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,=Reinforced Concrete Design
June 15, 1998
Held at: Howard Johnson PlazaHotel 525 W. Johnson St. Madison, WI
University of WisconsinMadison College of Engineering Engineering Professional Development
;
I
TABLE OF CONTENT FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN
Pages
TAB 1.
Materials; Design Concepts; Safety Provisions  Design for Shear Simplified Method Serviceability Design for Bending Moment: Conventional & Unified Design Methodology
13 14 31
63
TAB 2.
Design for Shear: Detailed Method Shear Strength (Continued) Development of Reinforcement
139 172
TAB 3.
Combined Bending & Axial Load Length Effects on Columns Footings and an Overview of SlabonGrade Design
191
211
251
TAB 4.
Design for Torsion Continuous Beams; TSections.............. Seismic Design & Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures
280
295 338
TABS.
Two Slab System
435
REINFORCED CONCRETE ··OESIGN
COURSE TOPIC OUTLINE
Monday, June 1
8:00 Registration Howard Johnson Plaza Hotel 525 West Johnson Street Madison, Wisconsin 8:30 Materials; Design Concepts; Safety ProVisions Dr. A. Fattah Shaikh 9:45 Break
10:00 Design for Bending Moment: Conventional and Unified Design Methodology Dr. A. Fattah Shaikh 12:00 Lunch1:00 Howard Johnson Hotel
Serviceability • • Deflections Crack control
.Dr, Charles G. Salmon 3:00 3: 15 Break Design for Shear: Simplified Method • • General concepts Simple procedure
Dr. A. Fattah Shaikh 5:00 Adjourn for the day
Tuesday., 8:00
June 2
Design for Shear: Detailed Method • • Examples More detailed procedure
Dr. Charles G. Salmon 10:00 Break 10: 15 Development of Reinforcement • • • • • Development length Modification factors Hooks Bar cutoff Moment capacity
.Dr. A. Fattah Shaikh 12:00 LunchHoward Johnson Hotel
o
1:00
Development of Reinforcement (continued) • Development, length examples
Dr. A. Fattah Shaikh 3:00 3: 15 Break Shear Topics • • • Axial tension or compression Shearfriction Brackets
Dr. Charles G. Salmon 5:00 Adjourn for the day
Wednesday, June 3 8:00 Combined B~nding and Axial Load • • • 10:00 Break 10:15 Length Effects on Compression Members Dr. Charles G. Salmon 12:00 Lunch1:00 Howard Johnson Hotel Length Effects on Compression Members (Continyed) Miscellaneous topics Dr. Charles G. Salmon 2:45 3:00 Break Footings and an Overview of SlabonGrade Design Dr. A. Fattah Shaikh 5:00 Adjourn for the Day Short Columns Interaction Diagram Biaxial Bending and Compression
Dr. A. Fattah Shaikh
G
u
Thursday, June 4 8:00 Design for Torsion . Dr. A. Fattah Shaikh 10:00 Break 10:15 Continuous Beams; Tsections; . Moment and Shear Coefficients; Effective Stiffness; Example Dr. Charles G. Salmon 12:00 LunchHoward Johnson Hotel 1:00 Continuous Beams (continued) Dr. Charles G. Salmon 2:45 .3:00 Break Seismic Design & Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures Dr. S.K. Ghosh 5:00 Adjourn for the day
o
Friday, June 5 8:30 Twoway Slab Systems • • 10:00 Break 10:30 .Twoway Slab Systems (continued) • • Moment and shear Transfer Howard Johnson Hotel Direct design Equivalent frame method (through lateral distribution)
Dr. Charles G. Salmon
Dr. CharlesG. Salmon 12:00 LunchFinal Adjournment
....,..
Example 15.f(cont'd)
At
Calculations and Discussion
Code Reference
.
min
=
5...[5000 (560)  (0.016) (96) 60,000
=
1.76 in.2
Governs
The longitudinal reinforcement required for torsion must be distributed around the perimeter of the closed stirrups, at a maximum spacing of 12 in. The longitudinal bars should be inside the stirrups. There should be at least one longitudinal bar in each comer of the stirrups. Select 10 bars: Area of each longitudinal bar = 1.76 = 0.176 in.2 10 Use No.4 bars
#3 closed stirrups @6
4.10 bars
Design of ledge reinforcement not shown here. See Part 17 for design of beam ledges.
11. Size combined 10ngitudi~al rehr:{.~1f~m~g!t",,,,
"<.Co ""J~~_S!: ,.,/'::
(t~.;
i07ttltt:...i.in",Use.No. 4 bars in sides and top tomet~ C(tsp~~re?t:beam.)~lote thlll.t two of the ten. C:GHlij.tli.;J,·!ongitudinal ars(bars next to vertical face of led~e) required for torsion are to be b \k:('~;.~e ;e.ombined with the ledge reinfci..cement. 'Desigfi'ofthe ledge reinforcement is not shown here. See Part 17 of this dOCUmC!!lor designgf ,keam ledges. f 1'0UEe Table 101 to determine required. flexural reinforcement.
566 (12) ~ 001084
,,_,~.~r.,
0.9 (5) (16) (29.5)2 From Table toI, by interpolation, ro = O.H 65
l. .,
i,J".
'A
s
,. "Hn~
== rof~bd :~ 0.1165 (5) (16)(295)
=4:58 in~2
fye
." '
60
J~:,:
Y..Xt) ;
,
,paT;, :;:n:DVl(;':" .', 'At.midspan,i'provide (2110) of the longitudinal torsion reinforcement in addition to the flexural reinforcement.
1514
Example 15.1 (cont'd)
Calculations and Discussion
Code Reference
L~)1.76) + 4.58 = 4.93 in.2 (
At end of span (extended reinforcement)
C~)(1.76) + (4.~8)
=
1.88 in.2
Use 4 No. 10 bars (As = 5.08 in.2 > 4.93 in.2) Extend 2 No. 10 bars to end of girder (As = 2.54 in.2 > 1.88 in.2) Note that the longitudinal torsion reinforcement must be adequately anchored. 12. Check required area of beam stirrups used as "hanger" reinforcement for beam ledge. Sufficient stirrups in beam section must be available to act also as hanger reinforcement for the beam ledge. See Part 17 for design of beam ledges. Reaction from one double tee stem (for 10 ftwide double tee, stems are 5 ft on center.) Ru
=
[1.4 (1.92) + 1.7 (0.9)] 5
=
21.1 kips/stem
Av (per effective width of ledge) = Ru = 21.1 = 0.414 in.2/stem <l>fyv 0.85 (60) (Note that
<I>
= 0.85 for beam ledge reinforcement
per Part 17)
The effective width of ledge over which hanger forces can be distributed may be evaluated from Ref. 17.5. For the ledge loading dimensions of this example, be = 26 in.
Av = s
0.414 26
=
0
.01 In. lin.
6'
2'
For No.3 stirrups, Smax = _Q:!!_ = 6.8 in. 0.016 The No.3 stirrups @ 6 in., computed earlier in Step 6, must be used for the full span length to act also as hanger reinforcement for the beam ledge.
1515
University of WisconsinMadison
Department
of Engineering Professional
Development
Biographical Sketches
Staff Speakers Session Leaders
I
'
\_;.
S. K. GHOSH CONSULTANT S.K. GHOSH ASSOCIATES, INC. MT. PROSPECT, IL AND REDWOOD CITY, CA
Dr. S. K. Ghosh heads his own consulting practice, S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc., Mt. Prospect, IL and Redwood City, CA. He was formerly Director, Engineering Services, Codes and Standards, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL, and is Adjunct Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Dr. Ghosh is known internationally for his work in earthquake engineering. He has influenced seismic design provisions in the United States for many years by serving on or chairing numerous committees and advisory panels. He played a major role in the development of the shearwall design provisions of 1994 UBC and the precast concrete design provisions of 1997 UBC. Dr. Ghosh has lectured extensively in the U.S., Canada, and abroad on the analysis, response, and design of concrete buildings. He specializes in the analysis and design, including earthquake resistant design, of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. Dr. Ghosh is active on many national technical committees and is a fellow of ACI. He is a member of ACI Committee 318, Standard Building Code, and of the ACI Technical Activities Committee. In addition to authoring many publications in the area of seismic design, he has investigated and reported on recent earthquakes including the Mexico earthquake of 1985, the Lorna Prieta earthquake of 1989, the Northridge earthquake of 1994, and the Kobe earthquake of 1995.
