9 Thermal Processing of Dairy Products

A.L. Kelly, N. Datta, and H.C. Deeth
9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 Introduction: Why Heat Milk? ................................................................266 Historical Development of Thermal Processing of Milk .......................266 Overview of Heat Treatments Applied to Milk ......................................268 Effects of Heating on Milk Constituents ................................................268 Overview of the Microbiology of Milk ..................................................271 Thermization of Milk: Technology and Functions .................................274 Pasteurization of Milk .............................................................................275 9.7.1 Technology of Pasteurization ......................................................275 9.7.2 Effects of Pasteurization on Milk Constituents ..........................276 9.7.3 Effects of Pasteurization on Milk Safety ....................................277 9.7.4 Effects of Pasteurization on Milk Shelf Life..............................279 9.7.5 Significance of Storage Temperature ..........................................280 9.7.6 Emerging Issues...........................................................................280 9.8 UHT Processing of Milk.........................................................................281 9.8.1 Technology of UHT and Effects on Milk Constituents and Stability.................................................................................281 Heating Mode...............................................................283 Time–Temperature Profiles ..........................................283 9.8.2 Effects on Milk Constituents.......................................................283 Proteins and Fat............................................................283 Enzyme Inactivation.....................................................285 Protein–Sugar Interactions ...........................................285 Minerals and Vitamins .................................................285 Flavor Compounds .......................................................285 9.8.3 Physical Stability of UHT Milk..................................................285 Gelation ........................................................................286 Fat Separation...............................................................286 Sedimentation...............................................................286 9.9 In-Container Sterilization of Milk and Concentrated Milk....................286 9.10 Thermal Processing during Manufacture of Other Dairy Products .........................................................................................289

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Thermal Food Processing: New Technologies and Quality Issues

9.10.1 Evaporation and Spray Drying....................................................289 9.10.2 Yogurt and Cheese Manufacture .................................................290 9.11 Conclusions..............................................................................................292 References .........................................................................................................292

Milk is a fluid product produced by female mammals that provides the nutritional requirements of the neonate. As such, it is remarkably rich in many essential food constituents, such as amino acids (supplied for ingestion in the form of protein), lipids, sugar (lactose), minerals, and vitamins. However, this richness also makes milk a fertile medium for the growth of microorganisms, which either spoil the product or present a risk of food poisoning or food-borne disease. In addition, there are a number of enzymes of different types (e.g., proteases, lipases) in milk that can contribute to undesirable changes during storage (e.g., lipolysis can induce rancidity), and treatment or intervention to inactivate or control such activities is often essential to the prolonging of the acceptable shelf life of dairy products. Thus, the majority of milk consumed today is processed to ensure safety and prolong shelf life. The same applies to the huge range of products that can be made from milk, including cheese, fermented milks (e.g., yogurt), and food ingredients. A range of preservation strategies have evolved over the millennia that milk has been a part of the human diet; for example, preservation by fermentation was known in biblical times. However, by far the most common strategy to preserve milk is the application of heat (i.e., thermal processing), which will be the focus of this chapter. Milk may also be heated to establish specific product properties, e.g., inhibiting oxidation during storage of whole milk powder, or generating stronger gel structures in yogurt. Product-specific thermal processes will also be discussed here.

The historical development of the thermal processing of milk was reviewed by Westhoff1 and Holsinger et al.2 In the period 1864–1866, the famous French scientist Louis Pasteur discovered that the spoilage of wine and beer could be prevented by heating to around 60°C for several minutes; in recognition of this profoundly important work, mild thermal processes applied to milk are now referred to as pasteurization. Although pasteurization was originally developed to improve the stability and quality of food products, it soon became apparent that it offered consumers protection against hazards associated with the consumption of raw milk. Early in the 20th century, a particular benefit was a reduction in the risk of transmission of tuberculosis from infected cows, through their milk, to humans. Developments in technology and widespread implementation of pasteurization occurred early in the 20th century. The first commercial pasteurizers, in which milk was heated at 74 to 77°C, were produced in

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Thermal Processing of Dairy Products


Germany in 18821; the first commercially operated milk pasteurizer was installed in Bloomville, NY, in 18932; and the first law requiring pasteurization of liquid (beverage) milk was passed by authorities in Chicago in 1908. Many early pasteurization processes used conditions not very different from those proposed by Pasteur; generally milk was heated to 62 to 65°C for at least 30 min, followed by rapid cooling to less than 10°C (such processes are now referred to as low-temperature long-time (LTLT) pasteurization). However, hightemperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization, in which milk is heated to 72 to 74°C and held for 15 to 30 sec, using a continuous-flow plate heat exchanger, gradually became the standard industrial procedure for the heat treatment of liquid milk. Compared to the LTLT process, the HTST process has the advantages of reduced heat damage and flavor changes, and increased throughput.3 Later developments in the thermal processing of milk led to the introduction (in the 1940s) of ultra-high-temperature (UHT) processes, in which milk is heated to temperatures of 135 to 140°C for 2 to 5 sec.4 UHT treatments can be applied using a range of heat exchanger technologies (e.g., indirect processes using plate heat exchangers or direct processes where steam is injected into milk), and essentially result in a sterile product that is shelf stable for at least 6 months at room temperature. A key enabling technology to ensure long shelf life was the parallel development of aseptic packaging plants, where the sterile milk leaving the heat exchanger is packaged into a sterile hermetically sealed container under conditions that prevent recontamination.5 Eventual deterioration of UHT milk quality generally results from physicochemical (e.g., age gelation) rather than microbiological or enzymatic processes. Sterilized milk products may also be produced using in-container retort systems. In fact, such processes were developed before the work of Pasteur; in 1809, Nicholas Appert developed an in-container sterilization process for the preservation of a range of food products, including milk. In-container sterilization is generally used today for concentrated (condensed) milks; typical processes involve heat treatment at 115°C for 10 to 15 min. In recent years there has been considerable interest in extending the shelf life of pasteurized milk.6 This has given rise to the term “extended-shelf-life” (ESL) milk. While such milk can be produced by processes other than heat (e.g., microfiltration7), the most common type of ESL treatment is high-temperature treatment, mostly in the range of 120 to 130°C for a short time (<1 to 4 sec). The rationale for using these conditions was demonstrated by Ranjith,8 who reported that treatment of milk at temperatures of ≤117.5°C resulted in high total bacterial counts (>106 cfu/ml) after 13 days, whereas milks treated at temperatures of ≥120°C had counts of <102 cfu/ml after storage at 7°C for >40 days. It appears that heating at ≥120°C is required to inactivate psychrotrophic spore-forming organisms such as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus circulans. The upper temperature limit for ESL processes, which Blake et al.9 concluded was 134°C, is governed by the heat-induced chemical changes that cause flavor impairment; Glaeser10 considered that the upper-limit heat treatment for ESL processes should be the lower limit for UHT, which in the EU is 135°C for 1 sec.

