advanced construction-I
Prof. incharge:- sarika bahadure

Ashwini, Sanjay, ajay Vll th sem. 8/10/2011

The glass wall has mullions and transoms.HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT Early Concepts of Curtain Wall Construction 1. Curtain Walling and Structural Glazing Page 1 . 5.Architects Walter Gropius. Uninterrupted span between floors and is nonstructural. Adolf Meyer develop glass curtain wall in the Bauhaus complex. 2.Most influential expression in three office buildings constructed in New York : United Nations Secretariat.Architects fascinated with the concept of transparency and dematerialization of the building envelope. 8. 4.Early 20thcentury –industrial buildings in Germany pioneer glass curtain wall construction – Fagus Shoe –Last Factory (1911).Allows for interior spaces to have greater daylight penetration. Lever House and the Seagram Building. Dessau –Germany. 6. 7. 3.Structural frame is set back and glass wall is suspended from the structure.From the late 1940‟s to early 1960‟s glass curtain wall construction is explored on a wide range of scales in various cities.

the stone mullions are decorative. england. Oriel chambers.1864.  Glass curtain wall of the bauhaus dessau Curtain Walling and Structural Glazing Page 2 . the world's first glass curtain walled building. liverpool.

A curtain wall is designed to resist air and water infiltration. Similarly. The 1970’s began the widespread use of aluminum extrusions for mullions. Main types of Curtain wall construction 1. seismic forces (usually only those imposed by the inertia of the curtain wall). Custom shapes can be designed and manufactured with relative ease. 3.Panellised System.Structural glazing. 5. Aluminum offers the unique advantage of being able to be easily extruded into nearly any shape required for design and aesthetic purposes.Stick System. the design complexity and shapes available are nearly limitless. and the plate glass was attached to the mullions with asbestos or fiberglass modified glazing compound. sealing methods and types have evolved over the years. and its own dead load forces.CURTAIN WALLING CONSTRUCTION Curtain wall is a term used to describe a building facade which does not carry any dead load from the building other than its own dead load. The first curtain wall installed in New York City was this type of construction. Some designs included an outer cap to hold the glass in place and to protect the integrity of the seals. and as a result. Today.Structural sealant glazing. Eventually silicone sealants or glazing tape were substituted. 4. These loads are transferred to the main building structure through connections at floors or columns of the building.Spandrel panel ribbon glazing. Earlier modernist examples are the Bauhaus in Dessau and the Hallidie Building in San Francisco. First curtain walls were made with steel mullions. Curtain Walling and Structural Glazing Page 3 . 2. today’s curtain walls are high performance systems which require little maintenance. 6. wind forces acting on the building.Unitised System.

generally leads to a reduction in air and water leakage resulting from poor installation Curtain Walling and Structural Glazing Page 4 . •Mechanical handling is required to position. are erected first followed by horizontal transoms. have higher direct costs and are less common than stick systems. screw-fixed every 150-300 mm. •The pressure plate is generally hidden with a snap-on cosmetic cover cap or overlapping gaskets. STICK SYSTEM •Horizontal and vertical framing members („sticks ) are normally extruded ‟ aluminium protected by anodising or powder coating. glass or stone facings). which are fixed to the floor slab. which are fixed in-between mullions. which may comprise a mixture of fixed and opening glazing and insulated panels (which may have metal. glazing and panels pre-assembled under controlled.1. •These units are typically sealed with gaskets and retained with a pressure plate. requires fewer site staff and can make such systems cost effective.8m centres. although hammer-in structural gaskets are used for some stick systems. storey-height units of steel or aluminium framework. 2. •The smaller number of site-sealed joints in unitised curtain walling simplifies and hastens enclosure of the building. •Into the framework are fitted infill units. factory conditions. align and fix units onto prepositioned brackets attached to the concrete floor slab or the structural frame.0 and 1. but may be cold-rolled steel (for greater fire resistance) •Members are cut to length and machined in the factory prior to assembly on site as a kit of parts: vertical mullions. UNITISED SYSTEM •Unitised systems comprise narrow. •Unitised systems are more complex in terms of framing system. •Mullions are typically spaced between 1. •The reduced number of site-made joints compared with stick systems. •If construction joints interlock consideration must be given to how damaged units could be removed and replaced.

