +12× 20 10 may be noted that since harmonic mean is always lower than the arithmetic mean. vs = 20×10+10×20 = 13. . . .5 Relation between time mean speed and space mean speed The relation between time mean speed and space mean speed can be derived as below. Ks = 1000/50 = 20 vehicles/km. time mean speed vt is given by vt = 12×10+12×20 = 15 m/s. qn having speed v1 . vn . Therefore. .v2 . . vt = Σq 12 142 = 11. . vs = Σ qii = 3. and also as observed . The density K is the number of vehicles in 1 km. following illustration will help. the headway of the slow vehicle hs will be 50 m divided by 10 m/s which is 5 sec. The fundamental relation between ﬂow(q).4 Illustration of mean speeds Inorder to understand the concept of time mean speed and space mean speed. Therefore. The ﬁrst vehicle is traveling at 10m/s with 50 m spacing. 2011 . and is the inverse of spacing.65 12 vi Σqi vi Σqi = 9. density(k) and mean speed vs is. 9. qi .3 m/s. space mean speed is 24 the mean of vehicle speeds over time. Time mean speed can be computed as. vi .q2 . In other words. .83 Similarly. Consider a stream of vehicles with a set of substream ﬂow q1 . Therefore. Fundamental relations of traﬃc ﬂow 10 m/s 50 20 m/s 100 10 m/s hs = 50/20 = 5sec hf = 100/20 = 5sec ns = 60/5 = 12 nf = 60/5 = 12 ks = 1000/50 = 20 kf = 1000/100 = 10 Figure 9:1: Illustration of relation between time mean speed and space mean speed and their summations in the last row. For this reason. .28 = 3. Let there be a road stretch having two sets of vehicle as in ﬁgure 9:1. .

fi = ki k (9.14) Tom Mathew.7) Space mean speed averages the speed over space.13) Σqi vi q (9. then space mean speed is given by. vt can be written as. qi = ki × vi The summation of all substream ﬂows will give the total ﬂow q. Fundamental relations of traﬃc ﬂow Therefore for any substream qi .9) (9. IIT Bombay 65 August 24.Therefore. the following relationship will be valid.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 9. Σqi = q Similarly the summation of all substream density will give the total density k. Σki = k Let fi denote the proportion of substream density ki to the total density k. 2011 .11.8) (9. vt = Σfi (vs + (vi − vs ))2 vs (9. ki 2 vt = kΣ vi k kΣfi vi 2 = q Σfi vi 2 = vs By adding and subtracting vs and doing algebraic manipulations. vt = Σki vi 2 q (9.7 vt can be written as. Therefore. Σki vi vs = (9.7.10) (9. if ki vehicles has vi speed.12) Rewriting the above equation and substituting 9. we get. and then substituting 11.11) k Time mean speed averages the speed over time. vt = Substituting in 9.

Let the number of vehicles counted by an observer at A for one hour be n1 .20) Since all the vehicles have speed v.6 Fundamental relations of traﬃc ﬂow The relationship between the fundamental variables of traﬃc ﬂow. and assume all the vehicles are moving with v km/hr. Σfi by deﬁnition is 1.(vi − vs ) = vs 2 Σfi vs Σfi (vi − vs )2 2. density is the number of vehicles in unit distance. volume. n1 = q (9.18) Hence. since vs is the mean speed of vi . By deﬁnition. Therefore. time mean speed and space mean speed will also be same. The numerator of the second term gives the standard deviation of vi . namely speed. IIT Bombay 66 August 24. n2 = k × v (9. 9. If all the speed of the vehicles are the same. vt = vs Σfi + vt = vs + σ2 vs σ2 +0 vs (9. Time mean speed will be always greater than space mean speed since standard deviation cannot be negative.(Fig 9:2).Therefore. Let there be a road with length v km. the number of vehicles counted in 1 hour and the number Tom Mathew.CE415 Transportation Engineering II v km B 8 7 6 5 4 3 9. This can be derived by a simple concept. by deﬁnition. Fundamental relations of traﬃc ﬂow A 2 1 Figure 9:2: Illustration of relation between fundamental parameters of traﬃc ﬂow Σfi (vs )2 + (vi − vs )2 + 2. the number of vehicles counted in one hour is ﬂow(q).19) Similarly. Therefore number of vehicles n2 in a road stretch of distance v1 will be density × distance.15) (9.17) (9.16) The third term of the equation will be zero because Σfi (vi − vs ) will be zero.vs . then spot speed.vs .Σfi (vi − vs ) = + + vs vs vs (9. time mean speed is space mean speed plus standard deviation of the spot speed divided by the space mean speed. 2011 .Therefore. and density is called the fundamental relations of traﬃc ﬂow.

This is referred to as the jam density or the maximum density. When the density is zero. Some characteristics of an ideal ﬂow-density relationship is listed below: 1. it reaches a situation where vehicles can’t move. Please note that. When more and more vehicles are added. 3.(ie n1 = n2 ). IIT Bombay 67 August 24. can be represented with the help of some curves. Therefore.since there is no vehicles on the road. 2011 . Fundamental relations of traﬃc ﬂow qmax B A flow(q) q D E O C k0 k1 kmax k2 kjam density (k) Figure 9:3: Flow density curve of vehicles in the stretch of distance v will also be same.21) This is the fundamental equation of traﬃc ﬂow. q =k×v (9. 2. 9. density and speed. 4. The relationship is normally represented by a parabolic curve as shown in ﬁgure 9:3 Tom Mathew. At jam density.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 9. ﬂow will also be zero. There will be some density between zero density and jam density. ﬂow will be zero because the vehicles are not moving. The relation between the density and the corresponding ﬂow on a given stretch of road is referred to as one of the fundamental diagram of traﬃc ﬂow.7 Fundamental diagrams of traﬃc ﬂow The relation between ﬂow and density. when the ﬂow is maximum. 9.7.1 Flow-density curve The ﬂow and density varies with time and location. They are referred to as the fundamental diagrams of traﬃc ﬂow. v in the above equation refers to the space mean speed. They will be explained in detail one by one below. When the number of vehicles gradually increases the density as well as ﬂow increases. speed and ﬂow.

These will be discussed later. It is also possible to have non-linear relationships as shown by the dotted lines. the speed of the vehicles becomes zero. The most simple assumption is that this variation of speed with density is linear as shown by the solid line in ﬁgure 9:4. At maximum ﬂow. The maximum ﬂow qmax occurs at speed u. The ﬂow is zero either because there is no vehicles or there are too many vehicles so that they cannot move. OA is the tangent drawn to the parabola at O. Clearly the speed at density k1 will be higher since there are less number of vehicles on the road. Further. 9.CE415 Transportation Engineering II uf 9. When the density is jam density. 9. It is possible to have two diﬀerent speeds for a given ﬂow. and when the density is maximum. and the slope of the line OA gives the mean free ﬂow speed.7. the speed will be zero. IIT Bombay 68 August 24. ie the speed with which a vehicle can travel when there is no ﬂow. or free ﬂow speed.2 Speed-density diagram Similar to the ﬂow-density relationship. Tom Mathew. speed will be maximum. vehicles will be ﬂowing with their desire speed. Corresponding to the zero density. 2011 . This relationship is shown in ﬁgure 9:5. The point C refers to the maximum density kjam and the corresponding ﬂow is zero.3 Speed ﬂow relation The relationship between the speed and ﬂow can be postulated as follows. the speed will be in between zero and free ﬂow speed. It can also be noted that points D and E correspond to same ﬂow but has two diﬀerent densities. Fundamental relations of traﬃc ﬂow speed u k0 density (k) kj am Figure 9:4: Speed-density diagram The point O refers to the case with zero density and zero ﬂow. referred to as the free ﬂow speed.7. the slope of the line OD gives the mean speed at density k1 and slope of the line OE will give mean speed at density k2 . The point B refers to the maximum ﬂow and the corresponding density is kmax .

2011 . The fundamental diagrams of traﬃc ﬂow are vital tools which enables analysis of fundamental relationships. and ﬂow-density are called the fundamental diagrams of traﬃc ﬂow. They can be together combined in a single diagram as discussed in the last section of the chapter. Tom Mathew.8 Summary Time mean speed and space mean speed are two important measures of speed. It is possible to have a relation between them and was derived in this chapter.4 Combined diagrams The diagrams shown in the relationship between speed-ﬂow.7. Fundamental relations of traﬃc ﬂow uf u2 speed u u u1 u0 q flow q Qmax Figure 9:5: Speed-ﬂow diagram speed u speed u density k flow q qmax flow q density k Figure 9:6: Fundamental diagram of traﬃc ﬂow 9. Also. IIT Bombay 69 August 24. speed-ﬂow and ﬂow-density. These are as shown in ﬁgure 9:6 9.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 9. time mean speed will be always greater than or equal to space mean speed. speed-density. There are three diagrams speed-density.

Space mean speed is 2.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 9.9 Problems (a) the harmonic mean of spot speeds (b) the sum of spot speeds (c) the arithmetic mean of spot speeds (d) the sum of journey speeds 1. Space mean speed is √ (a) the harmonic mean of spot speeds (b) the sum of spot speeds (c) the arithmetic mean of spot speeds (d) the sum of journey speeds 2. Traﬃc stream models 9. IIT Bombay 70 August 24. Which among the following is the fundamental equation of traﬃc ﬂow? (a) q = k v (b) q = k × v √ (d) q = k 2 × v (c) v = q × k Tom Mathew. 2011 . Which among the following is the fundamental equation of traﬃc ﬂow? (a) q = k v (b) q = k × v (d) q = k 2 × v (c) v = q × k 9.10 Solutions 1.

k kj (10.1) is often referred to as the Greenshields’ model.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 10.2 Greenshield’s macroscopic stream model Macroscopic stream models represent how the behaviour of one parameter of traﬃc ﬂow changes with respect to another. The equation for this relationship is shown below. v = vf − vf . 10. The ﬁrst and most simple relation between them is proposed by Greenshield.1 Overview To ﬁgure out the exact relationship between the traﬃc parameters. This equation ( 10. vf is the free speed and kj is the jam density. Some important models among them will be discussed in this chapter. IIT Bombay 71 August 24. Traﬃc stream models Chapter 10 Traﬃc stream models 10.1) where v is the mean speed at density k. a great deal of research has been done over the past several decades. Most important among them is the relation between speed and density. 2011 . The results of these researches yielded many mathematical models. It indicates that when density uf speed u k0 density (k) kjam Figure 10:1: Relation between speed and density Tom Mathew. Greenshield assumed a linear speed-density relationship as illustrated in ﬁgure 10:1 to derive the model.

v → vf when k → 0).2) (10. For this. Also. q qmax Figure 10:2: Relation between speed and ﬂow qmax B A flow(q) q D E O C k0 k1 kmax k2 kjam density (k) Figure 10:3: Relation between ﬂow and density 1 becomes zero.k − vf 2 k kj q v (10. speed approaches free ﬂow speed (ie.1 (10. put k = and solving.CE415 Transportation Engineering II uf 10. 2011 . u u u0 q flow.4) Similarly we can ﬁnd the relation between speed and ﬂow. we get q = vf . Traﬃc stream models speed. IIT Bombay 72 August 24. we know that q = k.v − v vf Tom Mathew. we get kj 2 q = kj . Once the relation between speed and ﬂow is established.v Now substituting equation 10. the relation with ﬂow can be derived.2.1 in equation 10. This relation between ﬂow and density is parabolic in shape and is shown in ﬁgure 10:3.3) in equation 10.

5 in equation 10. v0 = vf − v0 = vf kj .3 with respect to k and equate it to zero. The boundary conditions that are of interest are jam density. the boundary conditions can be derived. kj vf kj − . k0 = kj 2 (10. This has to be obtained by ﬁeld survey and this is called calibration process. − vf . we can derive for maximum ﬂow. speed at maximum ﬂow is half of the free speed.5 in equation 10.. dq = 0 dk vf vf − . Substituting equation 10. and maximum ﬂow.1 and solving we get. 10. Although it is diﬃcult to determine exact free ﬂow speed and jam density directly from the ﬁeld.kj = 4 2 Thus the maximum ﬂow is one fourth the product of free ﬂow and jam density. 2 4 vf . kj 2 (10. 2 kj 2 kj kj = vf . IIT Bombay 73 August 24. v0 . To ﬁnd density at maximum ﬂow. qmax . Traﬃc stream models This relationship is again parabolic and is shown in ﬁgure 10:2.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 10. diﬀerentiate equation 10.3 qmax = vf . especially free ﬂow speed (vf ) and jam density (kj ). ie. one should get the boundary values. approximate values can be obtained from a number of speed and Tom Mathew. freeﬂow speed.3 Calibration of Greenshield’s model Inorder to use this model for any traﬃc stream. substitute equation 10. density corresponding to maximum ﬂow is half the jam density Once we get k0 .5) Therefore. Once the relationship between the fundamental variables of traﬃc ﬂow is established.2k = 0 kj kj k = 2 Denoting the density corresponding to maximum ﬂow as k0 . Finally to get the speed at maximum ﬂow.6) vf 2 Therefore. 2011 .

v k 171 5 129 15 20 40 70 25 Solution Denoting y = v and x = k.3 + 0. use equation 10.3.7 (xi − x2 ) ¯ 5402. qmax = 40.7 (xi − x)(yi − y ) ¯ ¯ -1198.8 So the linear regression equation will be. To ﬁnd maximum ﬂow.9.2 −2947.3 992.8 and kf = 0.5 31.8) y) ¯ (10. determine the parameters of the Greenshields’ model.2×97.10) Here vf = 40..2 x = Σx = 390 = 97.3 18. xi yi − n xi .8 = 204 veh/km The basic parameters of 0. n xi 2 − ( n xi )2 i=1 i=1 a = y − b¯ ¯ x b = n Alternate method of solving for b is.e. Also ﬁnd the maximum ﬂow and density corresponding to a speed of 30 km/hr. 2011 .8 kmph and 204 veh/km respectively.3 6006.8 − 0. The solution is tabulated as shown below.1 -198.8×204 = 4 Tom Mathew.2 a = y − b¯ x (10. n is the number of samples. coeﬃcients a and b can be solved as. and x and y are the mean of xi ¯ ¯ and yi respectively.8 and equation 10.9. Let the linear equation be y = a + bx such that y is density k and x denotes the speed v. b = ¯ ¯ n 4 n 4 = 21.2 This implies.2 j Greenshield’s model are free ﬂow speed and jam density and they are obtained as 40. i.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 10.7 3.5 -77. kj = 40. From equation 10. Using linear regression method.6.5 (yi − y ) ¯ -16. Problem For the following data on speed and density. n yi i=1 i=1 n.5 = 40.3 -6.9) where xi and yi are the samples.7) (10.7 13157. IIT Bombay 74 August 24. v = 40.2k v = -0.5 -27.3 -101. solve for a and b using equation 10.5 -1449. Traﬃc stream models density observations and then ﬁtting a linear equation between them. x(k) 171 129 20 70 390 y(v) 5 15 40 25 85 (xi − x) ¯ 73.8 -2947.3 756.3 13157. b = n ¯ i=1 (xi − x)(yi − n ¯2 i=1 (xi − x) n i=1 (10. y = Σy = 85 = 21.5.

Underwood put forward an exponential model as shown below.4. These are brieﬂy discussed below. 10.12) Tom Mathew. v = v0 ln (10. Underwood’s exponential model.11) This model has gained very good popularity because this model can be derived analytically. Prominent among them are Greenberg’s logarithmic model.e k0 (10. speed tends to inﬁnity.4 Other macroscopic stream models In Greenshield’s model.8 .8−30 = 54 veh/km 0. the validity of Greenshields’ model was questioned and many other models came up. −k v = vf .2 Underwood’s exponential model Trying to overcome the limitation of Greenberg’s model. 10. Therefore. v density. Pipe’s generalized model.4. IIT Bombay 75 August 24.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 10. However.1 Greenberg’s logarithmic model kj k Greenberg assumed a logarithmic relation between speed and density. k Figure 10:4: Greenberg’s logarithmic model 2080. main drawbacks of this model is that as density tends to zero. He proposed. 30 = 40. (This derivation is beyond the scope of this notes). This shows the inability of the model to predict the speeds at lower densities. But in ﬁeld we can hardly ﬁnd such a relationship between speed and density. k = 40.2 × k Therefore.e. Traﬃc stream models speed. 2011 . linear relationship between speed and density was assumed. and multiregime models. i.0.8 veh/hr Density corresponding to the speed 30 km/hr can be found out by substituting v = 30 in equation 10.10.2 10.

Therefore. many models were proposed generally called multi-regime models. Traﬃc stream models speed. IIT Bombay 76 August 24. where separate equations are used to represent the speed-density relation at congested and uncongested traﬃc. human behaviour will be diﬀerent at diﬀerent densities.3 Pipes’ generalized model Further developments were made with the introduction of a new parameter (n) to provide for a more generalised modelling approach. v Density. Therefore. is the free ﬂow speedm and ko is the optimum density. the densty corresponding to the maximum ﬂow.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 10. This is corraborated with ﬁeld observations which shows diﬀerent relations at diﬀerent range of densities. Thus by varying the values of n. the speed-density relation will also be diﬀerent in diﬀerent zones of densities. Based on this concept. 2011 .4 Multiregime models All the above models are based on the assumption that the same speed-density relation is valid for the entire range of densities seen in traﬃc streams.4. k Figure 10:5: Underwood’s exponential model where vf The model can be graphically expressed as in ﬁgure 10:5. The most simple one is called a two-regime model. Tom Mathew. speed becomes zero only when density reaches inﬁnity which is the drawback of this model. 10.13) When n is set to one. However. Hence this cannot be used for predicting speeds at high densities. a family of models can be developed. Pipe’s model resembles Greenshields’ model. In this model. i. Pipes proposed a model shown by the following equation. k v = vf [1 − kj n ] (10.e.4. these models are called single-regime models. 10.

vA.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 10.14) kA − kB The above result can be analytically solved by equating the expressions for the number vehicles leaving the upstream and joining the downstream of the shock wave boundary (this assumption Tom Mathew. The time-space diagram of the traﬃc stream is also plotted in ﬁgure 10:8. Slope of the line AB gives the speed of the shock wave (refer ﬁgure 10:7). The speed. If speed of the shock-wave is represented asωAB . say state B.5 Shock waves The ﬂow of traﬃc along a stream can be considered similar to a ﬂuid ﬂow. Let this be denoted as state A (refer ﬁgure 10:6. kB . All the lines are having the same slope which implies that they are moving with constant speed. then qA − qB ωAB = (10. 2011 . and state B as vB . density and ﬂow. and qA . Suddenly due to some obstructions in the stream (like an accident or traﬃc block) the steady state characteristics changes and they acquire another state of ﬂow. The ﬂow-density curve is shown in ﬁgure 10:7. Thus the shock waves produced at state B are propagated in the backward direction. Consider a stream of traﬃc ﬂowing with steady state conditions. all the vehicles in the stream are moving with a constant speed. kA qB . and qB respectively. Thus shock wave is basically the movement of the point that demarcates the two stream conditions. kB Figure 10:6: Shock wave: Stream characteristics vA qA qB A B vB flow kA density kB kj Figure 10:7: Shock wave: Flow-density curve 10. The speed of the vehicles at state B is the line joining the origin and point B of the ﬂow-density curve. density and ﬂow of state A is denoted as vA . This is clearly marked in the ﬁgure 10:7.. vB . i. IIT Bombay 77 August 24. The speed of the vehicles at state A is given by the line joining the origin and point A in the graph. kA . Traﬃc stream models qA. The sudden change in the characteristics of the stream leads to the formation of a shock wave.e. There will be a cascading eﬀect of the vehicles in the upstream direction.

For example. Let NA be the number of vehicles leaving the section A. Hence. Tom Mathew. NA = qB t.16) (10. ωAB = qA − qB kA − kB (10. there are chances for a forward moving shockwave. 2011 .15) This will yeild the following expression for the shock-wave speed. There are other possibilities of shockwaves such as forward moving shockwaves and stationary shockwaves. the vehicles entering the state B is given as NB = kA (vB − ωAB ) t Equating equations 10. when the width of the road increases suddenly. the shock wave move against the direction of traﬃc and is therefore called a backward moving shock wave.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 10. Then. IIT Bombay 78 August 24. The forward moving shockwaves are formed when a stream with higher density and higher ﬂow meets a stream with relatively lesser density and ﬂow.15 and 10. Traﬃc stream models distance A B time Figure 10:8: Shock wave : time-distance diagram is true since the vehicles cannot be created or destroyed.16. and solving for ωAB as follows will yeild to: NA kA (vA − ωAB ) t kA vA t − kA ωAB t kA ωAB t − kB ωAB t ωAB (kA − kB ) = = = = = NB kB (vB − ωAB ) t kB vB t − kB ωAB t kA vA − kB vB qA − qB (10. The relative speed of these vehicles with respect to the shock wave will be vA − ωAB . NA = kA (vA − ωAB ) t Similarly.17) In this case. Stationary shockwaves will occur when two streams having the same ﬂow value but diﬀerent densities meet.

Assuming that the vehicles are ﬂowing from left to right. say before and after a bottleneck. If initial and boundary conditions are known.t) are not independent of each other.6 Macroscopic ﬂow models If one looks into traﬃc ﬂow from a very long distance. the functional relationship between ﬂow q and density k cannot be calculated from ﬂuid-dynamical theory. t)) + =0 ∂t ∂x (10. the continuity equation can be written as ∂k(x. q = q(k). IIT Bombay 79 August 24. 2011 . An alternate possibility which Lighthill and Whitham adopted in their landmark study is to assume that the ﬂow rate q is determined primarily by the local density k.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 10. t) + =0 (10. this can be solved. Therefore the number of unknown variables will be reduced to one. the vehicle density k. k is the density and q denotes the ﬂow. In this system the ﬂow rate before and after will be same. Therefore. namely k(x. t) ∂q(x.t) and q (x. Infact. the ﬂow of fairly heavy traﬃc appears like a stream of a ﬂuid.19) From this the shockwave velocity can be derived as v(to )p = q2 − q1 k2 − k1 (10. so that ﬂow q can be treated as a function of only density k. Traﬃc stream models 10. t) by and q(x. However. Essentially this assumption states that k(x. t) by solving one equation. Solution to LWR models are Tom Mathew. the ﬂow rate q is a function of the vehicular density k. one cannot get two unknowns. Thus.20) This is normally referred to as Stock’s shockwave formula. t is the time.21) However. t) ∂q(k(x.18) ∂t ∂x where x denotes the spatial coordinate in the direction of traﬃc ﬂow. The earliest traﬃc ﬂow models began by writing the balance equation to address vehicle number conservation on a road. t)) + =0 ∂t ∂x (10. t) ∂q(k(x. This has to be either taken as a phenomenological relation derived from the empirical observation or from microscopic theories. or k1 v1 = k2 v2 (10. a macroscopic theory of traﬃc can be developed with the help of hydrodynamic theory of ﬂuids by considering traﬃc as an eﬀectively one-dimensional compressible ﬂuid. all traﬃc ﬂow models and theories must satisfy the law of conservation of the number of vehicles on the road. Therefore. Therefore the continuity equation takes the form ∂k(x. One possible solution is to write two equations from two regimes of the ﬂow. the balance equation takes the form ∂k(x. The behaviour of individual vehicle is ignored and one is concerned only with the behaviour of sizable aggregate of vehicles.22) Now there is only one independent variable in the balance equation.

7 Summary Traﬃc stream models attempt to establish a better relationship between the traﬃc parameters. (b) when two streams having the diﬀerent ﬂow value but same densities meet. IIT Bombay 80 August 24. In some cases. 10. 2011 .6. (d) when two streams with diﬀerent speeds meet. and then a shock is said to be formed. Catastrophe Theory 3. This shockwave propagate at the velocity vs = q(k2 ) − q(k1 ) k2 − k1 (10. 2. Stationary shockwaves will occur (a) when two streams having the same ﬂow value but diﬀerent densities meet. Other models were also discussed in this chapter. for instance.CE415 Transportation Engineering II kinematic waves moving with velocity 10. (c) when two streams having the same ﬂow value and densities meet. These models were based on many assumptions. Traﬃc stream models dq(k) (10.23) dk This velocity vk is positive when the ﬂow rate increases with density. Greenshield’s model assumed a linear speed-density relationship.8 Problems 1. 10. Multi regine model (formulation of both two and three regime models) 2. and it is negative when the ﬂow rate decreases with density. Three dimentional models and plots 10.24) where q(k2 ) and q(k1 ) are the ﬂow rates corresponding to the upstream density k2 and downstream density k1 of the shockwave. this function may shift from one regime to the other. Unlike Stock’s shockwave formula there is only one variable here. The models are used for explaining several phenomena in connection with traﬃc ﬂow like shock wave.1 Extented Topics 1. Linear relationship between speed and density was assumed in (a) Greenberg’s model (b) Greenshield’s model Tom Mathew.

IIT Bombay 81 August 24. Linear relationship between speed and density was assumed in Greenshield’s model Tom Mathew.CE415 Transportation Engineering II (c) Pipe’s generalized model (d) Underwood’s model 10. Stationary shockwaves will occur when two streams having the same ﬂow value but different densities meet.8. 2011 .1 Solutions 1. Traﬃc data collection 10. 2.

11. the occupancy. multi axle trucks. nonmotorised traﬃc like bullock cart. video camera. and (e) the use of an observer moving in the traﬃc stream. traﬃc stream characteristics need to be collected only from the ﬁeld. In video cameras. LCV. There are several methods of data collection depending on the need of the study and some important ones are described in this chapter. and for each types of vehicles like cars. Traﬃc data collection Chapter 11 Traﬃc data collection 11. The measurement procedures can be classiﬁed based on the geographical extent of the survey into ﬁve categories: (a) measurement at point on the road. In manual method.1 Overview Unlike many other disciplines of the engineering. From the ﬂow data.1 Measurements at a point The most important point measurement is the vehicle volume count. However. numerous data collection are there. ﬂow and headway can be derived. hand cart etc. IIT Bombay 82 August 24. spacing and headway are directly measured. Normally.2. travel time. 2011 . Modern methods include the use of inductive loop detector. important and basic methods will be discussed. Some cases. two wheelers. and many other technologies. it is impossible to simulate the behavior of drivers in the laboratory. (b) measurement over a short section of the road (less than 500 metres) (c) measurement over a length of the road (more than about 500 metres) (d) wide area samples obtained from number of locations. 11. ﬂow and density. three wheelers. In addition. Data can be collected manually or automatically. These methods helps to collect accurate information for long duration. the situations that are interesting to a traﬃc engineer cannot be reproduced in a laboratory. Even if road and vehicles could be set up in large laboratories. data is collected from the ﬁeld and is then analyzed in the lab for obtaining results. Tom Mathew.2 Data requirements The most important traﬃc characteristics to be collected from the ﬁeld includes sped. the observer will stand at the point of interest and count the vehicles with the help of hand tallies. ie percentage of time a point on the road is occupied by vehicles is also of interest. data will be collected for short interval of 5 minutes or 15 minutes etc. Therefore.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 11. HCV. In each category.

density cannot be obtained by measuring at a point. If several frames are obtained over short time intervals. Most traditional method uses aerial photography. Tom Mathew. but not speed or volumes.CE415 Transportation Engineering II x 11. a signal will be generated and the count of the vehicle can be found automatically.2. Another most widely used method is inductive loop detector which works on the principle of magnetic inductance. Then he stops the stop watch when the vehicle passes in front of him. Manual methods include the use of enoscope. Usually the stretch will be having a length more than 500 metres. In this method a base length of about 30-90 metres is marked on the road. density can be measured. 11. We can also get density. Traﬃc data collection enoscope observer Base length Figure 11:1: Illustration of measurement over short section using enoscope Radars and microwave detectors are used to obtain the speed of a vehicle at a point. An alternative method is to use pressure contact tube which gives a pressure signal when vehicle moves at either end. 2011 . He could see the vehicle passing the farther end through enoscope and starts the stop watch. The working of the enoscope is shown in ﬁgure 11:1. In time lapse photography. IIT Bombay 83 August 24. Road will be cut and a small magnetic loop is placed. Enoscope is placed at one end and observer will stand at the other end. speeds can be measured from the distance covered between the two frames and time interval between them. several frames are available. From a single frame.2 Measurements over short section The main objective of this study is to ﬁnd the spot speed of vehicles. 11. When the metallic content in the vehicle passes over it. However.2. chances of errors are possible because noise signals may be generated due to heavy vehicle passing adjacent lanes. When dual loops are used and if the spacing between them is known then speed also can be calculated in addition to the vehicle cost.3 Measurements over long section This is normally used to obtain variations in speed over a stretch of road. Since no length is involved. The advantage of this detector is that the counts can be obtained throughout the life time of the road.

k.3) where v0 is the speed of the observer and t is the time taken for the observer to cover the road stretch. 2011 . In that case mo vehicles will overtake the observer and mp vehicles will be overtaken by the observer in the Tom Mathew.2) or np = k.vo . then ﬂow q is nt0 .CE415 Transportation Engineering II 11. Now consider the case when the observer is moving within the stream. then by deﬁnition. IIT Bombay 84 August 24. Moving observer method is the most commonly used method to get the relationship between the fundamental stream characteristics. In this method.4 Moving observer method for stream measurement Determination of any of the two parameters of the traﬃc ﬂow will provide the third one by the equation q = u. Consider a stream of vehicles moving in the north bound direction. t. If np is the number of vehicles overtaken by observer over a length l.1) The second case assumes that the stream is stationary and the observer moves with speed vo . Traﬃc data collection l Figure 11:2: Illustration of moving observer method 11. The ﬁrst case considers the traﬃc stream to be moving and the observer to be stationary.t (11. or n0 = q × t (11. or np = k × l (11. the observer moves in the traﬃc stream unlike all other previous methods. Two diﬀerent cases of motion can be considered.2. If no is the number of vehicles overtaking the observer during a period. density k is nlp .

q v l . Adding equation 11. Further. which relates q. For generating another equation.3.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 11.1 and equation 11.5 and 11. namely the ﬂow(q) as: mw + ma q= (11. we have two unknowns. we will get the ﬁrst parameter of the stream.6) where.e. i. mw = = ma = = q q q q tw tw ta ta − − + + k vw tw kl k va ta kl (11. all the vehicles will be overtaking.mp . q and k. the test vehicle is run twice once with the traﬃc stream and another one against traﬃc stream. k to the counts m. then average travel time is given by tavg = tavg mw ) = tw − tavg = tw (1 − q tw mw l tavg = tw − = . w denotes against and with traﬃc ﬂow. the observer simply counts the number of vehicles in the opposite direction. t and vo that can be obtained from the test. m = m0 − mp = q t − k vo t (11. IIT Bombay 85 August 24. Let the diﬀerence m is given by m0 . when the test vehicle moves in the opposite direction. It may be noted that the sign of equation 11. a.6 is negative.5. since it is moving with negative speed.5) (11. vs Therefore. In other words. Traﬃc data collection test vehicle. but only one equation. Tom Mathew.6. because test vehicle moving in the opposite direction can be considered as a case when the test vehicle is moving in the stream with negative velocity.4) This equation is the basic equation of moving observer method. 2011 . However. mw = q − kvw tw q = q − vw v q l = q− v tw l 1 = q 1− × v tw tavg = q 1− tw If vs is the mean stream speed. in this case.7) tw + ta Now calculating space mean speed from equation 11. then from equation 11.