I
'
\.._;
BRUCE D. KIEFFER PROGRAM DIRECTOR· UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSINMADISON DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT MADISON, WISCONSIN Bruce D. Kieffer is a program director for the Department of Engineering Professional Development (EPD) at the University of WisconsinMadison. He received both undergraduate and graduate degrees in architecture from the University of WisconsinMilwaukee. At EPD, Mr. Kieffer has responsibility for coursework in the areas of architecture, structures, project management and construction management. Bruce has also taught architectural design and technology at Ball State University in Indiana. A registered architect, Mr. Kieffer has worked professionally in business organizations, universities and government agencies, as well as in private practice. He is a member of the Wisconsin State Licensing Board for Architects and Engineers. Bruce is also a past member of the Governor's Study Committee on Solar Rights. He has served on other appointed committees and was chairman of a technical task force that developed the energy standards for the Wisconsin One and TwoFamily Uniform Dwelling Code. Mr. Kieffer has won numerous residential and commercial design awards and grants from both the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Energy Department. He has also been an energy consultant to other design firms and governmental agencies.
TABt
Materials; Design Concepts; Safety Provisions
'~
A. Fattah Shaikh
Design for Shear: Simplified Method
. A. Fattah Shaikh
•
REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN
SHEAR STRENGTH DESIGN
Beams and Oneway Slabs
• • • •
Basic Concepts Types of Cracks Shear Span to Depth Ratio Shear Resistance  Concrete  Reinforcement ACI Code Procedures  Simplified Method  Detailed Method
•
• •
Effect of Axial Loads Design Examples
Dr. A. F. Shaikh, P.E.
FASCE, FACI, FPCI
Professor, University of WisconsinMilwaukee
• BASIC CONCEPTS • State of Stress
w
w
VM
@j)
I
I
@
I
®
v
I
f1 = V
V
v
f1 Ie emall
v
f1
1
• PRINCIPLE TENSILE STRESS
f1 
Y2 o, + ~ (Y2 tan 2a
O"t)2
+v
2
=
v Y20"t
2
• SHEAR STRESS (Text Section 5.2)
2
g
1M2
w
I
dz
Ih
(a)
C1
y
fCl
C
_
\.\:1 \~
f cly
_
act
* * * t dbl

"
'\ : :
I
~_
vb dz Y
_
, ..&7C:1 1.'
f
7
:
vb dz e
f
:/
I .:
".
f c2y
kd
~

g
h·

T

_
_!,'_
'(__


(b)
N.A.
(c)
HORIZONTAL SHEAR STRESS IN A BEAM
vy.
=
v
b(arm)
AT NEUTRAL AXIS: y
V
b(arm)
=0
V bd
=> ACI
:3
• TYPES OF CRACKING IN CONCRETE BEAMS
1
® @ ® OJ
1
1
l tl
1
l
®
1
l
1
l
®
1
l
OJ
1
l
OJ
®
@
Web Shear  Deep beams and thin web beams
Flexure  Shear (Diagonal Tension)  Intermediate length beams
Flexure  Long beams
I d
or
a d
2 •
4
• SHEAR SPAN TO DEPTH RATIO, aId
a
p p
a
I
(J
I
~
v =p
M =Va
Basic definition of shear span a
(Wang
& Salmon, 6th Ed., Fig. 5.4.3)
M =aV
or
a =V
M
v
=
k1
v
bd
5
• SHEAR SPAN TO DEPTH' RATIO , aid (Cant.)
Flexural moment strength Shearcompression strength
~~
Inclined cracking strength,
v;
+_ ....
Deep Beams Sheartension and shearcompression failures
............ ........
_ ....,...
__
....... _
Flexural failures
Diagonal tension failures
o
2
3
4
5
6
7
aId Variation in shear strength with aId for rectangular beams
(Wang & Salmon, 6th Ed., Fig. 5.4.4)
 ~ 1.0 d
a
Deep Beam
1.0
s : ~ 2.5
Short Beam
2.5 ~ ~ ~ 6 d : ~6
Intermediate Beam
ACI 11.8.1
~< d
5.0
Long Beam
Deep Beam
6
v,,=~
5.0
4.0
";::.r:
G;u
"tl ~
.Q
3.0
2.0
. . .. "":r . .,_.",. ..
...
:.:!~·:·:tf: . \
... .:. ; .... •• <,
.. : : ."
. ." : ..
..yo"
.",..
.. .. ... . .. :. .. . .. .",."....~.. ... _.. ..
",
",
.. ..
..
...
~3.5
r0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1000(P Vn d ) Mn ..;t;"
Inverse scale __, 1.5 2.0 5
00
Derivation of ACI shear strength equation for beams without shear reinforcement, that is, V, = Vc (Wang & Salmon, 6th Ed., Fig. 5.5.1)
7
• FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO SHEAR RESISTANCE
Va
= aggregate
interlock (interface shear)
Vez
= shear resistance
............. _c
c
E s.....
..
..
T
z
v
Redistribution of shear resistance after formation of inclined crack.
(Wang & Salmon. 6th Ed.• Fig. 5.4.2)
Vcu Va Vd
= = =
uncracked cone. shear resist aggregate interlock shear resist dowel action shear resist
35io 45io
20%
NOTE: Due to a large variation in parameters affecting shear resistance, ACI uses . empirical equations with Ve ranging from
2~bd
to 3.5~bd
8
I
• 1YPESi OF SHEAR REINFORCEMENT
!
Longitudinal bent bar
)
I
'j
Inclinedstirrups
I
Singleloop or U stirrup
v V ~ V
A~.J
I I
Vertical stirrups
Section AA
T~pes of Shear Reinforcement
I,
~arries part of the shear.
v,
~nhances aggregate interlock Irrprove longitudinal bar dowel action
!
d
i
I I
Ns
s attributable
Shear strength
Iv
i!
to shear reinforcement.
V
f_
Av fy (sin
ex+ cos ex)d
S
I
9
• TRUSS ANALOGY
(a) A steel truss
(b). Truss action in a reinforced concrete beam
I I I I II
Truss Analogies
IIIIIII
(Wang & Salmon, 6th Ed., Fig. 5.6.2)
(c) Reinforced concrete beam with vertical shear reinforcement
10
Strength of Members Under Bending OnlyACI Code
ITEM 1 (jJ v,. > STRENGTH DESIGN ((jJ
(Wang & Salmon, 6th Ed., Table 5.11.1)
CODE Formula (111),11.1.1
= 0.85)
11.1.3
v.,
Maximum v., at a distance d from face of support in usual situations (three exceptions) 2 3
Y,.=Yc+Ys
JF; < 100 psi
Formula (112), 11.1.1 11.1.2
f' unless Av > 5~
( 50 b.s) fy
bwS
but need not exceed 150 fy 4 Simplified method:
~ = 2.ffcbwd ~ = (0.8 + 100Pw)JF;bwd
More detailed method:
Formula (113), 11.3.1.1 for Pw < 0.012 Refs. 5.45
V. = (1.9J]; + 2500pw ~)b.,d :::3.5J];b.,d
v.,d/M u not to exceed unity
Formula (115), 11.3.2.1
.
Allow 10% increase for joists Lightweight concrete when fet is specified: Use smaller of fer/6.7 or JTc for .ffc Lightweight concrete when fer is not specified: Use 0.75JTc to 0.85.ffc in cases of all lightweight to sand lightweight concrete
8:11.8 11.2.1.1 11.2.1.2
5
V.
&
Avf,d =  s
(.
sm ~ + cos ~) (single bar)
Formula (1116), 11.5.6.3 Formula (1117), 11.5.6.4 11.5.2 11.5.6.8
V. = Av/, V. not
sin ~ < 3JEbwd
fy not to exceed 60,000 psi
to exceed 8.ffc bwd
11
(Continued)
ITEM STRENGTH DESIGN (cP = 0.85) For O.ScP Yc < CODE
6
v., < cPYc
w
,max s
u se s = SOb Av!,
= d. ~ 24 m, 2
Formula (1113), 11.S.S.3
I1.S.S.1,
11.S.4.1
except for slabs, footings, joists, and small beams shallower than 10 in., 2t times flange thickness, or bw/2; for these cases, no shear reinforcement required unless v., > cPYc.:
7
For cjJ Vc < min
v., < [cjJ Yc + min cjJ Y,J cjJ Y, = cjJSObwd
Av!, = SOb w
,max s
11.S.S.3' 11.S.4.1 bwd)] 11.S.S.3
t: e s
8
d = 2 ~ 24' in.
For [cP Yc
+ min cPY,] < v., < [cP Yc + cP(4~
min cjJ Y, = cPSObwd Design shear reinforcement max s
= ~ < 24 in.
+ cjJ(4~bwd)]
<
11.S.4.1
9
For [cjJYc
v., < [cjJYc + cjJ(8~bwd)]
11.S.6.8
Design shear reinforcement max s
= ~<
12 in.