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12. and the more strongly cooked flavors associated with UHT milk are undesirable. pasteurized or fermented milks. changes in quality of the product. may not require as extensive heat treatment as higher pH products or products to be stored at room temperature. For example. inversely correlated. The processes most commonly applied to milk and dairy products are summarized in Table 9. these two consequences of heating are usually. are virtually free of even spore-forming thermophilic bacterial species. second. and properties are changed by the types of heat treatments © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.3 OVERVIEW OF HEAT TREATMENTS APPLIED TO MILK As with any food product.268 Thermal Food Processing: New Technologies and Quality Issues As stated above. first. salts. on the other hand. including enzymes). the degree of microbial inactivation required to ensure safety and extend the shelf life by an acceptable factor and. LLC . the requirements for processing of infant formulae are among the most stringent in the dairy industry. 9. products that include these additional hurdles. and vitamins. while others are dissolved in the aqueous phase. thus. low pH conditions or storage at low temperatures suppress outgrowth of spore-forming bacteria. it has a range of constituents whose nature.g. protein (a heterogeneous population. • • Heat treatments applied to milk are generally defined by the maximum temperature of heating and the holding time at that temperature. in effect. the choice of heat treatment applied to milk depends on a trade-off between. UHT or in-container sterilized milks. such as Ireland and Australia. Milk is an exceedingly complex raw material for processing. some of which are in colloidal form. stability. due to the vulnerability of that group of consumers to food-borne illness. For example. lactose. most health risks linked to the consumption of pasteurized milk are probably due to postpasteurization contamination of the product.16 9. today. e.13. Target market.. the primary function of the thermal processing of milk is to kill undesirable microorganisms.4 EFFECTS OF HEATING ON MILK CONSTITUENTS The primary constituents of milk include fat (as an emulsion).11 consumer preference is clearly aligned toward pasteurized milk. in some countries.1. Consumer preference. Modern pasteurization is a very effective means of ensuring that liquid milk is free of the most heat resistant pathogenic bacteria likely to be present in raw milk. For example. Overall factors that should be considered in determining the heat treatment required for a particular product include: • Postheating growth potential of spore-forming bacteria.

SSHE = scraped-surface heat exchanger. THE = tubular heat exchanger. Germany.000 cfu/mlb — — — Total plate count < 100 cfu/ml after 15 d at 30°Cc Total plate count < 100 cfu/ml after 15 d at 30°Cc Total plate count < 100 cfu/ml after 15 d at 30°Cc Note: PHE = plate heat exchanger. LLC . L. 1–9. P. 121–125.U. including spores As UHT (indirect) As UHT Typical Microbial Quality 3–4 log reduction in psychrotrophsa Total plate count < 100.. J.J. Kiel. b 269 © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Int. M. in Proceedings of Workshop on Revisiting Heat Resistance of Microorganisms in Milk... 2003. 1999. Dairy Technol. 2000.. 1–41. pp.1 Types of Heat Treatment Applied to Milk and Their Microbiological Effects Process Thermization Pasteurization Pasteurization Yogurt mix heating Preheating for producing milk powder High-temperature pasteurization UHT (indirect) UHT (direct) In-container sterilization Typical Conditions 57–68°C for 15 sec 63°C for 30 min 72–74°C for 15–30 sec 85–95°C for 2–30 min 70–135°C for 1 sec– 5 min 120–130 for <1–5 sec 135–140°C for 3–5 sec 135–140°C for 3–5 sec 115–120°C for 10–20 min PHE Batch PHE PHE/THE PHE/THE/Other PHE/THE PHE/THE/SSHE Steam infusion or injection system Batch or continuous (hydrostatic) retort Heat Exchanger Microbiological Effect Destroys psychrotrophs Destroys vegetative pathogens Destroys vegetative pathogens Destroys all pathogens and most spores Depends on treatment Destroys vegetative bacteria and most spores Destroys all bacteria. in Proceedings of the IDF World Dairy Summit Meeting on Extended Shelf Life (ESL) Milk.Thermal Processing of Dairy Products TABLE 9. pp. Dresden. a Data from Pearce. cData from Lewis.000 cfu/mlb Total plate count < 100. Data from Gallmann. 52.

as will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter. is a glycoprotein with a hydrophilic sugarrich C-terminal (often called the glycomacropeptide (GMP)). αs2-. κ. and κ-caseins). Such interactions have profound implications for the quality of heated milk and dairy products such as yogurt. Many properties of milk (sensory. LLC . and physicochemical) consequently change as a result of thermal processing. milk fat globule membrane proteins. One of the caseins. however. there are 1014 to 1016 micelles ml–1 milk). results in unfolding of the molecule and exposure of the thiol group.and αs2-caseins. which are globular proteins found in the serum (aqueous) phase of milk. which contribute to thermal instability. In terms of thermal processing. Heat causes some alterations to the mineral balance in milk. Heating to temperatures of >75°C. β-. plasmin). The inactivation of milk enzymes is an intensively researched consequence of heating milk. heating milk at medium or high temperatures causes precipitation of calcium phosphate and reduces calcium ion activity. via disulfide bond formation with κ-casein. and cleavage and formation of covalent cross-links. fundamentally and negatively affects the rennet coagulation properties of milk. α-la. For example. Most (70 to 80%) of the protein in milk is casein. the caseins are found in milk in colloidal micelles (ranging from 50 to 500 nm in size (average. with an average mass of ~108 Da.g. Perhaps the most significant changes on heating milk are those that involve proteins. The remainder (20 to 30%) of the proteins in milk are the so-called whey proteins. nutritional. due to an uneven number of cysteine residues. κ-casein is found at the surface of the micelle.15 Heating milk also affects lactose. is located within the interior of the structure of the molecule. Interactions of denatured β-lg with plasmin greatly reduce the proteolytic activity in milk. these changes may result in protein–protein interactions. β -lg possesses a free thiol group that. as will be discussed later. Exposure of free thiol groups on denaturation of β-lg results in a cooked flavor of the milk. a family of four largely hydrophobic proteins (αs1-. Severe heating has a number of specific effects on the caseins. κ-casein. and the indigenous milk alkaline proteinase.270 Thermal Food Processing: New Technologies and Quality Issues applied to it. where the GMP protrudes into the serum (forming the so-called hairy layer) and stabilizes the micelle by acting in a role analogous to the amphiphilic nature of a classical emulsifying agent. the major whey proteins are β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) and α-lactalbumin (α -la). the nature and extent of such effects depending on environmental conditions and the severity of heating. ~120 nm). deamidation of glutamine and arginine residues. for example.. including dephosphorylation. As is the case for many hydrophobic substances found in an aqueous environment. heat-induced changes in lactose include degradation to © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. which can then undergo thiol-disulfide interchange reactions with disulfide bond-containing proteins (e. due to the use of such enzymes as indices of the severity of heat treatment applied. β-lg itself. The hairy layer is negatively charged and is largely responsible for the steric repulsion that prevents casein micelles from aggregating. β -lg is of particular significance. when the protein is in the native state. binding of denatured β-lg to the casein micelle. Denatured β-lg may also associate with κ-casein via hydrophobic interactions. while providing antioxidant activity.