Given that the number of vehicles encountered in the stream while the test vehicle was moving against the traﬃc stream is 107.025− 10.74 = 5 km/hr Density can be found out from equation as k = 860 = 5 860 172veh/km Example 2 The data from four moving observer test methods are shown in the table. Knowing the two parameters the third parameter of traﬃc ﬂow density (k) can be found out as k= q vs (11. and last column gives the number of vehicles overtaken by the test vehicle. Example 1 The length of a road stretch used for conducting the moving observer test is 0. the three fundamental diagrams can be plotted as shown in ﬁgure 11:3. column 2 gives the number of vehicles moving against the stream. we get the second parameter of the traﬃc ﬂow.5 equationvs = 0. the test is performed a number of times and the average results are to be taken.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 11. density and average speed of the stream.5 = 0.025 hr Time taken by the observer to reach 20 the other end of the stream while it is moving against the traﬃc is ta = tw = 0. namely the mean speed vs and can be written as.8) tw − mw q Thus two parameters of the stream can be determined. column 3 gives the number of vehicles that had overtaken the test vehicle. q = 107+(10−74) = 860 veh/hr Stream speed vs can be found out from 0. Solution Time taken by the test vehicle to reach the other end of the stream while it is moving along with the traﬃc is tw = 0. 1 2 3 4 1 107 113 30 79 2 3 10 74 25 41 15 5 18 9 Solution From the calculated values of ﬂow. Sample no. Find the three fundamental stream parameters for each set of data.9) For increase accuracy and reliability.5 km and the speed with which the test vehicle moved is 20 km/hr. l vs = (11. and the number of vehicles overtaken by the test vehicle is 74. 2011 .025 hr Flow is given by equation. Traﬃc data collection Rewriting the above equation. Column 1 gives the sample number. Also plot the fundamental diagrams of traﬃc ﬂow.025 0. IIT Bombay 86 August 24. ﬁnd the ﬂow. density and speed.025+0. number of vehicles that had overtaken the test vehicle is 10. Tom Mathew.

025 0. 1 2 3 4 ma 107 113 30 79 mo 10 25 15 18 mp 74 41 5 9 m(mo − mp ) -64 -16 10 9 ta 0.025 0.14 15.025 q= ma +mw ta +tw u= l tw − ma q k= 171 129 20 70 q v 860 1940 800 1760 5.025 0.025 0.03 density k flow q 800 1760 1940 860 flow q 20 70 129171 density k Figure 11:3: Fundamental diagrams of traﬃc ﬂow Tom Mathew.04 40 25.025 0.04 5.14 speed u speed u 40 25.025 tw 0.03 15. IIT Bombay 87 August 24.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 11. Traﬃc data collection Sample no.025 0. 2011 .

Speed data are collected from measurements at a point or over a short section or over an area.t (d) np = k. (a) np = k. speed of the observer is vo . Traﬃc data collection 11.4 Problems 1. the number of vehicles overtaken by the observer np is given by.5 Solutions 1.3 Summary Traﬃc engineering studies diﬀer from other studies in the fact that they require extensive data from the ﬁeld which cannot be exactly created in any laboratory.vo .t (c) np = k vo . length of the test stretch is l. (a) 50 m/s (b) 100 m/s (c) 150 m/s (d) 200 m/s 11.4 km. time taken by the observer to move with the traﬃc is 5 seconds. Traﬃc ﬂow data are collected at a point.t (b) np = k. 11. 2011 . Moving observer method is one in which both speed and traﬃc ﬂow data are obtained by a single experiment. If the length of the road stretch taken for conducting moving observer experiment is 0. length of the test stretch is l.vo . number of vehicles moving with the test vehicle in the same direction is 10.l (c) np = k vo . speed of the observer is vo .t Tom Mathew. In the moving observer experiment. if the density is k. if the density is k. IIT Bombay 88 August 24.l √ (d) np = k. (a) np = k. the number of vehicles overtaken by the observer np is given by.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 11.t 2. ﬁnd the mean speed. In the moving observer experiment.t (b) np = k. t is the time taken by the observer to cover the road stretch. t is the time taken by the observer to cover the road stretch. ﬂow is 10 veh/sec.

q (a) 50 m/s Tom Mathew. time taken by the observer to move with the traﬃc is 5 seconds.4 km.4 km. ﬁnd the mean speed. √ (b) 100 m/s (c) 150 m/s (d) 200 m/s Solution: Given that l=0. substituting in equation. 2011 . Microscopic traﬃc ﬂow modeling 2. number of vehicles moving with the test vehicle in the same direction is 10. mw =10. IIT Bombay 89 August 24. If the length of the road stretch taken for conducting moving observer experiment is 0. tw =5seconds.vs = tw −lmw =100m/s.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 11. ﬂow is 10 veh/sec.q=10 veh/sec.

the n t location and speed of the follower are denoted by xt n+1 and vn+1 respectively. This chapter gives an overview of microscopic approach to modeling traﬃc and then elaborates on the various concepts associated with it. A microscopic model of traﬃc ﬂow attempts to analyze the ﬂow of traﬃc by modeling driver-driver and driver-road interactions within a traﬃc stream which respectively analyzes the interaction between a driver and another driver on road and of a single driver on the diﬀerent features of a road. gives attention to the details of traﬃc ﬂow and the interactions taking place within it. The leader vehicle is denoted as n and the following vehicle as (n + 1). location and speed. Hence. Similarly. The longitudinal space occupied by a vehicle depend on the physical dimensions of the vehicles as well as the gaps between vehicles. Before going in to the details. The following vehicle is assumed to accelerate at time t + ∆T and not at t. as the term suggests. IIT Bombay 90 August 24. two microscopic measures are used. it includes the length of the lead vehicle and the gap length between the lead and the following vehicles.1 Overview Macroscopic modeling looks at traﬃc ﬂow from a global perspective. capacity and level of service. Several studies are made on modeling driver behavior in another following car and such studies are often referred to as car following theories of vehicular traﬃc. n n+1 Tom Mathew.2 Notation Longitudinal spacing of vehicles are of particular importance from the points of view of safety.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 12. where ∆T is the interval of time required for a driver to react to a changing situation. 12. Microscopic traﬃc ﬂow modeling Chapter 12 Microscopic traﬃc ﬂow modeling 12.distance headway and distance gap. The gap between the leader and the follower vehicle is therefore xt − xt . various notations used in car-following models are discussed here with the help of ﬁgure 12:1. 2011 . Location and speed t of the lead vehicle at time instant t are represented by xt and vn respectively. Two characteristics at an instant t are of importance. For measuring this longitudinal space. whereas microscopic modeling. Many studies and researches were carried out on driver’s behavior in diﬀerent situations like a case when he meets a static obstacle or when he meets a dynamic obstacle. Distance headway is deﬁned as the distance from a selected point (usually front bumper) on the lead vehicle to the corresponding point on the following vehicles.

there is a wide diﬀerence in the minimum distance headway at low and high speeds.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Direction of traffic vn+1 n+1 12. the minimum safe distance headway increases linearly with speed. Microscopic traﬃc ﬂow modeling vn n Leader xn Follower xn+1 xn − xn+1 Figure 12:1: Notation for car following model 12.2 Forbes’ model In this model. 12. 12. That is. the minimum headways proposed by the theory are considerably less than the corresponding ﬁeld measurements. the minimum time headway is equal to the reaction time (minimum time gap) and the time required for the lead vehicle to traverse a distance equivalent to its length.3.3. Agreement with ﬁeld data. the reaction time needed for the following vehicle to perceive the need to decelerate and apply the brakes is considered. the time gap between the rear of the leader and the front of the follower should always be equal to or greater than the reaction time. the simulation models developed based on General motors’ car following models shows good correlation to the ﬁeld data. 2011 . Various models were formulated to represent how a driver reacts to the changes in the relative positions of the vehicle ahead.3. 12. similar to Pipe’s model. Tom Mathew.3 General Motors’ model The General Motors’ model is the most popular of the car-following theories because of the following reasons: 1.3 Car following models Car following theories describe how one vehicle follows another vehicle in an uninterrupted ﬂow. Models like Pipes. Therefore. A disadvantage of this model is that at low speeds. Forbes. IIT Bombay 91 August 24. General Motors and Optimal velocity model are worth discussing. A disadvantage of this model is that.1 Pipe’s model The basic assumption of this model is “A good rule for following another vehicle at a safe distance is to allow yourself at least the length of a car between your vehicle and the vehicle ahead for every ten miles per hour of speed at which you are traveling” According to Pipe’s car-following model.

Greenberg’s logarithmic model for speeddensity relationship can be derived from General motors car following model. it tries to maintain a safe speed which inturn depends on the relative position. relative speeds. This was an alternative possibility explored recently in car-following models. Hence. 2011 .vndesired = v opt (∆xt ) where vopt is the optimal velocity function which is a function n of the instantaneous distance headway ∆xt . Mathematical relation to macroscopic model.1 General motor’s car following model Basic Philosophy The basic philosophy of car following model is from Newtonian mechanics.1) 1 where τ is called as sensitivity coeﬃcient. This model is the widely used and will be discussed in detail later. distance headway etc. 12. the driving strategy of nth vehicle is that. In short. but a function and can be represented as. at = fsti (vn . The formulation is based on the assumption that the desired speed vndesired depends on the distance headway of the nth t vehicle. and hence. the motion of individual vehicle is governed by an equation. 12. diﬀerent theories on carfollowing have arisen because of the diﬀerence in views regarding the nature of the stimulus. Therefore at is given by n n t at = [1/τ ][V opt (∆xt ) − vn ] n n (12. ∆xn .2) for the nth vehicle (n=1. where the acceleration may be regarded as the response of a matter to the stimulus it receives in the form of the force it receives from the interaction with other particles in the system. ..4 Optimal velocity model The concept of this model is that each driver tries to achieve an optimal velocity based on the distance to the preceding vehicle and the speed diﬀerence between the vehicles.). IIT Bombay 92 August 24. The stimulus may be composed of the speed of the vehicle. i.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 12.e.4.4 12.3) Tom Mathew.. ∆vn ) n (12. it is not a single variable. Each driver can respond to the surrounding traﬃc conditions only by accelerating or decelerating the vehicle. rather than relative speed. acceleration can be regarded as the response of the particle to stimulus it receives in the form of force which includes both the external force as well as those arising from the interaction with all other particles in the system. the basic philosophy of car-following theories can be summarized by the following equation [Response]n α [Stimulus]n (12.3. 2. which is analogous to the Newton’s Laws of motion. In Newtonian mechanics. As mentioned earlier. Microscopic traﬃc ﬂow modeling 2. In car following models.

and let ∆xsaf e is the safe distance. the governing equations of a traﬃc ﬂow can be developed as below. driver must maintain a safe distance with the vehicle ahead. A driver will react to the change in speed of the front vehicle after a time gap called the reaction time during which the follower perceives the change in speed and react to it.4) where τ is a sensitivity coeﬃcient. Let ∆T is Tom Mathew. we get t t vn − vn+1 = τ. 3.m (vn+1 )m (xt − xt )l n+1 n t t vn − vn+1 (12. three things need to be remembered: 1. In computer. This is based on two assumptions.at n+1 1 t t at = [vn − vn+1 ] n+1 τ General Motors has proposed various forms of sensitivity coeﬃcient term resulting in ﬁve generations of models. This equation is the core of traﬃc simulation models. t Let ∆xt is the gap available for (n + 1)th vehicle. The vehicle position. m is a speed exponent and can take values from -2 to +2. and the acceleration is governed by the car following model. These parameters are to be calibrated using ﬁeld data.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 12. relative position and speed with the front vehicle. the gap required is given by. at = n+1 t αl. Microscopic traﬃc ﬂow modeling where fsti is the stimulus function that depends on the speed of the current vehicle. speed and acceleration will be updated at certain time intervals depending on the accuracy required. 12. higher will be the spacing between the vehicles and (b) to avoid collision. and α is a sensitivity coeﬃcient. Therefore. 2011 . t ∆xt = ∆xsaf e + τ vn+1 n+1 (12. The most general model has the form. higher the accuracy.6) where l is a distance headway exponent and can take values from +4 to -1. Lower the time interval. implementation of the simulation models.5) Diﬀerentiating the above equation with respect to time.4.2 Follow-the-leader model The car following model proposed by General motors is based on follow-the leader concept. Vehicle position and speed is governed by Newton’s laws of motion. The above equation can be written as t xn − xt = ∆xsaf e + τ vn+1 n+1 (12. vn+1 n+1 t and vn are the velocities. 2. IIT Bombay 93 August 24. (a) higher the speed of the vehicle.

reaction time as 1 second and scan interval as 0. At t= 2.6. Note that the values are assumed to be the state at the beginning of that time interval.23 m/s2 . Since the velocity is same for both. the follower will react to the leader’s change in acceleration at 2.5 m/s at 2. the governing equations can be written as. velocity of leader vehicle changes to 16. At time t=0.5 = 0. Problem Let a leader vehicle is moving with zero acceleration for two seconds from time zero. 1 t−∆t xt = xt−∆t + vn × ∆t + at−∆t ∆t2 n n 2 n t αl. x = 0+16×0. Assume the parameters l=1. At time t = 0.5 m/s. After that it decelerates for a period of two seconds. Column 2. velocity and distance of the follower vehicle. Solution The ﬁrst column shows the time in seconds.0 seconds only after 3 seconds. Since the reaction time is 1 second. Similarly.5 seconds.9) The equation 12. The acceleration of the follower vehicle depends upon the relative velocity of the leader and the follower vehicle.23 celeration of the follower vehicle depends on dv and reaction time ∆ of 1 second.8) (12. x = 28+16×0.8 is the simulation version of the Newton’s another equation s = ut + 2 at2 .5 seconds. Column 8 gives the diﬀerence in velocities between the leader and follower vehicle denoted as dv. 3. sensitivity coeﬃcient (αl.7) (12.5 seconds. The follower vehicle is also having the same velocity of 16 m/s and located at the datum. IIT Bombay 94 August 24. Therefore. speed and position) for 7.5 seconds. The location of the follower vehicle is. Column 9 gives the diﬀerence in displacement between the leader and follower vehicle denoted as dx. the leader vehicle is having acceleration zero. A vehicle is following this vehicle with initial speed 16 m/s. Column 5. sensitivity coeﬃcient and the gap between the vehicles. the follower responds to the leaders change in acceleration given by equation i. dx = 36-8 =28m. a = 13×0. Then he accelerates by 1 m/s2 for 2 seconds. velocity and distance of the leader vehicle. The follower Tom Mathew. dx also changes since the position of leader changes. m=0 .e. then decelerates by 1m/s2 for 2 seconds. and ∆t is the updation time. the follower vehicle is not accelerating and is maintaining the same speed. At time t = 2 seconds. dv = 0. The location of the leader vehicle can be found out from equation as.7 is a simulation version of the Newton’s simple law of motion v = u + at and 1 equation 12. leader vehicle accelerates at the rate of 1 m/s2 and continues to accelerate for 2 seconds. 2011 . Thus dv becomes 0. and 7 shows the acceleration.m (vn+1 )m t−∆T t−∆T (vn − vn+1 ) at n+1 = t−∆T − xt−∆T )l (xn n+1 t t−∆t vn = vn + at−∆t × ∆t n (12. Simulate the behavior of the following vehicle using General Motors’ Car following model (acceleration.5 = 36 m.5 seconds. and hence has the same speed. at t=3.5 = 8 m. Microscopic traﬃc ﬂow modeling the reaction time. That is the current ac28. and 4 shows the acceleration. leader vehicle has a velocity of 16 m/s and located at a distance of 28 m from a datum. These steps are repeated till t = 1.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 12. Therefore.m ) = 13.5 seconds.. The initial speed is 16 m/s and initial location is 28 m from datum. and position zero.

Eﬀorts to develop this stimulus function led to ﬁve generations of Tom Mathew.231×0.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 20 12.03 These steps are followed for all the cells of the table. i. at time t = 4 seconds.5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time(seconds) Figure 12:3: Acceleration vz Time will change the speed at the next time interval. IIT Bombay 95 August 24.. It was assumed that every driver tends to move with the same speed as that of the corresponding leading vehicle so that at = n 1 t+1 t (v − vn+1 ) τ n (12.10) 1 where τ is a parameter that sets the time scale of the model and τ can be considered as a measure of the sensitivity of the driver.12 The location of the follower vehicle at t = 4 seconds is given by equation as x = 56+16×0.5+ 1 ×0.e.5 = 16. 2011 . The earliest car-following models considered the diﬀerence in speeds between the leader and the follower as the stimulus. therefore. the driving strategy is to follow the leader and.5 1 Leader Follower Acceleration 0. According to such models.231×0. such car-following models are collectively referred to as the follow the leader model.5 0 −0.52 2 = 64. Microscopic traﬃc ﬂow modeling Leader 19 18 Follower Velocity 17 16 15 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time(seconds) Figure 12:2: Velocity vz Time 1. The speed of the follower vehicle at t = 4 seconds is given by equation as v= 16+0.5 −1 −1.

00 248.99 219.00 1.00 0.00 Table 12:1: Car-following example v(t) x(t) a(t) v(t) x(t) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) v(t) x(t) a(t) v(t) x(t) 16.50 a(t) (2) a(t) 0.59 -1.02 0.00 240.01 243.67 16.00 16.00 0.00 16.00 16.00 -0.00 10.00 16.02 28.00 0.00 16.06 16.00 0.00 28.99 -0.00 0.01 -0.13 29.00 0. Microscopic traﬃc ﬂow modeling t (1) t 0.00 280.08 16.50 12.00 28.00 0.40 -0.82 16.00 94.00 6.22 27.01 251.69 -0.00 296.00 284.00 0.00 13.00 0.00 0.00 152.00 0.02 28.00 28.00 0.00 16.00 -0.00 -0.00 0.00 0.00 16.98 16.88 180.03 17. 2011 Tom Mathew.00 76.00 0.20 16.00 0.50 19.00 28.50 3.01 16.88 172.00 16.57 17.00 232.00 28.50 1.00 216.00 316.98 16.00 16.88 1.01 0.00 16.00 0.55 29.00 -0.73 31.50 11.01 -0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 268.01 260.00 16.13 16.40 106.00 160.00 16.00 308.50 0.00 52.76 27.00 16.02 28.07 0.00 0.00 28.00 -0.00 24.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 10.00 17.50 68.50 5.01 235.92 196.00 312.00 0.00 1.00 16.75 27.00 -1.00 111.00 0.00 0.00 288.02 0.06 15.00 1.00 16.00 292.50 20.00 0.00 28.00 8.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.13 16.50 0.00 256.00 48.00 0.00 1.00 16.00 0.00 200.00 0.81 27.00 208.46 16.08 0.02 28.69 131.00 0.78 16.00 17.00 -0.00 -0.00 0.05 15.00 16.00 2.01 28.00 16.00 352.02 28.00 28.14 17.87 29. IIT Bombay .99 123.00 20.00 16.05 15.00 0.00 28.00 19.49 17.00 18.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 12.00 176.61 16.00 0.18 -0.00 -0.00 128.00 272.05 0.32 16.00 16.92 27.00 0.00 0.00 227.03 30.00 324.00 0.00 -0.98 16.10 0.00 17.12 0.03 15.00 7.50 17.00 304.93 164.00 August 24.01 -0.50 15.00 16.00 16.08 15.13 28.00 336.95 204.24 16.50 18.00 0.40 -1.00 16.20 28.02 15.40 16.00 0.18 148.00 3.00 28.00 11.09 88.00 0.50 102.50 1.34 72.00 0.00 -0.00 44.84 16.88 0.25 16.00 0.01 -0.00 96 dv (8) dv 0.98 211.98 16.01 16.13 0.00 320.00 32.00 184.00 0.25 17.00 16.50 9.00 264.50 6.00 0.00 5.00 0.00 0.50 1.50 8.00 28.00 0.10 31.00 168.00 16.16 0.50 119.64 28.13 0.12 0.00 16.50 7.50 85.50 14.00 360.45 16.00 -1.00 16.00 0.00 28.87 27.00 0.00 136.00 300.80 27.00 1.01 15.00 15.00 28.00 28.00 14.00 0.00 8.00 16.00 16.03 16.28 114.00 36.00 0.00 144.00 344.23 16.50 4.00 0.04 15.00 0.12 64.00 28.50 16.97 30.45 16.19 16.00 16.68 80.00 0.13 17.00 0.00 0.33 97.90 188.98 16.00 9.50 29.00 60.00 0.00 40.28 -0.00 16.99 16.50 2.01 0.00 0.00 0.50 13.00 12.00 18.00 4.00 276.00 332.00 16.00 -1.00 16.97 28.00 0.00 0.00 224.00 0.00 0.00 0.94 27.00 328.00 16.02 156.00 28.88 0.00 192.00 16.33 -1.80 16.36 16.00 -0.00 0.40 140.00 56.32 -0.00 1.57 16.00 16.00 0.19 16.00 -1.00 0.00 dx (9) dx 28.

5. m is a speed exponent and can take values from -2 to +2.5.2 Need for simulation models Simulation models are required in the following conditions 1. and α is a sensitivity coeﬃcient. 2011 . and the most general model is expressed mathematically as follows.. IIT Bombay 97 August 24. these processes are characterized by the interaction of many system components or entities.g. Microscopic traﬃc ﬂow modeling car-following models. As an element of the design process 4. at+∆T = n+1 t−∆T αl. Safety Analysis 12.1 Applications of simulation Traﬃc simulations models can meet a wide range of requirements: 1.. a linear program) or an heuristic procedure (e. those in the Highway Capacity Manual) 3. There is a need to view vehicle animation displays to gain an understanding of how the system is behaving Tom Mathew. These parameters are to be calibrated using ﬁeld data. Usually. Testing new designs 3.5 Simulation Models Simulation modeling is an increasingly popular and eﬀective tool for analyzing a wide variety of dynamical problems which are diﬃcult to be studied by other means. Mathematical treatment of a problem is infeasible or inadequate due to its temporal or spatial scale 2. 12. The mathematical formulation represents the dynamic traﬃc/control environment as a simpler quasi steady state system. Embed in other tools 5.g.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 12. 4. The accuracy or applicability of the results of a mathematical formulation is doubtful. Training personnel 6. because of the assumptions underlying (e.m [vn+1 ]m t−∆T t−∆T (vn − vn+1 ) t−∆T − xt−∆T ]l [xn n+1 (12. Evaluation of alternative treatments 2.11) where l is a distance headway exponent and can take values from +4 to -1. 12.

Training personnel 12. Congested conditions persist over a signiﬁcant time.7 Problems 1. Level of detail (a) Macroscopic models (b) Mesoscopic models (c) Microscopic models 3. The minimum safe distance headway increases linearly with speed. The most popular of the car following models is Tom Mathew. 12. They help to analyze very small changes in the traﬃc stream over time and space.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 5. 12.3 Classiﬁcation of Simulation Model Simulation models are classiﬁed based on many factors like 1.5. IIT Bombay 98 August 24.6 Summary Microscopic traﬃc ﬂow modeling focuses on the minute aspects of traﬃc stream like vehicle to vehicle interaction and individual vehicle behavior. 2011 . Microscopic traﬃc ﬂow modeling 6. Based on Processes (a) Deterministic (b) Stochastic 12. Continuity (a) Continuous model (b) Discrete model 2. Optimal models and simulation models were brieﬂy discussed. Which model follows this assumption? (a) Forbe’s model (b) Pipe’s model (c) General motor’s model (d) Optimal velocity model 2. Car following model is one such model where in the stimulus-response concept is employed.

CE415 Transportation Engineering II (a) Forbe’s model (b) Pipe’s model (c) General motor’s model (d) Optimal velocity model 12. Modeling Traﬃc Characteristics 12.8 Solutions 1. Which model follows this assumption? (a) Forbe’s model √ (b) Pipe’s model (c) General motor’s model (d) Optimal velocity model 2. IIT Bombay 99 August 24. 2011 . The minimum safe distance headway increases linearly with speed. The most popular of the car following models is (a) Forbe’s model (b) Pipe’s model √ (c) General motor’s model (d) Optimal velocity model Tom Mathew.

1. 13. High volume ﬂow (a) This is characterized by ’near’ constant headway (b) The ﬂow is very high and is near to the capacity (c) The mean is very low and so is the variance (d) A normal distribution can used to model such ﬂow 3. (c) The minimum headway is governed by the safety criteria.1 Modeling time-headway’s Modeling inter arrival time or time headway or simply headway is he time interval between the successive arrival of two vehicles at a given point. (b) The arrival of one vehicle is independent of the arrival of other vehicle. Low volume ﬂow (a) Headway follow a random process as there is no interaction between the arrival of two vehicles. Intermediate ﬂow (a) Some vehicle travel independently and some vehicle has interaction (b) More diﬃcult to analyzed and has more application in the ﬁeld. Tom Mathew. IIT Bombay 100 August 24. 2011 . (d) A negative exponential distribution can be used to model such ﬂow 2. This is a continuous variable and can be treated as a random variable.1 Classiﬁcation of headway distribution One can observe three types of ﬂow in the ﬁeld: 1.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 13. (c) Pearson Type III Distribution can be used which is a very general case of negative exponential distribution and normal distribution. Modeling Traﬃc Characteristics Chapter 13 Modeling Traﬃc Characteristics 13.

• p[t ≤ h ≤ t + δt] = p[h ≥ t] − p[h ≥ t + δt] 13. The mean arrival rate is given as V m = 3600 t where V is the hourly ﬂow rate.1. Therefore.2 Negative exponential distribution 1 −t eβ β = e−t if β = 1 • PDF of negative exponential function f (t) = (13.3) where m is the mean arrival rate in the time interval t. • If the probability of no vehicle in the interval t is given as p(0).3 Normal distribution 101 August 24. Modeling Traﬃc Characteristics 13.1.5) (13.1) • The pb of h/w greater than of equal to 0 p(h ≥ 0) = ∞ 0 e−t dt = −e−t ∞ 0 =1 (13. 2011 • for high volume traﬃc Tom Mathew.4) (13.6) where µ = 1 V 3600 whcih is same as the mean headway.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 13.2) • The pb of h/w greater than of equal to h p(h ≥ t) = 1 − p(h < t) = 1−p h 0 e−t dt h 0 = 1 − −e−t = e −h • From the PDF of possson distribution we have the probability of x vehicle arriving in time interval t as p(x) and is given by p(x) = mx e−m x! (13. p(x = 0) = e−m = p(h ≥ t) = eµ −t (13. then this probability is same as the probability that the headway greater than or equal to t. IIT Bombay .