11.S.4.3
12
• FLOW CHART  ACI SHEAR DESIGN
( START
+
r <I>
= 0.85
A. = Normal Wt. Cone. A. ~ 0.85 Sand Lt. Wt. Cone. A. = 0.75 A" Lt. Wt. Cone.
vc = A 2 ...rr:bw d
V = A 19 vf'_ + 2500 P
c . c
I
_tzr:
_l!_
u
W
Vd b,.j _ M ""'''_1
No
Yes
Revi5e Section
Shear Reinf. i5 not neceesary
No
Yes
No
Yes
(AJm'n
= 50
bw
:
y
A
v
= (: 't' fyd
Vc)
S ~ (~)mln
use s < ~
:> 24" 2
If Vu <I>
v, ~ 4 v'P; b
use s S;
w
d
:
:> 12" :> 24"
otherwise. use s S; ~
( END)
m
o Shear
Design Example
The problem mayalso be solved graphically as shown in Fig. 37. q>Vs for #3 stirrups atd/2, d/3, and d/4 are scaled vertically from q>Vc· The horizontal intersection of the <l>Vs values (22 kips, 33 kips, and 45 kips) with the shear diagram automatically sets the distances where the #3 stirrups should be spaced at d/2, d/3, and d/4. The exact numerical values for these horizontal distances are calculated as follows (although scaling from the sketch is close enough for practical design):
12'0" r~ =
wu
8 kips/It
~ Column , ,
~
I
Span
!
I
I ,
I
!
I
""7
I
14"
I
>1
Ir
6 @ 6"
'1'
I2
@
8"
.1.
5
@
12"
.1
!
I
I
i'\.
f
,
I 1.17'
2.0'
_Face of  column
hf =
I
l Il...fEw =
27"ll
'[d ~ !'
24"
t
12"
II
~~B6.6kiP.
I d from support face
I,
I I
slope
= 8 kips/ft
70.6 kips 64.7 kips (31.7 + 33) 53.7 kips (31.7+22) ~
i
4JVc + ~Vs = 31.7 + 45 = 76.7 kips> 70.6 kips
.t
= 4JVc
221kips
33 kips
Ulll~
31.7 kips
,
I I,
I
<.
s = d/2
4.74'
+
1
41.
#3~~
~V~l1S.8kiOS
~~~UoC...Wao'.
I
i
Stirruos Required
I
V 4» s
I
;
1.17' 2.74'
Stirrups ReQuired
No
s = d/4
.!
I
, I,.
s=d/3 1.38'·
•I
I
#3 @ d/4 = 6 in.: @ d/3 = 8 in.:
(86.6  64.7)'18 = 2.74 ft (32.9 in.) (64.7  53.7)/8 = 1.38 ft (16.6 in.)
use 6 @ 6 in. use 2@ 8 in. use 5 @ 12 in.
@ d/2 = 12 in.: (53.7  15.8)/8= 4.74 ft (56.9 in.)
14
A more practical solution may be to eliminate the 2 @ 8 in. and use 9@ 6 in. and 5 @ 12 in.
EFFECTS OF AXIAL LOADS
ACI Ref.
• Axial Compression:
V ::'2
.
Nu
)
c
V 'c
If" ( 1 +
2000 A
9
bd
w
ACI Eq.
(114)
~::.:
or, use alternative
given in Section 11.3.2.2
• Axial Tension (significant):
vc =0
V
c
=
11.3.1.3
V "c
2 ~ ( 1+
Nu ) b d 500 A w
9
ACI Eq.
(118)
Notes:
N
_u
A
in psi
9
Nu is
+ for
compression
Nu is  for ten.sion
15
•
Serviceability
Charles G. Salmon
.
\
Serviceability
Charles O. Salmon, Ph.D, P.E. Professor Emeritus of Civil Engineering University of Wisconsin Madison June 1, 1998
Monday: 1:00 pm  2:30 pm Serviceability 1. 2. Deflections Crack Control
14.1
Rev 3/98
CHAPTER 14Wang & Salmon, 6th edition
'Maximum Deflection in an Elastic Member
~max
= f3a Ele
ML2
(14.2.1)
M = reference value of bending moment, such as maximum positive value
L = span length
E Ie
=
modulus of elasticity moment of inertia in a standard section in the member coefficient that depends on: (a) degree of fixity at supports (b) variation in moment of inertia along the span (c) distribution of loading
=
f3a =
14.2
'Rev
3/98
Midspan Deflection on Continuous Beam
(14.2.4)
tv1a
_ Ct:1"S"~lJt ·7' _  _

........
L/i

14.3
Rev 3/98
Effective Moment of Inertia for Continuous Tshaped Sections
Aj cj
B
j
4j
" I I I I I I I I II , I i
if I I .,,., , I I III
I
r I,IIJ II,III
if I , I , I I II , I , ,I
A
t~
C
j
I
J 8
.
It,
IW~~~~
I J . I••• I
I I
,...  .., I I ••• .... ... ._
_., ...,. __ ...
.  601.·
~.
J
&!_._•.J
See:.firJl1
eG
14.4
Rev 3/98
Load Deflection Curve
"~"
~ I
"_Ctlml'ut~J. t1~';lee";t:Jn,bas~J 0" l:r:al'1sfot::mea erae.ket/. seGflol'1
Ct:JW)pLl..J:~d dt!'llec.fibn
using
srL),s,s
I
'Ac.I:ual del/ef:.fiDI?
.
I
.I
,i~C~Cki'l!
load.
.
I
I
14. 5
Rev 3/98
Effective Moment of Inertia (Branson EquationACI 9.5)
(14.4.1)
which is ACI Formula (97. In the above equation,
Mer = frIg / M max
s, = cracking moment
moment for the loading condition
= maximum
under which deflection is computed
Ig = gross moment of inertia (neglecting reinforcement)
fer
= cracked transformed section moment I, = modulus of rupture (taken as 7.5{1;
of inertia for
normal weight concrete;ACI  9.5.2.3) Yt . distance from neutral axis to extreme tension fiber
14 . 6
Rev 3/98
Single Value of Moment of Inertia
1. Midspan Value Alone (ACI9.5.2.4)
(14.4.2)
2. Simple Average (ACI9.5.2.4)
(14.4.5)
where Ie1 and Ie2 are the effective moments of inertia at the two ends of the span.
14.7
Rev 3/98
Single Value of Moment of Inertia (continued) 3. Weighted Average
(14.4.3)
for spans with both ends continuous
and
(14.4.4)
for spans with one end continuous.
1 4 . 8 . Rev 3/98
ACI Journal, January 1972
"Variability of Deflections of Simply Supported Reinforced Concrete Beams"
calculated value."
"...under controlled laboratory conditions, there is a 90 percent chance that the deflections of a particular beam will be within the range of 20 percent less than to 30 percent more than the
14.9
Rev 3/98
ACIMethodSustained Load Deflection due to Creep and Shrinkage
(14.8.1)
where
(bai)
D
= instantaneous
deflection
due to all sustained loads (usually dead load)
,1=
~
1+50p
I
~ = timedependent factor = 5 years load duration
(or more)
2.0 1.4 1.0
= 1 year
=
3 months
14.10
Rev 3/98
Recommended Values for Maximum Reinforcement Ratio p for Deflection Control 1· Members NOT supporting or NOT attached to construction likely to be damaged by large deflections: Rectangular beams 0.35pb . Tsections or box beams  0.40pb 2. Members supporting or attached to construction likely to be damaged by large deflections: Rectangular beams 0.25pb Tsections or box beams  0.30pb 3. For members of lightweight concrete, use 0.05 Pb less than indicated in 1. or 2.
14.11
EXAMPLE: Check deflection against ACI Table 9.5(b). Given: 5 in. slab Assume 60% of 100 psf live load is sustained. f'c = 3000 psi. fy = 40,000 psi
:#5r#/()d { lis
= O.;'!J~i'7.
3,9+
IJ?
~.,..___d:;
+
~
().8" /1. ·A~//t J)L _ ___.,...fl·;~#t Lk /.3/
I.
o.43L
S~('JlIG.e
load
"Jop) CIJJ..f
59Jt*~/ft /)1. /. ()b /tkiP~j,ct it
f).
. .Pi.:;,14,/2.'2 &dsfk1'l d~fa;1s ~r Co/)hhvb"~ ~/4b
tf:xom'pJe 14,12, '2,
14.12
(a) Moment
of Inertia
Positive Moment Region: Ig = 125 in.s Ier = 31.9 in.s According to ACI9.5.2.4, only the positive moment properties. need be used. (b) Effective Moment of Inertia Ie
Ie
=
M
Mer max
[ Ig + 1 
< Ig Compute for and
fr = 7.5~
Mmax
= MD
L
Mmax=MD+L Mmax = MD+sust~ined
= 0.411 ksi
M·er  frIg  0.411{1252 Yt. 2'.50(12).