is of interest as a bifidogenic factor and also as a laxative. including hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF).16. thereby enhancing its shelf life and ensuring the absence of pathogenic organisms. and storage temperature. lactulosyllysine. Products of heat-induced changes in lactose. such as the ε-amino group of lysine residues. to lactulose). a disaccharide of galactose and fructose. isomerization (e.17 and also alter the flavor and nutritive quality of dairy products. but it becomes contaminated with many microorganisms during direct contact with various sources (Figure 9. furfurals. raw milk contains a heterogeneous population of bacteria. sterilization) will result preferentially in Maillard reactions.19 Three main types of microorganisms are the key factors for assessing quality and safety of heat-treated milk: • • • Thermoduric/heat-resistant bacteria Bacteria that enter through postprocessing contamination Bacteria that can grow at refrigeration temperature Raw milk has a short shelf life even under highly hygienic refrigeration conditions20 and requires processing as soon as possible after arrival in the dairy plant to ensure the production of high-quality processed milk and dairy products. The most obvious consequence of the Maillard reaction is a change in the color of milk (browning). while the latter factors will be considered later in this chapter.. pathogens are © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. which then degrades to a range of advanced Maillard products. production of compounds such as furfural. LLC . and interactions with amino groups of proteins (Maillard reaction). Heat treatment is the most common and single most effective industrial processing procedure for reducing bacterial numbers in milk. in a complex (and not yet fully understood) series of reactions with a variety of end products. and formic acid.18 9. postprocessing contamination. such as lactulose and HMF.1).Thermal Processing of Dairy Products 271 acids (with a concomitant decrease in pH). The quality and safety of heat-treated milk depend on raw milk quality. Even if produced under highly hygienic conditions. or advanced-stage Maillard products. lactose or lactulose reacts with an amino group.17 The early stages of the Maillard reaction (condensation reactions between the carbonyl group of lactose and the -amino group of lysine of milk proteins) result in the formation of the protein-bound Amadori product. Moderately intense heating processes applied to milk primarily cause the isomerization of lactose to lactulose. In the Maillard reaction.5 OVERVIEW OF THE MICROBIOLOGY OF MILK Milk from a healthy cow is secreted free of microorganisms. More severe treatments (e.g. processing conditions. in the latter case through reduced digestibility of the caseins and loss of available lysine. due to the formation of pigments called melanoidins.14 The former will be discussed here.. Fortunately.g. may be used as indices of heat treatment of milk. Extensive Maillard reactions can result in polymerization of proteins. Lactulose. some of which are pathogenic and others of which can cause spoilage during milk storage.

This bacterium can produce enzymes such as a proteinase. this can cause the defect known as bitty cream.N.22 This is due to their low number in raw milk.. London. and their destruction by pasteurization. In addition.272 Human Coliforms Salmonella Enterococcus Staphylococcus Thermal Food Processing: New Technologies and Quality Issues Air Streptococci Micrococci Coryneforms Bacillus Yeasts and moulds Inside udder Streptococcus Micrococcus Corynebaterium Faeces Escherichia coli Staphylococcus Listeria Mycobacterium Salmonella Water Coliforms Pseudomonas Coryneforms Alcaligenes Feed Clostridium Listeria Bacillus Lactic acid bacteria Bedding Soil Clostridium Clostridium Bacillus Bacillus Klebsiella Pseudomonas Mycobacterium Yeasts and moulds Milking Machine Micrococcus Streptococci Bacillus Coliforms Outside udder and teats Micrococcus Staphylococcus Enterococcus Bacillus FIGURE 9. cereus in milk seldom causes food poisoning.. pp.14 and also because toxigenic strains are seldom psychrotrophic. In addition to B. H.W. although the types and numbers of organisms vary considerably © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group..) generally not determinants of the shelf life of thermally treated milk and dairy products. and Hassan.. Academic Press. J. With permission. B. unacceptable flavor. Fuquay. In unhomogenized milk. in Encyclopedia of Dairy Science. Eds. which hydrolyzes casein to produce an intensely bitter flavor. LLC . B. cereus. can be a significant spoilage agent due to the ability of its spores to survive pasteurization and the ability of some strains to proliferate in pasteurized milk at refrigeration temperature.. but this is not observed in homogenized milk. (from Frank. J. which hydrolyzes the phospholipids of the milk fat globule membrane and causes instability of the fat emulsion. and phospholipase. 2002.F. Roginski. 1786–1796. Ryser23 reported that most outbreaks of B. cereus.21. A. large numbers of this bacterium are required to produce food poisoning. cereus poisoning were caused by contamination levels of at least 106 cfu/g. P. and Fox.F. their inability to grow at refrigeration temperatures. as the contaminated product develops a strong.1 Sources of contamination of raw milk. one potentially pathogenic bacterium in raw milk. other common types of spore-forming bacteria frequently present in raw milk are Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus stearothermophilus. In exception to the above generalization.

its extreme heat stability and its ability to grow at room temperature make it a most unwelcome organism in dairy products.30 The microbiology of milk is obviously profoundly affected by the magnitude of heat treatment to which it is subjected.21 These heat-stable enzymes do not present a problem in pasteurized milk and cream because these products have a short shelf life and are stored under refrigerated conditions. For example. are very common in raw milk. able to tolerate cold) bacteria such as Pseudomonas spp.g. Westhoff and Dougherty38 studied the heat resistance of Bacillus spores in UHT milk and concluded that heating milk at 139 to 154°C for 9 sec was required to eliminate the most heat resistant aerobic mesophilic bacilli. with the enzymes frequently surviving processes that result in total elimination of the bacteria. stearothermophilus. are known to significantly increase the numbers of certain species..e. As will be discussed in the next section. a very heat resistant mesophilic species of Bacillus has been isolated from UHT milk products in several countries and has been named Bacillus sporothermodurans. This is similar to the conditions required for the inactivation of B.g.31.32 This has been attributed to activation of dormant spores present in raw milk33 and destruction of the antibacterial enzyme lactoperoxidase. Pseudomonas proteinases can survive ultra-high-temperature (UHT) treatment (135 to 150°C for 2 to 8 sec) and cause bitterness and premature gelation in UHT milk..24. A factor of particular significance is their high heat stability. Although it can multiply to a maximum of about 105 cfu/ml in milk without causing a change in its composition or sensory properties. which is much higher than that of the parent bacteria.26 Pseudomonas lipases can cause rancid off-flavors in cheese27 and UHT milk. B. e.39 © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.28 and have been reported to cause a soapy off-flavor in flavored UHT milk recombined from milk powder containing residual enzyme. thermization of raw milk when it arrives at a factory is used to extend the storage life of milk by controlling the growth of psychrotrophs. LLC .8. Milk heated at temperatures even slightly higher than those used for conventional HTST pasteurization.Thermal Processing of Dairy Products 273 between milks.29. and phospholipase. e. when the counts of such bacteria exceed ~106 cfu/ml in milk.35–37 However. some husbandry practices.25 Psychrotrophic (i. has a lower keeping quality than pasteurized milk. causes a defect known as flat-sour spoilage in UHT milk stored at elevated temperature. This is the basis of ultra-high-temperature (UHT) treatments. lipase. which heat milk at 135 to 140°C for 2 to 5 sec. 80°C compared to 72°C. For example. such as stall feeding of silage. to eliminate the most heat resistant spores. sporothermodurans: 148°C for 10 sec or 150°C for 6 sec. perhaps unexpectedly.. These bacteria can produce extracellular enzymes such as proteinase. These enzymes can significantly and negatively affect the quality of milk and dairy products. much more severe heating is required. milk powder. In recent studies. which is thermophilic and produces extremely heat resistant spores. thereby reducing the likelihood of heat-resistant enzymes being present in subsequently processed milk and dairy products. the number of spore-forming bacteria in milk and cream is reduced and the shelf life of the products is extended.34 When the temperature of heat treatment is increased to 115 to 120°C for holding times of 1 to 5 sec.