2011 .7) • The probability for headway less than a given time −(t−µ)2 1 e 2σ2 −∞ 2πσ t+δt −(t+δt−µ)2 1 √ e 2σ2 p(h ≤ t + δt) = −∞ 2πσ p(t ≤ h ≤ t + δt) = p(h ≤ t + δt) − p(h ≤ t) p(h ≤ t) = t √ (13. σ has to be calculated. one has to numerically integrate or normalize the given distribution having mean µ and sd σ to a standard normal distribution (µ = 0 and sd σ = 1) whose values are available as standard tables.9) • Since headway’s cannot be negative. σ = 3600 1500 − 0.5 second.95 2 (13.8) • The normal distribution has two parameters.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 13. but empirically.11) For example. The transformation is give as: p[t ≤ h ≤ (t + δt)] = p t−µ h−µ (t + δt) − µ ≤ ≤ σ σ σ t−µ (t + δt) − µ −p h≤ = p h≤ σ σ (13. if the hourly ﬂow rate is 1500 vehicles and the minimum expected headways is 0.13) (13. µ and σ • The µ is simple mean headway or inverse of average ﬂow rate given by µ = 1 ( 3600 ) V (13.14) Tom Mathew.5 = 0. Modeling Traﬃc Characteristics • probability density function for normal distribution is f (t) = √ −(t−µ)2 1 e 2σ2 2πσ (13.12) • The integration of the pdf of normal distribution is not available in a closed form solution.10) (13. not from observation. α = µ−2×σ µ−α σ = 2 (13. IIT Bombay 102 August 24. Therefore. First specify the theoretical minimum headway possible. say α and set it as mean minus twice standard deviation. then.

Modeling Traﬃc Characteristics = 2.5 ensuring h/w is greater than 0. α ∈ R if α = 0 if K ∈ I if K = 1 Pearson Gamma Erlang Neg. 13. 3600 1600 13.20) f (t)dt − ∞ (t+δt) f (t)dt (13.21) f (t) + f (t + δt) δt 2 (13.5 sec).5 2 = 0. α = 0.29] − p [h ≤ −0.25. where λ is parameter that is function of µ.875 (13. and α.15) (13.25 −p h≤ = p h≤ 0.0] − p[h ≤ 1. K is a user speciﬁed parameter between 0 and ∞.25−0.18) (13.3859 − 0.1. Therefore σ = 2. and Γ() is the gamma function (Γ(K) = (K − 1)!). λ = µ−α σ K µ−α ∞ t t ∞ f (t)dt (13.191.19) p[1.CE415 Transportation Engineering II • For example if q=1600 veh/hr.17) (13.5 3. IIT Bombay 103 August 24.875 0.25 2. K. K = 4. Input µ.86] = 0.5 − 2. Exp.5 ≤ h ≤ 2.0] = p[h ≤ 2. 2011 .0 − 2.22) Tom Mathew. σ 2.875 = p [h ≤ −0. α is a user selected parameter greater than 0 and called as the shift patmeter.4 Pearson type III distribution λ f (t) = Γ(K) [λ(t − α)]K−1 e−λ(t−α) λ = Γ(K) [λt]K−1 e−λt λ = (K−1)! [λt]K−1 e−λt = λe−λt • The pdf is given by K. then µ = (assuming α = 0.1949 (from tables) = 0.16) (13. • Then p(h ≥ t) = • Prob of h/w lying b/w t and t + δt is p(t ≤ h < (t + δt)) = • Approximating p(t ≤ h < (t + δt)) = • The solution steps 1.5] 1.

0 5.5 0.5 0.5 0.012 7.0 9.008 8.012 0.0 0.159 2.0 0.5 0.014 6.007 9. 0 e x (13.5 8.0 1.0 0.0 0. Determination of Γ(K) Γ(K) = 13.0 4.065 4.0 0.088 3. Fit a (i) negatie expoetial distribution.0 0.5 0.0 6.5 > 0. Mean headway observed was 3.5 0.0 3. (ii) normal distrbution and (iii) Person Type III Distribution.005 9.022 5.5 0.5 4. Solve for f (t) using Equation 13.5 5.5 0.0 7.0 2.0 0.157 2.20 7.6 seconds.033 5.0 0.5 9.5 0.5 7. Table 13:1: Obsered headway distribution t t+dt p (obs) 0.130 3.0 0. Solve for p(t ≤ h < (t + δt)) using Equation 13.005 8.033 Total 1.23) 6.5 0.019 6.5 1.0 0.0 8.5 seconds and the standard deviation 2.010 7.5 2.22 Example An obseravtion from 3424 samples is given table below.5 3.00 Solutions Tom Mathew. Macroscopic traﬃc ﬂow modeling if 1 ≤ K ≤ 2 (K − 1)Γ(K − 1) if K > 2 ∞ −x K−1 dx.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 5.043 4. IIT Bombay 104 August 24.064 1.5 6. 2011 .114 1.

157 537.056 193.4 3.5 1.1 3.7 7.117 0.1 0.490 0.021 71.014 47.1.0 0.1 0.114 390.000 0.7 4.5 0.424 0.5 0.0 2.0 3.0 6.0 5.5 9.007 24.4 2.2 9.100 342.0 0.5 6.049 167.240 0.1 0.2 7.102 0.130 445.2 0.751 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.4 8.0 0.5 > 0.4 Modeling vehicle arrival Modeling speed Estimation of population and sample means Tom Mathew.4 0.0 5.000 3424 13.010 34.3 0.000 3424 1.5 0.115 395.133 455.0 0.0 4.5 3.066 226.5 0.064 219.6 Comparison of distributions Evaluating the selected distribution 13.1 1.012 41.014 46.010 34.032 109.5 8.180 0.1 0.2 5.088 0.0 1.076 0.065 222.0 9.3 0.037 126.208 0.1 0.5 0.6 0.012 41.5 5.019 65. IIT Bombay 105 August 24.005 17.9 2.5 0.159 544.043 147.7 6.9 0.2 0.5 7.008 27.016 53.088 301.156 0.005 17.0 0.0 0.033 113. Macroscopic traﬃc ﬂow modeling Table 13:2: Solution using negative exponential distribution t t+dt p (obs) Pobs=p*N p(h >= t) N-exp (p) P=p*N 0.1 0.028 94.033 113.3 13. 2011 .6 0.1 6.0 0.018 61.8 9.066 0.012 40.368 0.0 0.651 0.0 7.022 75.319 0.5 2.5 0.135 0.1 1.0 0.276 0.4 0.5 13.2 13.8 0.4 4.087 296.1.3 0.065 223.5 4.5 1.5 8.075 257.0 0.5 0.8 Total 1.565 0.867 0.5 0.042 145.024 82.0 0.0 8.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 13.

0 0.39 0.0 5.99 1.022 75.0 0.748 0.094 2.067 5.048 0.42 0.31 0.06 0.23 0.5 6.500 0.0 0.5) 0.012 41.5 2.952 0.738 148.001 8.841 0.0 0.117 3.5 0.014 47.0 0.0 0.5 9.157 537.999 0.299 230.0 1.0 0.5 5.252 0.01 34.0 4.159 544.5 4.002 8.433 321.5 0.289 20.064 219.067 2.09 0.008 27.5 0.5 0.13 445.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 13.010 3424 P=p*N 44.025 6.12 0.043 147.013 7.012 41.0 3.007 23.033 447.0 0.57 0.24 0.289 85.0 8.928 321.0 0.12 1.159 0.99 0.5 7.33 0.631 0.000 9.56 0.5 0.0 0.114 390.0 7.909 0.5 0.043 1.977 0.5 0.5 0.043 6.0 2.033 112.299 400.088 301.000 9. 2011 .0 6.117 4.025 1.492 8.023 0.0 9.5 0.006 7.091 0.369 0.738 44.433 447.12 0.131 4.094 5.000 0. Macroscopic traﬃc ﬂow modeling Table 13:3: Solution using normal distribution h t+dt p (obs) P=p*N p(h <= t) p(t < h < t + 0.065 222.005 17.000 0.019 65.131 3. IIT Bombay 106 August 24.312 33.34 0.005 17.013 0.996 0.990 0.5 1.928 148.673 85.5 8.033 112.000 0.033 400.673 230.048 0.716 Tom Mathew.14 0.94 0.010 0.493 3.5 3.09 0.97 1.5 > 0.153 1.5 0.

112 0.012 42.5 0.0 8.264 0.085 291.014 47.066 225.5 0.047 0.28 7.5 8.114 390.26 2.010 35.13 3.39 0.018 61.08 5.0 0.5 5.5 7.043 147.072 247.0 0.0 4.97 5.102 350.91 1.008 27.133 0.033 112.023 0.24 0.12 0.0 0.54 9.5 2.5 0.67 7.5) P=p*N 0.83 x 3424 Tom Mathew.000 0.114 389.04 8.067 0.56 0.51 > 0.000 0.0 7.095 0.183 0.005 17.97 0.99 0.213 0.33 0.5 0.5 0.00 1.0 0.34 0.13 445.033 0.031 104.033 112.94 0.5 0.079 0.015 51.009 29.86 4.242 0.0 9.039 0.99 0.42 0.026 87.04 6.044 148.027 0.45 2.0 1.5 0. 2011 .019 65.78 6.061 209.57 0.12 0.0 0.5 0.016 0.022 75.012 41.065 222.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 13.12 3.5 0.5 1.0 0.021 73.5 Table 13:4: Solution using Pearson type III distribution t+dt p (obs) P=p*N f(t) p(t < h < t + 0.159 544.23 0.0 6.052 177.088 301.0 0. IIT Bombay 107 August 24.06 0.157 0.064 219.037 125.09 0.12 0.5 0.14 0.019 0.5 3.5 4.09 0.099 339.0 5.0 0.18 8.0 3.5 9.90 4.0 0.056 0.127 433. Macroscopic traﬃc ﬂow modeling h 0.31 0.44 9.005 17.0 0.5 6.012 41.157 537.007 23.01 34.0 2.

the continuity equation can be written as ∂k(x. t) ∂q(k(x. Therefore. Essentially this assumption states that k(x. all traﬃc ﬂow models and theories must satisfy the law of conservation of the number of vehicles on the road. 2011 .t) are not independent of each other. Macroscopic traﬃc ﬂow modeling Chapter 14 Macroscopic traﬃc ﬂow modeling 14.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 14. so that ﬂow q can be treated as a function of only density k. t) ∂q(x. the ﬂow of fairly heavy traﬃc appears like a stream of a ﬂuid. Assuming that the vehicles are ﬂowing from left to right. t)) + =0 ∂t ∂x Tom Mathew. Therefore the number of unknown variables will be reduced to one. IIT Bombay 108 (14.1 Introdcution If one looks into traﬃc ﬂow from a very long distance. t) by solving one equation. one cannot get two unknowns. The earliest traﬃc ﬂow models began by writing the balance equation to address vehicle number conservation on a road.t) and q (x. An alternate possibility which Lighthill and Whitham adopted in their landmark study is to assume that the ﬂow rate q is determined primarily by the local density k. In this system the ﬂow rate before and after will be same.2) From this the shockwave velocity can be derived as v(to )p = q2 − q1 k2 − k1 (14. t is the time. or k1 v1 = k2 v2 (14. namely k(x. t) + =0 (14. t) by and q(x.3) This is normally referred to as Stock’s shockwave formula. k is the density and q denotes the ﬂow. However. say before and after a bottleneck. Therefore the continuity equation takes the form ∂k(x. One possible solution is to write two equations from two regimes of the ﬂow. Infact.4) August 24. a macroscopic theory of traﬃc can be developed with the help of hydrodynamic theory of ﬂuids by considering traﬃc as an eﬀectively one-dimensional compressible ﬂuid.1) ∂t ∂x where x denotes the spatial coordinate in the direction of traﬃc ﬂow. The behaviour of individual vehicle is ignored and one is concerned only with the behaviour of sizable aggregate of vehicles.

the functional relationship between ﬂow q and density k cannot be calculated from ﬂuid-dynamical theory. 2011 . Thus.6) dk This velocity vk is positive when the ﬂow rate increases with density. Tom Mathew.5) Now there is only one independent variable in the balance equation. This has to be either taken as a phenomenological relation derived from the empirical observation or from microscopic theories. this can be solved. t) ∂q(k(x. the vehicle density k. t)) + =0 ∂t ∂x (14. the ﬂow rate q is a function of the vehicular density k.7) where q(k2 ) and q(k1 ) are the ﬂow rates corresponding to the upstream density k2 and downstream density k1 of the shockwave.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 14. and it is negative when the ﬂow rate decreases with density. IIT Bombay 109 August 24. Cell transmission models However. This shockwave propagate at the velocity vs = q(k2 ) − q(k1 ) k2 − k1 (14. and then a shock is said to be formed. If initial and boundary conditions are known. Solution to LWR models are kinematic waves moving with velocity dq(k) (14. In some cases. the balance equation takes the form ∂k(x. Therefore. Unlike Stock’s shockwave formula there is only one variable here. this function may shift from one regime to the other. q = q(k).

and then it is extended to a network. diﬀerential equations need to be solved to predict traﬃc evolution. the hydrodynamic model calls for a shock wave (an ad-hoc). after which the model is discussed in terms of a linear program formulation for merging and diverging. Tom Mathew. In the ﬁrst part.1 is not reasonable when ﬂow exceeds the capacity.1 Introduction In the classical methods to explain macroscopic behaviour of traﬃc. However equation 15. In addition. the concepts of basic ﬂow advancement equations of CTM and a generalized form of CTM are presented.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 15. the phenomenon of instability is also discussed. The lengths of the sections are set equal to the distances travelled in light traﬃc by a typical vehicle in one clock tick. 15. Hence a more robust set of ﬂow advancement equations are presented next. In the second part. Cell transmission models Chapter 15 Cell transmission models 15. like hydrodynamic theory.1) where. Cell transmission models are developed as a discrete analogue of these diﬀerential equations in the form of diﬀerence equations which are easy to solve and also take care of high density changes. Under light traﬃc condition. The cell transmission model is explained in two parts. like bottlenecking. However in situations of sudden high density variations. the network representation and topologies are established. Hence these equations are essentially piecewise continuous which are diﬃcult to solve.2 CTM: Single source and a sink The cell transmission model simulates traﬃc conditions by proposing to simulate the system with a time-scan strategy where current conditions are updated with every tick of a clock. ﬁrst with only a source and a sink. The road section under consideration is divided into homogeneous sections called cells. 2011 . In this lecture note the hydrodynamic model and cell transmission model and their equivalence is discussed. ni (t) is the number of vehicles in cell i at time t.e. all the vehicles in a cell can be assumed to advance to the next with each clock tick. ni+1 (t + 1) = ni (t) (15. IIT Bombay 110 August 24. i. numbered from i = 1 to I.

Ni(t) ni(t) Qi+1(t).1 Flow advancement equations First. IIT Bombay 111 August 24. Qi (t). it is the minimum of the capacity of cells from i − 1 and i. ni−1 (t) is the number of vehicles in cell i − 1 at time t. Ni (t) − ni (t)] (15.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Qi−1(t). and Ni (t) . Qi (t) is the capacity ﬂow into i for time interval t. 15. Tom Mathew. It represents the maximum ﬂow that can be transferred from i − 1 to i. 2011 .ni (t) is the amount of empty space in cell i at time t. Cell transmission models t + 1 ni(t + 1) Figure 15:1: Flow advancement 15. Ni (t) is the maximum number of vehicles that can be present in cell i at time t. namely.2 Boundary conditions Boundary conditions are speciﬁed by means of input and output cells.2. The output cell. It is called the capacity of cell i.2) where. A source cell numbered 00 with an inﬁnite number of vehicles (n00 (O) = ∞) that discharges into an empty gate cell 00 of inﬁnite size. 2. ni (t) the cell occupance at time t. a sink for all exiting traﬃc. Ni+1(t) ni+1(t) 15. should have inﬁnite size (NI+1 = ∞) and a suitable. possibly time-varying. it is the product of the cell’s length and its jam density. Ni−1(t) t ni−1(t) Qi(t). Now the ﬂow advancement equation can be written as: ni (t + 1) = ni (t) + yi(t) − yi+1 (t) (15.Ni (t) and Qi (t) 1. yi (t) is the inﬂow at time t. Input cells are a cell pair. Qi (t) is the maximum number of vehicles that can ﬂow into cell i when the clock advances from t to t + 1 (time interval t). ni (t + 1) is the cell occupancy at time t + 1. N0 (t) = ∞. The inﬂow capacity Q0 (t) of the gate cell is set equal to the desired link input ﬂow for time interval t + 1. The ﬂows are related to the current conditions at time t as indicated below: yi (t) = min [ni−1 (t). capacity.3) where.2. yi+1(t) is the outﬂow at time t. two constants associated with each cell are deﬁned.

2. kj ≡ N. qmax .2 and equation 15. ∂k(x. since on many occassions speed of backward wave will not be same as the free ﬂow speed. 15:3 ). Flow conservation is given by. t) ∂q(x.3 Equivalence with Hydrodynamic theory Consider equation 15. f or 0 ≤ k ≤ kj . This is a realistic model. and k(x. Rearranging terms of this equation we can arrive at equation 15. Equation 15. This relationship can be expressed as: q = min [vk .6 can be equivalently written as: yi (t) − yi+1 (t) = −ni (t) + ni+1 (t + 1) (15. it can be easily seen that the equation 15.ﬂow (k-q) relationship in the shape of an isoscaled trapezoid. t) = (15.3 are equivalent. they are discrete approximations to the hydrodynamic model with a density. as in Fig.2. IIT Bombay 112 August 24. which is the same as the basic ﬂow advancement equation of the cell transmission model. Tom Mathew. . t) ≡ ni (t) with these conventions.5) ∂x ∂t To demonstrate the equivalence of the discrete and continuous approaches.15:2.4 Generalized CTM Generalized CTM is an extension of the cell transmission model that would approximate the hydrodynamic model for an equation of state that allows backward waves with speed w ≤ v (see Fig. Cell transmission models vkj/2 qmax -v ka kb Figure 15:2: Flow-density relationship for the basic cell-transmission model 15. Then the cell length is 1.3. 2011 . the clock tick set to be equal to ∂t and choose the unit of distance such that v∂t = 1. v is also 1.4 & equation 15.6) This represents change in ﬂow over space equal to change in occupancy over time. qmax ≡ Q. (15.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 15.3.4) 15. and the following equivalences hold: x ≡ i. v(kj − k)].

CE415 Transportation Engineering II F low 15. Initially traﬃc is ﬂowing undisturbed at 80% of capacity: q = 2400 VPH. Qi (t). Number of cells=1.e1/120th of an hr. a partial lane blockage lasting 2 min occurs one third of the distance from the end of the road. α[Ni( t) − ni (t)]] where. kj = 180 vpkm and qmax = 3000 vph.7 is rewritten as yi (t) = min [ni−1 (t). Equation 15.25*12/5=3.7) A small modiﬁcation is made in the above equation to avoid the error caused due to numerical spreading.8) 15.2. Then. Predict the evolution of the traﬃc. w/v[Ni(t) − ni (t)]] (15. Cell transmission models kj 1 1 +w v qmax −w ka kb Density Figure 15:3: Flow-density relationship for the generalized CTM yi (t) = min [ni−1 (t). Take one clock tick as 30 seconds. Clearly.25 km homogeneous road with v = 50 kmph. Cell constants: N= 180*5/12=75 Q=3000/120=25. a queue is going to build and dissipate behind the restriction. Solution : Initialization of the table: Choosing clock tick as 30seconds.) Cell length=50/120=5/12th of a km. The blockage eﬀectively restricts ﬂow to 20% of the maximum.(i. Qi (t). (15. IIT Bombay 113 August 24. 2min=120s=4 clock ticks. Initial occupancy=2400/120=20. Tom Mathew. 2011 .5 Numerical example 1 Consider a 1.

5). 2011 .min(25.??).25). (see Fig.N=75 35 Q=25.(75-20)]= 5 Occupancy= 20+20-5=35.25). Cell transmission models Q=5. For cell 1 at time 2.(75-20)]= 20 Occupancy= 20+20-20=20.(75-20)]= 20 Outﬂow= min [20. By ﬂow conservation law: Occupancy = Storage + Inﬂow-Outﬂow Here. consider cell 2 at time 2 in the ﬁnal table (see Fig.25).sink cell takes all the vehicles in previous cell) Occupancy= 20+5-20=5. For illustration.5). min (25. it can be started from any cell in the row corresponding to the current clock tick.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Q=25.min(25.3 Inﬂow= min [20. Inﬂow= min [20. For cell 3 at time 2.min(25.N=75 t=1 20 20 20 20 20 t=2 20 Table at the start of the simulation. Storage = 20.min(25.(75-20)]= 20 Outﬂow= min [20. Inﬂow= min [20.N=75 Q=25. ??) Note: Simulation need not be started in any speciﬁc order. Tom Mathew.N=75 Q=25.(75-20)]= 5 Outﬂow= 20 (:. IIT Bombay 114 August 24.N=75 15. For inﬂow use equation 15. its entry depends on the cells marked with rectangles.N=75 t=1 20 20 20 5 20 t=2 Q=20.

The blockage eﬀectively restricts ﬂow to 20% of the maximum.6 Numerical example 2 Consider a 1. Initially traﬃc is ﬂowing undisturbed at 80% of capacity: q = 2400 VPH. the results are shown in Fig. a partial lane blockage lasting 2 min occurs l/3 of the distance from the end of the road.1 CTM: Network Traﬃc General As sequel to his ﬁrst paper on CTM. Take one clock tick as 6 seconds.2 Network topologies The notations introduced in previous section are applied to diﬀerent types of cells. kj = 180 vpkm and qmax = 3000 vph. 15:4 Some valid and invalid representations in a network are shown in Fig 6. The simulation is done for this smaller clock tick. The second arrow shows the dissipation of queue and one can see that queue builds up at a faster than it dissipates.CE415 Transportation Engineering II |Λ−1(j)| = 0 |Λ(j)| = 1 15. only change being the clock tick. 15. 15. Clearly. Solution: This problem is same as the earlier problem. Cell transmission models Figure 15:4: Source Cell |Λ−1(j)|=1 |Λ(j)| = 0 Figure 15:5: Sink Cell 15. are adopted from Ziliaskopoulos (2000)) Γ−1 = Set of predecessor cells. Daganzo (1995) published ﬁrst paper on CTM applied to network traﬃc. as shown in Fig. Then. ?? One can clearly observe the pattern in which the cells are getting updated.3. a queue is going to build and dissipate behind the restriction.3 15. This simple illustration shows how CTM mimics the traﬃc conditions. Tom Mathew.2. Some basic notations: (The notations used from here on. Predict the evolution of the traﬃc. IIT Bombay 115 August 24.25 km homogeneous road with v = 50 kmph. Γ = Set of successor cells. In this section application of CTM to network traﬃc considering merging and diverging is discussed.3. After the decrease in capacity on last one-third segment queuing is slowly building up and the backward wave can be appreciated through the ﬁrst arrow. 2011 .

Cell transmission models Figure 15:6: Ordinary Cell Cell j |Λ−1(j)| > 1 |Λ(j)| = 1 Figure 15:7: Merging Cell Cell j |Λ−1(j)| = 1 |Λ(j)| > 1 Figure 15:8: Diverging Cell k k Figure 15:9: Invalid representations Figure 15:10: Valid representations Tom Mathew. IIT Bombay 116 August 24. 2011 .CE415 Transportation Engineering II Cell j |Λ−1(j)| = 1 |Λ(j)| = 1 15.

**CE415 Transportation Engineering II
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B_{k} k E_{k}

15. Cell transmission models

Figure 15:11: Ordinary Link

15.3.3

Ordinary link

Consider an ordinary link with a beginning cell and ending cell, which gives the ﬂow between two cells is simpliﬁed as explained below. yk (t) SI (t) RI (t) yk (t) = = = = min(nBk (t), min[QBk (t), QEk (t)], δEk [NEk(t) − nEk(t)]) min(QI, nI) min(QI , δI , [NI − nI ]) min(SBk , REk ) (15.9) (15.10) (15.11) (15.12)

From equations one can see that a simpliﬁcation is done by splitting yk (t) in to SBk and REk terms. ’S’ represents sending capacity and ’R’ represents receiving capacity. During time periods when SBk < REk the ﬂow on link k is dictated by upstream traﬃc conditionsas would be predicted from the forward moving characteristics of the Hydrodynamic model. Conversely, when SBk > REk , ﬂow is dictated by downstream conditions and backward moving characteristics.

15.3.4

Merging and diverging

Consider two cells merging, here we have a beginning cell and its complimentary merging into ending cell, the constraints on the ﬂow that can be sent and received are given by equation 15.15 and equation 15.15. yk (t) ≤ SBk yck (t) ≤ SCk yk (t) + yck (t) ≤ REk (15.13) (15.14) (15.15)

where, SI (t) is the min (QI , nI ), and RI (t) is the min (QI , δI, [NI − nI ]). A number of combinations of yk (t) + yck (t) are possible satisfying the above said constraints. Similarly for diverging a number of possible outﬂows to diﬀerent links is possible satisfying corresponding constraints, hence this calls for an optimization problem. Ziliaskopoulos (2000), has given this LP formulations for both merging and diverging, this has been discussed later

Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay

117

August 24, 2011

**CE415 Transportation Engineering II
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Bk k

15. Cell transmission models

Ek ck

Ck

15.4

15.4.1

Conclusion

Summary

• CTM is a discrete approximation of hydrodynamic model. System evolution is based on diﬀerence equations. • Unlike hydrodynamic model, it explains the phenomenon of Instability. • Lesser the time per clock tick lesser are the size of cells and more accurate results would be obtained. But a compromise is needed between accuracy and computational eﬀort. Largest possible cell size which would suﬃciently give the details needed must be chosen. • CTM has many applications in DTA, NDP, traﬃc operations, emergency evacuations etc. • There is a vast scope for improvement and applications of this model.

15.4.2

Advantages and applications

• CTM is consistent with hydrodynamic theory, which is a widely used model for studying macroscopic behavior of the traﬃc. • It is simple and suﬃciently accurate for planning purposes. • Here two eﬃcient modeling approaches are used, one is Linear Programming, whose characteristics well known and the other is Parallel computing.These are important from the perspective of computational speed and eﬃciency. • CTM can be used to provide ”real time” information to the drivers. • CTM has been used in developing a system optimal signal optimization formulation. • CTM based Dynamic Traﬃc Assignment have shown good results. • CTM has its application in Network Design Problems.(NDP) • Dynamic network models based on CTM can also be applied to evaluate the performance of emergency evacuation plans. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 118 August 24, 2011

CE415 Transportation Engineering II

15. Traﬃc intersections

15.4.3

Limitations

• CTM is for a ”typical vehicle” in network traﬃc, work is needed for the multi-modal representation of traﬃc. • Cell length cannot be varied. Change in the model has to be brought without loss of generality, to relax the constraint on arbitrary selection of cell length, which will facilitate the modelers to select variable cell lengths that are best aligned with the geometry. • CTM is largely deterministic, stochastic variables are needed to be introduced to represent the random human behavior. • Mesoscopic features can be introduced so that concepts like lane changing behavior etc. can be studied.

Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay

119

August 24, 2011

CE415 Transportation Engineering II

16. Traﬃc intersections

**Chapter 16 Traﬃc intersections
**

16.1 Overview

Intersection is an area shared by two or more roads. This area is designated for the vehicles to turn to diﬀerent directions to reach their desired destinations. Its main function is to guide vehicles to their respective directions. Traﬃc intersections are complex locations on any highway. This is because vehicles moving in diﬀerent direction wan to occupy same space at the same time. In addition, the pedestrians also seek same space for crossing. Drivers have to make split second decision at an intersection by considering his route, intersection geometry, speed and direction of other vehicles etc. A small error in judgment can cause severe accidents. It also causes delay and it depends on type, geometry, and type of control. Overall traﬃc ﬂow depends on the performance of the intersections. It also aﬀects the capacity of the road. Therefore, both from the accident perspective and the capacity perspective, the study of intersections very important for the traﬃc engineers especially in the case of urban scenario.

16.2

Conﬂicts at an intersection

Conﬂicts at an intersection are diﬀerent for diﬀerent types of intersection. Consider a typical four-legged intersection as shown in ﬁgure. The number of conﬂicts for competing through movements are 4, while competing right turn and through movements are 8. The conﬂicts between right turn traﬃcs are 4, and between left turn and merging traﬃc is 4. The conﬂicts created by pedestrians will be 8 taking into account all the four approaches. Diverging traﬃc also produces about 4 conﬂicts. Therefore, a typical four legged intersection has about 32 diﬀerent types of conﬂicts. This is shown in ﬁgure 16:1. The essence of the intersection control is to resolve these conﬂicts at the intersection for the safe and eﬃcient movement of both vehicular traﬃc and pedestrians. Two methods of intersection controls are there: time sharing and space sharing. The type of intersection control that has to be adopted depends on the traﬃc volume, road geometry, cost involved, importance of the road etc.

Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay

120

August 24, 2011

3 Levels of intersection control The control of an intersection can be exercised at diﬀerent levels. it is able to provide some level of control at an intersection. then by applying the basic rules of the road like driver on the left side of the road must yield and that through movements will have priority than turning movements. 16.3. guide signs etc. Here the road users are required to obey the basic rules of the road. In semi control. some amount of control on the driver is there from the traﬃc agency. The vehicle at the right side will get priority over the left approach. The traﬃc control at ’at-grade’ intersection Tom Mathew.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Conflicts in a traffic signal 4 Through traffic P P 16. two-way stop control. there is no explicit control on the driver . and all-way stop control are some examples. semi control. or active control. IIT Bombay 121 August 24. The GIVE WAY control requires the driver in the minor road to slow down to a minimum speed and allow the vehicle on the major road to proceed. Some of the intersection control that are classiﬁed under passive control are as follows: 1. In passive control. Traﬃc signs: With the help of warning signs. 2011 .1 Passive control When the volume of traﬃc is less. Passive control like traﬃc signs. In such a case. No control If the traﬃc coming to an intersection is low. They can be either passive control. no explicit control is required. STOP sign is placed on all the approaches to the intersection and the driver on all the approaches are required to stop the vehicle. Finally an all-way stop control is usually used when it is diﬃcult to diﬀerentiate between the major and minor roads in an intersection. Give way control. Active control means the movement of the traﬃc is fully controlled by the traﬃc agency and the drivers cannot simply maneuver the intersection according to his choice. Two way stop control requires the vehicle drivers on the minor streets should see that the conﬂicts are avoided. are used to complement the intersection control. 2. The driver is expected to obey these basic rules of the road. Traﬃc intersections 4 Right turn 8 Right turn−Through 4 Merging P P 4 Diverging P 8 Pedestrian P P Total = 32 Conflicts P P Figure 16:1: Conﬂicts at an intersection 16. road markings etc.

Here the road users are required to obey the basic rules of the road. The phases provided for the signal may be two or more. Traﬃc rotaries: It is a form of intersection control in which the traﬃc is made to ﬂow along one direction around a traﬃc island. Passive control like traﬃc signs. It is a form of ‘at-grade’ intersection laid out for the movement of traﬃc such that no through conﬂicts are there.3 Active control Active control implies that the road user will be forced to follow the path suggested by the traﬃc control agencies. If more than two phases are provided. 2. 1. IIT Bombay 122 August 24. with the help of appropriate signals. Channelization: The traﬃc is separated to ﬂow through deﬁnite paths by raising a portion of the road in the middle usually called as islands distinguished by road markings.3. the cycle time. In ﬁxed time signals.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 16. the traﬃc is directed to ﬂow through diﬀerent channels and this physical separation is made possible with the help of some barriers in the road like traﬃc islands. He cannot maneuver according to his wish. as the name suggests. weaving and diverging. then it is called multiphase signal. The essential principle of this control is to convert all the severe conﬂicts like through and right turn conﬂicts into milder conﬂicts like merging. then the control is done with the help of signals. 1. At a given time. road markings also complement the traﬃc control at intersections. The signals can operate in several modes. road markings etc. phases and interval of each signal Tom Mathew. 16. road markings etc. Most common are ﬁxed time signals and vehicle actuated signals. Merging. Traﬃc signs plus marking: In addition to the traﬃc signs. 2011 . yield lines. Traﬃc signals: Control using traﬃc signal is based on time sharing approach. The conﬂicts in traﬃc movements are reduced to a great extent in such a case. 3. In channelized intersections.2 Semi control In semi control or partial control.3. Channelization and traﬃc rotaries are two examples of this. Free-left turn is permitted where as through traﬃc and right-turn traﬃc is forced to move around the central island in a clock-wise direction in an orderly manner. weaving and diverging operations reduces the conﬂicting movements at the rotary. are used to complement the intersection control. Two or more phases may be provided depending upon the traﬃc conditions of the intersection. Some of the examples include stop line marking. 16. Traﬃc signals and grade separated intersections come under this classiﬁcation. the drivers are gently guided to avoid conﬂicts. arrow marking etc. certain traﬃc movements are restricted where as certain other movements are permitted to pass through the intersection. Traﬃc intersections may be uncontrolled in cases of low traﬃc. When the vehicles traversing the intersection is very large.

grade-separated intersections are provided to separate the traﬃc in the vertical grade. Common types of interchange include trumpet interchange. and cloverleaf interchange. But the traﬃc need not be those pertaining to road only. On the other hand. Vehicle detectors will be placed on the streets approaching the intersection and the detector will sense the presence of the vehicle and pass the information to a controller. 2011 . Trumpet interchange: Trumpet interchange is a popular form of three leg interchange. The main advantage of cloverleaf intersection is that it provides complete separation of traﬃc. In at-grade intersections. When a railway line crosses a road. Each cycle of the signal will be exactly like another. 2. IIT Bombay 123 August 24. diamond interchange . Sometimes the topography itself may be helpful in constructing such intersections. all roadways join or cross at the same vertical level. if the major road is depressed to a lower level to cross another by means of an under bridge or tunnel. if the road having major traﬃc is elevated to a higher grade for further movement of traﬃc. These type of intersection increases the road capacity because vehicles can ﬂow with high speed and accident potential is also reduced due to vertical separation of traﬃc. Grade separated intersections allows the traﬃc to cross at diﬀerent vertical levels. then the interchange is called trumpet interchange. they are usually constructed on high speed facilities like expressways.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 16. 16. Grade separated intersections: The intersections are of two types. Therefore. The controller then sets the cycle time and adjusts the phase lengths according to the prevailing traﬃc conditions. But they cannot cater to the needs of the ﬂuctuating traﬃc. 2. Tom Mathew. The important feature of this interchange is that it can be designed even if the major road is relatively narrow. Diamond interchange: Diamond interchange is a popular form of four-leg interchange found in the urban locations where major and minor roads crosses. A typical layout of diamond interchange is shown in ﬁgure 16:3. Traﬃc intersections is ﬁxed. They are at-grade intersections and grade-separated intersections. Clover leaf interchange: It is also a four leg interchange and is used when two highways of high volume and speed intersect each other with considerable turning movements. 3.4 Grade separated intersections As we discussed earlier. Interchange is a system where traﬃc between two or more roadways ﬂows at diﬀerent levels in the grade separated junctions. A typical layout of trumpet interchange is shown in ﬁgure 16:2. freeways etc. it is called under-pass. If one of the legs of the interchange meets a highway at some angle but does not cross it. When two roads cross at a point. then such structures are called overpass. Diﬀerent types of grade-separators are ﬂyovers and interchange. then also grade separators are used. vehicle actuated signals can respond to dynamic traﬃc situations. Otherwise. Otherwise. the initial construction cost required will be very high. Flyovers itself are subdivided into overpass and underpass. 1.

2011 . IIT Bombay 124 August 24. Traﬃc intersections Figure 16:2: Trumpet interchange Figure 16:3: Diamond interchange Tom Mathew.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 16.

the disadvantage is that large area of land is required. these locations should be kept under some level of control depending upon the traﬃc quantity and behavior. and this method of control is called channelization. For safe operation. marking etc. Channelized intersection provides more safety and eﬃciency. forces the driver to reduce the speed and becomes more cautious while maneuvering the intersection. However. A channelizing island also serves as a refuge for pedestrians and makes pedestrian crossing safer.6 Summary Traﬃc intersections are problem spots on any highway.5 Channelized intersection Vehicles approaching an intersection are directed to deﬁnite paths by islands. markings etc. IIT Bombay 125 August 24. 16. cloverleaf interchanges are provided mainly in rural areas. Therefore. intersections and interchanges are constructed. A typical layout of this type of interchange is shown in ﬁgure 16:4. 16. The presence of traﬃc islands. It reduces the number of possible conﬂicts by reducing the area of conﬂicts available in the carriageway. the diﬀerent types of which were discussed in the chapter. Traﬃc intersections 1 11 0 00 1 11 0 00 11 00 11 00 1 0 1 0 1 0 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 1 0 1 10 00 1 01 1 0 1 0 1 10 00 1 01 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 11 0 00 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 01 10 00 1 1 0 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 1 1 00 0 0 1 1 0 0 Figure 16:4: Cloverleaf interchange In addition. Based on this. Tom Mathew. high speed at intersections can be achieved.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 16. which contribute to a large share of accidents. Channelization of traﬃc through a three-legged intersection (refer ﬁgure 16:5) and a four-legged intersection (refer ﬁgure 16:6) is shown in the ﬁgure. 2011 . If no channelizing is provided the driver will have less tendency to reduce the speed while entering the intersection from the carriageway.

Traﬃc intersections 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 Figure 16:5: Channelization of traﬃc through a three-legged intersection 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 Figure 16:6: Channelization of traﬃc through a four-legged intersection Tom Mathew. IIT Bombay 126 August 24. 2011 .CE415 Transportation Engineering II 16.

(c) requires the drivers on both minor and major roads to stop. (b) requires the driver in the major road to slow down to a minimum speed and allow the vehicle on the minor road to proceed. 2. Traﬃc signal is an example of (a) Passive control (b) No control (c) Active control (d) none of these 16. (d) is similar to one way control. (c) requires the drivers on both minor and major roads to stop. IIT Bombay 127 August 24.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 16. The GIVE WAY control (a) requires the driver in the minor road to slow down to a minimum speed and allow √ the vehicle on the major road to proceed. 2. 2011 . Traﬃc signal is an example of (a) Passive control (b) No control √ (c) Active control (d) none of these Tom Mathew. (d) is similar to one way control.8 Solutions 1.7 Problems 1. The GIVE WAY control (a) requires the driver in the minor road to slow down to a minimum speed and allow the vehicle on the major road to proceed. (b) requires the driver in the major road to slow down to a minimum speed and allow the vehicle on the minor road to proceed. Traﬃc signs 16.

simple meaning: Clarity and simplicity of message is essential for the driver to properly understand the meaning in short time. 3. 5. The sign boards should be placed at a distance such that the driver could see it and gets suﬃcient Tom Mathew. The control device should fulﬁll a need : Each device must have a speciﬁc purpose for the safe and eﬃcient operation of traﬃc ﬂow. road markings .traﬃc signs. Overuse. The control device should provide adequate time for proper response from the road users: This is again related to the design aspect of traﬃc control devices. warning signs and informatory signs.2 Requirements of traﬃc control devices 1. Diﬀerent types of traﬃc signs are regulatory signs.1 Overview Traﬃc control device is the medium used for communicating between traﬃc engineer and road users. It should command attention from the road users: This aﬀects the design of signs. This chapter discusses traﬃc control signs. 4. The major types of traﬃc control devices used are. Road users must respect the signs: Respect is commanded only when the drivers are conditioned to expect that all devices carry meaningful and important messages. The superﬂuous devices should not be used. proper visibility should be there. The sign should be placed in such a way that the driver requires no extra eﬀort to see the sign. 2. 2011 . Traﬃc signs Chapter 17 Traﬃc signs 17. The use of color. Here traﬃc control devices comes to the help of the traﬃc engineer. traﬃc signals and parking control. Unlike other modes of transportation. there is no control on the drivers using the road. The legend should be kept short and simple so that even a less educated driver could understand the message in less time. IIT Bombay 128 August 24. shape and legend as codes becomes important in this regard. It should convey a clear. Also the sign should be distinctive and clear. misuse and confusing messages of devices tends the drivers to ignore them. For commanding attention.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 17. 17.

The categories of shapes normally used are circular. yellow. Generally solid. Color: It is the ﬁrst and most easily noticed characteristics of a device. blue. 2011 . black. 17. 1. particularly eyesight. Traﬃc signs time to respond to the situation. 3. The most commonly used colors are red. These mechanisms recognize certain human limitations. rectangular. Regulatory signs: These signs require the driver to obey the signs for the safety of other road users.4 Types of traﬃc signs There are several hundreds of traﬃc signs available covering wide variety of traﬃc situations. simple and speciﬁc so that it does not divert the attention of the driver. They can be classiﬁed into three main categories. complementing traﬃc signs. The frequent and consistent use of pattern to convey information is recommended so that the drivers get accustomed to the diﬀerent types of markings and can instantly recognize them. and diamond shape. Pattern: It is normally used in the application of road markings. Diamond shape signs are not generally used in India.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 17. Two exceptional shapes used in traﬃc signs are octagonal shape for STOP sign and use of inverted triangle for GIVE WAY (YIELD) sign. Each pattern conveys different type of meaning. This is an important aspect in the case of traﬃc signs. For the easy understanding by the driver. Consistent use of colors helps the drivers to identify the presence of sign board ahead. Messages are conveyed through the following elements. Tom Mathew. the legend should be short. IIT Bombay 129 August 24. Legend : This is the last element of a device that the drive comprehends. 17. triangular. green. These are used to code certain devices and to reinforce speciﬁc messages. For example. Symbols are normally used as legends so that even a person unable to read the language will be able to understand that. and brown . the STOP sign which is always placed at the stop line of the intersection should be visible for atleast one safe stopping sight distance away from the stop line. double solid and dotted lines are used.3 Communication tools A number of mechanisms are used by the traﬃc engineer to communicate with the road user. 1. Usage of diﬀerent colors for diﬀerent signs are important. 4. There is no need of it in the case of traﬃc signals and road markings. Shape : It is the second element discerned by the driver next to the color of the device. 2.

These type of signs are used to give warning to the road users when some construction work is going on the road. Separate truck speed limits are applied on high speed roadways where heavy commercial vehicles must be limited to slower speeds than passenger cars for safety reasons. 2. These include turn signs. Right of way series: These include two unique signs that assign the right of way to the selected approaches of an intersection. They are placed only for short duration and will be removed soon after the work is over and when the road is brought back to its normal condition. Traﬃc signs 2. 3. Movement series: They contain a number of signs that aﬀect speciﬁc vehicle maneuvers. These signs are primarily meant for the safety of other road users. They are the STOP sign and GIVE WAY sign For example. Lane use signs make use of arrows to specify the movements which all vehicles in the lane must take. The regulatory signs can be further classiﬁed into : 1. Speed series: Number of speed signs may be used to limit the speed of the vehicle on the road. Very slow vehicles may present hazard to themselves and other vehicles also. one way signs etc. truck speed. the control agency has the right to take legal action against the driver.4. IIT Bombay 130 August 24. and the route and distance to reach the speciﬁc destinations In addition special type of traﬃc sign namely work zone signs are also available. when one minor road and major road meets at an intersection. alignment signs.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 17. Hence the give way sign board will be placed on the minor road to inform the driver on the minor road that he should give way for the vehicles on the major road. preference should be given to the vehicles passing through the major road. If the driver fails to obey them. Warning signs:These signs are for the safety of oneself who is driving and advice the drivers to obey these signs. Tom Mathew. Turn signs are used to safely accommodate turns in unsignalized intersections. 17. exclusion signs. then the traﬃc engineer decides based on the traﬃc on which approach the sign board has to be placed. They are circular in shape with red borders. Stop sign is another example of regulatory signs that comes in right of way series which requires the driver to stop the vehicle at the stop line. Minimum speed limits are applied on high speed roads like expressways.1 Regulatory signs These signs are also called mandatory signs because it is mandatory that the drivers must obey these signs. Informative signs: These signs provide information to the driver about the facilities available ahead. minimum speed signs etc. In case two major roads are meeting. Turn signs include turn prohibitions and lane use control signs. Speed limit signs are placed to limit the speed of the vehicle to a particular speed for many reasons. They include typical speed limit signs. The ﬁrst three signs will be discussed in detail below. where safety is again a predominant reason. freeways etc. 3. 2011 . These signs have generally black legend on a white background.

6. give way sign. give way sign. Tom Mathew. The guide signs are redundant for the users who are accustomed to the location. signs indicating road closures. 5. sign indicating railway track ahead etc. They include a stop sign.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 0000000000 1111111111 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 0000000000 1111111111 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 17. The shape used is upward triangular or diamond shape with red borders. speed limit sign) 4. but also indicate places where parking is permitted. Parking series: They include parking signs which indicate not only parking prohibitions or restrictions. They advice the driver to obey the rules. are provided to assist the drivers to reach their desired destinations. vehicle width limit sign. Pedestrian series: They include both legend and symbol signs. speed limit sign etc. signs for no entry. 17. vehicle width limit sign. signs restricting vehicles carrying hazardous cargo or substances.4. They call for extra vigilance from the part of drivers. the type of vehicle to be parked. These are predominantly meant for the drivers who are unfamiliar to the place. signs indicating vehicle weight limitations etc. Some examples of the regulatory signs are shown in ﬁgure 17:1. duration for parking etc. pedestrian crossing sites etc. Miscellaneous: Wide variety of signs that are included in this category are: a ”KEEP OF MEDIAN” sign. 17. IIT Bombay 131 August 24. sign indicating prohibition for right turn. signs for no entry. signs for narrow road.4. These signs are meant for the own safety of drivers. The color convention used for this type of signs is that the legend will be black in color with a white background. Traﬃc signs GIVE WAY STOP 1 0 1 0 1 0 2 1 0 1 0 1 0 M 50 Figure 17:1: Examples of regulatory signs ( stop sign. Some of the examples for this type of signs are given in ﬁg 17:2 and includes right hand curve sign board. These signs are meant for the safety of pedestrians and include signs indicating pedestrian only roads. 2011 . sign indicating prohibition for right turn.2 Warning signs Warning signs or cautionary signs give information to the driver about the impending road condition.3 Informative signs Informative signs also called guide signs.

service information. medical assistance etc. Tom Mathew. IIT Bombay 132 August 24. 17. rectangular with the long dimension in the horizontal direction. in general. They have designs that are distinctive and unique. color and location matters. In the ﬁgure 17:3 we can see some examples for informative signs which include route markers. signs for narrow road.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 17. www. 2011 . service centre information etc. They are color coded as white letters with green background. destination signs. recreational and cultural interest area signing etc. shape.5 Summary Traﬃc signs are means for exercising control on or passing information to the road users. They are written with white letters on blue background. Destination signs are used to indicate the direction to the critical destination points. A few web sites discussing on traﬃc signs are giben below: www.aptransport. recreational and other cultural area is given on white letters with brown background. They are. destination signs. mile posts.indiacar. mile posts. Service guide signs give information to the driver regarding various services such as food.. fuel.htm. mile posts.org/html/signs. the size. Traﬃc signs 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 Figure 17:2: Examples of cautionary signs ( right hand curve sign board. Mile posts are provided to inform the driver about the progress along a route to reach his destination. warning. They are written black letters on yellow background. and to mark important intersections. Among the design aspects of the signs. Route markers are used to identify numbered highways.com/infobank/Traﬃc-signs. service centre information etc) Some of the examples for these type of signs are route markers.htm. sign indicating railway track ahead) 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111 0000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111 0000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111 0000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111 0000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111 0000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111 0000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111 0000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111 0000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 111 000 000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 111 000 000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 111 000 000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 111 000 000 111 000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 111 000 000 111 000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 NH 8 TOLL BOOTH AHEAD Figure 17:3: Examples of informative signs (route markers. Some of the signs along with examples were discussed in this chapter. Distance in kilometers are sometimes marked to the right side of the destination. They may be regulatory. or informative. Information on historic. destination signs.

2011 . IIT Bombay 133 August 24. Stop sign comes under (a) Regulatory signs (b) Cautionary signs (c) Informative signs (d) none of these 17. Regulatory signs are also called (a) Mandatory signs (b) Cautionary signs (c) Informative signs (d) Warning signs 2. Regulatory signs are also called √ (a) Mandatory signs (b) Cautionary signs (c) Informative signs (d) Warning signs 2.6 Problems 1.7 Solutions 1. Stop sign comes under √ (a) Regulatory signs (b) Cautionary signs (c) Informative signs (d) none of these Tom Mathew.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 17. Road markings 17.

solid or double solid. words or other devices.2 Classiﬁcation of road markings The road markings are deﬁned as lines. for controlling. a Tom Mathew. Various types of road markings like longitudinal markings. IIT Bombay 134 August 24. marking at hazardous locations etc. The lines can be either broken. transverse markings. object markings.1 Overview The essential purpose of road markings is to guide and control traﬃc on a highway. Double solid lines indicate severity in restrictions and should not be crossed except in case of emergency. set into applied or attached to the carriageway or kerbs or to objects within or adjacent to the carriageway. transverse markings. Broken lines are permissive in character and allows crossing with discretion. 18. The markings serve as a psychological barrier and signify the delineation of traﬃc path and its lateral clearance from traﬃc hazards for the safe movement of traﬃc. patterns. They supplement the function of traﬃc signs. There can also be a combination of solid and broken lines. Yellow color is used to separate the traﬃc ﬂow in opposite direction and also to separate the pavement edges. The road markings are classiﬁed as longitudinal markings. 18. Some of the guiding principles in longitudinal markings are also discussed below. object markings and special markings to warn the driver about the hazardous locations in the road etc. Hence they are very important to ensure the safe. 2011 . word messages. except signs. guiding and informing the users. if traﬃc situation permits. warning. In such a case. Road markings Chapter 18 Road markings 18.3 Longitudinal markings Longitudinal markings are placed along the direction of traﬃc on the roadway surface. for the purpose of indicating to the driver.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 18. Solid lines are restrictive in character and does not allow crossing except for entry or exit from a side road or premises or to avoid a stationary obstruction. his proper position on the roadway. marking for parkings. smooth and harmonious ﬂow of traﬃc. Longitudinal markings are provided for separating traﬃc ﬂow in the same direction and the predominant color used is white. will be discussed in detail in this chapter.

Diﬀerent types of longitudinal markings are centre line.5 m gaps (ﬁgure 18:1). On curves and near intersections. IIT Bombay 135 August 24.2 Traﬃc lane lines The subdivision of wide carriageways into separate lanes on either side of the carriage way helps the driver to go straight and also curbs the meandering tendency of the driver. bus lane markings. On urban roads with less than four lanes.3. the centre line marking may be a single solid line of 150 mm wide as in ﬁgure 18:2. The centre line may be marked with either single broken line. no passing zone. The centre barrier line marking for four lane road is shown in ﬁgure 18:4. The broken lines are placed with 4. double broken line. Usually no centre line is provided for roads having width less than 5 m and for roads having more than four lanes. border or edge lines.3. 18. or double solid line of 100 mm wide separated by a space of 100 mm as shown in ﬁgure 18:3. Road markings 150 3m 4.5m 3m 3m 4. 2011 .5 m Figure 18:1: Centre line marking for a two lane road 1. if the broken line of the combination is nearer to the direction of travel. traﬃc lanes. 18. cycle lane markings. the centre line may be single broken line segments of 3 m long and 150 mm wide. gap shall be reduced to 3 metres. or double solid line depending upon the road and traﬃc requirements. Vehicles from the opposite directions are not permitted to cross the line. single solid line.1 Centre line Centre line separates the opposing streams of traﬃc and facilitates their movements. these traﬃc lane lines will eliminate confusion and facilitates turning movements. warning lines.5 m Figure 18:2: Centre line and lane marking for a four lane road solid line may be crossed with discretion. On undivided urban roads with at least two traﬃc lanes in each direction. At intersections.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 18. Thus traﬃc Tom Mathew.

**CE415 Transportation Engineering II
**

1.5m 100 3m

18. Road markings

**Figure 18:3: Double solid line for a two lane road
**

100 mm 150 mm 1.5m 3m

Figure 18:4: Centre barrier line marking for four lane road lane markings help in increasing the capacity of the road in addition ensuring more safety. The traﬃc lane lines are normally single broken lines of 100 mm width. Some examples are shown in ﬁgure 18:5 and ﬁgure 18:6.

18.3.3

No passing zones

No passing zones are established on summit curves, horizontal curves, and on two lane and three lane highways where overtaking maneuvers are prohibited because of low sight distance. It may be marked by a solid yellow line along the centre or a double yellow line. In the case of a double yellow line, the left hand element may be a solid barrier line, the right hand may be a either a broken line or a solid line . These solid lines are also called barrier lines. When a solid

100

100 1.5m 150

3.0 m

Figure 18:5: Lane marking for a four lane road with solid barrier line Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 136 August 24, 2011

**CE415 Transportation Engineering II
**

1.5 m 3.0 m

18. Road markings

100 150 3.0 m

4.5 m

Figure 18:6: Traﬃc lane marking for a four lane road with broken centre line

yellow single/double line

Figure 18:7: Barrier line marking for a four lane road line is to the right of the broken line, the passing restriction shall apply only to the opposing traﬃc. Some typical examples are shown in ﬁgure 18:7 and ﬁgure 18:8. In the latter case, the no passing zone is staggered for each direction.

18.3.4

Warning lines

Warning lines warn the drivers about the obstruction approaches. They are marked on horizontal and vertical curves where the visibility is greater than prohibitory criteria speciﬁed for no overtaking zones. They are broken lines with 6 m length and 3 m gap. A minimum of seven line segments should be provided. A typical example is shown in ﬁgure 18:9

18.3.5

Edge lines

Edge lines indicate edges of rural roads which have no kerbs to delineate the limits upto which the driver can safely venture. They should be at least 150 mm from the actual edge of the pavement. They are painted in yellow or white. All the lines should be preferably light reﬂective, so that they will be visible during night also. Improved night visibility may also be obtained by the use of minute glass beads embedded in the pavement marking materials to produce a retroreﬂective surface. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 137 August 24, 2011

CE415 Transportation Engineering II

18. Road markings

Ba

rri

l er

in

e

Figure 18:8: No passing zone marking at horizontal curves

Figure 18:9: Warning line marking for a two lane road

Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay

3m 6m

138

August 24, 2011

CE415 Transportation Engineering II

18. Road markings

300 200 STOP

150

Figure 18:10: Stop line marking near an intersection

18.4

Transverse markings

Transverse markings are marked across the direction of traﬃc. They are marked at intersections etc. The site conditions play a very important role. The type of road marking for a particular intersection depends on several variables such as speed characteristics of traﬃc, availability of space etc. Stop line markings, markings for pedestrian crossing, direction arrows, etc. are some of the markings on approaches to intersections.

18.4.1

Stop line

Stop line indicates the position beyond which the vehicles should not proceed when required to stop by control devices like signals or by traﬃc police. They should be placed either parallel to the intersecting roadway or at right angles to the direction of approaching vehicles. An example for a stop line marking is shown in ﬁgure 18:10.

18.4.2

Pedestrian crossings

Pedestrian crossings are provided at places where the conﬂict between vehicular and pedestrian traﬃc is severe. The site should be selected that there is less inconvenience to the pedestrians and also the vehicles are not interrupted too much. At intersections, the pedestrian crossings should be preceded by a stop line at a distance of 2 to 3m for unsignalized intersections and at a distance of one metre for signalized intersections. Most commonly used pattern for pedestrian crossing is Zebra crossing consisting of equally spaced white strips of 500 mm wide. A typical example of an intersection illustrating pedestrian crossings is shown in ﬁgure 18:11.

18.4.3

Directional arrows

In addition to the warning lines on approaching lanes, directional arrows should be used to guide the drivers in advance over the correct lane to be taken while approaching busy intersections. Because of the low angle at which the markings are viewed by the drivers, the arrows should Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 139 August 24, 2011

Tom Mathew. 2011 .5 Object marking Physical obstructions in a carriageway like traﬃc island or obstructions near carriageway like signal posts. pier etc. Road markings Figure 18:11: Pedestrian marking near an intersection 1.25m Figure 18:12: Directional arrow marking be elongated in the direction of traﬃc for adequate visibility. A typical example of a directional arrow is shown in ﬁgure 18:12.4m 0.2m 0.4m 0.2 m 0.5m 0. The dimensions of these arrows are also very important. They may be marked on the objects adjacent to the carriageway.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 18.55 m 3.5m 0. IIT Bombay 140 August 24.2 m 1.3m 0. cause serious hazard to the ﬂow of traﬃc and should be adequately marked.3m 1.5m 3. 18.

The stripes should slope forward at an angle of 45◦ with respect to the direction of traﬃc. Poles close to the carriageway should be painted in alternate black and white up to a height of 1. Road markings Figure 18:13: Marking for objects adjacent to the road way 18. The legends should be as brief as possible and shall not consist of more than three words for Tom Mathew. They should be marked with alternate black and white stripes at a forward angle of 45◦ with respect to the direction of traﬃc.5. 18. etc. regulate.25 m above the road level. 18.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 18. raised medians. 2011 . guard rails etc.2 Objects adjacent to carriageway Sometimes objects adjacent to the carriageway may pose some obstructions to the ﬂow of traﬃc. Kerbs of all islands located in the line of traﬃc ﬂow shall be painted with either alternating black and white stripes of 500 mm wide or chequered black and white stripes of same width. Other objects such as guard stones. The object marking for central pier and side walls of an underpass is illustrated in ﬁgure 18:13. culvert head walls etc.6 Word messages Information to guide.5. IIT Bombay 141 August 24. Characters for word messages are usually capital letters. drums. These stripes shall be uniform and should not be less than 100 m wide so as to provide suﬃcient visibility. are some examples for such obstructions. Objects such as subway piers and abutments. may be marked by not less than ﬁve alternate black and yellow stripes.1 Objects within the carriageway The obstructions within the carriageway such as traﬃc islands. where chances of vehicles hitting them are only when vehicle runs oﬀ the carriageway should be painted in solid white. or warn the road user may also be conveyed by inscription of word message on road surface.