.
 171
f ki t IpS
14.13
For the positive
moment
region
Mmax
== MD ,
Mmax
Mer
= 0.86
1.71
1.71
> 1; Ie
= Ig =
125 in.4
Mer _
Mmax
 2.17'
.
Mer
Mmax
= =
0.49 . 77.5 in.4
. Ie
=
0.49(125) + 0.51(31.9)
= MD+sustained L ,
Mmax
Mer _
1.71
Mmax
 O.86+0.6( 1.31) ,
.
Mmax
Mer
>1
Ie = Ig = 125 in."
14.14 (c) Immediate
11m = ~M
Deflection
Dead Load
s  /O(Ma+Mb)]
r, = Ig =
=
125 in.4
2
5(12) 144 48(3.12)(103)125
[0.861 (0.59+ 2 10
= 0.05 in.
(d) Immediate Ie
Deflection
Dead LoadLive
Load
= 77.5 in.4
=
(e) Immediate
(~i)L
0.21 in. DeflectionLive Load only
= (~i)D+L (~i)D
 0.210.05 = 0.16 in.
14.15 (f) Creep and Shrinkage Deflection Based on Immediate Deflection Due to All Sustained Loads
Ie
=
Ig
=
125 in.4
for dead load plus sustained live load
(Ill) D + sus (L
.
_

5(12)2144 48(3.12)(10
3
[
)125
. _1 ] 1 . 6 5 1 0( 1 . 2 3) 1 2
 0.10 in.
Ilcp+sh
=
A(lli)D+sust
L
A  2.0
for 5 years duration of sustained load and no compression reinforcement
Ilcp+sh
 2.0(0.10)
 0.20 in.
14.16 (g) Check deflection against Table 9 .5(b), assuming slab is supporting nonstructural elements which may be damaged by excessive deflection.
Requirement: (lli)L + llcp+sh < 480 0.16 +0.20
L
=
. 0.36 In. > [12(12) 480
=
0.30
in. ]
:N(J
If none of the live load were considered sustained, (lli)L + llcp+sh = 0.16 + 2(0.05)
=
0.26 in. < 0.30 in.
OK
14"7
£' e,.
$~..rI:?/~tI.1D;;dtiP
1,)S.J.:J')t.2ijeDIJJ
4,~t:A?!
•••••
1iuf211/:; I)eat/.!
s/r;;in
A.s
"L,/
J;,it,a! I,,~J~
dae
to
sll'~;n o/'cer creep
d"e·~ cre~fJ 10 (XJI')~~
III/! d;;1fe
t)&cur,.~d
h~f
01 ,5w!il/oed /o;;dn.1 · ~. A.1e ;.j Ioadlo/ ~~Re/aiil/~ hum'''''1:! ckrlo/ 3,910/ ~I u;/)crele
/ • .[)('//';1/;01')
4. Curl'?! ~;lIO/;.1
lem~r~~
5: Nemher .5IZ~ ~. M/~ I'I'O/,ol'f'lJfJ
C~l?'Ie/')t
!/umio'/Iy
lAJater cer/)e/)t
.l':d6b
slunp
CcI'J/elJl
1.
5f~5J
lJt .tkl")af, on
~.
M~nilude.
R;ie
i:):f
had ~~~Ie.f· (/nlo~"' ~~r,;'d
B. Ca'lsltltle'Jh. Conl'pDJ" ,";l/cr; cv;d .,t;';I?r;e~.f 01' ~eme//t 49~~.J';;Ie.J  . .s/Z€~5'~oI~, m/~er;1 dde"f Atlmix lure.!
(.;
• Creep
creef
eoe!/tc,/t,r!
= t. '27 La , l!amirh!y
('C~/a.
/.
~).~
J..
0./11
(C,c), ::./,27 o. 006711
h
.fr;Z'
II 240 %
• C.reep
!JeI!ed;;'r;
~cp =
c.1: b.;.
or 6l:e = kr CI:
ttJhqr~
~':).p
O.'8~
k.:::
'r
.
1+5op'
~ = ;,..e;J ,,/
°M
A.
. C,
8
I;elw~e"~ ~C
~.r cIt~r"n7
.
.
•
'GIL
,.t14'h
=
cc = ee,  C'~
PlMJt¢
11111111 I I fA III I I I ~,.uij/lJ/t!Q1 .M .a'/~r:m7 ez
I .=I1},4
= ~ (i;) J4 2.
1)/ tj..s;, .!
A ;«/.C_ ~,
o'to/r.3Q1 ierweel? C.
40 = cft~(f)~  4~fcf) = o./2G ~d L ~
Z, jeI)Srd/;
4;, = iX 4}~L1.l
~ = o.~o·~,rJikv'er
t'.12~
.f'n7l'k S?I'()l't
l'J.o/6 ~~»i7"()Q..J
F/tOh'I 8r~IJJ()rt,
¢'4
=/)'1f(ff'tffP)~
{o~ (pp')~ _
0. f)/;3 Co"II;;aPPf
o"e ~«Y J~#;
e'JdJ
,%
ok 7rl:lJ's ~DI:#..tp~aI
for

6o,s},
h.
35"~t
~,.
(f(>'J > 3%
~? =
(CF
(s..)£(
4 = 1.40 a%H
.: 3.00 
L S'OO)< 101. 3"1
40g humliJ~
~.o~o1/
4o~H~8o%
II:? eo %
Example
18"
r:
14,5:1
11=~I'~
~:6~oooIU
, ..
~
~
t\~
0
~r....
.
•••• • •••
4  #8 J.4.::
41I&J
.~
7 16
.
il~8
00
.;. = fz (IE)(24/ = 20,7 h.4/8 .~
'Z.X
o
.,,~
= 7.lb(eX1D,7X) + {'·;7x = /3/.8
Ie" ::t(IS)(e. 7~"J+ G1' (u;,7 e.7~~::;;/2, fIX) In.4c,..a~k11 MOhle,,1 ~A £~ /Y/~t = . Yio=
12 /2
'"= e·73 ''l.
£ e '/. s J7} ::
...
4741'~
tJ.474(20~1oo) J_ =08 ,ie.
Fpr"'
PL
+ L.L
.J
..
; t:'~/
= o.4~J
';:'r
[)L I Li. I
(~;')11 ~e:Jhf
J.c3d
=
0.4'5" I~B6o
3
I '2 2DO
= o. r;B i".
(c::'_;_)Cb'lG = WL
.48 eZ
=
48(36.1to)1220t:'/
'2.r;(40/'72'J
= /.:X//;',
(6;.),D
=
o.4~ ;".
(L;')D.J.L == o.~8+/.30 ::: /. 88 h.
• .Add/no!);;/
lJd!ecf,o/7 dtle .sl;rir;ko/~ A cI
iT; Creep OJl')d
~ 5"!I~:1rJ , mos.
3
I'I')DJ .
'2.D
I YI:Jr
I. '2.
/,0
1.4
. ,c:o~ #;i..! ~roJQ')P/e'J "A = '2.0
.6c,ot~ ::: '2.0 (0.«) .::J.90 JiJ. t
E")C:2mp C!'eep
le
l,f.z+
/4.9,/ /
149. J
"
"~/)d il;r,;,A~e Pel/echor; ;k," 8~tb 0/ &.14.5:1 /lye ;z.f 1o;;~1t= ~o d~..r ~ter 1;;/1,;/ h'/tJuf, ~tlrl"'_' I/um/~~ :: /b %
•
~7b
=
kr ~
k
J
= /+~of' =
(4),p ~.e~
O.B~
"
Ct =
(io: c;:,JCP. = 0.90 C", c; t<#~(36~ 01,_
~ = 0.90(2. 3S) =
.
k f'=o
tI.r~ dtj'. ~ ~ ess: ;
e.n:
;::Or
70 % II *'
(C~ = o. eo
(Cr');L =o.fJ7
For '20 d~.f ~e :H /p;t!Jn_; •
Ct"~,J2. (().f.o)(o.~7)=/.41 =~~I' .'
= k,r ~
(..:1..:)p
=0.
it:' (1.41) o.~ == 0.5"6
£~ /.f.!;. /
/,..n;
J
in.
~A 111.9.1  2
14.2;
•
·
~.(h :: ct, 4>.f'~L
2
«.I = O_12~ f:: 1,'17 %
~~ = f1!)
()\7
rr
l~ ~
pi:: 0
I~)
e.L _ ~'1
r 5~ +t
/tit
Use :Iv.! (~4)~ = 900 k 10'
~h = (~A)" ';;'C t=~(3b~ d'9J
~c
1t:;%
f/,
(~=
0·70
)t
Gs;, = (100 )</01.) tJ.!o = '5/,0
4;sJ;=olf:~6:;..IO) jl.'1~ ::. 20.3 xIO'/J;,.
