Lng||sh art|c|e

1he posL 9/11 landscape presenLs many quesLlons regardlng legal frameworks whlch should apply
Loward conLrolllng lnLernaLlonal LerrorlsmŦ 1he war ls belng foughL ln flve sLraLeglc ways (accordlng Lo
Lhe ÞresldenLƌs speech aL Lhe naLlonal LndowmenL for uemocracy CcLŦ 6 2003)ť (1) prevenLlng LerrorlsL
aLLacks before Lhey occurŤ (2) denylng WMu Lo ouLlaw reglmes and LerrorlsL alllesŤ (3) denylng radlcal
groups Lhe supporL and sancLuary of ouLlaw reglmesŤ (4) denylng mlllLanLs conLrol of any naLlonŤ and (3)
denylng mlllLanLs any fuLure recrulLs by advanclng democracy and hope across Lhe Mlddle LasLŦ Cne
could speculaLe LhaL Lhe ƍAmerlcan Way of Warƍ (vandlver 2003) has evolved progresslvely wlLh Lhe
counLryƌs rlse as a global hyperpower and ls leavlng anLlquaLed lnsLlLuLlons behlndŦ ln facLţ one could
argue LhaL Lhe processes of crlmlnal law alone are lnadequaLe Lo flghL such a confllcLţ or even effecLlvely
deLer lLŦ AddlLlonallyţ democraLlc law mayţ ln facLţ only serve Lo compllcaLe Lhe effecLlveness of such a
warŦ 1haL lsţ because democraLlc socleLles are valueŴbasedţ codlfled ln poslLlve lawţ Lhey're effecLlvely
prohlblLed from combaLlng Lerrorlsm ln cerLaln arenasŤ such as consLanL survelllanceţ resLrlcLlons on
Lravelţ and LorLureŦ ln effecLţ democraLlc reglmes are llmlLed by Lhelr own laws and valuesţ and have
declded noL Lo become whaL Lhey seek Lo eradlcaLeŦ 1hls polnL may be beLLer lllusLraLed when one
conslders LhaL LoLallLarlan reglmes are relaLlvely free from Lerrorlsm problemsŦ llghLlng a war wlLh one
hand Lled behlnd your back seems Lo be Lhe faLe of democracles who pursue wars on LerrorŦ
vALlul1? Cl Au1PC8l1? 1C uLSlCnA1L 1L88C8lSM