Therefore. To indicate parking restriction. may also be written if the parking area is speciﬁc for any particular type of vehicle. Word messages require more and important time to read and comprehend than other road markings. Some of the examples of word messages are STOP. only few and important ones are usually adopted. SLOW. 18. RIGHT TUN ONLY etc.7 Parking The marking of the parking space limits on urban roads promotes more eﬃcient use of the parking spaces and tends to prevent encroachment on places like bus stops. ﬁre hydrant zones etc. SCOOTERS etc. The dimensioning of a typical alphabet is shown in ﬁgure 18:14. Words TAXI. where parking is undesirable. SCHOOL. CARS. The character of a road message is also elongated so that driver looking at the road surface at a low angle can also read them easily. Tom Mathew. 2011 . Road markings 313 260 78 Figure 18:14: Typical dimension of the character T used in road marking any message. kerb or carriage way marking of continuous yellow line 100 mm wide covering the top of kerb or carriageway close to it may be used. IIT Bombay 142 1250 August 24.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 18. Such parking space limitations should be indicated with markings that are solid white lines 100 mm wide.

htm. Converging lines shall be 150 mm wide and shall have a taper length of not less than twenty times the oﬀ-set distance. They are made use of in delineating the carriage way as well as marking obstructions. but since it is time consuming to understand compared to other markings there are only very few of them. or any hazardous location in the road. Road markings L L L Figure 18:15: Approach marking for obstructions on the road way 18. 18.fhwa. Longitudinal markings which are provided along the length of the road and its various classiﬁcations were discussed. 18. Broken lines (a) allows crossing with discretion (b) does not allow crossing except for entry or exit from a side road (c) allows crossing only in case of extreme emergency (d) are not at all used as road markings.9 Summary Road markings are aids to control traﬃc by exercising psychological control over the road users. Road markings also contain word messages. Typical carriageway markings showing transition from wider to narrower sections and vice-versa is shown in ﬁgure 18:15. The following web link give further insight in to the road markings: mutcd. In the ﬁgure. to ensure safe driving.dot.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 18. IIT Bombay 143 August 24. the driver should be warned about this situation with the help of suitable road markings.8 Hazardous location Wherever there is a change in the width of the road. Road markings showing the width transition in the carriageway should be of 100 mm width. They also assist safe pedestrian crossing. 2011 . Markings are also used to warn the driver about the hazardous locations ahead. Tom Mathew. Transverse markings are provided along the width of the road. the driver is warned about the position of the pier through proper road markings.10 Problems 1.gov/pdfs/200311/pdfindex. Thus road markings ensure smooth ﬂow of traﬃc providing safety also to the road users.

2011 . Traﬃc rotaries 18. Stop line comes under (a) Longitudinal markings (b) Object markings (d) None of these √ (c) Transverse markings Tom Mathew.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 2. 2. Stop line comes under (a) Longitudinal markings (b) Object markings (c) Transverse markings (d) None of these 18. Broken lines √ (a) allows crossing with discretion (b) does not allow crossing except for entry or exit from a side road (c) allows crossing only in case of extreme emergency (d) are not at all used as road markings.11 Solutions 1. IIT Bombay 144 August 24.

or intersections with more than three or four approaches. The vehicles entering the rotary are gently forced to move in a clockwise direction in orderly fashion. Rotaries are self governing and do not need practically any control by police or traﬃc signals. will be discussed in this chapter. All the vehicles are forced to slow down and negotiate the intersection. thus eliminating severe conﬂicts between crossing movements. especially with irregular geometry. Traﬃc rotaries Chapter 19 Traﬃc rotaries 19. none of the vehicles need to be stopped. Thus. 5. The beneﬁts. Tom Mathew.2 Advantages and disadvantages of rotary The key advantages of a rotary intersection are listed below: 1. 3. 2. Although rotaries oﬀer some distinct advantages. Because of lower speed of negotiation and elimination of severe conﬂicts. accidents and their severity are much less in rotaries. IIT Bombay 145 August 24. there are few speciﬁc limitations for rotaries which are listed below. 19. 4. Essentially all the major conﬂicts at an intersection namely the collision between through and right-turn movements are converted into milder conﬂicts namely merging and diverging. the cumulative delay will be much higher than channelized intersection.1 Overview Rotary intersections or round abouts are special form of at-grade intersections laid out for the movement of traﬃc in one direction around a central traﬃc island. They are ideally suited for moderate traﬃc. design principles. All the vehicles entering the rotary are gently forced to reduce the speed and continue to move at slower speed. They then weave out of the rotary to the desired direction. Traﬃc ﬂow is regulated to only one direction of movement. 2011 . 1. capacity of rotary etc.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 19.unlike in a signalized intersection. Therefore.

Merging: Merging is the opposite of diverging. they are not suitable when there is high pedestrian movements. 2011 . the traﬃc operations at a rotary are three. straight. A total volume of about 3000 vehicles per hour can be considered as the upper limiting case and a volume of 500 vehicles per hour is the lower limit. Even when there is relatively low traﬃc. and right turn. merging and weaving. 19. rotaries are not suitable for every location. diverging. the vehicles are forced to reduce their speed.3 Guidelines for the selection of rotaries Because of the above limitation. A rotary is very beneﬁcial when the proportion of the right-turn traﬃc is very high. All the other conﬂicts are converted into these three less severe conﬂicts.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 19. Rotaries are suitable when the traﬃc entering from all the four approaches are relatively equal. Tom Mathew. Rotaries are suitable when there are more than four approaches or if there is no separate lanes available for right-turn traﬃc. They are listed below. typically if it is more than 30 percent. left. Rotaries require large area of relatively ﬂat land making them costly at urban areas. The vehicles do not usually stop at a rotary. 3. 3. They accelerate and exit the rotary at relatively high speed. 3. 19. Rotaries are ideally suited if the intersection geometry is complex. Weaving: Weaving is the combined movement of both merging and diverging movements in the same direction. These movements are shown in ﬁgure 19:1. There are few guidelines that help in deciding the suitability of a rotary. Diverging: It is a traﬃc operation when the vehicles moving in one direction is separated into diﬀerent streams according to their destinations. 2. Merging is referred to as the process of joining the traﬃc coming from diﬀerent approaches and going to a common destination into a single stream.4 Traﬃc operations in a rotary As noted earlier. 4. It can be observed that movements from each direction split into three. Therefore. 2. 4. 1. Traﬃc rotaries 2. IIT Bombay 146 August 24. 1.

the geometry may lead to very large size incurring huge cost of construction.4. radius at entry. Traﬃc rotaries 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 Figure 19:1: Traﬃc operations in a rotary 19. The radius of the central island. The radius of the central island is governed by the design speed. 19.4. exit and the central island. The entry radius of about 20 and 25 metres is ideal for an urban and rural design respectively.1 Design elements The design elements include design speed. super-elevation. A general practice is to keep the exit radius as 1. the design speed of a rotary will be much lower than the roads leading to it.3 Entry. in practice. 2011 . weaving length and width.4. Therefore. and coeﬃcient of friction. is given a slightly higher radius so that the Tom Mathew.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 19. The exit radius should be higher than the entry radius and the radius of the rotary island so that the vehicles will discharge from the rotary at a higher rate. This will force the driver to reduce the speed. and the radius of the entry curve. but a small curvature is introduced. The entry to the rotary is not straight. A typical rotary and the important design elements are shown in ﬁgure 19:2 19. if pedestrian movement is higher at the exit approach. IIT Bombay 147 August 24. then the exit radius could be set as same as that of the entry radius. exit and island radius The radius at the entry depends on various factors like design speed.5 to 2 times the entry radius.2 Design speed All the vehicles are required to reduce their speed at a rotary. entry and exit widths. Although it is possible to design roundabout without much speed reduction. In addition the capacity of the rotary can also be determined by using some empirical formula. The normal practice is to keep the design speed as 30 and 40 kmph for urban and rural areas respectively. However.

IIT Bombay 148 August 24. Traﬃc rotaries splitter island exit radius entry radius entry width radius of the central island weaving width circulation width speed = 30 le ng th Rentry = 20 ea vi ng Rexit = Ren exit width radius of the inscribed circle approach width w RCentralIsla GIVE WAY line Figure 19:2: Design of a rotary Tom Mathew. 2011 .CE415 Transportation Engineering II 19.

2. Figure 19:3 shows four types of movements at a weaving section. w is the weaving width. IRC suggests that a two lane road of 7 m width should be kept as 7 m for urban roads and 6. The ratio of average width of the carriage way at entry and exit to the weaving width is in the range of 0. i. It is decided based on many factors such as weaving width. (e1 +e2 ) . 19. Therefore. Very large weaving length is also dangerous.4.4 to 1. The width of the weaving section should be higher than the width at entry and exit. e1 + e2 wweaving = + 3.5m (19. 19. l is the length 2 of weaving. Transportation road research lab (TRL) proposed the following empirical formula to ﬁnd the capacity of the weaving section. proportion of weaving traﬃc to the non-weaving traﬃc etc. The radius of the central island which is about 1. Thus weaving width is given as.e. The width of the carriageway at entry and exit will be lower than the width of the carriageway at the approaches to enable reduction of speed. Tom Mathew. Traﬃc rotaries movement of the traﬃc already in the rotary will have priority. This can be best achieved by making the ratio of weaving length to the weaving width very high. 2011 . Weaving width at the rotary is in between 6 and 18 metres. Weaving length determines how smoothly the traﬃc can merge and diverge. p e 280w[1 + w ][1 − 3 ] (19. a and d are the non-weaving traﬃc and b and c are the weaving traﬃc.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 19.2) Qw = 1+ w l where e is the average entry and exit width. as it may encourage over-speeding.1) 2 where e1 is the width of the carriageway at the entry and e2 is the carriageway width at exit.5 Capacity The capacity of rotary is determined by the capacity of each weaving section.5 m is to be reduced to 7 m and 7. p= b+c a+b+c+d (19.5 m for rural roads. Further. A ratio of 4 is the minimum value suggested by IRC. Normally this will be one lane more than the average entry and exit width. a three lane road of 10. and p is the proportion of weaving traﬃc to the non-weaving traﬃc.4 Width of the rotary The entry width and exit width of the rotary is governed by the traﬃc entering and leaving the intersection and the width of the approaching road.5 m respectively for urban and rural roads.3 times that of the entry curve is adequate for all practical purposes. IIT Bombay 149 August 24.3) This capacity formula is valid only if the following conditions are satisﬁed. 1.

The weaving length available at the intersection is in between 18 and 90 m. IIT Bombay 150 August 24. 2011 . The ratio of weaving width to weaving length of the roundabout is in between 0.4. Example The width of a carriage way approaching an intersection is given as 15 m. Tom Mathew. The proportion of weaving traﬃc to non-weaving traﬃc in the rotary is in the range of 0. 5.CE415 Transportation Engineering II d d c 19. The entry and exit width at the rotary is 10 m. Solution • The traﬃc from the four approaches negotiating through the roundabout is illustrated in ﬁgure 19:5. Traﬃc rotaries b c a b a Figure 19:3: Weaving operation in a rotary N 1433 400 W 1405 505 510 375 650 408 500 350 600 1260 250 E 420 370 1140 S Figure 19:4: Traﬃc approaching the rotary 3. The traﬃc approaching the intersection from the four sides is shown in the ﬁgure 19:4 below.4 and 1.12 and 0. 4. Find the capacity of the rotary using the given data.

the capacity of the rotary will be capacity of this weaving section.783 2885 505+510+350+600 pW N = 505+510+350+600+400+370 = 1965 =0. (19.164veh/hr.4) 1 + 13.5[1 + 13. 2011 .5 54 E 500+600 250 420 510 + 650 Tom Mathew. IIT Bombay 151 August 24.5 ][1 − 0. • The weaving traﬃc movements in the East-South direction is shown in ﬁgure 19:6. Let the proportion of weaving traﬃc to the nonweaving traﬃc in West-North direction be denoted as pW N . w = [ e1 +e2 ] + 3. in North-East direction as pN E .718 2735 650+375+505+370 1900 pN E = 650+375+505+370+510+408 = 2818 =0.pES = 510+650+500+600+250+375 = 2260 =0.5 = 13. Then 510+650+500+600 using equation.674 350+370+500+375 1595 pSW = 350+370+500+375+420+600 = 2615 =0. l is calculated as = 4×w = 54 m • The proportion of weaving traﬃc to the non-weaving traﬃc in all the four approaches is found out ﬁrst.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 19. Traﬃc rotaries N 600 650 + + 408 400 350 375 505 505 + + 510 370 510 370 W 500+375 600 375 350 + 370 S Figure 19:5: Traﬃc negotiating a rotary • Weaving width is calculated as. • Therefore. From equation. 10 280 × 13. • It is clear from equation. in the East-South direction as pES .5 m 2 • Weaving length.6099 • Thus the proportion of weaving traﬃc to non-weaving traﬃc is highest in the East-South direction.that the highest proportion of weaving traﬃc to non-weaving traﬃc will give the minimum capacity.783 ] 3 QES = = 2161. and ﬁnally in the South-West direction as pSW .

The shape and size of the rotary are determined by the traﬃc volume and share of turning movements.7 Problems 1. Find the capacity of the rotary.5 m 2 • Weaving length can be calculated as. 19. • It is clear from equation. 2011 Left turn 400 350 200 350 Straight 700 370 450 500 Right turn 300 420 550 520 . Capacity assessment of a rotary is done by analyzing the section having the greatest proportion of weaving traﬃc. w = [ e1 +e2 ] + 3. IIT Bombay 152 August 24. traversing the intersection. • Weaving width is calculated as.6 Summary Traﬃc rotaries reduce the complexity of crossing traﬃc by forcing them into weaving operations.that the highest proportion of weaving traﬃc to non-weaving traﬃc will give the minimum capacity. Let the proportion of weaving traﬃc to the nonweaving traﬃc in West-North direction be denoted as pW N .CE415 Transportation Engineering II d 375 d 510+650 c 19. Traﬃc rotaries b c a 250 b 500+600 a Figure 19:6: Traﬃc weaving in East-South direction 19. Table below gives the traﬃc from the four approaches. Approach North South East West Solution • The traﬃc from the four approaches negotiating through the roundabout is illustrated in ﬁgure 19:7. The analysis is done by using the formula given by TRL. The width of approaches for a rotary intersection is 12 m. The entry and exit width at the rotary is 10 m. l = 4×w = 54 m • The proportion of weaving traﬃc to the non-weaving traﬃc in all the four approaches is found out ﬁrst.5 = 13. in North-East direction as Tom Mathew.

IIT Bombay 153 August 24.5[1+ 13.676 450+300+370+420 1540 pSW = 550+450+400+370+420+350 = 2540 =0. the capacity of the rotary will be the capacity of this weaving section. in the East-South direction as pES .816 ] 3 = 380.56veh/hr.pES = 200+450+550+700+520+300 = 2220 =0. 450+550+700+520 Then using equation. equation. Traﬃc signal design-I 350 400 420 500 + + 520 420 520 500 550 300 370 + 420 520 + 700 E 450 +550 200 370 700 + + 550 300 W 450 +300 350 S Figure 19:7: Traﬃc negotiating a rotary pN E . From 10 280×13.5 1+ 54 Tom Mathew.QES = 13. and ﬁnally in the South-West direction as pSW . • Therefore.CE415 Transportation Engineering II N 19.630 • Thus the proportion of weaving traﬃc to non-weaving traﬃc is highest in the East-South direction.69 2510 1920 420+500+700+300 pN E = 520+400+420+500+700+300 = 2840 =0.816 2720 370+550+500+520 pW N = 350+370+550+500+520+420 = 1740 =0. 2011 .5 ][1− 0.

The advantages of traﬃc signal includes an orderly movement of traﬃc. It indicates the time interval between the starting of of green for one approach till the next time the green starts. and the design requires complex considerations.change interval and clearance interval. • Interval: Thus it indicates the change from one stage to another. There are two types of intervals .CE415 Transportation Engineering II 20. Change interval is also called the yellow time indicates the interval between the green and red signal indications for an approach. an increased capacity of the intersection and requires only simple geometric design. • Cycle length: Cycle length is the time in seconds that it takes a signal to complete one full cycle of indications. However the disadvantages of the signalized intersection are it aﬀects larger stopped delays. Tom Mathew. This is the actual duration the red light of a traﬃc signal is turned on. IIT Bombay 154 August 24.2 Deﬁnitions and notations A number of deﬁnitions and notations need to be understood in signal design. 20. • Green interval: It is the green indication for a particular movement or set of movements and is denoted by Gi . • Red interval: It is the red indication for a particular movement or set of movements and is denoted by Ri . This is the actual duration the green light of a traﬃc signal is turned on. Although the overall delay may be lesser than a rotary for a high volume. Clearance interval is also called all red is included after each yellow interval indicating a period during which all signal faces show red and is used for clearing oﬀ the vehicles in the intersection. Traﬃc signal design-I Chapter 20 Traﬃc signal design-I 20. a user is more concerned about the stopped delay. It is denoted by C. They are discussed below: • Cycle: A signal cycle is one complete rotation through all of the indications provided.1 Overview The conﬂicts arising from movements of traﬃc in diﬀerent directions is solved by time sharing of the principle. 2011 .

the relative magnitudes of ﬂow. 20.then a four phase system is usually adopted. However. the driver of the vehicle which is in the front of the queue. and (6) the performance evaluation of the above design. it is easier to change the cycle time and green time when ﬂow pattern changes. where as a drastic change in the ﬂow pattern may cause considerable confusion to the drivers. during green interval. Further. Therefore. so that movements in a phase should have no conﬂicts. If all the movements are to be separated with no conﬂicts. It allows a set of movements to ﬂow and safely halt the ﬂow before the phase of another set of movements start. Needless to say that such phasing is possible only if the turning movements are relatively low.3 Phase design The signal design procedure involves six major steps. On the other hand. Left turn is ignored. (2) determination of amber time and clearance time. For example in ﬁgure 20:2. non conﬂicting movements are assigned into each phase. (3) determination of cycle length. (4)apportioning of green time. However. It is possible to have two. in the ﬁrst phase ﬂow 7 and 8 oﬀer some conﬂicts and are called permitted right turns. In such a situation. This is often guided by the geometry of the intersection.3. There is no precise methodology for the design of phases. The ﬁrst issue is to decide how many phases are required. if the turning movements are signiﬁcant . (5) pedestrian crossing requirements. ﬂow pattern especially the turning movements. They include the (1) phase design. three. a trial and error procedure is often adopted. See ﬁgure 20:1. the objective is to design phases with minimum conﬂicts or with less severe conﬂicts. Thus. To illustrate various phase plan options. non-conﬂicting through traﬃc 3 and 4 are grouped in a single phase and non-conﬂicting through traﬃc 1 and 2 are grouped in the second phase. will take some time to perceive the signal (usually called as reaction time) and some time will be lost here before he moves. consider a four legged intersection with through traﬃc and right turns. IIT Bombay 155 August 24. The objective of phase design is to separate the conﬂicting movements in an intersection into various phases. Tom Mathew. phase design is very important because it aﬀects the further design steps. when the signal for an approach turns from red to green. four or even more number of phases.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 20. then a large number of phases are required. Traﬃc signal design-I • Phase: A phase is the green interval plus the change and clearance intervals that follow it. • Lost time: It indicates the time during which the intersection is not eﬀectively utilized for any movement. For example. 20. 2011 .1 Two phase signals Two phase system is usually adopted if through traﬃc is signiﬁcant compared to the turning movements.

CE415 Transportation Engineering II 20. IIT Bombay 156 August 24. 2011 . Traﬃc signal design-I 1 5 3 7 6 8 4 2 Figure 20:1: Four legged intersection 8 2 6 5 3 4 7 Phase 1 ( P1) 1 Phase 1 ( P2) Figure 20:2: Two phase signal Tom Mathew.

The non-conﬂicting right turn ﬂows 7 and 8 are grouped into a third phase. this is rarely used in practice. 20. ﬂow from each approach is put into a single phase avoiding all conﬂicts. six phase signals etc. They normally have a value of 3 to 6 seconds.4 Interval design There are two intervals. Figure 20:4 shows a second possible phase plan option where opposing through traﬃc are put into same phase. ﬁgure 20:3 shows the most simple and trivial phase plan.2 Four phase signals There are at least three possible phasing options. and the through traﬃc volume is signiﬁcantly high. Traﬃc signal design-I 3 P1 7 4 7 P2 2 5 P3 1 P4 6 Figure 20:3: One way of providing four phase signals 20. For example. Similarly ﬂows 5 and 6 are grouped into fourth phase. that is. the signal phases and timing adapt to the real time traﬃc conditions. IIT Bombay 157 August 24. The purpose is to warn a driver approaching the intersection during the end of a green time about the coming of a red signal. normally provided in a traﬃc signal. The design consideration is that a driver approaching the intersection with design speed should be able to stop at the stop line of the intersection before the start of red time. where. There are ﬁve phase signals. Institute of transportation engineers (ITE) has recommended a methodology for computing the appropriate Tom Mathew. They are normally provided if the intersection control is adaptive. namely the change interval and clearance interval. The change interval or yellow time is provided after green time for movement. Figure 20:5 shows yet another phase plan. This phase plan could be very ineﬃcient when turning movements are relatively low.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 8 20.3. This type of phasing is very eﬃcient when the intersection geometry permits to have at least one lane for each movement. 2011 . This type of phase plan is ideally suited in urban areas where the turning movements are comparable with through movements and when through traﬃc and turning traﬃc need to share same lane. However.

CE415 Transportation Engineering II 20. Traﬃc signal design-I 2 3 4 P1 8 P2 1 7 5 P3 7 P4 6 Figure 20:4: Second possible way of providing a four phase signal P1 6 3 4 P2 5 2 8 P3 7 1 P4 Figure 20:5: Third possible way of providing a four-phase signal Tom Mathew. IIT Bombay 158 August 24. 2011 .

IIT Bombay 159 August 24. Change interval can also be approximately computed as y = SSD . is deﬁned as the saturation headway. then s vehicles/per hour would Tom Mathew. The ﬁrst headway will be relatively longer since it includes the reaction time of the driver and the time necessary to accelerate.1) where y is the length of yellow interval in seconds. The ﬁrst headway is the time interval between the initiation of the green signal and the instant vehicle crossing the curb line.6g (20. and if the signal were always green. and is denoted as h. referred as headway. crossing the curb line is noted.e. It is denoted by C.5 Cycle time Cycle time is the time taken by a signal to complete one full cycle of iterations.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 20. t is the reaction time of the driver. This constant headway which characterizes all headways beginning with the fourth or ﬁfth vehicle. If every vehicles require h seconds of green time. This is the headway that can be achieved by a stable moving platoon of vehicles passing through a green indication. It depends on the geometry of the intersection. After few vehicles. i. As the signal is initiated. v85 is the 85th percentile speed of approaching vehicles in m/s. Clearance interval is optional in a signal design. where SSD is the stopping sight distance and v is the v speed of the vehicle. If the intersection is small. The second headway will be comparatively lower because the second driver can overlap his/her reaction time with that of the ﬁrst driver’s. Traﬃc signal design-I 1 2 3 N Figure 20:6: Group of vehicles at a signalized intersection waiting for green signal length of change interval which is as follows: y =t+ v85 2a + 19. a is the deceleration rate of vehicles in m/s2 . The second headway is the time interval between the ﬁrst and the second vehicle crossing the curb line. the time interval between two vehicles. it may be provided. Successive headways are then plotted as in ﬁgure 20:7. 2011 . then there is no need of clearance interval whereas for very large intersections. waiting for the green signal. it is used to clear oﬀ the vehicles in the intersection. The clearance interval is provided after yellow interval and as mentioned earlier. the headway will become constant. 20. Figure 20:6 illustrates a group of N vehicles at a signalized intersection. g is the grade of approach expressed as a decimal. The way in which the vehicles depart from an intersection when the green signal is initiated will be discussed now. one complete rotation through all signal indications.

IIT Bombay 160 August 24.1 Eﬀective green time Eﬀective green time is the actual time available for the vehicles to cross the intersection. 2011 . the headway will be more than h particularly for the ﬁrst few vehicles. Thus eﬀective green time can be written as. It is the sum of actual green time (Gi ) plus the yellow minus the applicable lost times. The diﬀerence between the actual headway and h for the ith vehicle and is denoted as ei shown in ﬁgure 20:7.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 20. h is the saturation headway in seconds.N (20. l1 which is given by. 20. This lost time is the sum of start-up lost time (l1 ) and clearance lost time (l2 ) denoted as tL .2) h where s is the saturation ﬂow rate in vehicles per hour of green time per lane. Therefore.5. and h is the saturation headway in seconds. gi = Gi + Yi − tL (20. s= n l1 = i=1 ei (20.4) where T is the time required to clear N vehicles through signal. vehicles per hour of green time per lane. T = l1 + h. 3600 (20. l1 is the start-up lost time. These diﬀerences for the ﬁrst few vehicles can be added to get start up lost time. Traﬃc signal design-I Headway e1 h1 e2 e3 h Vehicles in queue h Figure 20:7: Headways departing signal pass the intersection. As noted earlier.3) The green time required to clear N vehicles can be found out as.5) Tom Mathew.

5. Traﬃc signal design-I 20. If suﬃcient time is allocated for this lane. ci = si gi C (20.4 seconds/vehicle. 20. and the corresponding yellow time is 4 seconds.7) August 24. then the number of cycles per hour = 3600 The total lost time per hour is the number of cycles per hour times C the lost time per cycle and is = 3600 . L = N tL . then the total start-up lost time per cycle. ﬁnd the capacity of the movement per lane? Solution Total lost time. If start-up lost time is same for all phases.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 20. where N is the number of phases.tl The total eﬀective green time Tg available for the movement in a hour C will be one hour minus the total lost time in an hour. gi = 27+4-3 = 28 seconds. 60 20. C is the cycle time in seconds. then i=1 the total start-up lost time is L = NtL .N. 2011 . total lost time per hour can C be written as = 3600.L Substituting as L = NtL .2 Lane capacity The ratio of eﬀective green time to the cycle length ( gi )is deﬁned as green ratio. Therefore. One of these will have the most intense traﬃc.Ci = 1500 × 28 = 700 veh/hr/lane. If tLi is the start-up lost time for a phase i. si is the saturation ﬂow rate in vehicle per hour per lane.N. tL = 2+1 = 3 seconds. The volume of this critical lane is called critical lane volume. Tg = 3600 − Tom Mathew.4 Capacity of the given phase can be found out from equation. Then the capacity of a lane can be computed as. Thus it requires more time than any other lane moving at the same time. If the saturation headway is 2. the green time for a phase is 27 seconds. then all other lanes will also be well accommodated. h 2. There will be one and only one critical lane in each signal phase. the start-up lost time is 2 seconds/phase.5. si = 3600 = 3600 = 1500 veh/hr.3 Critical lane During any green signal phase. several lanes on one or more approaches are permitted to move.6) where ci is the capacity of lane in vehicle per hour. Fixing the cycle length is one of the crucial steps involved in signal design. From equationsaturation ﬂow rate. If C is the cycle length in seconds.6 Determination of cycle length The cycle length or cycle time is the time taken for complete indication of signals in a cycle.tL C (20. IIT Bombay 161 3600. Problem Let the cycle time of an intersection is 60 seconds. We know C that saturation ﬂow rate is the number of vehicles that can be moved in one lane in one hour assuming the signal to be green always. From equation eﬀective green time. and the clearance lost time is 1 second/phase.

( V )i is the ratio of volume to s saturation ﬂow for phase i.12) (20.CE415 Transportation Engineering II = 3600 1 − N.L.3 seconds. 2011 .9) Let the total number of critical lane volume that can be accommodated per hour is given by Vc . Traﬃc signal design-I (20. from equation 21. L is the lost time per phase.11) (20. XC is the quality factor called critical V ratio where V is the volume C and C is the capacity.tL C 20. the ﬁnal expression will be. The above equation is based on the assumption that there will be uniform ﬂow of traﬃc in an hour. Assume a two-phase signal. Tom Mathew.16) where N is the number of phases. To account for the variation of volume in an hour. Another ratio called v/c ratio indicating the quality of service is also included in the equation. cycle time C is given by.2 and si from the maximum sum of critical h lane volumes that can be accommodated within the hour is given by. saturation head way is 2.tL Vc = 1− h C N. C= N.13) (20. C= N.XC XC − Σ( V )i s (20. is introduced. Problem The traﬃc ﬂow in an intersection is shown in the ﬁgure 20:8. Accordingly.14) The expression for C can be obtained by rewriting the above equation.15) Highway capacity manual (HCM) has given an equation for determining the cycle length which is a slight modiﬁcation of the above equation. Tg h 3600 N.tL T heref ore C = 1 − Vc s = (20. (PHF) which is the ratio of hourly volume to the maximum ﬂow rate. Given start-up lost time is 3 seconds.tL = si 1 − C N. then Vc = Tg Substituting for Tg . a factor called peak hour factor.8) (20. compute the cycle length for that intersection.tL 1− Vc si ×P HF × v c (20.10) (20. Incorporating these two factors in the equation for cycle length. IIT Bombay 162 August 24.