~s~ = 0,/15'(20.3 ~(O)(+9o)'_= 0.59 I;'.
,
/o~ 11].;1;'.
..
14,9./ 3 1.f.2b
.6.C,t>u~
= kl' T
I
(Ll,,:),/)
k,. =
~
I I 50f'
:: 1.0
T= Jo'./"e :hhJ li61e /4.9./
*/,8
t).'!o In. /# I~ I;';"
~fJ /1)"
Lle.p+Jh
••
14.2;
l
J~.y;7 .. 1
11'£
• N
VI
••
u
~
It
It
14,30
l
~t
\\I
Q
•
N
II
Design for Bending Moment: Conventional and Unified Design Methodology
A. Fattah Shaikh
REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN
STRENGTH DESIGN OF FLEXURAL MEMBERS
Beams and OneWay Slabs
CONSIDERATIONS: • • • Strength Steel Content Control Detailing (Bar Size, No.) Spacing and Concrete Cover Crack Width Control Steel Content/Section Size £:> Deflections Use of Compression Steel TBeam Design Aids General Comments: Appendix B ACI 31895 on Unified Flexural Design
Interdependent
E
•
• • • • • •
Dr. A. F. Shaikh, P. E.
FASCE. FACI, FPCI
Professor, University of Wisconsin  Milwaukee
I
•
Design Methods Schematic
Nominal Strength
Material Strength
S
u
N
Strength reduction factor ACI
f: ' fy
9.3
Stres,s factol'5
ACI
A.3 '
W
D
Design Strength)
Max. Allowable
.._
<t>xN
Stresses fca' fsa'
I{I
u
5',' D
30 __
~~,~
Required Strength
~
Load factors
ACI 9.2
Calculate stresses
(analysis) ,
Service Loads
Ws
(from codes)
'" /
/
~.. .....
". ..,.......
.............
....~
. ....  ....

'
~..;.
~.,. .." .
,.,.
,"
....
,
.. '"
U5D: Increased acceptance with time
• factor of safety is explicit • flexibility to use different load factors for different types of load • a better assessment of ductility is inherent in design
1
II
COMMON GEOMETRIES OF TWOWAY SLAB SYSTEMS
1 ~~
...... , ...
FlAT PLATE
Ma.imum Sclan:
Umiting Cril.non: Rebar: PT: (lml 28ft Puncttiftg SM.,
(1.01
lt~
o.zz em
OS psf
.a/m')
(2." IIO/m')
<f;if
<:f~~
~~ '.~
'
2
FlAT SLAB WITH SQUARE COLUMN CAPfTALS
Maaimum $pen: UIniting~ Re_: (11.1 m, 31ft AIMr 0.•• .,., (Z." .. 1m') '.eM pst (S,GIlrgJm',
eon."oll
PT:
3
.._ ..........
FlAT SLAB WITH CROP PANEL
~Spen: Umiting CriteriOn:
!lJ:'
.....
I w·n'jI
~
Rebar: PT:
o.ea psf
0.7'1.
.,ft (1Um' 0tfIec:II0n
(Z.J4 Ieg/mJ,
CU7 kV/m')
4
..
.,~' ..'~
5
'~ff J~~ I, .,..... ..
~.
I"
'..
FlAT SLAB WITH SQUARE CAPITAL AND DROP PANEL
Not adwm.geous for MidenlialoccuoancieL ~ paf C3.8D kHlm') and higher •
,..,.., omc.
"3..
;1:
~
I.
to LLof75
01'
...
BANOEO SLAB· UNIOIREcnONAL
_."",.,.' : ,.;,.'
• or ....
I~
ill':~'" rt ... ,
'"
..
..:;:::"/.?':.
'ill '.'
w
'.~:
..
.
:.:
.
l( ..I
M.himum Soan: UrrIitlng ':riteriOn: Rebar:
PT:
O.IS pst
0."'.
"ft m, Rebat eonvestion
(2.01 leg/ml) (•. 111eg/m')
..e~" ~"
6
WAFFlE SLAB
Criterion:
.
Mhimutn Soan:
LImiting
I .~
l
:
Rebar:
PT:
qft "Um, Rebar Congestion 0.• em (3.1' k9/m2, G.38 PSf (1.7lkg/m'l
7
~1l" i
~ ~
~~
WAFFLE SLAB WITH SOUD COLUMN UNES
Mawimum
Soan:
Umiting Ctiterion: Rebar:
PT:
o.a psf
(1Um, .2 ft Rebat Cot'VeltiOR
G.3I_
C3.lIlrO/ml, (1.71lrO/m2,
2
Numbers ' ..... 10 ' •• 4IOCIO psi (21 Hjmm'). lin. LL • 50 pst (2.31 IIHlm',. otfice suoerimpoud COlumns 20 I 20 1ft. (501. 501
mm,.
ex. •
(ZIO
mm, lIeD: 30 pst ('." IrHlm');
1·12
Simpli(ied Design
Uve Load 100 pst Superimposed D~adload f'e = 4000 psi
=
= 20 pst
49 ~~
D.B
D.1
C06t
Index D.'
D.4
 .......
,
3D Square Bay Size
.... _ ....._ _ .. _ ........
,
One..,_
"
....
Twoway.
I
I I I I I
JoIat'50
15
211
ZS
3D
35
4D
45
Squa ... Bay Size ft
lJ~
Figure 16 Cost Comparisonjor
Various FloorSystems, Live Load
= 100 psiJ
___
3
"Simplified Design of Reinforced Concrete Building of Moderate Size and Height", Second Edition; Portland Cement ASSOCiation. Editor5: David A Panella and S. K. Ghosh, 1993.
A Simplified Design Approach
111
Live Load = 50 pst Superimposed Dead Load
= 20 psf
C=4000PSi
0.9 ,.....
0.8
0.7 Cost Index 0.6
as
_ ....__ ............ •• • •

Square Bay Size
If
.A.;;;..)<:,::..·~~~........ :.::;, . ""_.,._:' . :'.';::.}:;:;)::";;. ,.;:,
{::;'::y,;,;,:., :./:/
15 Square Bay Size
ft Figure 15 Cost Comparison of Various Floor Systems. Live Load
= 50 ps/3
"Simplified Design of Reinforced Concrete Building of Moderate Size and Height", Second Edition; Portland Cement Association. Editors: David A Fanella and S.K. Ghosh, 1993.
4
Strength Design Method
• Design Basis: Design Strength or, <I>
X
~ Required Strength ~ Required Strength
Nominal Strength
• For Moment Design:
Mu f (service loads and load factors) Mn = f (material strength and sect.ion size) • Nominal Moment Strength:
=
5
1"'1
1
I"
b·.r
1 J
d
(b) Strain diagram at Mn
(a) Beam Section
(c) Stre66 condition
at·M
n
o
Equilibrium
.; x moment: Mn
A s fy
= ( C or T )(d
 kz x)
M n  A s fy
d
A s fy f' b
c
6
·' 1
0.006
o
•o
I
e
cu
0.004
.. . 0. . .... .0.. . • •°.. :. e, .• ••• ° . .. .... • •
00 .0 .0 ••• • 0 0
•
•••
•
••
••
o •
c
°
• .0:.
~p0
0
•••
0.
••
•
• •••••
0 •
•• °
•
•
8
•
~
•
•
•
at
•
•
o
0.002
ACI £cu
•
= 0.003
o
Beams Columns
o
2000
4000
6000
8000
f ~ (psi)
0.5
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
f ~ (psi)
1
II
Strength of Rectangular Sections in Bending
G+ bf
T1 1
l
h
Ec;u
= 0.003
~ '( c
T
d
As
•••
(a) Beam section
(b) Actual stress distribution
(c) Whitney stress block
•
C = T, 0.85f'c ba = Af; fy
a=~
A s fy
0.85f~b
•
Mn = (C or T) ( d  a/2)
o
f~b
= A f (d _ 0.59 As
sy
.
fy)
Note: 0.59 Substituting
= k2/k, k;3
p
= A/bd
and using nondimensional form:
8
f: > 4000 pel ,
0.85
f: <
4000 pel ,
~1
= 0.85
13, = [0.85  0.05 ((
~:~O
)]
z
0.65
P1
R
0.65 0.50
4000
f:
8000
12000
(psi)
How Good is Equation 3 f
0.3
0.1
364 Beams
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
fy p~
.
c;
9
Balanced Strain Condition
.fH
O.85f'c
£5 = fy IE.
(a) Cross Section (b) Strain Diagram
(c) Internal Forces
• Strain Diagram
Xb
d
=
0.003 0.003 +fy 129x106
= ,
87000
87000 + f y
• Equilibrium of forces:
with a,
. =
= p, x,
J
Aab
= p, (bd)
(
& Equation 1
Pb
f'
c
O.85f~ f
y
~1
87000 ') 87000 + f
y
®
& fy in psi units
10
ACI10.3.3:
p ~ O.75.p b
o
I 0.003
.