1he classlc case regardlng valldlLy of deslgnaLlng organlzaLlons as LerrorlsLs ls Þeopleƌs Mo[ahedln
CrganlzaLlon of lran vŦ ueparLmenL of SLaLe and Colln Þowell (someLlmes abbrevlaLed as Crgan of lran vŦ
Þowell 2003)Ŧ 1he case ls so lmporLanLţ Lhe followlng brlef ls presenLed for undersLandlngţ as followsŦ
An lranlan dlssldenL organlzaLlon (ÞMCl) peLlLloned for revlew of lLs deslgnaLlon as an l1C (ƍforelgn
LerrorlsL organlzaLlonƍ) under Lhe AnLlLerrorlsm and LffecLlve ueaLh ÞenalLy AcL (ALuÞA) on
consLlLuLlonal grounds as well as Lhe facL lL was an organlzaLlon dedlcaLed Lo overLhrowlng Lhe same
despoLlc reglme ln lran LhaL Lhe uS governmenL was opposed LoŦ 1he CourL of Appeals held LhaL (1) Lhe
SecreLary of SLaLeƌs conslderaLlon of classlfled maLerlal ln maklng deslgnaLlon dld noL vlolaLe Lhe due
process clauseŤ (2) any due process vlolaLlon was harmlessŤ and (3) Lhe clalm LhaL Lhe organlzaLlonƌs
acLlons could noL be consLrued as Lerrorlsm because Lhe organlzaLlon lLself was formed Lo flghL oLher
SLaLe ueparLmenLŴdeslgnaLed sponsors of Lerrorlsm was non[usLlclableŦ ÞeLlLlon was denledŦ
1Ŧ uld Lhe exerclse of Lhe SecreLary of SLaLeƌs war and naLlonal emergency powers lnvolve any
posslble due process vlolaLlons from nonŴdlsclosure of classlfled lnformaLlon and ln maklng a LerrorlsL
2Ŧ Are Lhe LxecuLlve 8ranch powers Lo deLermlne who ls a LerrorlsL and who ls a LerrorlsL supporLerţ
and vlceŴversaţ a maLLer of non[usLlclable forelgn pollcyţ open Lo dlspuLeţ and/or sub[ecL Lo adequaLe
[udlclal revlew?
8LASCnlnC Anu AnAL?SlS
1he CourL noLed LhaL Lhls was Lhe Lhlrd Llme ÞMCl aLLempLed Lo seek revlewţ lrrespecLlve of any
urgency assoclaLed wlLh blocklng of funds vla enforcemenL of ALuÞAŦ lL was furLher noLed LhaL ALuÞA
expressly sLaLes LhaL Lhe SecreLary of SLaLe ls Lo conslder classlfled lnformaLlon ln maklng a deslgnaLlon
and LhaL such classlfled lnformaLlon ls noL sub[ecL Lo dlsclosureţ excepL Lo a revlewlng courL ex parLe and
ln camera per 8 uŦSŦCŦ Ƈ 1189(a)(3)(8)Ŧ A deslgnaLlon under Lhe AcL perslsLs for Lwo yearsţ and Lhe
SecreLary may reŴdeslgnaLe a forelgn organlzaLlon for succeedlng LwoŴyear perlodsţ affordlng plenLy of
Llme for dlscreLlonary revlewŦ ln order Lo be so deslgnaLedţ Lhree flndlngs musL be based on Lhe
admlnlsLraLlve recordţ LhaLť
AŦ Lhe organlzaLlon ls a forelgn organlzaLlonŤ
8Ŧ Lhe organlzaLlon engages ln LerrorlsL acLlvlLy ŦŦŦŤ and
CŦ Lhe LerrorlsL acLlvlLy or Lerrorlsm of Lhe organlzaLlon LhreaLens Lhe securlLy of unlLed SLaLes naLlonals
or Lhe naLlonal securlLy of Lhe unlLed SLaLesŦ
1he Appeals CourL of uC ls furLher empowered under Ƈ 1189(b) Lo hold unlawful and seL aslde
deslgnaLlons found Lo beť
(A) arblLraryţ caprlclousţ an abuse of dlscreLlonţ or oLherwlse noL ln accordance wlLh lawŤ
(8) conLrary Lo consLlLuLlonal rlghLţ powerţ prlvllegeţ or lmmunlLyŤ
(C) ln excess of sLaLuLory [urlsdlcLlonţ auLhorlLyţ or llmlLaLlonţ or shorL of sLaLuLory rlghLŤ
(u) lacklng subsLanLlal supporL ln Lhe admlnlsLraLlve record Laken as a whole or ln classlfled lnformaLlon
submlLLed Lo Lhe courL under paragraph (2)ţ or
(L) noL ln accord wlLh Lhe procedures requlred by lawŦ
Colorful argumenLs żsLemmlng from Abourezk vŦ 8eagan 1986 clalms Lo due process rlghLsŽ wlll noL
carry Lhe dayŦ 1he nonŴdlsclosure of ex parLe and ln camera lnformaLlon żoccurs ln con[uncLlon wlLhŽ
requlred noLlce LhaL Lhe deslgnaLlon ls lmpendlng and an opporLunlLy Lo be heard aL a meanlngful Llme
and ln a meanlngful mannerţ whlch Lhe SecreLary of SLaLe complled wlLhŦ
Lven lf Lhe record żhereŽ supporLed a flndlng of vlolaLlon of due processţ such a vlolaLlon would be
harmless as Lhe unaffecLed porLlon of Lhe record ls ample Lo supporL Lhe deLermlnaLlon madeŦ 1he
publlcţ unclasslfled admlnlsLraLlve record conLalns more Lhan enough evldence Lo supporL Lhe
deLermlnaLlon LhaL Lhe peLlLloner engaged or engages ln LerrorlsL acLlvlLyŦ 1he governmenL followed Lhe
requlred procedures as seL down ln Councll of 8eslsLance of lran vŦ ueparLmenL of SLaLeţ 231 lŦ3d 192