• Assigning three lanes in East-West direction. Hence the critical lane volume should be reduced and one simple option is to split the major traﬃc into two lanes.2 vph. then the critical volume for the ﬁrst phase which is the maximum of the ﬂows in that phase = 1150 vph.2 vph.3 = 1565.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 20. as shown in ﬁgure 20:11. Traﬃc signal design-I 1150 1300 1800 900 Figure 20:8: Traﬃc ﬂow in the intersection 900 1800 1300 1150 Figure 20:9: One way of providing phases Solution • If we assign two phases as shown below ﬁgure 20:9. that the intersection can handle only 1565.2 vph. • Saturation ﬂow rate for the intersection can be found out from the equation as si = 3600 2. the critical volume in the ﬁrst phase is 575 vph and that of the second phase is 600 vph. Tom Mathew. so that the total critical lane volume = 575+600 = 1175 vph which is lesser than 1565. 2011 . IIT Bombay 163 August 24. total critical volume for the two signal phases = 1150+1800 = 2950 vph. However. Similarly critical volume for the second phase = 1800 vph. the critical volume is 2950 vph . The total critical volume for the signal phases is 2050 vph which is again greater than the saturation ﬂow rate and hence we have to again reduce the critical lane volumes. • Here we are dividing the lanes in East-West direction into two. So the resulting phase plan is as shown in ﬁgure ( 20:10). the critical volume in the ﬁrst phase is 1150 vph and in the second phase it is 900 vph. Therefore. This means.

Depending on the requirements they can be either ﬁxed or vehicle actuated and two or multivalued.2 = 20. IIT Bombay 164 August 24.7 Summary Traﬃc signal is an aid to control traﬃc at intersections where other control measures fail. Saturation ﬂow rate can be computed as. 2011 . 2×3 1175 1− 1565. 20. and computation of saturation ﬂow making use of HCM guidelines. (c) 3600×h (d) none of these 2. Traﬃc signal design-I 1300/2 1300/2 1800/2 1800/2 1150 Figure 20:10: second way of providing phases 1800/3 1800/3 1800/3 1150/2 1150/2 Figure 20:11: Third way of providing phases • Now the cycle time for the signal phases can be computed from equation.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 20. The signals operate by providing right of way to a certain set of movements in a cyclic order. determination of cycle time.C = 24 seconds.8 (a) (b) Problems 3600 h h 3600 1. Lane capacity is (a) ci = si × gi C Tom Mathew. The design procedure discussed in this chapter include interval design.

Lane capacity is (a) ci = si × (c) ci = si C gi √ C (b) ci = si × gi (d) none of these Tom Mathew. √ (a) 3600 h (b) h 3600 (c) 3600×h (d) none of these 2. Saturation ﬂow rate can be computed as.CE415 Transportation Engineering II (b) ci = si × gi (c) ci = si C 20. Traﬃc signal design-II (d) none of these 20. IIT Bombay 165 August 24.9 Solutions 1. 2011 .

3) where tLi is the lost time for phase i.tL (21. The performance evaluation of a signal is also discussed. gi = Vc i n i=1 Vci × tg (21. 2011 . This will be cycle time minus the total lost time for all the phases. Therefore. Actual greentime can be now found out as. then cycle time can be computed as follows. Gi = gi − yi + tLi (21.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 21. and Li is the lost time for phase i. a simple design of cycle time was discussed. Tg = C − n.2) where C is the cycle time in seconds. Here we will discuss how the cycle time is divided in a phase.1) where Vc i is the critical lane volume and tg is the total eﬀective green time available in a cycle. 21. The green splitting is given by.4) where Gi is the actual green time. IIT Bombay 166 August 24. n is the number of phases. yi is the amber time. n is the number of phases and C is the lost time in seconds. Tom Mathew.1 Overview In the previous chapter. If lost time is diﬀerent for diﬀerent phases. n Tg = C − tLi i=1 (21.2 Green splitting Green splitting or apportioning of green time is the proportioning of eﬀective green time in each of the signal phase. and tL is the lost time per phase. gi is the eﬀective green time available. Traﬃc signal design-II Chapter 21 Traﬃc signal design-II 21.

5 and 3 seconds respectively.5 = 70.5 = 42. consider an intersection in which the traﬃc moves from north to south and also from east to west.75 seconds. Solution • Critical lane volume for the ﬁrst phase.75-3+2. • Actual green time for the second phase. by suitable phase design or by providing an exclusive pedestrian phase. Traﬃc signal design-II 500 1000 900 600 Figure 21:1: Phase diagram for an intersection Problem The phase diagram with ﬂow values of an intersection with two phases is shown in ﬁgure 21:1.25 seconds. 600 1600 • Actual green time can be found out from equationThus actual green time for the ﬁrst phase. 1000 1600 × 114 = × 114= • Green time for the second phase. ﬁnd the green time allocated for the two phases. G2 = 42. If we Tom Mathew. It is possible in some cases to allocate time for the pedestrians without providing an exclusive phase for them. 21. If the cycle time is 120 seconds. • Green time for the ﬁrst phase.5)= 114 seconds. IIT Bombay 167 August 24. • Critical lane volume for the second phase. g2 can be found out from equationas g2 = 42. 2011 .25 seconds. VC = VC1 + VC2 = 1000+600 = 1600 vph.5 and 4 seconds respectively. g1 can be found out from equationas g1 = 71. VC2 = 600 vph. The lost time and yellow time for the ﬁrst phase is 2.3 Pedestrian crossing requirements Pedestrian crossing requirements can be taken care by two ways. G1 = 71.25-3+2. • The sum of the critical lane volumes.5-3. For example. For the second phase the lost time and yellow time are 3. • Eﬀective green time can be found out from equationas Tg =120-(2. • The phase diagram is as shown in ﬁgure 21:2.75 seconds. VC1 = 1000 vph.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 21.

approach delay and control delay. they are not approaching the Tom Mathew.4 Performance measures Performance measures are parameters used to evaluate the eﬀectiveness of the design. 2011 .75 3 46. In such cases. There are many parameters involved to evaluate the eﬀectiveness of the design and most common of these include delay. it may be necessary to provide an exclusive pedestrian phase.5) Gp = ts + uP where Gp is the minimum safe time required for the pedestrians to cross. then the pedestrians can cross in east-west direction and vice-versa. Traﬃc signal design-II 1111111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 120 70. and ends when the vehicle begins to accelerate. dx (21. There are three types of delay as shown in the ﬁgure.e. For a signalized intersection. had been no intersection. the procedure involves computation of time duration of allocation of pedestrian phase. and stops. The start-up lost time ts can be assumed as 4. The desired path of the vehicle as well as the actual progress of the vehicle is shown. It describes the amount of time that is consumed while traversing the intersection. The ﬁgure 21:3 shows a plot of distance versus time for the progress of one vehicle. often referred to as the “pedestrian green time”.7 seconds and the walking speed can be assumed to be 1. Control delay is measured as the diﬀerence between the time taken for crossing the intersection and time taken to traverse the same section.25 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 73. However in some cases. queuing. stopped delay is easy to derive and often used as a performance indicator and will be discussed. and path had there been green signal. i.25 4 Figure 21:2: Timing diagram are providing a phase which allows the traﬃc to ﬂow only in north-south direction.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 21. It is measured as the time diﬀerential between the actual path of the vehicle. 21. Among various types of delays. ts is the start-up lost time. Green time for pedestrian crossing Gp can be found out by. Approach delay includes the stopped time as well as the time lost due to acceleration and deceleration. Stopped time delay includes only the time at which the vehicle is actually stopped waiting at the red signal.75 42. They are stopped delay.2 m/s. dx is the crossing distance in metres.. IIT Bombay 168 August 24. it is measured at the stop-line as the vehicle enters the intersection. Delay is a measure that most directly relates the driver’s experience. Vehicles are not uniformly coming to an intersection. It starts when the vehicle reaches a full stop. and up is the walking speed of pedestrians which is about 15th percentile speed.

ΣVCi = 433+417+233+215 = 1298 vph. Plotting a graph with time along the x-axis and cumulative vehicles along the y-axis we get a graph as shown in ﬁgure 21:4. Tom Mathew. Webster derived an expression for delay per cycle based on this. Vi is the critical ﬂow for that phase. amber time is 3 seconds per phase. IIT Bombay 169 August 24. green time and performance measure(delay per cycle). Sum of critical lane volumes is the sum of maximum lane volumes in each phase. C is the cycle length. 2011 . Delay is the most frequently used parameter of eﬀectiveness for intersections. which is as follows. and S is the saturation ﬂow. di = C [1 2 − gi ]2 C 1 − Vi S (21.9. Assume critical v/c ratio as 0.2 seconds. saturation headway is 2. Problem The traﬃc ﬂow for a four-legged intersection is as shown in ﬁgure 21:5. Given that the lost time per phase is 2. This makes the modeling of signalized intersection delay complex. Traﬃc signal design-II Actual path Distance D2 D1 Time Figure 21:3: Illustration of delay measures intersection at constant time intervals. Most simple of the delay models is Webster’s delay model.CE415 Transportation Engineering II D1 = Stopped time delay D2 = Approach delay D3 = Travel time delay Desired path D3 21. ﬁnd the cycle length.6) where gi is the eﬀective green time.4 seconds. The number of stops made is an important input parameter in air quality models. Solution • The phase plan is as shown in ﬁgure 21:6. They come in a random manner. The delay per cycle is shown as the area of the hatched portion in the ﬁgure. Length of queue is used to determine when a given intersection will impede the discharge from an adjacent upstream intersection. It assumes that the vehicles are arriving at a uniform rate. Other measures like length of queue at any given time (QT ) and number of stops are also useful.

CE415 Transportation Engineering II 21. IIT Bombay 170 August 24. 2011 . Traﬃc signal design-II cumulative number of vehicles 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 Vi 000000000000 111111111111 S 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 R gi C time Figure 21:4: Graph between time and cumulative number of vehicles at an intersection 196 1111 0000 140 400 215 367 170 187 433 1111 0000 220 120 417 233 Figure 21:5: Traﬃc ﬂow for a typical four-legged intersection P2 417 400 233 433 367 196 215 P4 187 P1 P3 Figure 21:6: Phase plan Tom Mathew.

483 • Green splitting for the phase 1 can be found out as g1 = 70.02-3+2. Traﬃc signal design-II Phase 3 52 Phase 4 68 Pedestrian phase 83 104. Vc Si = 433 1637 417 233 + 1637 + 1637 + 1298 = 1637 • Cycle length can be found out from the equation as C= 4×2. 2.4 × [ 1298 ] = 12. 2011 .4 VC seconds.4 ≈ 23 seconds. Tom Mathew. IIT Bombay 171 August 24. 417 • Similarly green splitting for the phase 2.4×0.4 ≈ 13 seconds.g4 = 70.4)= 70. G4 = 11.5 21.5 = 104. • The eﬀective green time can be found out as Gi = VCi × (C − L) = 80-(4×2.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Phase 1 23 3 Phase 2 26 23 3 52.66 seconds.4 × [ 1298 ] = 22.4.5 Figure 21:7: Timing diagram • Saturation ﬂow rate. G2 = 22.5 seconds. The actual cycle time will be the sum of actual green time plus amber time plus actual red time for any phase.88 seconds.793.9 = 80.88-3+2.5 12 3 21.4 × [ 1298 ] = 11.5 4 17. 233 • Similarly green splitting for the phase 3. • Similarly actual green time for phase 4.4 ≈ 12 seconds.2 0. for phase 1.g3 = 70.5 = 21.04-3+2.4 × [ 1298 ] = 22.04 seconds.g2 = 70. • The actual green time for phase 1 from equationas G1 = 22.5 13 3 36. The phase 1.4 ≈ 23 seconds.02 seconds. 215 • Similarly green splitting for the phase 4. Si from equation= 3600 = 1637 vph.9− 1298 1637 seconds.66-3+2.2 diagram is shown in ﬁgure 21:7. actual cycle time = 23+3+78. Therefore.5 seconds. • Pedestrian time can be found out from as Gp = 4 + 6×3. G3 = 12. where L is the lost time for that phase = 4× 2.5 78. • Similarly actual green time for phase 2.68 seconds ≈ 80 0. • Similarly actual green time for phase 3.

5 [1 2 − 23−2. 417 1 − 1637 (21.as dW E = 104. 433 1 − 1637 (21.5 [1 2 − 12−2.4+3 ]2 104.5 = 42. 196 1 − 1637 (21. IIT Bombay 172 August 24.5 [1 2 − 12−2. dW S = 104.096sec/cycle.57sec/cycle.8) • Delay at the intersection in the north-south direction can be found out from equation.5 = 44. dSE = 104.52sec/cycle.12) • Delay at the intersection in the west-south direction can be found out from equation.4+3 ]2 104. dN W = 104.5 [1 2 − 23−2.5 = 46.4+3 ]2 104. dSN = 104.36sec/cycle.7) • Delay at the intersection in the west-east direction can be found out from equation. dEN = 104.018sec/cycle.4+3 ]2 104. 233 1 − 1637 (21.5 = 42.5 [1 2 − 13−2. 367 1 − 1637 (21.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 21. 187 1 − 1637 (21.5 = 46.4+3 ]2 104. dN S = 104.5 = 45.10) • Delay at the intersection in the south-east direction can be found out from equation.5 [1 2 − 23−2.5 = 40.4+3 ]2 104.44sec/cycle.912sec/cycle.5 [1 2 − 23−2.13) • Delay at the intersection in the east-north direction can be found out from equation. Traﬃc signal design-II • Delay at the intersection in the east-west direction can be found out from equationas dEW = 104.62sec/cycle. 2011 .4+3 ]2 104. 215 1 − 1637 (21.14) Tom Mathew.5 [1 2 − 13−2. 400 1 − 1637 (21.11) • Delay at the intersection in the north-west direction can be found out from equation.9) • Delay at the intersection in the south-north direction can be found out from equation.4+3 ]2 104.5 = 41.

saturation ﬂow = 3600 = 1636. Like other facilities.2 • Cycle time C can be found from equation= 2×2.4×0. signals are also assessed for performance. IIT Bombay 173 August 24.36 = 22.85− 750+650 1636. tg = C − (N × tL ) = 23 − (2 × 2. • Now cycle time can be ﬁnd out as 2×2. Draw the phasing and timing diagrams.85 0. • Hence the traﬃc ﬂowing from north to south can be allowed to ﬂow into two lanes.95 or 23 seconds.2 seconds.85− 450+650 1636.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 21.2 seconds.36 veh/hr. The lost time per phase is 2. Tom Mathew.4×0. green time and performance measure. saturation headway is 2. 2. total lost time per phase (tL ) is 2. delay being th e important parameter used.4) = 18. amber time is 3 seconds per phase. From North East West Solution • Given.85 0. Find the cycle length.5 Summary Green splitting is done by proportioning the green time among various phases according to the critical volume of the phase.85. 2011 . Traﬃc signal design-II P1 450 P2 500 650 750 Figure 21:8: Phase diagram 21. saturation headway is 2.4 seconds. Table shows the traﬃc ﬂow for a four-legged intersection.2 seconds. Assume critical volume to capacity ratio as 0. Phasing diagram can be assumed as in ﬁgure 21:9. 21.36 To South West East Flow(veh/hr) 750 650 500 as negative.4 seconds. • The eﬀective green time . Pedestrian phases are provided by considering the walking speed and start-up lost time.6 Problems 1.

36 174 (21. g2 = 650×18.4 = 10.15) • Delay at the intersection in the west-east direction can be found out from equation.15 seconds.15 Phase 1 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 9. 2011 . Traﬃc signal design-II 500 650 750/2 750/2 Figure 21:9: Phase diagram 1111111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 23 6.2 = 7.36 (21.36 (21.75−2.17) August 24. g1 = 450×18. Therefore.G1 = g1 minus amber 1100 time plus lost time.75 seconds. Now actual green time . G2 = 10.85 3 13.45-3+2.45−2. • Timing diagram is as shown in ﬁgure 21:10 • Delay at the intersection in the east-west direction can be found out from equationas dEW = 23 [1 2 − 10.as dW E = 23 [1 2 − 10.4+3 ]2 23 = 8. G1 = 7.16) • Delay at the intersection in the north-south direction can be found out from equation.4+3 ]2 23 = 4.85 seconds.75−2.2 = 10.45 seconds.892sec/cycle. 650 1 − 1636. 500 1 − 1636. 1100 For phase 2. dN S = Tom Mathew.4 = 6.75-3+2.97sec/cycle.CE415 Transportation Engineering II P1 450 P2 21. IIT Bombay 23 [1 2 − 7. 750 1 − 1636.4+3 ]2 23 = 4.85 10.248sec/cycle. For phase 1.15 3 Phase 2 Figure 21:10: Timing diagram • This green time can be split into two phases as.

Traﬃc signal design-III • Delay at the intersection in the south-north direction can be found out from equation.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 21.703sec/cycle.18) Tom Mathew. 450 1 − 1636. IIT Bombay 175 August 24. dSN = 23 [1 2 − 7.45−2.36 (21. 2011 .4+3 ]2 23 = 6.

Various delay models at signalized intersection 5. Assume at the same time duration in another identical lane if 9 through vehicles moved. then vehicles. Applicable especially at permitted right movements 3.0.1) 9 = 3 + 2 × eRT .0 (22. 7. IIT Bombay 176 August 24. Tom Mathew. ⇒ eRT = 2 Therefore. or even 10 times the time to that of a through movement 6. then 9−3 = 3. Eﬀect of right turning vehicles 2. HCM procedure on signalized intersection capacity and level of service analysis 22. right turn has great diﬃculty in manneouring and ﬁnd a safe gap 4. right turn vehicle may block a through vehicle behind it 5.2 Eﬀect of right-turning vehicles 1. right turn vehciles may take 2. 2.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 22. 4. 2011 . A right-turnings vehicle will consume more eﬀective green time traversing the intersection than a corresponding through vehicle. Traﬃc signal design-III Chapter 22 Traﬃc signal design-III 22. The equivalency concept will answer how many through vehicles could pass the intersection during the time utilized by a through movement.1 Overview Topic that will be covered in this chapter are: 1. Clearence and change interval 4. If 3 through and 2 right turn movement takes place at some time duration in a given lane. the right-turn adjustment factor under the current prevailing condition is 3. Adjustments on saturatin ﬂow 3.

if there is 15 percent right-turn movement. In the above example. 2011 . v is the velocity of the approaching vehicles.15 × 3 + 0. and saturation headway is 2 sec.77 = 1386veh/hr.0 sec).CE415 Transportation Engineering II 22. 22.7) where t is the reaction time (about 1.4) (22.2 and 22.2) For example.6 10.5) (22.8 m/sec2).6) Therefore the adjusted saturatin ﬂow is sadj = 1800 ∗ 0. fRT = 1 = 0. 1 + 0. IIT Bombay 177 August 24. hadj = hideal sec × (pRT × eRT + (1 − pRT ) × 1) (22. g is the acceleration due to gravity (9. The saturation head way is increased thereby reducing the saturatin ﬂow sadj = 3600 = 1385 veh/hr. This factor is normally applied in the saturation ﬂow by adjusting its value.4. Tom Mathew. 2.15 × (3 − 1) (22. eRT is 3. following relation can be easily derived: fRT = 1 1 + pRT (eRT − 1) (22.77 veh/sec. then the adjusted staturatin headway is computed as follows: hadj = 2 sec × (0. Traﬃc signal design-III 8. The amber time Y is calculated as Y =t+ v 2(gn + a)) (22.6 sec/veh 9.85 × 1) = 2. The adjested saturation ﬂow sadj can be written as sadj = sideal × fRT 11. n is the grade of the approach in decimels and a is the deceleration of the vehicle (around 3 m/sec2).3 Change interval Change interval or yellow or amber time is given after GREEN and before RED which allows the vehicles within a ’stopping sight distance’ from the stop line to leagally cross the intersectin. 12.3) 3600 hadj = where fRT is the multiplicative right turn adjustment factor to the ideal stauration ﬂow. From the Equation 22.

CE415 Transportation Engineering II 22. and P is the width of the intersection from STOP line to the farthest conﬂiting pedestrain cross-walk.8) where w is the width of the intersection from stop line to the farthest conﬂicting traﬁc. given as w+L v w+L P . L is the length of the vehicle (about 6 m). IIT Bombay 178 August 24. 2011 .v v RAR == max P +L v if no pedestrians if pedestrain corossing if protected (22.4 Clearence interval The clearence interval or all-red will facilitate a vehicle just crossed the stop line at the turn of red to clear the intersection with out being collided by a vehicle from the next phase. HCM Method of Signal Design 22. ITE recomends the following policy for the design of all read time. v is the speed of the vehicle. Tom Mathew.

The ﬂow of pedestrians impedes left-turining vehicles and inﬂuences the saturation ﬂow rate for the lane group in question. the number of parking movements per hour occuring within 84m of the stop line is an important variable. It is the parametric description of the variables to be analyzed. The general theory is that the busier environment of the CBD causes drivers to be more cautious and less eﬃcient than in other areas. a “local bus” is one that stops to pick up and/or discharge passengers within the intersection at either a near or a far side bus Tom Mathew. the existence of a parking lane is assumed. Some of the variables involved are discussed here. If drivers are used to driving in a big city CBD. Local Bus Volume: In signalized intersection analysis.1 The HCM model The HCM model for signalized intersection analysis is relatively straightforward. Pedestrian ﬂows between 1700 ped/hr and 2100 ped/hr in a cross-walk have been shown to fully block left-turners during the green phase. Input module: The input module is simply a set of conditions that must be speciﬁed for analysis to proceed. IIT Bombay 179 August 24. The model becomes complex when opposing right turns are invloved. Any vehicle entering or leaving a curb parking space constitutes a “movement”. The calibration study conducted for the 1985 HCM [10] indicated that intersections in CBDs have saturation ﬂow rates approximately 10% lower than similar intersections in other areas.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 23. Conﬂicting Pedestrian Flow: Left-turning vehicles turn through the adjacent pedestrian crosswalk. Where parking exists. Area Type: The location of the intersection must be classiﬁed as being in the central business district (CBD) or not. all locations in satellite communities would be classiﬁed as “other”. HCM Method of Signal Design Chapter 23 HCM Method of Signal Design 23. In an isolated rural community. Parking Conditions and Parking Activity: If a lane group has curb parking within 84m of the stop line. even a small business area would be classiﬁed as a CBD. 2011 .

Arrival Type 6: This arrival type is reserved for exceptional progression quality on routes with near-ideal progression characteristics. HCM Method of Signal Design stop. Since demand volumes are entered as full-hour volumes. Arrival Type 5: Dense to moderately dense platoon. Where an exclusive turning lane exists. Volume adjustment module: In the 1994 HCM module. Stopped buses disrupt the ﬂow of other vehicles and inﬂuence the saturation ﬂow rate of the aﬀected lane group. arriving throughout the green phase and represents favourable progression quality on a two-way arterial. Represents higly favourable progression quality. arriving throughout the red phase. not to volumes. arriving at the start of the red phase. it must be analyzed as a separate lane group for analysis. An approach is considered to be a single lane group. Represents unfavourable progression on two-way arterials. Represents very poor progression quality. Where lane groups have more than one lane.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 23. 2011 . Represents operations at isolated and non-interconnected signaliazed intersections characterized by highly dispersed platoons. Arrival Type 2: Moderately dense platoon arriving in the middle of the red phase or dispersed platoon containing 40% to 80% of the lane group volume. Establish lane group for analysis: Any set of lanes across which drivers may optimize their operation through unimpeded lane selection will operate in equlibrium conditions determined by those drivers. Any such set of lanes is analyzed as a single cohesive lane group. arriving at the start of the green phase. peak during the same 15-minute period. Arrival type: The single most important factor inﬂuencing delay predictions is the quality of progression. Several important determinations and calculations are done in this module. except for the cases of exclusive left or right-turn lanes. Arrival Type 3: Random arrivals in which the main platoon contains less than 40% of the lane group volume. This assumes that all the movements of the intersection . containing over 80% of the lane group volume. The 1994 HCM model uses six “arrival types” to account for this impact. A bus that passes through the intersection without stopping to pick up or discharge passengers is considered to be a “heavy vehicle”. equilibrium may not imply equal use of lanes. Arrival Type 1: Dense platoon. all adjustments are applied to saturation ﬂow rate. containing 40% to 80% of the lane group volume. IIT Bombay 180 August 24. each must be adjusted to reﬂect the peak 15-minute interval using a peak hour factor. Lane utilization adjustments: The lane adjustment made to volume is for unequal lane use. Conversion of hourly volumes to peak rates of ﬂow: The 1994 HCM model focusses on operational analysis of the peak 15-minute period within the hour of interest. The 1994 HCM allows for an optimal adjustment factor to account for this. Arrival Type 4: Moderately dense platoon arriving at the middle of the green phase or dispersed platoon. containing over 80% of the lane group volume. The lane utilization Tom Mathew.

Saturation ﬂow rate module: In this module.e. If the factor is not used. a negative adjustment occurs. Lane width adjustment factor: The ideal lane width is deﬁned as 4m. and that it is the heavy vehicles that aﬀect other vehicles in the traﬃc stream. The adjustment factors each adjust the saturation ﬂow rate to account for one prevailing condition that may diﬀer from the deﬁned ideal conditions. the resulting v/c ratios and delays reﬂect average conditions over the lane group. Worksheet: A worksheet is prepared for tabulating intersection movements. the factor for other lanes is 1. the grade adjustment deals with the impact of an approach grade on the saturation headway at which the vehicles cross the stop line. the resulting v/c ratios and delays reﬂect conditons in the most heavily-used lane of the group. the increased side-friction between adjacent vehicles causes drivers to be more cautious. it is assumed that the adjustment factor for other lanes is 1. It is generally assumed that the primary eﬀect of a parking lane is on ﬂow in the immediately adjacent lane.if width is greater than 4m. the prevailing total saturation ﬂow rate for each lane group is estimated taking into account eight adjustment factors. At signalized intersections. a positive adjustment occurs and if the width is equal to 4m. the factor becomes 1.lane utilization factor and proportion of left.peak ﬂow rates. the result is the rate of ﬂow expected is the most heavily-used lane. and increases headways. Local bus blockage adjustment factor: A general adjustment factor is prescribed for the majority of “ordinary” bus stop situations. If the number of lanes in the lane group is more than one.lane group ﬂow rates. When narrower lanes exist.i. The model assumes that the only lane aﬀected by local buses is the left most lane. 2011 . IIT Bombay 181 August 24. Grade adjustment factor: The procedure involved assumes that the eﬀect of grades is on the operation of heavy vehicles only. and it is for this value that the ideal saturation ﬂow rate is deﬁned. and (b) Vehicles entering or leaving curb parking spaces within 84m of the stop line will disrupt ﬂow in the adjacent lane. Tom Mathew.lane groups for analysis.peak hour factor. If width is less than 4m. number of lanes.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 23. thereby aﬀecting the saturation ﬂow rate. Parking adjustment factor: The parking adjustment factor accounts for two deleterious eﬀects on ﬂow in a lane group containing a curb parking lane within 84 m of the stop line: (a) The existence of the parking lane creates additional side friction for vehicles in the adjacent lane.00. When a lane utilization adjustment is used. which will further aﬀect the saturation ﬂow.and right-turns in each lane. there is no diﬀerentiation between buses stopping in a travel lane and buses pulling into and out of a stop not in a travel lane. HCM Method of Signal Design factor adjusts the total lane group ﬂow rate such that when divided by the number of lanes in the group.00. It is assumed that there is no eﬀect on other lanes. For general cases.00.

