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12.

1 BOILER MOUNTINGS Different fittings and devices necessary for the operation and safety of a boiler are called boiler mountings. The various boiler mountings are: 1. Water level indicator 2. Pressure gauge 3. Steam stop valve 4. Feed check valve 5. Blow-down cock 6. Fusible plug 7. Safety valve : spring loaded, dead weight, lever type. 1. Water Level Indicator The function of the water level indicator is to indicate the level of water in the boiler constantly. Every boiler is normally fitted with two water level indicators at its front end. Fig. 12.1 shows a water level indicator used in low pressure boilers. It consists of three cocks and a glass tube. The steam cock I keeps the glass tube in connection with the steam space and cock 2 puts the glass tube in convection with the water space in the boiler. The drain cock 3 is used to drain out the water from the glass tube at intervals to ascertain that the steam and water cocks are clear in operation. The glass tube is generally protected with a shield.

For the observation of water level in the boiler, the steam and water cocks are opened and drain cock is closed. The rectangular passage at the ends of the glass tube contains two balls. In case, the glass tube is broken, the balls are carried along its passage to the ends of the glass tube and flow of water and steam out of the boiler is prevented. 2. Pressure Gauge The pressure gauge is used to indicate the steam pressure of the boiler. The gauge is normally mounted in the front top of the steam drum. The commonly used pressure gauge is the Bourdon type pressure gauge shown m Fig 12 2 It consists of an elastic metallic tube of elliptical cross-section bent in the form of circular arc. One end of the tube is fixed and connected to the steam of the boiler and other end is convected to a sector wheel through a link. The section remains in mesh with a pinion fixed on a spindle.

A pointer is attached to the spindle to read the pressure on a dial gauge. When high pressure steam enters the elliptical tube, the tube section tends to become circular which causes the other end of the tube to move outward. The movement of the closed end of the tube is transmitted and magnified by the link and sector. The sector is hinged at a point on the link. The magnitude of the movement is indicated by the pointer on the dial.

3. Steam Stop Valve The function of the stop valve is to regulate the flow of steam from the boiler to the prime mover as per requirement and shut off the steam flow when not required. A commonly used steam stop valve is shown in Fig. 12.3. It consists of main body, valve, valve seat, but and spindle, which passes through a gland to prevent leakage of steam. The spindle is

rotated by means of a hand wheel to close or open. 4. Feed Check Valve The function of the feed check valve is to allow the supply of water to the boiler at high pressure continuously and to prevent the hack flow of water from the boiler when the pump pressure is less than boiler pressure A commonly used feed check valve is shown in Fig. 12.4. It is fitted to the shell slightly below the normal water level of the boiler. The lift of the non-return valve is regulated by the end position of the spindle which is attached with the hand wheel. The spinfle can be moved up or down with the help of hand wheel which is screwed to the spindle by a nut. Under normal conditions, the non-return valve is lifted due to the water pressure from the pump and water is fed to the boiler. In case pump pressure falls below boiler pressure, valve is closed automatically. or when pump tails.

5 Blow-Down Cock The function of blow-down cock is to remove sludge or sediments collected at the bottommost point in the water space in a boiler, while the boiler is steaming. It is also used for complete draining of the boiler A commonly used type of blow- down cock is shown in Fig. 12.5. it consists of a conical plug fitted accurately into a similar casing. The plug has a rectangular opening which may he brought with the line of the passage of the casing by rotating the plug. This causes the water to be discharged from the boiler: [he discharging of water may be stopped by rotating the plug again. the blow-down ck should be opened when the boiler is in operation br quick forcing out or sediments for maintenance.

6. Fusible Plug The main function of the fusible plug is to put off the fire in the furnace of the boiler when the

water level in the boiler falls below an unsafe level and thus avoid the explosion which may occur due to overheating of the tubes and shell. The plug is generally fitted over the crown of the furnace or over the combustion chamber. A commonly used fusible plug is shown in Fig. 12.6. It consists of a hollow gun metal body screwed into the fire box crown. The body has hexagonal flange to lighten it into the shell. A gun metal plug is screwed into the gun metal body by tightening the hexagonal flange formed into it. There is yet another solid plug made of copper with conical top and rounded bottom. Fusible metal holds this conical copper plug and the gun metal plug together due to depressions provided at the mating surfaces.

During normal operation, the fusible plug remains submerged in water and on no account its temperature can be more than the saturation temperature of water. Fusible metal is protected from direct contact with water of furnace gases.