subpasteurization) treatments may be used to prolong the shelf life of cultured milk products (either before or after packaging)..40 Thermized milk has markedly better microbial quality during refrigerated storage than raw milk.44 Potentially useful indicators for the efficiency of thermization in the ranges of 50 to 60°C or 60 to 70°C are the lysosomal enzyme α-L-fucosidase and the enzyme phospho-hexose-isomerase. Other thermization (i. rather than autoproteolysis.43 It is possible that thermization also stimulates the germination of B. respectively. in UHT processes. which can occur in the absence of milk proteins.g. cereus spores. by inactivating starter and other microflora in the product.6 THERMIZATION OF MILK: TECHNOLOGY AND FUNCTIONS Thermization is a subpasteurization operation sometimes applied to raw milk that is intended to be held after intake for extended periods of refrigerated storage before manufacture of certain products (e. and may in fact increase cheese yield by preventing premanufacture hydrolysis of milk protein by bacterial proteinases and by partially reversing low-temperature dissociation of β-casein and calcium from casein micelles. LLC . Dutch-type cheese). typically heating milk to 57 to 68°C for 15 sec. facilitating their inactivation by subsequent pasteurization. however.40 Thermized milk should also retain active alkaline phosphatase.42 However. Thermization. the lactoperoxidase–thiocyanate–hydrogen peroxide system) is unaffected by thermization. and consequent secretion of heat-stable extracellular proteinases and lipases by such bacteria into the milk. i.e.. © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. preventing defects such as postacidification. Thermization also reduces the stability of extracellular proteinases and lipases produced by Pseudomonas bacteria to subsequent heat treatment.46 Inosine may also be used as an index of heating at 62°C.. although measurement of this compound may not differentiate thermization from pasteurization processes.. these will be discussed later in this chapter.22.g. at which temperature its concentration increases with holding time. The primary issue of concern in such cases is growth of psychrotrophic bacteria during cold storage. but the net keeping quality depends on the precise heating regime applied and the raw milk quality.274 Thermal Food Processing: New Technologies and Quality Issues Several other bacteria that may be present in raw milk are of significance for specific products and heating processes. the efficiency of such processes has never been satisfactorily demonstrated. which allows it to be distinguished from pasteurized milk. will inactivate the psychrotrophic bacteria and thereby prevent enzyme production. as discussed above.e. by inducing so-called low-temperature inactivation. A process known as tyndallization involves heating milk in several successive heat treatments to successively germinate and inactivate spores. e.45.e. such low-temperature inactivation may be due to formation of enzyme–casein aggregates. 9..41. and they are rarely used. in some cases. the natural antimicrobial system in milk (i.32 Thermization has little effect on the cheese-making properties of milk.

Modern pasteurization plants include a number of safety features designed to ensure the safety of the final product and suitability for consumption. While a few plants (e. and pasteurizers generally include a heating section where the milk is brought to the final pasteurization set temperature by a hot water circuit. made that a particularly suitable indicator enzyme. at the end of the heating or holding sections.g.7.1 TECHNOLOGY OF PASTEURIZATION Pasteurization of milk is probably the largest-volume liquid processing operation in the modern food industry. then considered to be the most heat resistant vegetative pathogenic bacteria likely to be present in raw milk. and a final cooling section where the pasteurized milk is cooled to 5°C by chilled water. The time–temperature combination traditionally used for HTST (72 to 74ºC for 15 sec) was based on the thermal inactivation kinetics of two bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Coxiella burnettii).Thermal Processing of Dairy Products 275 9.g. © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. which are highly efficient due to extensive use of heat regeneration.. LLC . the milk being routed out mid-way through the regeneration section. HTST pasteurization is performed in plate heat exchangers. Regeneration is never completely efficient. when it is at the optimal temperature for these processes to be applied. so that if leaks occur. which is thereby cooled in the process.. a diagram of a typical modern HTST pasteurization plant is presented in Figure 9. controlling a flow diversion valve that rejects milk that has not attained the required set temperature External insulated holding tubes to ensure correct holding times at the pasteurization temperature Booster pumps to increase the pressure of the pasteurized milk flowing through the regenerative heating sections. small cheese factories) may still employ the older low-temperature long-time (LTLT) process (heating milk to 62 to 65°C for 30 min). or time–temperature integrator (TTI). alkaline phosphatase. These include: • Temperature sensors. and is consequently a highly optimized and controlled procedure. other unit operations such as separation (and standardization of fat content) and homogenization are often included in line with the pasteurizer.2. In a liquid milk processing plant. most processes today are of the high-temperature short-time type (HTST) (e. without requiring separate heating and cooling of milk for that purpose. whereby the majority of heat required to heat the cold incoming raw milk is supplied by the outgoing hot pasteurized milk. for determination of the efficacy of pasteurization. heating milk to 72 to 74°C for 15 to 30 sec). the similarity of their death kinetics to the inactivation kinetics of the indigenous enzyme. pasteurized milk will flow into raw milk and not vice versa • • The technology of pasteurization was described in detail by Kelly and O’Shea3.7 PASTEURIZATION OF MILK 9.

48 9. and this has become the subject of ongoing research. including (1) balance tank. respectively.276 Thermal Food Processing: New Technologies and Quality Issues FIGURE 9.53 © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.7. which affect the antimicrobial and creaming properties of milk. (3) flow controller. (Reproduced by courtesy of Tetra Pak A/B. are minor at 72°C. but increase at higher temperatures. Mycobacterium avium subsp. LLC . (2) feed pump. HTST pasteurization has little effect on the constituents of milk.2 EFFECTS OF PASTEURIZATION ON MILK CONSTITUENTS Overall. (7) holding tube.49 The extents of denaturation of immunoglobulins and agglutinins. in particular. As mentioned above.2 A complete milk pasteurization plant.52. whey protein denaturation is minimal (<5%) and the texture.) In recent years. evidence for the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and. Lund. (9) hot water heating system. and color of pasteurized milk should compare well to that of raw milk. paratuberculosis (see later) in pasteurized milk has raised industry concern.50 A negative result (residual activity below a set maximum value) in a phosphatase test (assay) is regarded as an indication that milk has been pasteurized correctly.47. Sweden. and (13) control panel. (12) flow diversion valve. (8) booster pump.51 Detailed kinetic studies on the thermal inactivation of alkaline phosphatase under conditions similar to pasteurization have been published. (5) centrifugal clarifier. (4) regenerative preheating sections. flavor. (11) cooling sections. the milk constituent of perhaps greatest significance in terms of pasteurization is the enzyme alkaline phosphatase. (10) regenerative cooling sections. (6) heating section.

but higher-temperature treatments have progressively greater effects. jejuni Salmonella spp. S. LLC .51. cereus Clostridium spp. For example.2 Heat and Cold Stability of Pathogenic Bacteria in Milk Organism S. Source: Adapted from Muir.22 As stated already. E.55 Recently. lipoprotein lipase. Similarly. Soc.56 9. produces a heat-stable enterotoxin that causes food poisoning after consumption of toxin-containing food. and γ-glutamyl-transferase. due to the protective effect of the fat therein. under normal circumstances. © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. coli L. N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase.. aureus C. are summarized in Table 9. together with their resistance to pasteurization.D. being more heat stable than alkaline phosphatase and being inactivated at ~80°C. Lactoperoxidase may also be used as an index of the efficacy of pasteurization of cream.54 To test for overpasteurization (excessive heating) of milk. other enzymes have been studied as TTIs for heat treatments (particularly at temperatures above 72°C) that may be applied to milk. which must be heated more severely than milk to ensure the killing of target bacteria. 1996. aureus.3 EFFECTS OF PASTEURIZATION ON MILK SAFETY The most important pathogens that can grow in milk at refrigeration temperature.7. a mastitis pathogen. J. 49. these include catalase. D. a Survives Pasteurization No No No No No No Yes (spores) Yes (spores) Growth at 6°C No No No ? Yes Yes Yesa Nob b Certain strains only. Detailed models for the inactivation kinetics of both alkaline phosphatase and lactoperoxidase in milk samples of different fat contents were recently developed by Claeys et al. acid phosphatase. However.Thermal Processing of Dairy Products 277 The antimicrobial lactoperoxidase system is affected little by pasteurization at 72°C. monocytogenes Yersinia enterocolitica B.. can grow rapidly at refrigerated temperatures.2. and the twin hurdles of pasteurization and refrigeration are generally sufficient to ensure the safety of pasteurized milk. is often used as an indicator enzyme (Storch test54). Some nonproteolytic spp. lactoperoxidase. a commensal microbe found in the gut of cows and also in raw milk. can grow. pasteurization was designed to destroy vegetative pathogenic microorganisms. while many strains of Escherichia coli. this pathogen does not pose a threat in pasteurized milk since it cannot grow or produce toxin at refrigeration temperatures and is readily killed by pasteurization. Dairy Technol. 24–32. one TABLE 9.