Individual framing sections and glass infill panels which are site assembled. 4. •Joints may comprise gasketted interlocking extrusions. metal and masonry). •Fixing the panels close to the columns reduces problems due to deflection of the slab at mid span. that is.g. which allows better control of quality and rapid installation with the minimum number of site-sealed joints. handling.Several standard windows fixed together on site by joining mullions. •However to be cost effective a large number of identical panels is required. •Panels may be of precast concrete or comprise a structural steel framework. •The advantages of using panellised systems stem from the high utilisation of factory prefabrication. PANELLISED SYSTEM •Large prefabricated panels of bay width and storey height. or 3. storage. which can be used to support most cladding materials (e. which affect stick and unitised systems.Pre-glazed. •Ribbon glazing is often used in conjunction with spandrel panels. gaskets between separate extrusions or wet applied sealant. 2. •Ribbon glazing/spandrel panel construction generally results in building having a horizontal banded or strip appearance.3. horizontally spanning prefabricated or precast concrete units. factory-assembled frames. Curtain Walling and Structural Glazing Page 5 . bay width. stone. •Panellised systems are less common and more expensive than unitised construction. which connect back to the primary structural columns or to the floor slabs close to the primary structure. SPANDREL PANEL RIBBON GLAZING •Spandrel panel ribbon glazing is a long or continuous run of vision units fixed between spandrel panels supported by vertical columns or the floor slabs. transport and erection. •Glazed areas may comprise: 1. •The size and weight of panels is limited by the practicalities of manufacture.

6. •Instead of mechanical means (i. 6. a pressure plate or structural gasket). the glass infill panels are attached with a factory-applied structural sealant (usually silicone) to metal carrier units which are then boltedinto the framing grid on site. b) STRUCTURAL GLAZING-Suspended Assembly •Here the glass is fixed together with corner. •The joints between adjacent panes/glass units are weather sealed on site with wet-applied sealant. but the framing system will be visible at night when backlit. •In some designs a light truss stabilises the wall and transfers wind loading. •Glass fins may be used to brace the assembly.Also be used in unitised and panellised systems. •External joints are weather sealed with a wet-applied sealant or a gasket. while the weight of the glass is transferred through the corner plates and suspension system Curtain Walling and Structural Glazing Page 6 .5.e. rectangular. •All elements used in the construction must be compatible with the silicone sealant. particularly ribbon glazing. •Suspended glazing systems utilise the minimum amount of framing for a given glass area. a) STRUCTURAL GLAZING-Bolted Assembly •Sheets of toughened glass are assembled with special bolts and brackets and supported by a secondary structure. STRUCTURAL SEALANT GLAZING •Can be applied to stick curtain wall systems and windows. the glass is mechanically supported to reduce the size of the sealant bead. to create a near transparent facade or roof with a flush external surface. •All structural silicone joints are now made in a factory. •Generally. •Any of the previous types of curtain walling and ribbon glazing could incorporate structural silicone glazed elements. patch plates and the whole assembly is then either suspended from the top or stacked from the ground and wet-sealed on site. •The framing members are often more widely spaced than for traditional stick systems. •Structural sealant glazing can be used to create a building exterior that is free from protrusions.

Curtain Walling and Structural Glazing Page 7 .

Infills are typically glass but may be made up of nearly any exterior building element. and  limestone Curtain Walling and Structural Glazing Page 8 .  Glass  Stone Veneer  Metal panels  louvers and operable windows or vents Glass  By far the most common glazing type. thicknesses commonly used are 1/8 inch (3 mm) monolithic and 5/8 inch (16 mm) insulating glass. 1/4 inch glass is typically used only in spandrel areas.  The type of stone used is limited only by the strength of the stone and the ability to manufacture it in the proper shape and size & various Shades  Common stone types used are:  Arriscraft (calcium silicate).INFILLS  Infill refers to the large panels that are inserted into the curtain wall between mullions. Presently.  Granite. Stone veneer  Thin blocks (3 to 4 inches (75-100 mm)) of stone can be inset within a curtain wall system to provide architectural flavor.  For commercial construction.  travertine. or sound transmission requirements. relative humidity. and opacity. while insulating glass is used for the rest of the building. Larger thicknesses are typically employed for buildings or areas with higher thermal. thickness.  In residential construction.  marble. such as laboratory areas or recording studios. glass can be of an almost infinite combination of color. the two most common thicknesses are 1/4 inch (6 mm) monolithic and 1 inch (25 mm) insulating glass.