O.K.
N.G.
I·
=
.r
ACI10.5:
3/fc ~ 200
fy fy
Use smaller
of the two
=
4
3
(p calc.)
BASIS:
Mn (reinf. cone. beam) > Mn (plain cone. beam)
= Mcr (f t =7.5 V'fc) IC
p.
min
> 1.62_V_lc
f
y
fiT
varies 100 to 130lfy
11
··1
Problem 3.3 For each .of the beams in the figure, using f' c = 3500 pSi,fy = 60,000 determine the nominal flexural strength Mn.
psi,
~ 1·········· 1····..····· J_.• • • 1 . •••1
_ ~. 19.5" 19.5" '3#7 '3  # 10
0.85 f~ 1 1ToIe I"
l"
C
b
~12"f
Locate neutal axis and compute Mn Balanced Condition x=
b
(a)
(b)
c = 35.7a T = 3(1.27)60 = 228.6 kips 228.6 35.7 x = 7.54 in. a
C = 0.85(3.5)(12)a = 35.7a T = 3(0.60)(60) = 108kips
0.003 (19.5) 0.00207 + 0.003
= 11.5?in.
05.7
x
=
~ = ;
108
= 3.02
. in.
=
= 6.41 in
a = 3.56 in. 0.85
a, = 0.85(11.52) = B.80 in. c, = 35.7(9.80) = 350 kips
A
=
eb
cb
M, = T(d  a/2) Mn = 108(19.5  1.51)/12
= 162 ftkips
Mn = 228.6(19.5  3.20)/12
= 311ftkips
f
=
v
350 60
= 5.83 sq in Ae(max) = 0.75 Aeb=4.37 sq in > 1.80 and 3.81 OK
12
I
Design Procedure
e,» .x: GIVEN:
• f:. fy. & Mu (e6tabli6hed • Mn from load factors)
)
f Es
= P fy (1  0.59 P fy / f'c let m = fy / 0.85 f'c
P fy (1 let Rn 0.5 pm ) bd
2
bd
2
• Mn =
= P fy (1  0.5
pm)
V

• bd = Mn / Rn
2
PROCEDURE:
1.
Aeeurne
P
(usually 0.3 to 0.6
PI»
Pmln
2. 3. bd
2
S p s 0.75
PI>
(req'd)
=
P
Mn / Rn & Mn
2
= Mu / <P
2
Select b, d: bd Revi6ed
(provided)
~ bd
(req'd)
= ~ ( 1 "1
 2m Rnlfy)
4. 5.
Ae
= (revi6ed
p) (bd) and check <P Mn ~ Mu
Select reinforcement
13
SIMPLIFIED MOMENT DESIGN
for, f~ = 4000 psi & fy = 60,000 Pb = 0.0285; 0.4Pb pf3i:
= 0.0114, Rn= 615,
MuX 12000/0.9
bd2
=
Mj<l>
=
Rn
615
A
S
=
MuX 12000/0.9 =fy(d  a/2) 60,000(0.9d)
Mu/<I>
As
·M
u
.®
4d
Note:
M, in klpft, b,d in inch, As in inch2
14
Steel Content  Section Proportioning
depth.d deflection. !::.. shear strength. V
P
min
P
max
P
0.25 PI:> s P s 0.5 PI:>
>90 io
15
Bar Spacing and Concrete" Cover ACI Ref.
BEAM
> 1 1/2"
7.7.2
111
T
x
max. agg. size
>
SLAB
(OneWay)
{
dl7
1.33
7.6.1 7.6.1 3.3.2(c)
Temperature
& Shrinkage
Reinf. Spacing
<

{ 5h
18"
f
7.12.2.2
7.7.2 . 7.6.5
16
Doubly Reinforced Beams
G
T·
h
'r
b
•A'•
5
As
•
(;'5
co'

"2 .
Cc = 0.85 f' c ba  a
=
P1X
•
Equilibrium: T = C6 + Cc• a
=
A f  A' (f'  0.85f' )
6
Y
6\
6
c
0.85 f/ b
c
17
Balanced Condition:
i'
b
1
I,
•••• A'
5
1····'J~
d
>
0.00:3
d'~
al1
1
............
E5
>
L
.....
~
....
Cc
Cs
~
As •••• ••••
1 ...
£5 £5
.. T ~
= fy /
> fy /
E5
•
Pmax = 0.75 PI7 + pi fie / fy
•
For
com pression steel to yield l.e., fie = fy'
I(
p P
0.85 fie) 1 fy
> 0.85
P1
(fie d )
fyd
/
( . 87000
.) 87000 fy
18
Frob.3.16 For the beam with compression reinforcement shown, using f' e = 4000 psi with fy = 40,000 psi, compute the nominal strength MI1.Verify whether or not the compression steel has yielded when nominal strength is reached; if it does not yield, use a compression steel stress proportional to the strain in compression steel. Verify that the tension steel does r exceed the maximum permitted by the ACI Code. Because d'/d is small, compression steel probably yields. Assume compression steel yields, Ce= 0.85(4)(18) a = 61.2 a Cs= 6(0.60)[400.85(4)J = 131.8 kips T = 10(1.56)40 = 625 kips
...... 'I
~ 6 #7
d
2t=d'
= :36.1"
10  #11
C=T
a
=
625131.8 61.2
=
8.05""
x
=~
P,
=
8.05 0.85
=
9.48 ""
Check whether or not compression steel yields.
E/
6
=
O.003(
9.48  2.50) 9.48
=
0.0021
>
[Ey
=
40 29,000
=
0.00138]
(.)
Compression steel yields. MI1= 61.2(8.05)(36.1  4.025)/12 + 131.8(36.1  2.50)/12
=
1317+ 369 = 1686 ftkip6 Verify that As ~ Max As permitted by ACI Code 0.003 ( 0 . 0 03 + 0.00138
Xb
=
1d
=
0.685d
=
24.75"";
ab
=
21.0""
Cel> = 61.2(21.0)
CSI> 131.8 kips = ASI> Cel> for ASI> for
= 1285 kips
= 1285/40 = 32.1 sq. in. CSI> 131.8/40 = 3.3 sq. in. =
0.00138
o
Max As = 0.75(32.1) + 3.3 = 27.4 sq. in. > [Actual As = 15.6 sq. in.J  OK
19
TBeams
1
~
I
r
,,
t
I
I
1
\
'I
/
~

be from ACI 8.10.2, 8.10.3, and 8.10.4
• interior T:
bes, L/4 L is span bes, bw + 16t bes; clc spacing of webs
• exterior T:
bes, bw + L/12 bes; bw + 6t bes; bw + 112
X
(clear distance between webs)
• isolated T:
be~ 4 bw & t s, 1/2 bw
20
0.003
la < t)
Treat as singly reinforced rectangular·beam
i. e.
Pmax = 0.75 PII
Mn = (T or C) (d  a/2)
~ Split compression force in two parts
c,
{Cw
'"
0.85 f~ b. a
T  Cf = Cw
Cf = 0.85 fc (be  bw)t
a = T  Cf
0.85
fc
T = As fy
bw
M, = C; (d  a/2) + Cf (d  t/2)
21
G
UNIFIED DESIGN PROVISIONS FOR REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FLEXURAL AND COMPRESSION MEMBERS
(APPENDIX B 
ACI 31895)
• • •
Purpose Highlights Key Concepts  net tensile strain, Et  strength reduction factor, <t>  moment redistribution
•
Nominal Moment Strength
Dr. A. F. Shaikh, P. E.
FASCE, FACI, FPCI
Professor, University of Wisconsin  Milwaukee
PURPOSE
A
• •
UNIFY DESIGN
flexure and compression reinforced and prestressed
B
• •
REMOVE INCONSISTENCIES
reinforcement limits definition of d, dp
•
P for flanged sections
Ref: Mast, R. F., "Unified Design Provisions for Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Flexural and Compression Members", ACI Structur:al Journal, V. 89, No.2, MarchApril 1992, pp. 105199
1
HIGHLIGHTS
• •
•
NOMINAL STRENGTH CALCULATIONS ARE NOT ALTERED REINFORCEMENT LIMIT IS CHANGED
<I> 
FACTOR HAS MORE RATIONAL TRANSITION
•
MOMENT DISTRIBUTION IS UNIFIED
. Comments • • • ACI 8.1.3 permits design using Appendix B Appendix B is a legal part of the Code Substitute code sections with corresponding Appendix B sections: 8.4 c:> B.8.4
2
1····1
KEY CONCEPTS
• Net Tensile Strain, Et
. ,..,
j
0.003
_000
....