Shared RT lane with compound phasing Modelling permitted right turns: In modelling the permitted right turns it is necessary to take into consideration.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 23. IIT Bombay 182 August 24. 2011 . Left-turns may be handled under seven diﬀerent scenarios. Shared LT lane with protected +permitted LT phase 7. Single lane approach Right-turn adjustment factor: There are six ways in which right-turns may be handled at a signalized intersection: 1.the average time for opposing standing queue clear the intersection from a multi lane approach. These parameters are to be estimated for various combinations of multilane and single-lane subject and opposing approaches. however. Exclusive RT lane with protected RT phasing 2. not statistically conclusive and there is no algorithm for this adjustment as it depends only on the location of the signalized intersection. Exclusive LT lane with protected LT phase (no pedestrians) 2.denoted as gq . conﬂict with pedestrians using the adjacent crosswalk.subdividing of the green phase. Shared RT lane with permitted phasing 6. Shared RT lane with protected phasing 5. HCM Method of Signal Design Area type adjustment factor: Data collected for preparation of 1985 HCM suggest that saturation ﬂow rates in CBDs tended to be 10% less than similar intersections in other parts of the urban and suburban area. 1. estimation of proportion of right turning vehicles in right lane. Left-turn adjustment factor: Left-turn vehicles. Shared LT lane with protected LT phase 5. in general.denoted by gf . Exclusive LT lane with permitted LT phase 3. Exclusive RT lane with compound RT phasing 4. denoted by PL . Exclusive LT lane with protected + permitted LT phase 4. The data were. Exclusive RT lane with permitted RT phasing 3.average time to arrival of ﬁrst right turning vehicle in subject lane group. Tom Mathew. Shared LT lane with permitted LT phase 6.

manual computation becomes extremely diﬃcult and the usage of software becomes the preferred way to implement these procedures. the right-turn adjustment factor for protected portion of compound right-turn phases.and the right-turn adjustment factor for the permitted portion of a compound right-turn phase. compound phasing in exclusive right-turn lane groups. and ﬁnally for the intersection as a whole. a level of service to each lane group can be designated and the intersection as a whole. The factors that need to be considered are compound phasing in shared lane groups. Once delays are determined. determining critical lane groups and the sum of critical lane v/s ratios. Determining the v/s ratios. IIT Bombay 183 August 24.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 23. A variety of base cases can be referred to when dealing with the analysis of protected + permitted or permitted + protected signal phasing. Level of service module: This involves the estimation of average individual stopped delays for each lane group. 2011 . modidfying signal timing based on v/s ratios are outcomes of the procedure involved in the capacity analysis module. ? Tom Mathew. In applying these procedures. determining lane group capacities and v/c ratios. Coordinated signal design Modelling the right-turn adjustment factor for compound (protected/permitted) phasing: The most complicated right-turn case to be modelled is the combination of protected and permitted phasing. Capacity analysis module: Analysis of signalized intersection can be made through the capacity analysis module. These values may be aggregated to ﬁnd weighted average delays for each approach.

CE415 Transportation Engineering II 24. Beneﬁts 2.1 Factors aﬀecting coordination There are four major areas of consideration for signal coordination: 1. Coordinated signal design Chapter 24 Coordinated signal design 24. 24. the signals are so far apart that they may be considered independently. Vehicles released from a signal often maintain their grouping for well over 335m. it is necessary to coordinate the green time so that vehicles may move eﬃciently through the set of signals. Fig. In other cases. two signals are so closely spaced that they should be considered to be one signal. 2011 .1 Signal Coordination for Progressive and Congested Conditions For signals that are closely spaced. At t = t1 .1. Exceptions to the coordinated scheme The most complex signal plans require that all signals have the same cycle length. Purpose of signal system 3. Factors lessening beneﬁts 4. IIT Bombay 184 August 24. the ﬁrst signal turns second signal t= $t_{2}$ Signal offset signal green yellow red First signal $t_{1}$ Time Figure 24:1: Vehicle trajectory Tom Mathew. In some cases. 24:1 illustrates path (trajectory) that a vehicle takes as time passes.

the capacitites in both directions on some streets. Purpose of the signal system The physical layout of the street system and the major traﬃc ﬂows determine the purpose of the signal system. including parking. the oﬀset is deﬁned as the diﬀerence between green initiation times.1) The object is to make this disbeneﬁt as small as possible. fuel conservation and minimum air pollution are achieved by keeping vehicles moving as smoothly as possible at eﬃcient speeds. and multiple driveways • wide variability in traﬃc speeds • very short signal spacing • heavy turn volumes. and other terms as given here: cost = A × (total stops) + B × (total delay) + (other terms) (24. After some lag. 2011 . whether one-way arterial. IIT Bombay 185 August 24. the vehicle starts and moves down the street. it either continues or stops. The weights A and B are coeﬃcients to be speciﬁed by the engineer or analyst. possibility of sending vehicles through successive intersections in moving platoons and avoiding stoppage of large number of vehicles. either into or out of the street Tom Mathew. This can be achieved by a good signal-coordination timing plan. one-way. Beneﬁts It is common to consider the beneﬁt of a coordination plan in terms of a “cost” or “penalty” function. or mixed network. measured in terms of the downstream green initiation relative to the upstream green initiation. Coordinated signal design green. a weighted combination of stops and delay. The values of A and B may be selected so as to reﬂect the estimated economic cost of each stop and delay. determination of preferential paths Factorslessening beneﬁts Among the factors limiting beneﬁts of signal coordination are the following: • inadequate roadway capacity • existence of substantial side frictions. the movements to be progressed.two-way. two-way arterial. In general. The diﬀerence between the two green initiation times is referred to as the signal oﬀset.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 24. It reaches the second signal at some time t = t2 . Depending on the indication of that signal. It is necessary to consider the type of system. Given that the vehicles must travel. or simply as the oﬀset. double parking. Other beneﬁts of signal coordination include. maintenance of a preferred speed. The conservation of energy and the preservation of the environment have grown in importance over the years. can then be used in a cost-beneﬁt analysis to evaluate alternative plans. The amounts by which various timing plans reduce the cost. loading.

Next the time-space diagram is constructed according to the following rules: Tom Mathew. so that one may easily plot vehicel positions as a position of time. Fig. A critical intersection is one that cannot handle the volumes delivered to it at any cycle length. one on each side of this troublesome intersection.sec. the ideal oﬀsets can be determined if the platoon speed is known. 24:2: a green signal indication is shown by a blank or thin line. For the purpose of illustration. 24. The oﬀsets are determined according to Eqn.1. a northbound vehicle going at a constnat speed of 40fps is shown. The diagram is scaled with respect to distance.1. Assuming no vehicles are queued at the signals. Coordinated signal design Northbound vehicle 600 400 200 0 60 Time (sec) 120 Figure 24:2: Time space diagram Exceptions of the coordinated scheme All signals cannot be easily coordinated. When an intersection creating problems lies directly in the way of the plan that has to be designed for signal coordination. For purpose of illustration of trajectory in the time space diagram for intersections. it is the oﬀset that will cause minimum delay. can be considered. then two separate systems.2) S where: t(ideal) = ideal oﬀset.2. m. IIT Bombay 186 August 24. 24:2. The standard conventions are used in Fig. the ideal oﬀset is 25 sec for that case and that objective. 2011 . 24. amber by a shaded line and red by a solid line. If it is assumed that the platoon was moving as it went through the upstream intersection then the ideal oﬀset is given by L t(ideal) = (24.3 Signal progression on one-way streets Determining ideal oﬀsets In Fig.2 The time-space diagram and ideal oﬀsets The time-space diagram is simply the plot of signal indications as a function of time for two or more signals.CE415 Transportation Engineering II $N$ Distance (m) 24. L = block length. mps. In Fig. For the objective of minimum delay. 24:2 is a time-space diagram for two intersections. S = vehicle speed. The “ideal oﬀset” is deﬁned as the oﬀset that will cause the speciﬁed objective to be best satisﬁed. a platoon speed of 60 fps is assumed. 24:3 a one-way arterial is shown with the link lengths indicated. 24.

vehicles that turned into the block. The vertical should be scaled so as to accomodate the dimensions of the arterial. This procedure is repeated for all other intersections working one at a time. or vehicles that came out of parking lots or spots. With this point located. and the horizontal so as to accomodate atleast three to four cycle lengths. usually with main street green initiation at t=0. Fig. so as to avoid unnecessary stops. IIT Bombay L − (Qh + Loss1 ) S 187 (24. the periods of green. 24:5 explores some features of the time-space diagram. Eﬀect of vehicles queued at signals It sometimes happens that there are vehicles stored in block waiting for a green light. 2011 . 4. These may be stragglers from the last platoon.3) August 24. Coordinated signal design Northbound vehicle 600 400 200 0 60 Time (sec) 120 Figure 24:3: Case study:progression on a one way street Distance (m) 6 2000 5 1600 4 1200 point 3 3 800 Point 2 2 400 1 0 Point 1 60 120 180 Time (sec) 240 Figure 24:4: Time space diagram for case study 1. The beginning intersection should be scaled ﬁrst. 2. 24:4 shows the time-space diagram for the illustration mentioned previously.CE415 Transportation Engineering II $N$ Distance (m) 24. followed by periods of green and red. Fig. 3. yellow and red for this signal are ﬁlled in. The ideal oﬀset must be adjusted to allow for these vehicles. The ideal oﬀset can then be given as: tideal = Tom Mathew. relative to t=0 and at the proper distance fromt he ﬁrst intersection. The main street green of the next downstream signal should be located next.

There can be great cycle-to-cycle variation in the actual queue size. Oﬀset determination on a two-way street If any oﬀset were changed in Fig. The fact that oﬀsets are interrelated presents one of the most fundamental problems of signal optimization. IIT Bombay 188 August 24. then the link oﬀset can be set better than by pretending that no queue exists. Coordinated signal design Distance (m) 6 2000 5 1600 4 1200 3 800 2 400 1 0 60 120 180 Time (sec) 240 Figure 24:5: Vehicle trajectory and green wave in a progressed movement Distance (m) 6 2000 5 1600 4 1200 3 800 2 400 1 0 60 120 180 Time (sec) 240 Figure 24:6: Moving southbound where. 2011 . 24:6 to accomodate the southbound vehicle(s). 24:6 shows the trajectory of a southbound vehicle on this arterial. The inspection of a typical cycle (as in Fig. h= discharge headway of queued vehicle. queue estimation is a diﬃcult and expensive task and should be viewed with caution. although its average size may be estimated. A note on queue estimation If it is known that there exists a queue and its size is known approximately. Even then. then the northbound vehicle or platoon would suﬀer. sec/veh.1. 24:7) yields the conclusion that the oﬀsets in two directions add to one cycle length. 24:3 is not a one-way but rather a two-way street. 24.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 24.on two-way streets and in networks Consider that the arterial shown in Fig. veh.4 Signal Progression . Tom Mathew. Fig. Q = number of vehicles queued per lane. and Loss1 = loss time associated with vehicles starting from rest at the ﬁrst downstream signal.

24:8) the oﬀsets might add to two cycle lengths. Fig. and that it is the closing or “closure” of the open tree which presents constraints on some links.i = nC (24. 24:9 extends this to a grid of one-way streets. (24. splits. The general expression for the two oﬀsets in a link on a two-way street can be written as tNB. Coordinated signal design $t_{NB}$ $t_{NB} + t_{SB} = C$ $L$ $C$ $2C$ $t_{SB}$ Figure 24:7: Oﬀsets on 2 way arterials are not independent. n is an integer and C is the cycle length. IIT Bombay 189 August 24. Any actual oﬀset can be expressed as the desired “ideal” oﬀset.i) = tideal(j. Oﬀset determination in a grid A one-way street system has a number of advantages. Fig.One cycle length Distance $2C$ $t_{NB}$ $L$ $t_{SB}$ $C$ $2C$ Figure 24:8: Oﬀsets on 2 way arterials are not independent.i + tSB.5) Tom Mathew. and three oﬀsets are speciﬁed. 2011 . not the least of which is traﬃc elimination of left turns against opposing traﬃc. 24:9 highlights the fact that if the cycle length. When queue clearances are taken into account.i) where j represents the direction and i represents the link.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 24. plus an “error” or “discrepancy” term: tactual(j.i) + e(j. the oﬀsets might add to zero lengths. The total elimination of constraints imposed by the “closure” of loops within the network or grid is not possible. The speciﬁcation of one east-west street then “locks in” all other east-west oﬀsets.4) where the oﬀsets are actual oﬀsets. in which all of the north-south streets are independently speciﬁed. The key feature is that an open tree of one-way links can be completely independently set.Two cycle length For longer lengths (as in Fig. the oﬀset in the fourth link is determined and cannot be independently speciﬁed.

In terms of vehicles that can be put through this system without stopping. The bandwidth is limited by the minimum green in the direction of interest. Coordinated signal design $C$ $A$ 4 $D$ 1 $N$ One way Progressions Streets with implied offsets Figure 24:9: Closure eﬀect in grid Distance (m) Northbound vehicle 4 600 3 400 2 200 1 0 60 Time (sec) 120 Figure 24:10: Bandwidths on a time space diagram 24. 2011 .5 The bandwidth concept and maximum bandwidth The bandwidth concept is very popular in traﬃc engineering practice. The system is badly in need of retiming atleast on the basis of the bandwidth objective.1. Bandwidth and eﬃciency of a progression The eﬃciency of a bandwidth (measured in seconds) is deﬁned as the ratio of the bandwidth to the cycle length. the windows of green (through which platoons of vehicles can move) are easy visual images for both working profeesionals and public presentations 2. because 1. IIT Bombay 190 August 24. by trial and error.5 vehicles per lane per cycle in a nonstop path through the deﬁned system. There is no bandwidth through the south-bound. note that the northbound bandwidth can carry 17/2. expressed as a percentage: eﬃciency = bandwidth × 100% cycle length (24. The northbound eﬃciency can be estimated as (17/60)100% = 28.0 = 8.6) An eﬃciency of 40% to 50% is considered good.4%. good solutions can often be obtained manually.CE415 Transportation Engineering II $N$ 3 $B$ 2 24. Fig. 24:10 illustrates the bandwidths for one signal-timing plan. The northbound direction can Tom Mathew.

IIT Bombay 191 August 24. A change in cycle length may even be required. even though better timing plans might be obtained. • Likewise. until some improved oﬀset pattern is identiﬁed There is no need to produce new strips for each cycle length considered: all times can be made relative to an arbitrary cycle length ‘C”. intersection 2 cannot be northbound without harming the southbound. the following should be kept in consideration: • If the green initiation at Intersection 1 comes earlier. Coordinated signal design 8. subject to some relation between the bandwidths in the two directions.CE415 Transportation Engineering II handle 24. The only change necessary is to change the slope(s) of the guidelines representing the vehicle speeds. For purpose of illustration. or one half of the cycle length. 24:12 • cutting the copy horizontally into strips. • Nor can intersection 3 help the southbound without harming the northbound.7) where: BW = measured or computed bandwidth. sec/veh. the southbound platoon is released sooner and gets stopped or disrupted at intersection 2. 24:11. 2011 . The changes in oﬀset may be explored by: • copying the time-space diagram of Fig. To obtain a good solution through trial-and-error attempt. Refer to Fig. If the per lane demand volume is less than 510vphpl and if the ﬂows are so organized. L= number of through lanes in indicated direction. the vehicle would have arrived at intersection 2 at C/2. sec. If the cycle length C = 120sec. Tom Mathew.5veh cycle 3600sec × × = 510vph per lane cycle 60sec hr very eﬃciently if they are organized into 8-vehicle platoons when they arrive at this system. 24:12 is that there is no way to include this signal without destroying one or the other through band. The northbound vehicle takes 3600/60 = 60sec to travel from intersection 4 to intersection 2. one strip per intersection • placing a guideline over the strips. There are both trial-and-error and somewhat elaborate manual techniques for establishing maximum bandwidths. assume it is given that a signal with 50:50 split may be located midway between Intersections 2 and 3. the system will operate well in the northbound direction. which shows four signals and decent progressions in both the directions. or cutting both in half. Finding bandwidths: A trial-and-error approach and a case study The engineer ususally wishes to design for maximum bandwidth in one direction. The computation can be formalized into an equation as follows: nonstop volume = 3600(BW )(L) vph (h)(C) (24. The possible eﬀect as it appears in Fig. so as to indicate the speed of the platoon(s) by the slope of the guideline • sliding the strips relative to each other. The oﬀsets must be moved around until a more satisfactory timing plan develops. h = headway in moving platoon.and C =cycle length.

1. 2011 . Accordingly. 24. Optimization of progressions could not depend on mathematical formulations simply because even one set of computations could take days witht he tools available. leading to later developments that produced the signal-optimization programs in common use in late 1980s. As computers became more accessible and less expensive. so as to conform to the Tom Mathew. It may happen that the simple progression is revised two or more times in a day. IIT Bombay 192 August 24. Previously. New work on the maximum-bandwidth solution followed with greater computational power encouraging the new formulations.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Distance (m) 1 N 600m 2 lanes/directions 24. The determination of good progressions on an arterial must be viewed in this context:only 25 years ago. 15 years ago. calculators had only the most basic functions. it is often called a forward progression. As the simple progression results in a green wave that advances with the vehicles. Coordinated signal design 1500 vpl 2 600m V = 20m/s 3 600m 4 1500 vph 60 Time (sec) 120 180 Figure 24:11: Case study:Four intersections with good progressions Distance (m) Intersection 1 2 New 3 4 60 120 Time (sec) 180 Figure 24:12: Eﬀect of inserting a new signal into system A historical perspective on the use of bandwidth An elegant mathematical formulation requiring two hours of computation on a supercomputer is some-what irrelevant in most engineering oﬃces. hand held calculators did not exist.graphical methods were developed. The ﬁrst optimization programs that took queues and other detaisl into account began to appear. 20 years ago. engineers used slide rules.6 Forward and reverse progressions Simple progression is the name given to the progression in which all the signals are set so that a vehicle released from the ﬁrst intersection will arrive at the downstream intersections just as the signals at those intersections initiate green. the move to computer solutions accelerated in the 1970s. personal computers were at best a new concept.

24. The downstream signal must turn green before the upstream signal. Thus. The visual image of such a pattern is of the green marching upstream. • Whenever possible the value of these appropriate combinations should be considered explicitly for they can greatly determine the qualityof ﬂow for decades. toward the drivers in the platoon. a logical ﬁrst step is simply to ride the system and inspect it. In this case. the same care should be taken to preserve the appropriate combinations and/or to introduce them. the scheme may be referred to as a ﬂexible progression. the settings in the ﬁeld might be totally diﬀerent than those originally intended and/or set. block length and platoon speed exist.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 24. Under certain circumstances. the internal queues are suﬃciently large that the ideal oﬀset is negative. to enhance progressions.8 Insights from the importance of signal phasing and cycle length The traﬃc engineer may well be faced with a situation that looks intimidating. Coordinated signal design direction of the major ﬂow. IIT Bombay 193 August 24. This is referred to as reverse progression. the settings in the ﬁeld might be totally out of date. • In considering the installations of new signals on existing arterials. The existence of these patterns presents the facts that: • The system cycle length should be speciﬁed based primarily on the geometry and platoon speed whenever possible. • The task of good progression in both directions becomes easy if an appropriate combination of cycle length.7 Eﬀective progression on two-way streets In certain geometries it is possible to obtain very eﬀective progressions in both directions on two-way streets. Even if the plan is not out of date. appreciating the magnitude of the problem. but for which the community seek to have smooth ﬂow of traﬃc along an arterial or in a system. 2011 . 24. Second. to allow suﬃcient time for the queue to start moving before the arrival of the platoon. The orderly approach begins with ﬁrst. oﬀsets. The splits. A distinction should be made among • streets that are one way • streets that can be treated as one-way. or to the ﬂow level.1. due to the actual or desired ﬂow patterns • streets that must be treated as two-ways • larger grids in which streets interact because they form unavoidable “closed trees” and are each important in that they cannot be ignored for the sake of establishing a “master grid” which is an open tree Tom Mathew. and cycle length might be totally out of date for the existing traﬃc demand. it would be very useful to sketch out how much of the system can be thought of as an “open tree” of one way links.1.

1. proper oﬀsets and proper splits. Third.extreme congestion is marked by a new phenomenon: intersection blockage. Another issue to address. 24. Area Traﬃc Control • smaller grids in which the issue is not coordination but local land access and circulation Downtown grids might well fall into the last category. IIT Bombay 194 August 24. for poor signalization is frequently the cause of what looks like an incurable problem • If the problem persists.9 Oversaturated traﬃc The problem of oversaturation is not just one of degree but of kind . attention should focus on the combination of cycle length. Release metering refers to the cases in which vehicles are stored in such locations as parking garages and lots. The overall approach can be stated in a logical set of steps: • Address the root causes of congestion • Update the signalization. A metering plan involving the three types . Internal metering refers to the use of control strategies within a congested network so as to inﬂuence the distribution of vehicles arriving at or departing froma critical location. 24. external and release . • Develop site speciﬁc evaluations where there are conﬂicting goals.1.may be applied. one can adapt and “ﬁx up” the situation to a certain extent. so that inﬂow rates into the system are limited if the system if the system is already too congested. from which their release can be in principle controlled. Fourth. • Provide more space by use of turn bays and parking congestions. ofcourse.10 Signal remedies Signalization can be improved through measures like. is whether the objective of progressed movement of traﬃc should be maintained. use novel signalization to minimize the impact and spatial extent of the extreme congestion.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 24. at least in some cases. block length and platoon speed and their interaction. 2011 . Sometimes when there is too much traﬃc then options such as equity oﬀsets(to aid cross ﬂows) and diﬀerent splits may be called upon. if the geometry is not suitable. Tom Mathew. External metering refers to the control of the major access points to the deﬁned system.internal. reasonably short cycle lengths.

These include: 1. or in oﬀ hours on the control computer when it was not being used for control of the traﬃc signals. 2011 . With the current emphasis on ITS. 2.M. allowing the development of control plans. P. three basic plans (A. Earlier. The computer solutions were then run on another machine. Basic principles and ﬂow of information The basic system Originally. Though this “oﬀ-line” system of control plans gives an image of a deﬁcient system. With appropriate plans stored for each such event. and the traﬃc-signal plans are not responsive to actual traﬃc conditions. IIT Bombay 195 August 24.the plans for such a system are developed based on the engineers usage of data from ﬁeld studies to generate plans either by hand. Ability to have multiple plans and special plans: In many localities a three-dial controller is quite suﬃcient: if traﬃc is generally regular. peak. the plans can be called up by time of day.1 Introduction Digital computers are used to control traﬃc signals along arterials and in networks in many cities throughout the world. or by computer. Information on equipment failures: The early systems simply took control of electromechanical controllers. it was assumed that the power of the digital computer could be used to control many traﬃc signals from one location. 3. peak. Ability to update signals from a Central Location: The ability to retime signals from a central location without having to send people along an entire arterial to retime the signals individually at each intersection saves lot of time. or by operator intervention.0. oﬀ-peak) can meet the needs. with special plans stored for certain days. There is no feedback of information from detectors in the ﬁeld.M. Area Traﬃc Control Chapter 25 Area Traﬃc Control 25. computer control of systems is now classiﬁed as Advanced Transportation Management Systems (ATMS) and the control centers themselves as Transportation Management Centers (TMCs).using packages available at the time. driving the cam-shaft from the central computer and receiving a Tom Mathew. Here the basic issues and concepts invovled in computer control of surface street traﬃc are discussed. there are many advantages of this “limited” system. The basic concept can be summarized thus: the computer sends out signals along one or more arterials.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 25. The computer opens the possiblity to have an N-dial controller.

The information provided by the control computer allowed such failures to be detected and repair crews dispatched. Parking computer pattern y 4 1 Traffic data Operator Figure 25:1: Computer control system with detector information used conﬁrmation signal. . . with the observed pattern being matched to the most appropriate prestored pattern and the coresponding plan veing used. The actual traﬃc pattern can be compared to the expected.Match plan to pattern: This is a variation on the ﬁrst concept. This approach presumes an advantage to tailoring the control plan to speciﬁc traﬃc data. Xn 3 Plan Detector P1 P2 . Traﬃc data used for plan selection Fig. This can be done in one of three principal ways: 1.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 2 Pattern Library of plans X1 X2 . Performance data on contractor or service personnel: With a failure detected and notiﬁcation made. 2011 . IIT Bombay 196 August 24. If the information is not being used in an “online” setting and hence still does not inﬂuence the current plan selection. Use library . 2. and if a deviation occurs. 25:1 shows a computer control system that actually uses the traﬃc data to aid in plan selection. It is necessary to note that the time between plan updates is constrained by the speed with which the on-line plan computations can be done. looking up in a library both the expected traﬃc pattern and the preselected plan matched to the pattern. the system can log the arrival of the crew and/or the time at which the intersection is returned to active service. the computer is being used as the tool for the collection of permanent or long-term count data.Monitor deviations from expected pattern: This concept uses a timeof-day approach. Tom Mathew. Develop plan on-line: This concept depends on the ability to do the necessary computations within a deadline either as a background task or on a companion computer dedicated to such a computations. Failure to receive this signal meant trouble. 4. 3. the computer can then look through its library for a closer match and use the appropriate plan. Pn Controller confirm signal 25. Typically. Collection of traﬃc data The ability of a computer to receive great amount of data and process it is made use of by detectors in the ﬁeld for sending information back to the central location. The desire to have more frequent updates implicitly assumes that the real traﬃc situation can be known precisely enough to diﬀerentiate between consecutive update periods. Use library .

This aﬀects the mode choice also. parkingduration = parkingload parkingvolume It is the ratio of total vehicle hours to the number of Tom Mathew. Parking Chapter 26 Parking 26.2 Parking studies Before taking any measures for the betterment of conditions.2. It is an impact of transport development. Since the duration of parking varies with diﬀerent vehicles. This has a great economical impact. Average parking duration: vehicles parked. 26. 2011 . The actual volume of vehicles entered in the area is recorded. This does not account for repetition of vehicles. Accumulation curve is the graph obtained by plotting the number of bays occupied with respect to time.1 Parking statistics Parking accumulation: It is deﬁned as the number of vehicles parked at a given instant of time. It can also be obtained by simply multiplying the number of vehicles occupying the parking area at each time interval with the time interval. Parking load : Parking load gives the area under the accumulation curve.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 26. It is expressed as vehicle hours. several statistics are used to access the parking need. data regarding availability of parking space. It is also required to estimate the parking fares also. The availability of less space in urban areas has increased the demand for parking space especially in areas like Central business district. Parking volume: Parking volume is the total number of vehicles parked at a given duration of time. IIT Bombay 197 August 24. Normally this is expressed by accumulation curve.1 Overview Parking is one of the major problems that is created by the increasing road traﬃc. extent of its usage and parking demand is essential. 26. Parking surveys are intended to provide all these information.

Tom Mathew. Now the accumulation graph can be plotted by simply noting the number of bays occupied at time interval of 15. 5veh Parking turnover = 5 veh/2 hours = 0. It gives an aggregate measure of how eﬀectively the parking space is utilized. ﬁxed period sampling and license plate method of survey.83% 26.1) To illustrate the various measures.83 veh/hr/bay.3 Parking surveys Parking surveys are conducted to collect the above said parking statistics. Parking index can be found out as follows parking index = parking load × 100 parking capacity (26. IIT Bombay 198 August 24.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 26.75 veh hour Parking index = 3×2 veh hours × 100= 45. 1 2 3 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111111 00000000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111111 00000000 11111 11111111 00000 00000000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 and occupancy Bays No. Parking index: Parking index is also called occupancy or eﬃciency. 60 60 Average parking duration = 2. The most common parking surveys conducted are in-out survey.75 veh hours = 33 minutes. minutes ias shown in the ﬁgure. of vehicles 3 2 1 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 110 Time Parking accumulation curve Figure 26:1: Parking bays and accumulation curve The various measures are calculated as shown below: Parking volume= 5 vehicles.of baysavailable This can be expressed as number of vehicles per bay per time duration. consider a small example in ﬁgure 26:1. 30. 45 etc. which shows the duration for which each of the bays are occupied(shaded portion). parkingturnover = parkingvolume N o. 3bays 2. It is deﬁned as the ratio of number of bays occupied in a time duration to the total space available. 2011 . Parking load = (1 + 2 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 1) 15 = 11×15 = 2.75 veh hour. Parking Parking turnover: It is the ratio of number of vehicles parked in a duration to the number of parking bays available.

accidents. License plate method of survey: This results in the most accurate and realistic data. obstruction to ﬁre-ﬁghting operations etc. Environmental pollution: They also cause pollution to the environment because stopping and starting of vehicles while parking and unparking results in noise and fumes. Common type of parking accidents occur while driving out a car from the parking area. Sometimes they block access to hydrants and access to buildings. Then after a ﬁxed time interval that may vary between 15 minutes to i hour. Congestion: Parking takes considerable street space leading to the lowering of the road capacity. In-out survey: In this survey. Then the number of vehicles that enter the parking lot for a particular time interval is counted. Here the labor required is very less. 26. Parking 1. 2. then there are less chances of missing short-term parkers.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 26. and while bringing in the vehicle to the parking lot for parking. 3. Hence. Accidents: Careless maneuvering of parking and unparking leads to accidents which are referred to as parking accidents. They also aﬀect the aesthetic beauty of the buildings because cars parked at every available space creates a feeling that building rises from a plinth of cars. Hence we cannot estimate the parking fare from this survey. the occupancy count in the selected parking lot is taken at the beginning. Tom Mathew. Only one person may be enough. journey time and delay will also subsequently increase. the count is again taken. Parking duration and turn over is not obtained. The ﬁnal occupancy in the parking lot is also taken. pollution. In this case of survey. Obstruction to ﬁre ﬁghting operations: Parked vehicles may obstruct the movement of ﬁreﬁghting vehicles. The operational cost of the vehicle increases leading to great economical loss to the community. careless opening of the doors of parked cars. This will give the data regarding the duration for which a particular vehicle was using the parking bay. 2011 . But this method is very labor intensive.4 Ill eﬀects of parking Parking has some ill-eﬀects like congestion. All vehicles are counted at the beginning of the survey. speed will be reduced. Fixed period sampling: This is almost similar to in-out survey. IIT Bombay 199 August 24. This will help in calculating the fare because fare is estimated based on the duration for which the vehicle was parked. But we wont get any data regarding the time duration for which a particular vehicle used that parking lot. Here there are chances of missing the number of vehicles that were parked for a short duration. If the time interval is shorter. The number of vehicles that leave the parking lot is also taken. every parking stall is monitored at a continuous interval of 15 minutes or so and the license plate number is noted down.