60 Thus. U. involving more than 16.3).S. perfringens does not pose a health hazard in pasteurized milk due to the inability of the spores to germinate and grow at refrigeration temperature. and some strains are capable of growing at low temperatures. In 1985. but C.57 In addition.S. a food-borne pathogen of international importance. a food poisoning bacterium. was associated with the consumption of low-fat (2%) pasteurized milk64. cereus in pasteurized milk has caused food poisoning outbreaks.S. U.S. as was discussed earlier. while hygienic milk production and handling. U. E.278 Thermal Food Processing: New Technologies and Quality Issues particular strain. U. produces very heat resistant spores that survive pasteurization. Similarly. Campylobacter jejuni in raw TABLE 9. a subsequent investigation concluded that the pathogen entered the milk as a postpasteurization contaminant. an unusually large outbreak of salmonellosis in Chicago. Clostridium perfringens.000 cases. coli L. significant problems can arise if pathogenic organisms that can proliferate at low temperatures contaminate pasteurized milk (Table 9. coli O157:H7. cereus a Europe 1980 280 59 Postpasteurization contamination. it is readily destroyed by pasteurization.S.S. pasteurization. monocytogenes Yersinia enterocolitica Location U. and refrigeration are effective measures to ensure the safety of milk.58 In terms of spore-forming bacteria that can be present in raw milk. as its spores can survive heat treatment. E.K. © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.59 However. In contrast. is unable to grow in pasteurized milk at temperatures below 10°C.S. U. and hence consumption of pasteurized milk does not pose a significant risk for this pathogen. B. this bacterium is rarely detected in milk stored below 5°C that has been processed in a properly maintained dairy plant.3 Major Disease Outbreaks Involving Pasteurized Milk Causative Organism S. Europe 1985 1994 1983 1975 1982 1995 1985 B. U. Year 1914–1942 1978–1984 Number of Cases 29 27 3 1600 18 49 217 172 10 36 Cause PPCa Improper pasteurization PPC PPC PPC Unknown Poor raw material handling PPC PPC PPC Unknown Reference 23 62 62 23 23 23 23 23 23 63 U. aureus Campylobacter jejuni Salmonella spp. LLC .

4. which all grow very slowly at refrigeration temperatures. which produce off-flavors due to enzymatic action when the bacterial count exceeds about 107 cfu/ml.S. some evidence exists of it being linked to a serious food poisoning incident involving pasteurized milk in the U. monocytogenes is more heat tolerant than most other nonspore-forming pathogens. Constant monitoring of the PPC level with sensitive test methods such as the Psychrofast test71 and strict attention to the cleanliness of surfaces with © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Postprocessing contamination (PPC) with Gram-negative. during 1983. which are probable carriers of this bacterium. however. some cases were traced to pasteurized milk in glass bottles whose lids had been pecked by magpies and jackdaws. micrococci.65 This bacterium can grow in milk during refrigeration.3.Thermal Processing of Dairy Products 279 or inadequately pasteurized milk was implicated in several outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Great Britain from 1978 to 198461.70 enter the product from nonsterile surfaces of processing and packaging equipment.31. One means by which pathogenic organisms can contaminate pasteurized milk is by leakage of raw milk into the pasteurized milk in the regeneration section of pasteurizers. whose spores can survive much more intense heating conditions.7. Maintaining proper hygiene in raw milk handling and ensuring adequate pasteurization can thus prevent contamination of pasteurized milk with pathogenic microorganisms. However. As mentioned above. where a booster pump prevents flow of milk from the raw into the pasteurized streams. most of the food poisoning outbreaks due to consumption of milk are believed to have been due to either inadequate heating or postheating contamination.23 As indicated in Table 9. are discussed below. Although L. control of spoilage bacteria in pasteurized milk is more difficult.68 This should not occur in properly installed pasteurizers. however. and thus poses a potential heath hazard in underpasteurized milk and milk contaminated with the organism after heat treatment. germinate. thermoduric and psychrotrophic bacteria. and some streptococci. heat-sensitive psychrotrophic bacteria is the most important cause of spoilage in pasteurized milk and cream. several outbreaks of yersiniosis have been reported in the U. some may even compromise the safety of the heat-treated product.S. The spores can be activated.62 is heat labile and completely inactivated by pasteurization66. such as 80°C for 10 min.4 EFFECTS OF PASTEURIZATION ON MILK SHELF LIFE Thermoduric organisms are those that will survive pasteurization. and grow in heat-treated products under certain conditions. pasteurization should result in its total destruction67. LLC . and packaging material. and Europe. The main causative agents. Common examples that can be isolated from pasteurized milk and cream include coryneforms. subsequently causing spoilage. the air.65 Yersinia enterocolitica. which causes yersiniosis in children younger than 7 years of age. These bacteria. 9. such as Bacillus spp. The main types of these organisms in milk and cream are shown in Table 9.69 and also spore-forming organisms.

paratuberculosis (MAP) (M. 9. through contamination of milk during the milking process by feces from infected cows. 34. The presence of high counts of coliform bacteria in pasteurized milk is classically symptomatic of PPC. 109–113.6 EMERGING ISSUES Mycobacterium avium ssp.72 As mentioned earlier. but also.74 Since MAP has also been implicated in Crohn’s disease in humans. which the product comes in contact after heat treatment will ensure low contamination levels and maximize the shelf life of the product. and completely avoided by applying aseptic techniques downstream of the holding tube. psychrotrophic bacteria such as Pseudomonas spp.. et al.4 Heat-Resistant Organisms Recovered from Milk and Cream after Heat Treatment Isolates Recovered after Heating (%) Milk Type of Bacteria Bacillus spp. and their heat-stable enzymes can present particular problems for pasteurized milk products. However. 9. Ideally.7.4 Zadow73 reported that shelf life is reduced to 50% by raising the temperature of products by only 3°C..5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STORAGE TEMPERATURE Storage temperature has a vital role in determining the shelf life of heat-treated products. 1981. pasteurized milk should be kept at or below 4°C. J. paratuberculosis) was discovered 100 years ago and is the causative bacteria of Johne’s disease in cattle. and more importantly. the shelf life is reduced by at least 50%. Dairy Technol. if the storage temperature is raised to 10°C. PPC can be minimized by heating plant surfaces at 95°C for 30 min and packaging under ultraclean conditions. Coryneform group Other Gram-positive Gram-negative 63°C/30 min 54 46 0 0 80°C/10 min 61 37 2 0 Cream 63°/30 min 55 31 0 14 80°/10 min 65 35 0 0 Source: Adapted from Phillips. Milk can be contaminated by MAP through the mammary gland of infected cows.280 Thermal Food Processing: New Technologies and Quality Issues TABLE 9. either if growth and enzyme production has occurred before pasteurization or if PPC occurs.75 reports of its possible survival during HTST pasteurization have caused some concern © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.D. LLC .7. Soc. such facilities are expensive and not normally used for pasteurized milk. J.