~c
j
o
,
o
0 000
0
0
o
,
Et
= net tensile
strain in the extreme tension steel
Et >
0.005
< 0.357)
     Tension Controlled
(c/dt
0.002 < Et < 0.005    Transition
Et
< 0.002
> 0.600)
     Compression Controlled
(c/dt
3
KEY CONCEPTS
• Strength Reduction Factor,.4>
0.90
0.80 0.75 0.70
I_~
L..._I.
(1) Without spirals
.
0.60
____,j...___~
0.003 0.004
0.001
0.002
0.005 0.006 Strain, £t
COMPRESSION CONTROLLED
<t>
TRANSITION
TENSION CONTROLLED
<t>
= 0.7, 0.75
(1) <t>
= 0.56 + 68 e,
= 0.357 + 0.204
c/dt
= 0.9
(2) <p = 0.65 + 50 e,
=
0.500 + 0.150
c/dt
4
(for: f'c
= 4000 psi. fy = 60 kel, rectangular
= p,
section. single layer of reinforcement)
1.00 •
\
\
p
0.80
\ \.
"
~
""<,
I'
P = 0.75 p,
p
<,
0.60
= 0.63 p,
r,
<,
0.40
<,....
....... ............. p~ = ~(0.75 p~t
.......... .........
0.20
..
0.002 0.005
0.008 0.010 0.012 0.014
Ct
• TENSION CONTROLLED
l__
e, = 0.0075
I

MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION ALLOWED
For prestressed
flexural member:
Et
ro p = 0.36~1 <=> ro p = 0 .32~1 <=>
= 0.004
e, = 0.005
5
KEY CONCEPTS
• Moment Redistribution (B.8.4)
allowed for: ~M
e,
> 0.0075
< ± 1000 <±
e, 10
2010
AC18.4 Allowed for:
pp ~ 0.5
I
Pb
dM = ±20( 1 P
.
Pb
_pI) '10
EXAMPLE
pp' LlM (i'o) 16" X 16" (typ.) 12" X 16" (typ.)
~
Support

pp
t
8.4 11.7
B.8.4 9.2
~~
t
A
B C
0.414 0.439 0.274 0.249
11.2 8.5 14.5 15.0

15.5 17.4
lJ A
D
14
25'
..J'
13
L.t
C
25'
~I
~
D
f", =
fy
=
4000 psi 60 kel
Wd= W,
1.4 kipslft = 0.72 kips/ft
6
NOMINAL MOMENT STRENGTH . (Rectangu.lar Section)
TENS'ION CONTROLLED COMPRESSION CONTROLLED
• One layer of reinforcement
d(l  0.18813,)
d(1  O.300Il,)
o
Mn
= rcbd2(O.319~1 O.060~12)
·Two layers of reinforcement
0.003
Mn
= rcbd2(o.510~1  O.153~12)
~I."I
0.536p,f'cPd d,
= 1.05d
0.1d
d
d(l  0.19713,)
d,= 1.0Sd
O.ld
L
d d(l  0.31513,)
0.002
7
REINFORCED CONCRETE DES·IGN
MATERIALS, DESIGN CONCEPTS, SAFETY PROVISIONS
• • • • •
Design Overview Codes & Standards Materials Design Concepts Safety Provisions
Dr. A. F. Shaikh, P. E.
Professor. FASCE. FACI. FPCI University of Wisconsin  Milwaukee
IDESIGNI
Strength
A  Loads
e e
Serviceability
A  Deflections B  Vibrations C  Cracking
Other
A  Durability B  Fire C  Sound Transmission D  Etc.
Dead Live
B  Effects ep
eM eV eT
C  Stresses
e [ e
Axial,
;
Bending, ~c Shea~ 'Ib
e
VQ
[
e
. Tr Torsion, J
D  Need to Assess:
e
Axial compressive strength Axial tensile strength Shear strength
e
e
1
11.1 DESIGN INFORMATION
Design Aid 11.1.1 Dead weights of floors, ceilings, roofs, and walls
Floorings Normal weight concrete topping. per inch of thickness Sandlightweight (120 pcf) concrete topping. per inch Lightweight (90100 pet) concrete topping, per inch 1fo" hardwood floor on sleepers clipped to concrete without fill 11'2" terrazzo floor finish directly on slab 1Y," terrazzo floor finish with 1" mortar bed 1" terrazzo finish with 2" concrete bed :y." ceramic or quarry tile with 1'2" mortar bed :y." ceramic or quarry tile with 1" mortar bed '!." linoleum or asphalt tile directly on concrete 1'." linoleum or asphalt tile with 1" mortar bed ';." mastic floor Hardwood flOOring'le" thick Subflooring (soft wood). ';." thick Asphaltic concrete. 1'I." thick Ceilings 1'2" gypsum board Ya" gypsum board 0/.. plaster directly on concrete 0/.. plaster on metal lath furring Suspended ceilings Acoustical tile Acoustical tile on wood furring strips Roofs Ballasted inverted membrane Fiveply felt and gravel (or slag) Threeply felt and gravel (or slag) Fiveply felt composition roof. no gravel Threeply felt composition roof. no gravel Asphalt strip shingles (includes one layer of felt) Rigid insulation. per inch Gypsum. per inch of thickness Insulating concrete (unit weight approx. 36 pcf). per inch Walls 4" brick wall 8" brick wall 12" brick wall 4" hollow normal weight concrete block 6" hollow normal weight concrete block 8" hollow normal weight concrete block 12" hollow normal weight concrete block 4" hollow lightweight block or tile 6" hollow lightweight block or tile 8" hollow lightweight block or tile 12" hollow liahtweiaht block or tile 4" brick 4" hollow normal weight block backing 4" brick 8" hollow normal weight block backing 4" brick 12" hollow normal weight block backing 4" brick 4" hollow lightweight block or tile backing 4" brick 8" hollow lightweight block or tile backing 4" brick 12" hollow lightweight block or tile backing 4" brick. steel or wood studs. Yo" gypsum board Windows. glass. frame and sash 4" stone Steel or wood studs. lath. 0/." plaster Steel or wood studs. Yo" gypsum board each side Steel or wood studs. 2 layers !t2" gypsum board each side UnPlastered 40 80 120 28 36 51 59 19 22 33 44 68 91 119 59 73 84 43 8 55 18 6 9 One side Plastered 45 85 125 33 41 56 64 24 27 38 49 73 96 124 64 78 89 Weight (pst) 12 10 8 5 19 30 38 16 22 1 12 9 4 2% 18 2 2% 5 8 2 1 3 16 6% 5% 4 3 3 Y2 4 3 Both sides Plastered 50 90 130 38 46 61 69 29 32 43 54 78 101 129 69 83 94
G
2
PCI DesIgn Handbookl Fourth Edition .
DESIGN INFORMATION
Design Aid 11.1.2 Recommended minimum live loads·
Live Load (pst) Occupancy or Use
Apartments (see Residential) Armories and drill rooms Assembly halls and other places of assembly: Fixed Seats (fastened to floor) Moveable seats Platforms (assembly) Stage floors Balconies (exterior) On one and two family residences only, and not exceeding 100 sq. ft. Bowling alleys, poolrooms, and similar recreational areas Corridors: First floor Other floors, same as occupancy served except as indicated Dance halls and ballrooms Decks (patio and roof). same as area served, or for the type of occupancy accommodated Dining rooms and restaurants Dwellings (see Residential) Fire escapes On singlefamily residential buildings only Grandstands (see Stadiums and arena bleachers) Gymnasiums. main floors and balconies Hospitals: Operating rooms. laboratories Private rooms Wards Corridors. above first floor Hotels (see Residential) Libraries: Reading rooms Stack rooms (books & shelving at 65 pet). not less than Corridors. above first floor Manufacturing: Light Heavy Marquees and canopies Office buildings: Offices Lobbies File and computer rooms should be designed for loads based upon anticipated occupancy Parking structures: Passenger cars only For trucks and buses use AASHTO lane 10ads(1) Penal ins~itutions: Cell blocks Corridors Residential: Dwellings (one and two family): Uninhabitable attics without storage Uninhabitable attics with storage
UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED
(pst) Live Load Occupancy or Uae
Residential (cont.) 30 40 40 100 40 40 80 250 100 100 1~ 250
LOADS
150 60 100 100 150 100 60 75 100
100
100 100 40 100 60 40 40 80
Habitable attics and sleeping areas All other areas Hotels and multifamily houses: Private rooms and corridors serving them Public rooms and corridors serving them Roofs·· Schools: Classrooms Corridors above first floor Sidewalks, vehicular driveways, and yards subject to trucking (2) Stadiums and arena bleachers (3) Stairs and exitways Storage warehouse: ~~ Heavy Stores: Retail: First floor Upper floors Wholesale, all floors Walkways and elevated platforms (other than exitways)
100 75 125 60
CONCENTRATED
Location
LOADS
Load (Ib)
300 200 2000 200 8000 300
60 150 80 125 250 75 50 100
Elevator machine room grating (on area of 4 sq. in.) Finish light floor plate construction (on area of 1 sq. in.) Parking structures(4) Office floors Scuttles. skylight ribs. and accessible ceilings Sidewalks Stair treads (on area of 4 sq. in. at center of tread) (1) American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.