1hls secLlon plcks up on a broader look aL some of Lhe modern approaches Laken Lo combaL Lhe
problemţ aLLempLlng Lo analyze Lhe legal leglLlmacy of cerLaln naLlonal securlLy poslLlons Laken by Lhe
8ush AdmlnlsLraLlon as well as aLLempLlng Lo lncorporaLe lnLernaLlonal law on Lhe sub[ecLŦ AlLhough
many efforLs have been puLŴforLhţ buL none fully raLlfledţ Lo comprehenslvely deflne Lhe LerrorlsL acL
wlLhln Lhe global communlLyţ Lhe ºplecemeal" approach seems Lo be Lhe meLhodology mosL commonly
followedŦ 1hls approach conslsLs prlmarlly of varlous global LreaLlesţ and numerous reglonal convenLlons
and bllaLeral agreemenLsŤ all ln an efforL Lo essenLlally combaL Lerrorlsm from dlfferenL anglesţ some
deallng speclflcally wlLh lnLernaLlonal Lerrorlsm lLselfţ whlle oLhers addresslng lL only wlLhln Lhe
framework of varlous oLher crlmes and lssuesŦ lor exampleţ Lhe unlLed naLlons has adopLed many
anLlLerrorlsL convenLlons daLlng back Lo Lhe 1960's żSee un ConvenLlons AgalnsL 1errorlsmŽ A few
convenLlons are dlscussed belowť

1he ConvenLlon on Lhe ÞrevenLlon and ÞunlshmenL of Crlmes AgalnsL lnLernaLlonally ÞroLecLed
Þersons (1973)ţ whlchţ ln parLţ mandaLes naLlonŴsLaLes a parLy Lo Lhe ConvenLlon Lo cooperaLe ln
prevenLlng and preparlng for aLLacks agalnsL dlplomaLsţ exchange lnformaLlon readlly (such as Lhe
ldenLlLy and whereabouLs of suspecLs who fled Lo oLher counLrles)ţ even apprehend offenders and hold
Lhemţ as well as encourage (noL mandaLe) Lhe exLradlLlon of suspecLs beLween SLaLe parLlesŦ

1he un ConvenLlon AgalnsL Lhe 1aklng of PosLages (1979) lncorporaLes hosLageŴLaklng as a ºgrave
breach" under Lhe 1949 Ceneva ConvenLlon 8elaLlve Lo Lhe ÞroLecLlon of Clvlllan Þersons ln 1lme of
WarŤ noL Lo menLlonţ Lhe PosLage ConvenLlon also represenLs a parLlal re[ecLlon of Lhe Lhesls LhaL acLs of
Lerrorlsm are permlsslble lf commlLLed as parL of a war on naLlonal llberaLlon (Moore Ǝ 1urner 2003)Ŧ

1he lnLernaLlonal ConvenLlon for Lhe Suppresslon of Lhe llnanclng of 1errorlsm (1999)ţ and Lhe
ConvenLlon on Lhe ÞrohlblLlon of Lhe uevelopmenLţ ÞroducLlonţ SLockplllng and use of Chemlcal
Weapons and on 1helr uesLrucLlon (1997) Ŷ Lhe former almed dlrecLly aL LlghLenlng conLrolsţ freezlng
asseLsţ and generally helghLenlng Lhe culpablllLy of enLlLles LhaL acLlvely fund LerrorlsmŤ and Lhe laLLer
focuslng on Lhe LermlnaLlon of chemlcal weapons by Lhe year 2010ţ as well as creaLlng verlflcaLlon
procedures Lo ensure such measures are complled wlLhŦ