84 Higher failure rates indicate significant inadequacies in the aseptic packaging step.e. Trials to determine the resistance of this bacterium to pasteurization have yielded mixed results. respectively.Thermal Processing of Dairy Products 281 and sparked research activity in several laboratories. and aseptically packaging the milk into sterile containers. Some strains can be inactivated completely by classical HTST conditions (72°C for 15 sec) at levels of 100 cfu/ml. >1) and a maximum reduction of 3% in the level of thiamine (sometimes referred to as a C* value. These findings suggest that heat penetration is more important than the intensity of heat applied. Cerf and Davey85 concluded that most bacteriological failures in UHT milk packages (which they reported as one to four per © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.8 UHT PROCESSING OF MILK 9. color. Homogenization before pasteurization has been shown to increase the lethality of the heat treatment on MAP. the heating should be equivalent to a minimum of 9 log reduction of thermophilic spores (sometimes referred to as a B* value.02%). it is extremely slow growing (taking up to 4 months to culture for counting purposes77). and hence can be overgrown by any organisms whose growth is not inhibited during incubation. and nutritive loss. The microbiological failure rate for PPC in UHT products is quite low (0.78–80 Inactivation during pasteurization appears to depend on the strain of the organism and the number of organisms present. it is important to ensure that the time taken for the fastest particle is sufficient to inactivate the target microorganisms.81. Clostridium and Bacillus spores.47 Increasing the holding time during pasteurization processes has been found to be more effective in inactivating MAP in milk than increasing the pasteurization temperature.79 9. this may be related to the tendency of the organism to form clumps. Interestingly. but small numbers (4 to 16 cfu/ml) have been shown to survive higher-temperature (90°C for 15 sec) pasteurization of milk with an initial high (106 cfu/ml) MAP count.47.3. In general. cooling rapidly. but not severe enough to cause chemical changes that result in an unacceptable flavor. Since the nominal holding time is the average time a particle spends in the holding tube.. i. <1). The temperature and holding time commonly used for UHT processing are 138 to 140°C and 2 to 5 sec. UHT treatment must be sufficient to produce a commercially sterile product (one in which bacterial growth will not occur under normal storage conditions).1 TECHNOLOGY OF UHT AND EFFECTS CONSTITUENTS AND STABILITY ON MILK UHT processing of milk involves heating milk in a continuous process to temperatures higher than 135°C for a few seconds.8. while others have reported survival of some organisms in some trials. LLC . with some laboratories reporting complete destruction under simulated commercial conditions.82 The sequence of steps in UHT processing is shown in Figure 9.76 Progress has been slow because of difficulties in growing the organism.

LLC . J. The spores of some Bacillus species. Aust. indirect systems) Cooling Aseptic packaging Storage of packaged UHT milk FIGURE 9. stearothermophilus and B. 57: 211–227.. The latter species is of particular concern to the dairy industry.86 © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. whereby a very small percentage of spores pass through the holding tube too fast to be destroyed.) 100. are extremely heat resistant and can resist UHT treatment conditions. 2002.3 Steps involved in UHT processing of milk. et al. It has already caused the closure of some UHT processing plants. (Adapted from Datta.. N.000 packs) could be explained statistically on the basis of residence time distribution. This suggests that many of the failures may not be due to PPC.282 Thermal Food Processing: New Technologies and Quality Issues Raw milk Preheating & heat regeneration Homogenization (indirect systems only) Preheating and heat regeneration Holding at preheat temperature Heating to sterilization temperature Holding at sterilization temperature Cooling Homogenization (direct. sporothermodurans. as it is mesophilic and thus can grow at the temperature at which UHT milk is normally stored. Dairy Technol. such as B.

and indirect heating.83 These achieve better energy economy than conventional direct systems (due to greater heat regeneration) and cause less chemical damage. However. quality. The greater the area under the curves at temperatures greater than about 80°C. when an electrical current is passed through the walls of the tubes. in which milk comes into direct contact with the heating medium. particularly with κ-casein.1 Heating Mode Two main types of UHT processes are used commercially: direct heating.91 On treatment at UHT temperatures. i. heating to and cooling from the high temperature is very fast due to transfer of the latent heats of condensation and evaporation.e. respectively. and reduces the susceptibility of UHT milk to rennet coagulation.82 This phenomenon can lead to a chalky or astringent defect in UHT milk (especially if heated by steam injection). than conventional indirect UHT systems. Cooling is achieved in a vacuum chamber.2 EFFECTS ON MILK CONSTITUENTS 9. steam or superheated water. 9. it should be noted that each UHT installation will present a unique profile. which depends on the configuration of the plant. The electrical resistance of stainless steel causes what is known as joule heating..1 Proteins and Fat UHT processing causes a slight increase in the size of the casein micelle due to its association with denatured whey proteins and calcium phosphate. LLC .87 Systems using a combination of direct and indirect heating are available commercially (e. between the steam and liquid milk.8. changes induced in the milk. is a significant factor determining the quality of the final product.8. A less common type of indirect heating involves electrical heating of the stainless steel tubes carrying the milk. Denaturation of βlactoglobulin is one of the key effects of UHT heating and controls the major © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.90 9. especially flavor change and burn-on.g.1.2 Time–Temperature Profiles The time–temperature curve or profile of a UHT process.. the greater the chemical.4. The extent of the increase depends on the time and temperature of processing and the pH of the milk. which can be eliminated by homogenization after the high-heat treatment. The time–temperature profiles for some UHT systems are shown in Figure 9.8. β-lactoglobulin irreversibly denatures and interacts with the casein micelle.89. Direct heating requires sterilization temperatures 3 to 4°C higher than indirect heating to achieve an equal sterilization effect because of the greater heat input during the heat-up phase of indirect heating.8.Thermal Processing of Dairy Products 283 9. the High-Heat Infusion system of APV88 and the Tetra Therm Aseptic Plus Two system of Tetra Pak). is separated from the milk by a stainless steel plate or wall of a tube. steam. In direct systems.2. in which the heating medium.1.

or nutritional value of milk fat. Academic Press. and plasmin. H. © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Encyclopedia of Diary Science. properties.) properties of UHT milk and products made from it. For example.82. is inhibited. 2642–2652. LLC .93 UHT processing causes virtually no physical or chemical changes in the structure. which may cause deterioration of the product. N. pp..92 The extent of denaturation of βlactoglobulin in UHT milk can vary from as low as 35% in direct plants to close to 100% in indirect plants.284 Thermal Food Processing: New Technologies and Quality Issues Direct infusion Indirect tubular 160 140 Temperature 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 160 140 Temperature 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Time (s) Time (s) High heat infusion 160 140 Temperature Temperature 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 50 100 Time (s) 150 200 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 00 Tetre therm aseptic plus 2 50 100 Time (s) 150 200 FIGURE 9.. volatile sulfydryl compounds are liberated and influence the flavor of the heated milk.C. deposits form within the heat exchangers. and Datta.4 Time–temperature profiles of various heating modes in UHT processing. 2002. (Adapted from Deeth.