25. However. AB = OBsin30◦ = BC = OP cos30◦ = BD = DQcos60◦ = CD = BD − BC = 5 − 4. This classiﬁcation is based on the angle in which the vehicles are parked with respect to the road alignment. the parking requirements are diﬀerent for diﬀerent land use zones.5 metres and that for a truck is 3. 5. 2011 . 4.33. Thus.m.m as parking area. Parallel parking of cars is shown in ﬁgure 26:2. Parking Figure 26:2: Illustration of parallel parking 26. Hence.6 On street parking On street parking means the vehicles are parked on the sides of the street itself. This method of parking produces least obstruction to the on-going traﬃc on the road since least road width is used. Common types of on-street parking are as listed below. Oﬃces may require atleast one space for every 70 sq. An example is shown in ﬁgure 26:3. it consumes the maximum curb length and therefore only a minimum number of vehicles can be parked for a given kerb length.5 Parking requirements There are some minimum parking requirements for diﬀerent types of building.CE415 Transportation Engineering II L 5. In this case. the vehicles are parked at 30◦ with respect to the road alignment. One parking space is enough for 10 seats in a restaurant where as theatres and cinema halls need to keep only 1 parking space for 20 seats.m require only community parking space.5 5. N The length available to park N number of vehicles.0 26. For residential plot area from 500 to 1000 sq.33 = Tom Mathew. 26. 0. For residential plot area less than 300 sq. it is the most safest parking from the accident perspective. Delay caused to the traﬃc is also minimum in this type of parking.9 30◦ parking: In thirty degree parking.5 metres. Parallel parking: The vehicles are parked along the length of the road. Here there is no backward movement involved while parking or unparking the vehicle. minimum one-fourth of the open area should be reserved for parking. more vehicles can be parked compared to parallel parking. As per IRC the standard dimensions of a car is taken as 5× 2. This will be usually controlled by government agencies itself. August 24. From the ﬁgure.9 2.67. Also there is better maneuverability. IIT Bombay 200 1.75× 7. L = 5.

5 m 1.89N+2. more number of vehicles can be accommodated in this type of parking.77 45 5. 2. From the ﬁgure 26:5. Right angle parking: In right angle parking or 90◦ parking. length of parking space available for parking N number of vehicles in a given kerb is L = 3.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 1. L = AC + (N-1)CE =5.33 A B O 5m 26. the vehicles are parked perpendicular to the direction of the road. length available for parking N vehicles =2.16..33 = 5. 0 m 2.58+(N-1)5 =0. Although it consumes maximum width kerb L 60 2.58 For N vehicles..66 m Figure 26:3: Illustration of 30◦ parking 1.. Parking L E .58+5N 45◦ parking: As the angle of parking increases.77 60◦ parking: The vehicles are parked at 60◦ to the direction of road.31 m Figure 26:4: Illustration of 45◦ parking AB + BC = 1. Hence compared to parallel parking and thirty degree parking.25 m CD 30 1Q 2 P n 4.25 4. More number of vehicles can be accommodated in this parking type. 5 m Figure 26:5: Illustration of 60◦ parking Tom Mathew. From ﬁgure 26:4. IIT Bombay 201 August 24.54 N+1. more number of vehicles can be parked.5m .25 + 4. 2011 5.

A typical layout of an oﬀ-street parking is shown in ﬁgure 26:7. The number of vehicles coming in and out of the parking lot for a time interval of 5 minutes is as shown in the table 26:1.5 Figure 26:6: Illustration of 90◦ parking 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 11111 000 00000 111 000 111 11111 000 00000 111 000 111 11111 000 00000 111 000 111 11111 000 00000 111 000 111 11111 000 00000 1111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 ENTRY EXIT 111 111 000 000 111 111 000 000 111 111 000 000 111 111 000 000 111 111 000 000 Figure 26:7: Illustration of oﬀ-street parking length required is very little. Find the accumulation. total parking load. Table gives the result of the survey.7 Oﬀ street parking In many urban centres.5N. 2011 . However. some areas are exclusively allotted for parking which will be at some distance away from the main stream of traﬃc. This arrangement causes obstruction to the road traﬃc particularly if the road width is less. An example is shown in ﬁgure 26:6. average occupancy and eﬃciency of the parking lot.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 26. it can accommodate maximum number of vehicles for a given kerb length. Length available for parking N number of vehicles is L = 2. Such a parking is referred to as oﬀ-street parking. Example 1 From an in-out survey conducted for a parking area consisting of 40 bays. the initial count was found to be 25. They may be operated by either public agencies or private ﬁrms. In this type of parking. Parking L 2. Tom Mathew. IIT Bombay 202 August 24. the vehicles need complex maneuvering and this may cause severe accidents. 26.

For the ﬁrst time interval of 5 minutes. accumulation can be found out as 25+3-2 = 26. IIT Bombay 203 August 24.5 185 2 7 32 80 160 4 2 34 85 170 6 4 36 90 180 4 1 39 97. It is being tabulated in column 4.5 155 8 2 37 92.5 195 2 5 36 90 180 Total 1735 Time (1) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 • Accumulation can be found out as initial count plus number of vehicles that entered the parking lot till that time minus the number of vehicles that just exited for that particular time interval. Parking Solution The solution is shown in table 26:2 Table 26:2: In-out parking survey solution In Out Accumulation Occupancy Parking load (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 3 2 26 65 130 2 4 24 60 120 4 2 26 65 130 5 4 27 67.5 195 3 3 39 97.5 135 7 3 31 77. 2011 .CE415 Transportation Engineering II Table 26:1: In-out survey data Time In Out 5 3 2 10 2 4 15 4 2 20 5 4 25 7 3 30 8 2 35 2 7 40 4 2 45 6 4 50 4 1 55 3 3 60 2 5 26. Tom Mathew.

Columns 1 to 5 is the input data. P arking index = 26 × 100 = 65%. 8 and 9 of the table corresponding to the time intervals 15.25 vehicle hours Example 2 The parking survey data collected from a parking lot by license plate method is s shown in the table 26:3 below. then it has a code 1. This is shown in columns 6. 45 and 60 seconds. • Parking load is tabulated in column 6. Similarly. The parking status in every bay is coded ﬁrst. The occupancy for the remaining time slot is similarly 40 calculated and is tabulated in column 5. average turn over. it is counted as 3. parking capacity and eﬃciency of the parking lot.63%.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 26. parking load. It is obtained by multiplying accumulation with the time interval. For the ﬁrst time interval. Parking • Occupancy or parking index is given by equation For the ﬁrst time interval of ﬁve minutes. • Total parking load is the summation of all the values in column 5 which is equal to 1935 vehicle minutes or 32. 7. For the ﬁrst bay. 2011 . If a vehicle occupies that bay for that time interval. 30. parking load = 26 × 5 = 130 vehicle minutes. Table 26:3: Licence plate parking Bay Time 0-15 15-30 30-45 1 1456 9813 2 1945 1945 1945 3 3473 5463 5463 4 3741 3741 9758 5 1884 1884 6 7357 7 4895 4895 8 8932 8932 8932 9 7653 7653 8998 10 7321 2789 11 1213 1213 3212 12 5678 6678 7778 survey data 45-60 5678 1945 5463 4825 7594 7893 4895 4821 2789 4778 8888 Solution See the following table for solution 26:4. one vehicle is Tom Mathew. for the second bay. Thus it is the average of all values given in column 5 and the value is 80. • Turn over is computed as the number of vehicles present in that bay for that particular hour. Find the average occupancy. IIT Bombay 204 August 24. Average occupancy is the average of the occupancy values for each time interval.

92 0.92+0. For ﬁrst time interval of 15 minutes. IIT Bombay 205 August 24.42%. It is expressed in percentage.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Table 26:4: Licence Bay Time (1) (2) (3) (4) 15 30 45 1 1456 9813 2 1945 1945 1945 3 3473 5463 5463 4 3741 3741 9758 5 1884 1884 6 7357 7 4895 4895 8 8932 8932 8932 9 7653 7653 8998 10 7321 2789 11 1213 1213 3212 12 5678 6678 7778 Accumulation Occupancy 26. 2011 .25 • Accumulation for a time interval is the total of number of vehicles in the bays 1 to 12 for that time interval.75+0. It can be calculated as sum of the accumulation for each time interval × time interval divided by the parking volume = (10+11+9+11)×15 = 22. Average occupancy = 0.25 vehicle hours 60 Tom Mathew. Average turn over = Total number of bays = 2.92 × 100 = 85. Parking plate parking survey solution Time (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) 60 15 30 45 60 Turn over 5678 1 1 0 1 3 1945 1 1 1 1 1 5463 1 1 1 1 2 4825 1 1 1 1 3 7594 1 1 0 1 2 7893 0 1 0 1 2 4895 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 4821 1 1 1 1 3 2789 1 0 1 1 2 4778 1 1 1 1 3 8888 1 1 1 1 4 10 11 9 11 0. 4 • Parking capacity = number of bays × number of hours = 12× 1 = 12 vehicle hours • Parking load = total number of vehicles accumulated at the end of each time interval × time = (10+11+9+11)×15 = 10. Accumulation for ﬁrst time interval of 15 minutes = 1+1+1+1+1+0+0+1+1+1+1 = 10 • Parking volume = Sum of the turn over in all the bays = 27 vehicles • Average duration is the average time for which the parking lot was used by the vehicles.75 0.83+0.25 present throughout that hour and hence turnout is 1 itself. 27 • Occupancy for that time interval is accumulation in that particular interval divided by total number of bays.78 minutes/vehicle.92 2.83 0. occupancy = (10×100)/12 = 83% Average occupancy is found out as the average of total number of vehicles occupying the bay for each time interval. This is being tabulated in Sum of turn−over column 10 of the table.

26. Find the average occupancy.8 Summary Providing suitable parking spaces is a challenge for traﬃc engineers and planners in the scenario of ever increasing vehicle population. The parking survey data collected from a parking lot by license plate method is shown in table 26:5 below. Diﬀerent types of parking layout. For the ﬁrst bay. 26. Similarly.9 Problems 1.57 minutes/vehicle. Total turn over in all the bays or parking volume= 2+1+1+1+1+1 Sum of turn−over 7 = 7 vehicles Average turn over = Total number of bays = 6 =1. Column 1 to 5 is the input data. IIT Bombay 206 August 24. The parking status in every bay is coded ﬁrst. It can be calculated as sum of the accumulation for each time interval × time interval divided by the parking volume = (5+5+5+3)×15 = 38. 7 Tom Mathew.17 • Average duration is the average time for which the parking lot was used by the vehicles.25 12 = = 85. it is counted as 2.45 and 60 seconds. 7. It is essential to conduct traﬃc surveys in order to design the facilities or plan the fares. for the second bay. average turnover. This is shown in columns 6. surveys and statistics were discussed in this chapter. Table 26:5: Licence plate: problem Bay Time 0-15 15-30 30-45 45-60 1 1501 1501 4021 2 1255 1255 1255 1255 3 3215 3215 3215 3215 4 3100 3100 5 1623 1623 1623 6 2204 2204 - Solution Refer table 26:6. parking load.CE415 Transportation Engineering II • Eﬃciency = Parking load Total number of bays 26. Parking 10. 8 and 9 of the tables corresponding to the time intervals 15. 2011 . • Turn over is computed as the number of vehicles present in that bay for that particular hour. parking capacity and eﬃciency of parking lot. one vehicle is present throughout that hour and hence turnout is 1 itself This is being tabulated in column 10 of the table. If a vehicle occupies that bay for that time interval.42%. then it has a code 1.30.

It is expressed in percentage.83+0. 4 • Parking capacity = number of bays × number of hours = 6× 1 = 6 vehicle hours • Parking load = total number of vehicles accumulated at the end of each time interval × time = (5+5+5+3)×15 = 4.5 • Average occupancy is found out as the average of total number of vehicles occupying the bay for each time interval.83+0.83 0.83 0. 2011 . Congestion Studies Bay (1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 License Plate Problem: Solution Time (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) 45 60 15 30 45 60 Turn over 4021 1 1 1 0 2 1255 1255 1 1 1 1 1 3215 3215 1 1 1 1 1 3100 3100 0 0 1 1 1 1623 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 5 5 5 3 0.83 0. Tom Mathew.83+0. IIT Bombay 207 August 24.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Table 26:6: Time (2) (3) 15 30 1501 1501 1255 1255 3215 3215 1623 1623 2204 2204 Accumulation Occupancy 26. Average occupancy = 0.5 × 100 = 75%.5 vehicle hours 60 • Eﬃciency = Parking load Total number of bays = 4.5 6 = 75%.

1 Introduction Challenges in transportation system Transportation system consists of a group of activities as well as entities interacting with each other to achieve the goal of transporting people or goods from one place to another. Adequate performance measures are needed in order to quantify congestion in a transportation system. This lecture gives an overview of how congestion is generated. Traﬃc congestion occurs wherever demand exceeds the capacity of the transportation system.2 Generation of traﬃc congestion The ﬂow chart in Fig. transport behaviour. An overview of all these aspects of congestion is dealt with in this lecture. 27:1 shows how traﬃc congestion is generated in a transportation system. Congestion Studies Chapter 27 Congestion Studies 27. Quality of service measures indicates the degree of traveller satisfaction with system performance and this is covered under traveller perception. and also the various countermeasures to be taken in order to counteract congestion. the system has to meet the perceived social and economical needs of the users.1 27. economy and technology. Hence. locational pattern. The change in transport system causes a change in transport behaviour and locational pattern of the system.1.1.3 Eﬀects of congestion Congestion has a large number of ill eﬀects which include: Tom Mathew. the household characteristics as well as the transportation system gets aﬀected. Several measures have been taken in order to counteract congestion. One of the negative impacts of any transportation system is traﬃc congestion. how it can be measured or quantiﬁed. IIT Bombay 208 August 24. This situation is called traﬃc congestion. The change in household characteristics. They are basically classiﬁed into supply and demand measures. But the change or improvement in road capacity is only as the result of change in the transportation system and hence ﬁnally a situation arises where the traﬃc demand is greater than the capacity of the roadway.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 27. 2011 .1. the transportation system itself evolves and problems occur as it becomes inadequate to serve the public interest. As these needs change. With the evolution of society. 27. and other growth eﬀects result in the growth of traﬃc. 27.

Congestion Studies Traffic Growth Roadway Capacity Transport Behavior Location Patterns Growth Effects Transportation System Household Characteristics & Norms Evolution of Society Economy Technology Figure 27:1: Generation of traﬃc congestion 1.4 Traﬃc congestion A system is said to be congested when the demand exceeds the capacity of the section. Traﬃc congestion may be of two types: Tom Mathew. IIT Bombay 209 August 24. The shaded area in between these two lines represents the amount of congestion. 2011 . Fig. Slow and ineﬃcient emergency response and delivery services. Unacceptable congestion is travel time or delay in excess of agreed norm which may vary by type of transport facility. 2. 3. Traﬃc congestion can be deﬁned in the following two ways: 1.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Traffic Congestion 27. and 7. 5. 27:2 shows the deﬁnition of congestion. Congestion is the travel time or delay in excess of that normally incurred under light or free ﬂow traﬃc condition. During congestion. The summation of all these eﬀects yields a considerable loss for the society and the economy of an urban area 27. Increase in wear and tear of automobile engines.1. Increase in the fuel consumption. Negative impact on people’s psychological state. High potential for traﬃc accidents. 4. which may aﬀect productivity at work and personal relationships. 6. The solid line represents the travel speed under free-ﬂow conditions and the dotted line represents the actual travel speed. the vehicles will be travelling at a speed less than their free ﬂow speed. Loss of productive time. geographical location. 2. Increase in pollutants (because of both the additional fuel burned and more toxic gases produced while internal combustion engines are in idle or in stop-and-go traﬃc). and time of the day. travel mode.

It may be used by public agencies in assessing facility or system adequacy. It may be used by private sector in making locational or investment decisions. It may be used by general public and media in assessing traveller’s satisfaction.1 System performance measurement Performance measure of a congested roadway can be done using the following four components: 1. 3.2.2 Measurement of congestion Congestion has to be measured or quantiﬁed in order to suggest suitable counter measures and their evaluation. 27. identifying problems. planning and operational situations. Extent. 27. Recurrent Congestion: Recurrent congestion generally occurs at the same place. Tom Mathew. developing and assessing improvements. 2. Duration. Congestion information can be used in a variety of policy. Non-Recurrent congestion: Non-Recurrent congestion results from incidents such as accidents or roadway maintenance. Intensity.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Actual Travel Speed Free flow Travel Speed 27. Congestion Studies Speed Amount of Congestion Street 1 Street 2 Distance Street 3 Street 4 Figure 27:2: Deﬁnition of congestion 1. IIT Bombay 210 August 24. and 4. Reliability. at the same time every weekday or weekend day. 2. 2011 . calibrating models. formulating programs and policies and priorities.

Duration of congestion can be computed for a corridor using the following equation: H =N ×T (27. 3. T is the duration of analysis period (hour). Tom Mathew. The peak hour has now extended to peak period in many corridors. Percentage of the system aﬀected by congestion. Duration of congestion is the sum of length of each analysis sub period for which the demand exceeds capacity. Segments in which queue overﬂows the capacity are also identiﬁed. 2. Number or percentage of person or vehicle meters aﬀected by congestion.2 Duration Duration of congestion is the amount of time the congestion aﬀects the travel system. • Amount of time during the day that traﬃc density measurement techniques (detectors.1) where. etc. Performance measures of extent of congestion can be computed from sum of length of queuing on each segment.) indicate congested travel. Hi is the duration of congestion for link i (hour). The default values suggested by HCM 2000 are given in Table 1. vi is the vehicle demand on link i (veh/hour).2. IIT Bombay 211 August 24. These measures include: 1. Number or percentage of trips aﬀected by congestion. N is the number of analysis sub periods for which v/c > 1.2. To compute queue length. The maximum duration on any link indicates the amount of time before congestion is completely cleared from the corridor.3 Extent Extent of congestion is described by estimating the number of people or vehicles aﬀected by congestion and by the geographic distribution of congestion. and ci is the capacity of link i (veh/hour).CE415 Transportation Engineering II 27. aerial surveillance. Measures that can quantify congestion include: • Amount of time during the day that the travel rate indicates congested travel on a system element or entire system. Congestion Studies 27. 2011 . 27. and T is the duration of analysis sub-period (hour)The duration of congestion for an area is given by: i T vi (1 − r) Hi = c (27.2) i 1 − r( vi ) c where. r is the ratio of peak demand to peak demand rate. average density of vehicles in a queue need to be known. H is the duration of congestion (hour).

• Delay per capita or per vehicle travelling in the corridor. It is measured in terms of: • Delay in person hours or vehicle hours. v is the segment demand (veh/hour). DP H is the person hours of delay. Qi is the queue length (meter). and TP H is the person hours of travel under free ﬂow conditions. 2011 Tom Mathew.2. TP H is the person hours of travel under actual 0 conditions.4 Intensity Intensity of congestion marks the severity of congestion.5) S where. Qi =0 The equation for queue length is similar for both corridor and area-wide analysis. ds is the storage density (veh/meter/lane). corridor.3 130 7. and S is the mean speed of link (km/h). • Average speed of roadway. If v < c.6) August 24.3) where.CE415 Transportation Engineering II Table 27:1: Queue density default values Storage density(veh/km/lane) Spacing(m) 75 13.5 27. 0 DP H = TP H − TP H (27.5 130 7. and T is the duration of analysis period (hour). OAV is the average vehicle occupancy. or per person or per vehicle aﬀected by congestion. or network. c is the segment capacity (veh/hour). N is the number of lanes. It is used to diﬀerentiate between levels of congestion on transport system and to deﬁne total amount of congestion. IIT Bombay . Congestion Studies Subsystem Free-way ] Two lane highway Urban street Queue length can be found out using the equation: Qi = T (v − c) N × ds (27.4) where. • Relative delay rate (relative rate of time lost for vehicles). Intensity in terms of delay is given by. v is the vehicle demand (veh). The TP H is given by: OAV × v × l TP H = (27. l is the length of link (km). 27. The TP H is given by: 0 TP H = OAV × v × l S0 212 (27.

CE415 Transportation Engineering II 27. Based on the extent and duration the congestion can be classiﬁed into four types as shown in Fig.2. The intensity is shown in the shading. 27.27:4 Tom Mathew. IIT Bombay 213 August 24. it was found that the demand is 1000 Vehicles/hour mean speed of the link is 12 km/hr.4 = 155. and S0 is the free ﬂow speed on the link 27. 27:3 The extent of congestion is seen on the x-axis.5 Numerical example On a 2.2. 2011 . 0 TP H = OAV × v × l S0 1. person hours of delay.2 person/vehicle. l is the length of link (km). TP H = OAV × v × l S 1.6 Relationship between duration. Solution: Person hours of delay is given as 0 DP H = TP H − TP H Person hours of travel under actual conditions. DP H = = 280 − 124.8 = 12 = 280 person hours Person hours of travel under free ﬂow conditions. v is the vehicle demand (veh).8 = 27 = 124.2 × 1000 × 2. and intensity of congestion can be show in a timedistance graph Fig. OAV is the average vehicle occupancy. the duration on the y-axis. calculate the congestion intensity in terms of total person hours of delay.4 person hours Therefore.8 km long link of road. and the free ﬂow speed is 27 km/hr.extent. and intensity of congestion The relationship between duration. Assuming that the average vehicle occupancy is 1. Congestion Studies where. extent.2 × 1000 × 2.6 person hours.

These include supply side.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 27. Congestion Studies Duration 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 Extent Time Distance Figure 27:3: Intensity of congestion-relation between duration and distance Broad General Congestion Critical System−Wide Problems Extent Limited Problem Critical Links or Corridors Duration Figure 27:4: Intensity of congestion-Relation between extent and duration of delay The variation in extent and duration of congestion indicates diﬀerent problems requiring different solutions. demand side. Small delay and extent indicates limited problem. or magnitude of the congestion problem. small delay for large extent indicates general congestion. Supply measures include Tom Mathew. IIT Bombay 214 August 24. great delay for small extent indicates critical links and great delay for large extent indicates critical system-wide problem.1 Supply measures: Congestion countermeasures on the supply side add capacity to the system or make the system operate more eﬃciently. and pricing. The product of extent and duration indicates the intensity. 27. 2011 .3 Congestion countermeasures Various measures to address congestion are discussed here. They focus on the transportation system. 27.3.

Development of new or expanded infrastructure. technology conversions(ITS). This includes signal system upgrade and coordination. IIT Bombay 215 August 24. and road maintenance cost. bridge replacement.7) where.etc. separate licensing requirement. This is known as the critical price. environmental cost. x is the amount the consumer is prepared to pay. freeway ramp metering. As the price gradually increases.2 Demand measures: Demand measures focuses on motorists and travelers and attempt to modify their trip making behaviour.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 27. Economic principle behind congestion pricing Journey costs are made of private journey cost. re-location of bus stops etc. The beneﬁt a road user obtains from the journey is the price he prepared to pay in order to make the journey. transit lines etc). Small scale capacity and eﬃciency improvement. This includes civil projects (new freeways.3. expensive fuel prices.3. thus giving the road user the choice to make a journey or not.3 Congestion pricing Congestion pricing is a method of road user taxation. heavy annual fees. thereby reducing the demand on the transportation system. Congestion Studies 1. a point will be reached when the trip maker considers it not worth performing or worth performing by other means. and y is the amount he actually pays. Parking pricing: It discourages the use of private vehicles to speciﬁc areas. etc. charging the users of congested roads according to the time spent or distance travelled on them. congestion cost. 2011 . Demand measures include: 1. 27. The basics of congestion pricing involves demand function. These are explained below. 2. 2. At a cost less than this critical price. The principle behind congestion pricing is that those who cause congestion or use road in congested period should be charged. Restrictions on vehicle ownership and use: It includes heavy import duties. Tom Mathew. he enjoys a net beneﬁt called as consumer surplus(es) and is given by: s =x−y (27. 27. private cost function as well as marginal cost function. road widening. to restrain private vehicle acquisition and use.

IIT Bombay 216 August 24.8) where. It reduces speed and causes congestion and results in increase in cost of all journey. 27:5 shows the general form of a demand curve. 2011 . of trips Figure 27:5: Demand Curve Demand Fig. Congestion Studies R Cost of Trips S P O Q No. and v is the speed of the vehicle (km/h) which is given by: v = d − eq where. a is the component proportional to distance. b is the component proportional to speed. q is the ﬂow in veh/hour. The total cost incurred by all vehicles in one hour(CT ) is given by: CT = cq (27.10) Tom Mathew. d and e are constants. Private cost Total private cost of a trip. (27. is given by: c=a+ b v (27.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 27.9) Marginal cost Marginal cost is the additional cost of adding one extra vehicle to the traﬃc stream. In the ﬁgure. area QOSP indicates the absolute utility to trip maker and the area SRP indicates the net beneﬁt.

CE415 Transportation Engineering II 27.15) (27.17) Fig.12) (27.8 and 27. Congestion Studies Private Cost of Trips Marginal Cost / Flow Private Cost / Flow Flow(q) Figure 27:6: Private cost/ﬂow and cost and marginal curve Marginal cost is obtained by diﬀerentiating the total cost with respect to the ﬂow(q) as shown in the following equations. the increase representing the congestion cost.13) (27.14) (27. d(cq) dc = c+q dq dq dc dv dc = × dq dv dq = (−b)/v 2 × −e = be/v 2 dc d(cq) = c+q dq dq b d − v be × 2 = a+ + v e v (27. 27:7 is obtained. IIT Bombay 217 August 24. the position as shown in Fig. Therefore the marginal cost is given as: M =a+ b (d − v)b + v v2 (27. It is seen that the marginal cost will always be greater than the private cost. The intersection of the demand curve and the private costs curve at point A represents the equilibrium condition. Equilibrium condition and Optimum condition Superimposing the demand curve on the private cost/ﬂow and marginal cost/ﬂow curves.9 respectively.16) Note that c and q in the above derivation is obtained from Equations 27. 27:6 shows the variation of marginal cost per ﬂow as well as private cost per ﬂow. obtained when travel decisions are Tom Mathew.11) (27. 2011 .

If the area CCy Y X is greater than arc AXB. Solution: c = = v = = M = = a+b v a+b 15 d − eq d − 500e b (d − v)b a+ + v v2 b (d − 15)b a+ + 15 225 Tom Mathew.3. private cost and demand curves.4 Numerical example Vehicles are moving on a road at the rate of 500 vehicle/hour. If the conditions are shifted from point A to B. Congestion Studies Z Optimum Condition Marginal Cost / Flow Cost / Benifit B X Y A Private Cost / Flow Equilibrium Condition Flow(q) Figure 27:7: Relation between material cost. at a velocity of 15 km/hr. based on private costs only. The shifting of conditions from point A to B can be brought about by imposing a road pricing charge BY.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 27. The intersection of the demand curve and the marginal costs curve at point B represents the optimum condition. Under this scheme. the private vehicles continuing to use the roads will on an average be worse oﬀ in the ﬁrst place because BY will always exceed the individual increase in beneﬁts XY. Find the equation for marginal cost. IIT Bombay 218 August 24. the net beneﬁt due to change will be given by area CCy Y X minus AXB. The net beneﬁt under the two positions A and B are shown by the areas ACZ and BY CY Z respectively. the net beneﬁt will be positive. 2011 . 27.

Price should be variable at diﬀerent times of day/week/year or for diﬀerent classes of vehicles 3. We also discussed how congestion can be quantiﬁed by various performance measures such as duration.6 Requirements of a good pricing system 1.4 Conclusion In this lecture. Payment in advance should be possible 7. Collects suﬃcient fund for major upgrades of highways 4. Should be accepted by public as fair to all 6. The principle and process of congestion pricing was also discussed. Should be free from fraud or evasion 9. Should be reliable 8.CE415 Transportation Engineering II 27. It should be stable and ascertainable by road users before commencement of journey 4. Method should be simple for road users to understand and police to enforce 5.3. we have discussed about the causes and eﬀects of congestion and how congestion can be deﬁned. Causes cancellation of non essential trips during peak hours 3. Diverts travelers to other modes 2. Congestion Studies 27. Tom Mathew.5 Uses of congestion pricing 1. Charges should be closely related to the amount of use made of roads 2. The measures to be taken in order to counteract congestion were also discussed. 2011 .3. Should be capable of being applied to the whole country 27. IIT Bombay 219 August 24. extent and intensity. Cross-subsidizes public transport modes 27.

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