numerous 8eglonal ConvenLlons and 8llaLeral AgreemenLs also exlsLţ addresslng lnLernaLlonal
counLerLerrorlsm efforLs wlLhln cerLaln conLexLsŦ Whlle some usefulness ln Lhe flghL on Lerror ls galned
from such agreemenLsţ quesLlons sLlll abound over Lhelr commlLmenL (ln force) Lo adhere Lo exLradlLlon
and prosecuLlon requlremenLsŦ MosL noLablyţ such agreemenLs lack sLrengLh and conslsLency ln regards
Lo exLradlLlonŦ lor exampleţ boLh Lhe Arab ConvenLlon on Lhe Suppresslon of 1errorlsm and Lhe CAu
ConvenLlon on Lhe ÞrevenLlon and CombaLlng of 1errorlsm ralse excepLlons Lo Lhe exLradlLlon (and
prosecuLlon) of suspecLed LerrorlsLs lf Lhe pollLlcal offense docLrlne applles (explalned below)Ŧ ArLlcle
2(a) of Lhe Arab ConvenLlon sLaLes LhaL ºżallŽ cases of sLruggleŧ agalnsL forelgn occupaLlon and
aggresslon for llberaLlon and selfŴdeLermlnaLlonţ ln accordance wlLh Lhe prlnclples of lnLernaLlonal lawţ
should noL be regarded as an offenseŦ 1hls provlslon shall noL apply Lo any acL pre[udlclng LerrlLorlal
lnLegrlLy of any Arab SLaLe" (presumably lncluded Lo proLecL LerrorlsLs acLlng agalnsL lsrael)Ŧ Slmllarlyţ
ArLlcle 3(1) of Lhe CAu ConvenLlon proposes LhaL any acLţ Laken ln furLherance of llberaLlon or selfŴ
deLermlnaLlon agalnsL colonlallsmţ occupaLlonţ aggresslonţ or domlnaLlon by forelgn forcesţ shall nC1 be
consldered a LerrorlsL acLŦ Whlle such provlslons are ln sharp conLrasL Lo ArLlcle 3 of Lhe un 8omblng
ConvenLlonţ whlchţ ln parLţ sLaLes LhaL LerrorlsL bomblngs are ºunder no clrcumsLances [usLlflable byŧ
pollLlcalŧ ldeologlcalŧ rellglous or oLher slmllar naLureţ and are punlshable by penalLles conslsLenL wlLh
Lhelr grave naLureţ" Lhe lnconslsLencles (and many oLhers LhaL exlsL) are lllusLraLlve of Lhe loose and
lncoherenL efforL Lo combaL lnLernaLlonal LerrorŦ
1PL ÞCLl1lCAL CllLnSL uCC18lnL

1he pollLlcal offense docLrlne ls noL forelgn Lo Amerlcan [urlsprudenceŦ ln facLţ uS courLs ln Lhree
speclflc cases decllned Lo exLradlLe l8A members Lo Lhe unlLed klngdom relylngţ ln parLţ on Lhe pollLlcal
offense docLrlne (ln re McMullen (nŦuŦ CalŦ May 11ţ 1979)ţ ln re Mackln (1981ţ unreporLed)ţ and uS vŦ
uoherLyţ 786 lŦ 2d 491 (2d ClrŦ 1986))Ŧ Poweverţ lL should be noLed LhaL ln uoherLyţ deporLaLlon was
used as an alLernaLlve Lo exLradlLlonŦ uoherLy was wanLed for Lhe murder of a 8rlLlsh soldlerţ and
escape from prlsonŦ 1he Supreme CourL upheld hls deporLaLlon Lo norLhern lrelandŤ and LhereafLerţ uS
courLs have recognlzed LhaL when exLradlLlon LreaLles exlsL beLween Lwo counLrles (as beLween Lhe uS
and Lhe unlLed klngdom ln Lhe uoherLy case)ţ oLher means (llke requesLed deporLaLlon) may be used Lo
obLaln Lhe cusLody of crlmlnals seeklng refuge abroadŦ
LLCl1lMAC? Cl 1PL 8uSP AuMlnlS18A1lCn AÞÞ8CACP