riboflavin. and E) and some of the water-soluble vitamins (pantothenic acid. This. which disappears rapidly in the presence of oxygen or oxidizing agents. UHT milk kept at 25°C has a maximum flavor acceptability between 3 and 5 weeks. products of such are useful as indicators of the thermal history of the UHT milk and for predicting the sensory and nutritional quality of UHT-processed milk. have considerable heat resistance. plasminogen.8.2 Enzyme Inactivation The milk alkaline proteinase. in addition to the interaction of whey proteins with the casein micelle.98 9. 19% of the original plasmin and 37% plasminogen activity remained in directly processed milk. LLC .2.4 Minerals and Vitamins UHT processing transfers minerals from the aqueous phase to the casein micelle and reduces ionic calcium levels by 10 to 20%.94. Volatile sulfur compounds produced mainly from denatured lactoglobulin are responsible for the cooked flavor. reduces the susceptibility of UHT milk to coagulation by rennet. The fat-soluble vitamins (A. plasmin.95 Heat-stable proteinases from pseudomonads were reported to retain 20 to 40% of their activity after exposure to UHT conditions of 140°C for 5 sec. that is.8. after the cooked flavor disappears and before the stale flavor appears. respectively.2. which develops during storage.8.2.5 Flavor Compounds At least two different types of flavors develop in UHT milk: the cooked or heated flavor. Some calcium phosphate is rendered insoluble at the high temperatures used in UHT heating and deposits on the surfaces of the heat exchanger (fouling).Thermal Processing of Dairy Products 285 9.99 9.100 9. in thiamine and vitamin B12 can occur during UHT treatment. They are more susceptible to inactivation by indirect UHT processing than by direct heating. the temperature of storage has a significant effect on the shelf life of these products © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. storage temperature has a less significant effect on the shelf life of UHT products. D. and its inactive precursor. nicotinic acid.3 Protein–Sugar Interactions UHT treatment causes extensive Maillard reactions in milk.96 9. as bacterial contamination is rare.2.3 PHYSICAL STABILITY OF UHT MILK In contrast to pasteurized products. and biotin) are largely unaffected by UHT treatment. However. but losses of 20 and 30%.8. and the stale flavor. while no residual plasmin activity and 19% of the plasminogen remained in indirectly processed milk. Aliphatic aldehydes are major contributors to the stale flavor.82 The levels of ascorbic acid and folic acid are markedly reduced in UHT milk containing a significant level of oxygen during UHT processing and storage. which develops during processing.8.97.

as severe sedimentation occurs at pH < 6.102 due to the additional homogenization effect of the steam injection. Typical treatment conditions used for in-container sterilization processes for dairy products are 110 to 120°C for 10 to 20 min.3 Sedimentation Sedimentation in UHT milk is due to destabilization of casein micelles. or jars).104 9. due to the advantages of high-throughput and continuous operation. The amount of sediment increases with the time and temperature of heating and with the time and temperature of storage.3. Milk sterilized by direct heating gels more rapidly during storage than milk treated by indirect methods. 9. In addition.101 Several changes that can occur in UHT milk during storage will be discussed in this section.1%) to raw milk.5.3. LLC . predating even the work of Pasteur. cans.025 to 0. Less fat separation occurs in milk processed with direct steam injection than with indirect heating.g.105 © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.3.87 A major initiating factor is partial proteolysis of the caseins.1 Gelation Gelation during storage is a common problem of UHT milk. as mentioned earlier. most processors producing long-life milk use UHT systems. Sedimentation occurs more readily in concentrated milk than in normal-strength milk. The addition of sodium hexametaphosphate (0. which ultimately limits its shelf life.1%) to raw milk before processing delays the onset of gelation of UHT milk during storage.g.101 9. by either plasmin or residual heat-resistant bacterial proteinases..8. Today. which has been attributed to its high ionic calcium content.94 This effect appears to be due to the greater inactivation of the proteinases and greater stabilization of the casein micelle by complexation with denatured whey proteins during the more severe indirect heating.8. Sediment volume decreases with increasing homogenization pressure and addition of chemicals such as trisodium citrate or disodium hydrogen phosphate (0.286 Thermal Food Processing: New Technologies and Quality Issues through its effect on their physicochemical properties. is one of the oldest thermal processing strategies applied to milk. extensive development of brown colors due to Maillard reactions and creation of strong cooked flavors due to production of volatile sulfydryl compounds from β-lg).2 Fat Separation Despite homogenization of milk in the UHT process. in bottles..82 Goat’s milk is particularly susceptible to sedimentation.8.9 IN-CONTAINER STERILIZATION OF MILK AND CONCENTRATED MILK In-container sterilization (e. a layer of fat occasionally develops on the surface of the milk during storage. but less in reconstituted milk. 9. the long times for which products are exposed to high temperatures in sterilization processes result in extensive deterioration in the quality of the products (e.103 The pH of the milk is very important.

long shelf life is achieved by sterilization applied to the packaged product. A central chamber. The water in the inlet leg is warmed to achieve preheating of the product. while that in the discharge leg is cooled and © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. (Reproduced by courtesy of Tetra Pak A/B. which is counterbalanced on the inlet and discharge sides by columns of water that generate a hydrostatic pressure sufficient to maintain the conditions of temperature and pressure required for sterilization. thermal treatment reduces the microbial load of the product.5. LLC . but microbial growth is ultimately prevented by the effect of added sucrose on the osmotic pressure in the medium.Thermal Processing of Dairy Products 287 FIGURE 9.) The products most commonly treated in-container today are sterilized concentrated milk and sweetened condensed milk. Sweden. continuous sterilization in hydrostatic retorts is used. and (10) upper shafts and wheels. Sterilization has traditionally been applied in autoclaves or batch retorts. in which sterilization is achieved. however. (5–9) cooling stages. A diagram of a hydrostatic tower sterilizer is shown in Figure 9. the principle of such systems is as follows. Lund.5 Hydrostatic vertical continuous sterilizer showing (1–3) heating stages. in the latter. (4) steam-filled sterilization section. is maintained at sterilization temperature by steam under pressure. In the former case. in most plants today.

as discussed already.L. Ed. Heat coagulation time pH FIGURE 9. LLC . the heat stability of milk) has been the subject of considerable amounts of research. New York.107 The heat stability of milk (expressed as the number of minutes at a particular temperature. e. R.6). (From Fox. the mechanism of heat-induced coagulation of milk (i. to reduce the heat load that needs to be applied in the hydrostatic retort.288 Thermal Food Processing: New Technologies and Quality Issues serves to reduce the temperature of the containers and their contents poststerilization. 29–71. or concentrated milk (dotted line). while simultaneously being rotated.. A. Woodhead Publishing. and horizontal continuous rotating autoclaves (cooker-coolers). pp. Yada. before visible coagulation of the milk occurs — the heat coagulation time (HCT)) is highly dependent on pH. under certain conditions it can be coagulated during the process of sterilization. the design incorporates three cylindrical vessels at different pressures and temperatures through which the product containers pass in a helical manner. pH is probably the most significant factor influencing the heat stability of milk. and Kelly. While. as determined at 140°C. in which product is passed through a steam zone in which sterilization is achieved. 140°C.106. milk is a relatively heat stable system.g.... to increase rates of heat transfer and reduce thermal damage. as determined at 120°C. in Proteins in Food Processing. Presterilization of product in a UHT-type process may be applied before packaging. with large differences in heat stability being apparent over quite a narrow range of pH values (Figure 9. 2004.F. In the latter system.6 Heat coagulation time (HCT)–pH profiles of typical type A bovine milk (whole line) and type B serum protein-free milk (dashed line).) © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. P. Most milk samples show what is referred to as a type A heat stability–pH profile..108 Indeed. thereby progressively moving through the retort. Other designs of continuous retort for sterilization of milk products include horizontal sealed rotary-valve retorts.e.