(2) AASHTO lane loads should also be considered where appropriate.
(3)
50
For detailed recommendations, see Assembly Seating. Tents and Air Supported Structures, ANSIINFPA 1021978 (Z20.3).
40 100
10 20
(4) Floors in parking structures or portions of buildings used for storage of motor vehicles should be designed for the uniformly distributed live loads shown or the following concentrated loads: (1) for passenger cars accommodating not more than nine passengers, 2.000 pounds acting on an area of 20 sq. in.; (2) mechanical parking structures without slab or deck, passenger cars only. 1.500 pounds per wheel; (3) for trucks or buses. maximum axle load on an area of 20 sq. in.
'Source: ASCE 788 (formerly ANSI A58.1). Local building codes take precedence; see local codes for live load reductions. ""See local codes or model building codes.
PCI 0eIign HancIIook/Fourlh Edilion
3
MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS
TABLE 41
Minimum Unifonnly Distributed Live Loads, Lo and Minimum Concentrated Live Loads
Occ:upancyorUse Apartments (see residential) Access floor systems Office use Computer use Armories and drill rooms Assembly areu and theaters Fixed seats (futened to floor) Lobbies Movable seats Platforms (usembly) Stage floors Balconies (exterior) . On one and twofamiiy residences only, and not exceediq 100 sq ft (9.3 ml) Bowling alleys, poolrooms and similar recreational areu Corridors First floor Other floors, same u occupancy served except u indicated Dance halls and bll1rooms Decics (patio and root) Same as area served, or for the type of occupancy accommodated Dining rooms and restaurants . Dwellings (see residential) Elevator machine room grating (on area of 4 sq in) (2,580 mm2) Finish light floor plate construction (on area of lsq in.) (645 mm2) Fire escapes On singlefamily dwellings only Garages (pusenger cars only) Trucks and buses Grandstands (see stadium and arena bleachers) Gymnasiums, main floors and balconies Handrails, guardrails and grab bars Hospitals . Oper_ating rooms, laboratories Private rooms Wards Corridors above first floor Hotels (see residential) . Libraries Reading rooms Stack rooms Corridors above first floor Manufacturing Light Heavy Marquees and Canopies Office Buildings File and computer rooms shall be designed for heavier loads bued on anticipated occupancy Lobbies and f1I'Stfloor corridors Offices Corridors above f1I'Stfloor Penal Institutions Cell bloi:ics Corridors Residential Dwellings (one and rwofamily) Uninhabitable attics without storage Uninhabitable attics with storage Habitable attics and sleeping areu All other areu except balconies Hotels and multifamily houses Private rooms and corridors serving them Public rooms and corridors serving them Uniform psf(kN/ml) Cone. lb. (leN)
50 (2.4) 100 (4.79) 150 (7.18) 60 (2.87) 100 (4.79) 100 (4.79) 100 (4.79) 150 (7.18) 100 (4.79) 60 (2.87) 75 (3.59) 100 (4.79) 100 (4.79) 100 (4.79)
2,000 (8.9) 2,000 (8.9)
300 (1.33) 200 (0.89) 100 (4.79) 40 (1.92) 50 (2.40) Note 2 100 (4.79)4 See Section 4.4 60 40 40 80 (2.87) (1.92) (1.92) (3.83) 1,000 1,000 1,000 .1,000 (4.45) (4.45) (4.45) (4.45) Note I
60 (2.87) 150 (7.18)' 80 (3.83) 125 (6.00) 250 (11.97) 75 (3.59)
1,000 (4.45) 1,000 (4.45) 1,000 (4.45) 2,000 (8.90) 3,000 (13.40)
100 (4.79) 50 (2.40) 80 (3.83) 40 (1.92) 100 (4.79) 10 (0.48) 20 (0.96) 30 (1.44) 40 (1.92) 40 (1.92) 100 (4.79)
2,000 (8.90) 2,000 (8.90) 2,000 (8.90)
6
Ref.: ASCE Standard 795
3{
BllILDL'iGS A..!'o'D OTHER STRCcruRES
TABLE 41 (continued)
Minimum Uniformly Distributed Live Loads, Lo and Minimum Concentrated Live Loads
Oecupancy or Use Reviewing stands, grandstands and bleachers Roofs Schools Classrooms Corridors above fll1t floor First floor corridors Scuttles, skylight ribs, and accessible ceilings Sidewalks, vehicular driveways, and yards, subject to trucking Stadiums and Arenas Bleachers Fixed Seats (fastened to floor) Stairs and exitways Storage areas above ceilings Storage warehouses (shall be designed for heavier loads if required for anticipated storage) Light Heavy Stores Retail First floor Upper floors Wholesale, all floors Vehicle barriers Walkways and elevated platforms (other than exitways) Yards and terraces, pedestrians Uniform psf (lcN/mZ) Conc. lbs. (kN)
100 (4.79)4 See Sections 4.3 and 4.9 40 (1.92) SO(3.S3) 100 (4.79) 250 (11.97)' 100 60 100 20 (4.79)4 (2.S7t (4.79) (0.96) 1,000 1,000 1,000 200 8,000 (4.45) (4.45) (4.45) (9.5S) (35.60)'
Note 7
125 (6.00) 250 (11.97) 100 (4.79) 75 (3.59) 125 (6.00) 60 (2.87) 100 (4.79) 1,000 (4.45) 1,000 (4.45) 1,000 (4.45) See Section 4.4
'Fleers in garages or portions of building used for the storage of motor vehicles shall be designed for the uniformly distributed live loads ofTable 41 or the following concentrated load: (I) for passenger cars accommodating not more than nine passengers, 2,000 lb (S.90 leN) actin, on an area of20 sq in. (12,900 mmZ); and (2) mechanical parking structures without slab or declt, passenger car only, 1,500 lb (6.70 leN) per wheel. IGarages accommodating trucks and buses shall be designed in accordance with an approved method which contains provisions for truck and bus loadings. lThe weight of books and shelving shall be computed using an assumed density of 65 lblcu ft (pounds per cubic foot, sometimes abbreviated pet) (10.211cN/m1) and converted to a uniformly distributed load; this load shall be used ifit exceeds 150 Iblsq ft (7.1S'kN/mZ). 41naddition to the vertical live loads, horizontal swaying forces parallel and normal to the length of seats shall be included in the deSign according to the requirements of ANSIINFPA 102. sOther uniform loads in accordance with an approved method which contains provisions for truck loadings shall also be considered where appropriate. 6The concentrated wheel load shall be applied on an area of20 sq in. (12,900 mmZ). 'Minimum concentrated load on stair trc&ds [on area of 4 sq. in. (2,5S0 mmZ)] is 300 lb (1.33 kN).
or member shall be considered accounted for if it produces a more unfavorable effect than the same intensity applied over the full structure or member. *4.7 Impact Loads The live loads specified in 4.2.1 and 4.4.2 shall be assumed to include adequate allowance for ordinary impact conditions. Provision shall be made in the structural design for uses and loads that involve unusual vibration and impact forces. 4.7.1 Elevators. All elevator loads shall be increased by 100% for impact and the structural supports shall be designed within the limits of
deflection prescribed by ANSIIASME A17.1 and ANSIIASME AI7.2. 4.7.2 Machinery. For the purpose of design, the weight of machinery and moving loads shall be increased as follows to allow for impact: (1) elevator machinery, 100%; (2) light machinery, shaft or motordriven, 20%; (3) reciprocating machinery or powerdriven units, 50%; and (4) hangers for floors or balconies, 33%. All percentages shall be increased where specified by the manufacturer. *4.8 Reduction in Live Loads *4.8.1 Permissible Reduction. Unless the limitations of 4.8.2 are met, members having an influence area of 400 ft2 (37.16 m2) or more shall not
7
Ref.: ASCE Standard 795
3b
Codes and Standards
Government Body
(Legally Binding Code)
By lnclueton
By Reference
Model Code6
UBC
International Conference of Building Officials 1927
BOCA
Building OffIcials and Code Administrators International, Inc. 1950
SBC
Southern Building Code Congress International 1945
Standards Organizations
ASTM, ANSI, ASCE
Materials Organization6
ACI, PCI, AISC, NFoPA
4