Soon afLer Lhe 9/11 aLLacksţ ÞresldenL 8ush was faced wlLh a challenglng declslon Ŷ how exacLly Lo
flghL Lhe war on LerrorŦ lf he chose Lhe LradlLlonal rouLe (see uS vŦ 8ahmanŤ 1993 bomblng of World
1rade CenLer) Lhrough crlmlnal lnvesLlgaLlon and prosecuLlonţ he faced Lhe very real prospecL of crlmlnal
proceedlngs wlLhln federal courLs or even lnLernaLlonal courLs and LrlbunalsŤ noL Lo menLlonţ exLradlLlon
or rendlLlon procedures and dllemmasţ and Lhe cerLaln ConsLlLuLlonal safeguards of due process (rlghLs
lnherenL under Lhe llfLhţ SlxLhţ and LlghLh AmendmenLsŦ Crţ alLernaLlvelyţ Lhe ÞresldenL could choose a
broader mlllLary and dlplomaLlc response ln hls efforLs Lo eradlcaLe LerrorlsL organlzaLlons and Lhose
who supporLed LhemŦ ulLlmaLelyţ Lhe lmporLance of Lhls laLLer declslon was LhaL ºwaglng war does noLţ
for Lhe mosL parLţ lmpllcaLe Lhe proLecLlonsţ consLlLuLlonal or oLherwlseţ lnherenL ln crlmlnal
proceedlngs" (Shanor Ǝ Pogue 2003)Ŧ As crlmlnal law generally Lakes a backseaL durlng warLlme efforLsţ
Lhe ÞresldenL effecLlvely chose ºwar" as Amerlca's Lool Lo combaL LerrorlsmŤ even Lhough he dld so ln
Lhe absence of an offlclal Congresslonal declaraLlon of warţ a LradlLlonal sLaLe opponenL (Lerrorlsm ls
generally LhoughL of only as a neLworkţ noL a sLaLe)ţ and no lndlcaLlon of lLs evenLual end (LhaL lsţ how
can a sLaLeless neLwork wlLh many deLached parLs come LogeLher Lo effecLuaLe a surrender on behalf of
all LerrorlsL organlzaLlons?)Ŧ Poweverţ Lhls ls noL Lo suggesL LhaL Lhe ÞresldenL's LacLlcal declslon ls
beyond hls execuLlve powerŤ clLlngţ ln parLţ hls naLlonal emergency powers under Lhe War Þowers
8esoluLlon and Lhe recenLly enacLed ºAuLhorlzaLlon for use of MlllLary lorce !olnL 8esoluLlon" (called
SenaLe !olnL 8esoluLlon 23 or Þubllc Law 107Ŵ40ţ 113 SLaLŦ 224)Ť whlchţ ln effecLţ auLhorlzed Lhe
ÞresldenL ºLo use all necessary and approprlaLe force agalnsL Lhose naLlonsţ organlzaLlonsţ or persons he
deLermlnes plannedţ auLhorlzedţ commlLLedţ or alded Lhe aLLacksŤ and recognlzed Lhe ÞresldenL's
auLhorlLy under Lhe ConsLlLuLlon Lo Lake acLlon Lo deLer and prevenL acLs of lnLernaLlonal Lerrorlsm
agalnsL Lhe unlLed SLaLesŦ" (quoLlng Pamdan vŦ 8umsfeldţ 2003 WL 1633046 (uŦCŦ ClrŦ !uly 2003)Ŧ

1PL uL1Ln1lCn Cl unLAWluL CCM8A1An1S

ln Lhe case of 8oumedlene eL alŦ vŦ 8ush (2008)ţ a deeply dlvlded Supreme CourL (3Ŵ4) ruled LhaL
forelgn deLalnees held for years aL CuanLanamo 8ay ln Cuba have Lhe rlghL Lo appeal Lo uŦSŦ clvlllan
courLs Lo challenge Lhelr lndeflnlLe lmprlsonmenL wlLhouL chargesŦ !usLlce kennedy saldţ ºLhe laws and
ConsLlLuLlon are deslgned Lo survlveţ and remaln ln forceţ ln exLraordlnary LlmesŦ" kennedy recognlzed
Lhe LerrorlsLlc LhreaLs Lhe uŦSŦ faces and undersLood Lhe [usLlflcaLlons for Lhe deLenLlons buL sald he has
Lo slde wlLh whaL Lhe framers wanLedŦ !usLlce Scalla saldţ ƍLhls declslon wlll make Lhe war harder on usŦ
lL wlll almosL cerLalnly cause more Amerlcans Lo be kllledŦƍ !usLlce Scalla clLed a reporL by SenaLe
8epubllcans whlch sald aL leasL 30 prlsoners have reLurned Lo Lhe baLLlefleld followlng Lhelr release from
CuanLanamoŦ Some 400+ deLalnees have been released so farţ and Lhe remalnder (abouL 300) fall lnLo
Lhree caLegorlesť (1) Lhose who are Lo be Lrled on crlmlnal chargesŤ (2) Lhose who could be Lransferred
or repaLrlaLed Lo Lhelr home counLryţ safeLy permlLLlngŤ and (3) Lhose whom Lhe 8ush admlnlsLraLlon
says lL wonƌL release even Lhough Lhey wonƌL face chargesŦ 1he flrsL group ls unllkely Lo ever recelve
convlcLlons slnce Lhelr lawyers wlll ralse all sorLs of legal defensesţ up Lo and lncludlng unflLness Lo sLand
Lrlal because of all Lhose years of deLenLlonŦ 1he second group lnvolves deLalnees such as Lhe ulghurs ŴŴ
pronounced WLLƌ gurs Ŵ Musllms from wesLern Chlna ŴŴ who say Lhey wlll be LorLured lf Lhey are
reLurned Lo Lhelr home counLrles and have slnce been repaLrlaLed Lo Albanla and 8ermudaŦ 1he Lhlrd
groupţ whlch ls mosLly reLalned for Lhelr lnLelllgence valueţ could be looklng aL a Llmely release
dependlng on Lhelr securlLy LhreaL levelţ buL are lndeed Lhe source of much execuLlveŴ[udlclal branch
confllcL on Lhls lssueŦ ln any evenLţ as of mldŴ2008ţ Lhe MlllLary Commlsslons AcL of 2006 whlch denles
CuanLanamo deLalnees Lhe rlghL Lo habeas corpus has been sLruck LownŦ WhaL remalns Lo be seen ls
wheLher Lhe law ls movlng ln a dlrecLlon where unlawful combaLanLs (lŦeŦţ LerrorlsLs) end up wlLh more
rlghLs Lhan prlsoners of war (lŦeŦţ soldlers)Ŧ