When the water level in the boiler shell falls below the top of the plug the fusible metal melts due to overheating. Thus the copper plug drops down and is held within the gun-metal body by the ribs. Thus the steam space gets communicated to the fire box and extinguishes the fire. The fusible plug can be put into position again by interposing the fusible metal. 7. Safety Valves The function of a safety valve is to prevent the steam pressure in the boiler exceeding the 4esired rated pressure by automatically opening and discharging steam to atmosphere all .Le pressure falls back to normal rated value. There are three types of safety valves spring loaded (Rams bottom) type, dead weight type, and lever type. (a) Spring Loaded Safety Valve The spring loaded safety valve of the Rams Bottom type is shown in Fig. 12.7. The spring holds the two valves on their seats by pulling the lever down. The lever is provided with two conical pivots, one integrally forged with the level and the other pin connected to one end. The upper end of the spring is looked to the lever midway between the two pivots. The lower end is hooked to the shackle fixed to the valve chest by studs and nuts. The shackle and the lever are also connected.by two links, one end of which is

pin- jointed and the other end has a slot cut into it to allow for the pin to slide in it vertically thus allowing the lever to be lifted and retaining the link connection. These links are provided as a safety measure in case the spring breaks, the lever should not fly off. The lever projects on one side for manual operation to check the satisfactory working of the device.

(b) Dead Weight Safety Valve In this type of device, shown in Fig. 12.8, the steam pressure in the upward direction is balanced by the downward force of dead weights acting on the valve. It is generally used on low capacity boilers like the Lancashire boiler. Bottom flange is directly connected to seating block on the boiler shell.

(c) Lever Safety Valve A typical lever safety valve is shown in Fig. 12.9. The lever is the second kind with effort in the middle of fulcrum and load. It is suitable for stationary boilers.

12.2 VALVES Valves are used to regulate or stop the flow of fluids in a pipe line. The operation of a valve may be either automatic by fluid pressure or manual by hand. The valves may be broadly classified as follows

1. Flap or Hinged Valve A flap valve shown in Fig. 12.10 (a) has a flap hinged at one end. The flap is made of India rubber, leather or fabric. It is a one way valve,

generally used in pump applications as in foot valve, reflux valve, air valve, etc. The pressure of the fluid from the bottom causes the valve to swing partially out of steam thus opening the passage for fluid flow. The angular opening of the valve is limited to 3240 by means of some form of stop. 2. Lift ValveThis valve rises vertically from its seat, generally guided. Fig. 12.10 (b) shows a ball lift valve used in pump applications. The ball may be solid or hollow made of rubber, bronze or any other metal. Fig. 12.10 (c) shows a disc valve made of India rubber for pump applications. The valves used in boiler applications such as safety valve, feed check valve, stop valve, etc. are metal disc valves. These valves are provided with three or four wings or feathers having straight or spiral shape. 3. Slide valveThe slide valve moves parallel to the seat. In a sluice valve shown in Fig. 12.10 (d), the spring keeps the discs in close contact with the valve seat. 4. Pin, Cock and Throttle valvesThese type of valves are shown in Fig. 12.10 (e) to(t).

12.3 LIFT AND MAXIMUM LIFT OF THE VALVE The lift of the valve is the distance by which the valve moves away from its seat. The maximum lift of the valve should provide an area of the opening equal to the area of the passage. This is obtained if the maximum lift, L, is equal to one fourth of the diameter of the passage, D.

Example 12.1 : The details of a Ramsbottom safety valve are shown in Fig. 12.11. Draw (a) Right half sectional elevation (b) Sectional side view, and (c) Outside plan view.

Solution The views have been drawn in Fig. 12.12.

Example 12.2 Name various boiler mountings. Solution : 1. Water level indicator 2. Pressure gauge 3. Steam stop valve 4. Feed check valve 5; Blow-down cock 6. Fusible plug 7. Safety valve. Example 12.3 What is the function of non return valve? Solution: It allows the supply of water to the boiler at high pressure continuously and prevents the back flow of water from the boiler when the pump pressure is lower than the boiler pressure or when pump fails.

Example 12.4 What is meant by the lift of the valve ? What should be the maximum lift? Solution: Refer to art. 12.3.

Example 12.5 What is the function of a valve ? Where a feed check valve, is fitted and what are its functions? Solution: A valve is used to regulate or stop the flow of fluids in a pipe line. The feed check valve is fitted to the boiler shell slightly below the normal water level of the boiler. Its function is to allow the supply of water to the boiler at high pressure continuously and to prevent the back flow of water from the boiler when the pump pressure is less then boiler pressure or when pump fails.

Example 12.6 What is the function of steam stop valve and give simple sketch. Solution : The function of steam stop valve is to regulate the flow of steam from the boiler to the prime moves as per requirement and shut off the steam flow when not required.