which decrease heat stability Presence of alcohols and sulfydryl-blocking agents.0.Thermal Processing of Dairy Products 289 with a pronounced minimum and maximum. which eliminates the minimum in a type A profile Addition of β-lactoglobulin to type B milk. adjustment of the pH of the milk. which increases heat stability throughout the pH range Addition of κ-casein.. LLC . reduction of which increases stability in the pH range 6.5 to 7. or addition of stabilizing salts (e. For example. respectively. typically around pH 6. and heat stability increases progressively throughout the pH range 6.4 to 7.4.g. normally assayed at 120°C for that reason. As well as pH.10 THERMAL PROCESSING DURING MANUFACTURE OF OTHER DAIRY PRODUCTS 9.10. heat stability decreases on the acidic side of the maximum and increases on the alkaline side of the minimum. The rare type B profile does not exhibit a minimum.4. polyphosphates).5 Hydrolysis of lactose. a number of different heat treatments may be applied to milk before evaporation prior to manufacture of milk powder. a number of other factors affect the heat stability of milk. is quite different. milk used for manufacture of so-called low-heat powders has been mildly heated. which convert a type A to a type B profile.106. SMP is frequently classified on the basis of its content of remaining native whey protein. 9. © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.6). The possibility that concentrated milk will coagulate on sterilization may be reduced by preheating the milk. It shows a maximum at ~pH 6. which increase heat stability Addition of oxidizing agents. or reducing agents. While the principal objective of such heating is to ensure the safety of the final powder. evaporated) milk is much less thermally stable than unconcentrated milk and its heat stability profile.g. the functionality and applications of the powder are also largely determined at this point.. which converts it to a type A profile Addition of phosphates. with decreasing stability at higher and lower pH values (Figure 9. which reduce the heat stability of milk Concentrated (e.107 These include: • • • • • • • Levels of Ca2+ or Mg2+. and the powders contain a high proportion of native whey protein.1 EVAPORATION AND SPRAY DRYING The two largest bulk-commodity milk powders produced today are whole milk powder (WMP) and skim milk powder (SMP).7 and 7. while high-heat powders have low levels of native whey protein due to more severe heating during processing.

111 In manufacture of WMP. principally due to denaturation of whey proteins. due to the economic advantages of incorporating whey protein in the curd and thereby increasing cheese yield. to favor the action of chymosin and © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. there has been significant interest in this area. hydrolysis of the Phe105-Met106 bond of κ-casein) and later gel assembly and structure development. Slower indirect-heating favors whey protein–whey protein interactions and higher overall denaturation of whey proteins than more rapid direct-heating methods.112 9. for yogurt. or using very short time steam injection heating systems. during evaporation or spray drying) is relatively minor compared to that caused at the preheating stage. the milk is generally heated to 85°C to inactivate indigenous lipase activity and expose antioxidantfree sulfydryl groups. Denatured whey protein can interfere with both the primary stage of rennet coagulation (i. where denatured whey proteins can become a structural element of the acid gel.g. as biofilms of thermophilic bacteria may develop within indirectheat exchangers.109 B.2. to allow production of powders of different heat classifications on a single plant. cereus spores in milk powder are a particular health hazard because both reconstitution and pasteurization can induce their germination and outgrowth. On the other hand. for cheese making. heat classification is not used. with defects in flavor and texture. with different holding times. in both cases due to steric hindrance at the surface of the micelle due to denatured β-lactoglobulin bound to κ-casein.5. including plate heat exchangers and spiral heat exchangers wrapped around the tubes in the evaporator itself. Evaporation plants are typically equipped with flexible thermal processing capabilities.290 Thermal Food Processing: New Technologies and Quality Issues The subsequent applications of SMP are largely determined by its heat classification. Nonetheless. high-heat powders are favored.e. with heat exchangers capable of treating milk at different temperatures. LLC . as denatured whey protein would interfere with the rennet coagulation process (see below).110 The rate of the increase in temperature during preheating may affect whey protein interactions. For example.2 YOGURT AND CHEESE MANUFACTURE Severe heat treatment is undesirable for many cheese varieties.. low-heat powders are recommended. Process modifications that can be used to compensate in part for the negative effects of severely heating cheese milk include adjustment of the pH of the heated milk to ~6. which favor extensive casein–whey protein interactions. Direct-heat exchangers are preferred over indirect systems. Cheese made from milk that has been heated under conditions more severe than conventional pasteurization is generally regarded as yielding an inferior quality product.109 The properties and applications of the major heat classification groups of SMP are outlined in Table 9. Denaturation at later stages of the powder manufacturing process (e. especially hard varieties such as cheddar.10. Preheating may be performed using any of a range of heat exchangers..

lack of cooked flavor Emulsification.. Kluwer Academic–Plenum Publishers.E.e.F. heat and pH adjustment may be applied to whey to yield a microparticulated whey protein precipitate. Proteins. the denatured whey protein acts as a structural element in the gel and gives a firmer texture that is less likely to synerese (i.118 © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. but the resulting yogurt has lower viscosity and gel strength than yogurt made by the conventional process.. pp. LLC . high-heat treatment (e. cheese Ice cream. Alternatively. flavor WPNIa >6. color Bakery.g. 2003. solubilize some heat-precipitated CCP.. color. 1. water absorption. yogurt). A.. Similarly. in the case of fermented milks (e.0 Food Applications Recombined milk. 1027–1062. O’Connell.5 Heat stability.g. foaming.g. chocolate. and Fox..117 Attempts have been made to use UHT heating (which also denatures whey proteins) for yogurt manufacture. water binding. recombined evaporated milk Whey protein nitrogen index.5–6. confectionery Medium heat 85°C for 1 min 1.114–116 The denatured whey proteins also become susceptible to aggregation during acidification. viscosity.113 For soft cheese or acid-coagulated cheese varieties (e.5 Food Applications of Skim Milk Powder in Different Heat Classes Heat Classification Low heat Heat Treatments Applied 70°C for 15 sec Functional Properties Solubility. water absorption Recombined evaporated milk High-high heat a 120°C for 1 min 135°C for 30 sec >120°C for >40 sec <1. 2nd ed. in addition to destroying pathogenic and spoilage organisms. P. cottage cheese or Quarg).Thermal Processing of Dairy Products 291 TABLE 9. Advanced Dairy Chemistry. severe heat treatment and high levels of whey protein denaturation are favored and applied quite commonly. gelation.. 85 to 95°C for 2 to 30 min) is commonly used to induce extensive whey protein denaturation and association with caseins. J. vol..L.. as their isoelectric point is approached.5 Flavor. in such cases. Source: Adapted from Kelly. expel whey) during storage. milk standardization.0 High heat 90°C for 30 sec 105°C for 30 sec 90°C for 5 min <1. which can be added to cheese milk and thereby incorporated into the curd (the centri-whey process).

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