1PL LCnC A8M Cl 1PL LAW Anu 8ln LAuLn

1he 8ln Laden case ls lnsLrucLlve Lo how uS domesLlc sLaLuLes can apply Lo acLlvlLles ouLslde Lhe
LerrlLorlal llmlLs of Lhe uSŦ AddlLlonallyţ lL seLs Lhe sLage for a dlscusslon over consLlLuLlonal rlghLs versus
naLlonal securlLy lnLeresLs as well as many oLher lssuesŦ lL ls revlewed below and ls perhaps Lhe mosL
lmporLanL case covered ln Lhls lecLureť

1he case of uS vŦ 8ln Laden (92 lŦ SuppŦ 2d 189ţ uS ulsLŦ CLŦ n?ţ 2000) ls a mulLlfaceLed case LhaL
presenLs several lssues relevanL Lo our conslderaLlons Ŷ namelyţ afflrmlng LhaL a cerLaln naLlonal securlLy
excepLlon applles Lo Lhe 4Lh AmendmenL search and selzures guaranLees oLherwlse unconsLlLuLlonalŤ
and LhaL uS lederal Law carrlesţ ln cerLaln clrcumsLancesţ exLraLerrlLorlal appllcaLlons (LhaL lsţ
appllcaLlon ouLslde Lhe unlLed SLaLes)Ŧ 1he former lssue wlll be explored laLer ln a lecLure on clvll rlghLs
and naLlonal securlLyţ whlle Lhe laLLer wlll be examlned brlefly hereŦ

ln Lhe 8ln Laden caseţ flfLeen defendanLs (mosLly forelgn naLlonals) were lndlcLed on federal charges
ranglng from consplracy Lo murder uS clLlzensţ Lo Lhe use of weapons of mass desLrucLlonţ Lo Lhe
consplracy Lo desLroy uS bulldlngs and properLyŦ ln addlLlonţ Lhe lndlcLmenL also lncluded 223 counLs of
murder for cerLaln defendanLsţ sLemmlng fromţ ln parLţ Lhe uS Lmbassy bomblngs ln nalroblţ kenyaţ and
uar es Salaamţ 1anzanlaŦ

Slnce Lhe defendanLs reslded and acLed ouLslde Lhe uSţ Lhe defendanLs challengedţ ln parLţ Lhe uS
auLhorlLyţ boLh under Lhe ConsLlLuLlon and under lnLernaLlonal lawţ Lo apply uS federal crlmlnal sLaLuLes
abroadŦ LssenLlallyţ Lhe defendanLs conLended LhaL ºLhe sLaLuLes LhaL form Lhe basls of Lhe lndlcLmenL
fall clearlyŧ Lo regulaLe Lhe conducL of forelgn naLlonals for conducL ouLslde Lhe LerrlLorlal boundarles of
Lhe unlLed SLaLesŦƍ

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