Other opaque panel materials include fiberreinforced plastic (FRP). In most situations. the curtain wall is able to naturally withstand seismic and wind induced building sway because of the space provided between the glazing infill and the mullion. but only a few manufacturers produce high quality modern terracotta curtain wall panels Design Curtain wall systems must be designed to handle all loads imposed on it as well as keep air and water from penetrating the building envelope. as well as the weight of the infill material. and terracotta. Additional dead loads imposed on the curtain wall. Loads The loads imposed on the curtain wall are transferred to the building structure through the anchors which attach the mullions to the building. stainless steel. Terracotta curtain wall panels were first used in Europe. such as sunshades. In the case of curtain walls. Wind load Wind load acting on the building is the result of wind blowing on the building. and other structural components of the curtain wall. Dead load Dead load is defined as the weight of structural elements and the permanent features on the structure. The building structure needs to be designed and account for these loads.Panels  Metal panels can take various forms including aluminum plate. Seismic load Seismic loads need to be addressed in the design of curtain wall components and anchors. this load is made up of the weight of the mullions. This wind pressure must be resisted by the curtain wall system since it envelops and protects the building. and panels consisting of metal sheets bonded to rigid insulation. thin composite panels consisting of two thin aluminum sheets sandwiching a thin plastic interlayer. must be accounted for in the design of the curtain wall components and anchors. anchors. Curtain Walling and Structural Glazing Page 9 . with or without an inner metal sheet to create a sandwich panel.

Snow load Snow loads and live loads are not typically an issue in curtain walls. a small amount of controlled water on the interior is deemed acceptable. Deflection One of the disadvantages of using aluminum for mullions is that its modulus of elasticity is about one-third that of steel. Since blast loads are very high loads with short durations. Sometimes. a gap is left between units. The air is infiltrated through the gaskets. it becomes the first line of defense in a bomb attack. these loads may need to be considered. This expansion and contraction is accounted for by cutting horizontal mullions slightly short and allowing a space between the horizontal and vertical mullions. Thermal load Thermal loads are induced in a curtain wall system because aluminum has a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. Incidentally. with full-scale mock-up testing performed prior to design completion and installation. Water penetration is defined as any water passing from the exterior of the building through to the interior of the curtain wall system. This translates to three times more deflection in an aluminum mullion compared to the same steel section under a given a load. If the slope of a wall exceeds 20 degrees or so. Deflection in mullions is controlled by different shapes and depths of curtain wall members Another way to limit deflections in a given section is to add steel reinforcement to the inside Curtain Walling and Structural Glazing Page 10 . Blast load Accidental explosions and terrorist threats have brought on increased concern for the fragility of a curtain wall system in relation to blast loads Since the curtain wall is at the exterior of the building. since curtain walls are designed to be vertical or slightly inclined. if deflection of a wall is quite noticeable. As such. through imperfect joinery between the horizontal and vertical mullions. blast resistant curtain walls must be designed to withstand such forces without compromising the interior of the building to protect its occupants. In unitized curtain wall. and through imperfect sealing. public perception may raise undue concern that the wall is not strong enough. Also. anchors carrying wind load only (not dead load) are slotted to account for movement. this slot also accounts for live load deflection and creep in the floor slabs of the building structure. which is sealed from air and water penetration by wiper gaskets. Vertically. through weep holes. Infiltration Air infiltration is the air which passes through the curtain wall from the exterior to the interior of the building. depending on the building specifications. the curtain wall response should be analyzed in a dynamic load analysis.

50mm. Suitable for single or double-glazing. Features           Easy frame handling and assembly method. Dual colour options. Multiple capping options to suit decorative requirements. This often affects the selection of materials and sizes for design of the system. 125mm sections to meet most structural requirements. the steel will resist much of the load at a lower cost or smaller depth. it is a separate criterion in curtain wall design and analysis. Curtain Walling and Structural Glazing Page 11 . Since steel deflects at 1/3 the rate of aluminum. 75mm. Fully weather-stripped for high performance. Strength Strength (or maximum useable stress) available to a particular material is not related to its material stiffness (the material property governing deflection).tube of the mullion. Knock-out panels are generally fully tempered glass to allow full fracturing of the panel into small pieces and relatively safe removal from the opening. Fire safety Fireman knock-out glazing panels are often required for venting and emergency access from the exterior. Reinforcing available for large spans. Can be used with other Sigma Windows and Doors ranges of Windows and Doors.  U-value and I value calculations available on request. Wide choice of paint finishes. 100mm. Accommodates glazing from 6 mm single to 28mm double glazed units or panels.

Removal and replacement of perimeter sealants require meticulous surface preparation and proper detailing.  Aluminum frames are generally painted or anodized. Factory applied fluoropolymer thermoset coatings have good resistance to environmental degradation and require only periodic cleaning.ft  Good quality Glass 150 per sq. properly designed and installed. have a typical service life of 10 to 15 years.60 to 240 per sq. Perimeter sealants.Cost  An Aluminium Composite panel normally costs Rs. ------------888888----------- Curtain Walling and Structural Glazing Page 12 . Recoating with an air-dry fluoropolymer coating is possible but requires special surface preparation and is not as durable as the baked-on original coating.ft Maintenance and repair  Curtain walls and perimeter sealants require maintenance to maximize service life.