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The main difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is that prokaryotic cells do not have a separate nucleus to store genetic information away from other cellular organelles as the genetic information exists in the surrounding cytoplasm. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus where genetic information, the DNA, can be kept separate from other organelles in the cell. 2. Cell membrane – this is a thin, flexible layer which surrounds the outside of the cell. It is semi-permeable, which means it allows some substances to pass into the cell. Vacuole – this is a sac filled with water which contains organic and inorganic compounds. It also contains waste products which can be removed from the cell. Mitochondria – this is where aerobic respiration takes place. It is surrounded by a double membrane. It stores the energy in glucose into ATP. Ribosomes – this is where protein synthesis occurs. They are usually found in the cytoplasm of cells. Endoplasmic reticulum – this is where proteins are produced for exportation from the cell. SER produce materials like lipids for the cell. RER produce materials for outer cellular organisms. Centriole – this is a pair of short microtubules which aid the process of cell division. Golgi body – this is where proteins from the RER are transported to so that they can be released through the cell membrane. Cytoskeleton – this is a network of protein fibres which are for support, transport and motility of the cell. It helps move around organelles in the cytoplasm, for example situations such as movement of chromosomes in cell division and muscle contractions. Nucleus – this is the largest organelle in a cell. It contains genetic information in the form of DNA for many processes of the cell such as protein synthesis. It is surrounded by a nuclear envelope, which has a double membrane with nuclear pores. Nucleoplasm – this is a highly viscous liquid surrounding the nucleus. It contains enzymes needed for activities in the nucleus and nucleotides for the replication of DNA. Nucleolus – this is an organelle within the nucleus. This is where ribosomal RNA is produced. rRNA is used in protein synthesis and is part of the active site of ribosomes. Nuclear envelope – this surrounds the nucleus. This has two membranes. The outer membrane contains nuclear pores to allow the movement of material and RER. Nuclear pore – this is a protein-lined channel which can be found on the surface of the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. It regulates the transportation of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

toxins and even whole cells which can then be recycled to produce compounds which can be beneficial for the cell. 6-8 micrometres in diameter. the most abundant type of white blood cell in the human body. No nucleus is present.4% . T cells. The cytoplasm often surrounded some part of the nucleus. There are 3 types of lymphocytes. There are no nucleoli. which are cytoplasmic fragments. Erythrocytes. The cytoplasm also consists of a few small granules. 7. It is approx. with the nucleus being oval slightly. 5. circulate within the blood as small discs. B cells and natural killer (NK) cells. 3. Platelets average 1-4 micrometres in diameter. 12-15 micrometres. They have a diameter of approx. Macrophages are another type of white blood cell in the human blood. also called red blood cells. Vacuoles may be present. Neutrophils.05m/ 4/1000000m = x12500 Lymph nodes and spleen The cell surface membrane 197/1722 x 100% = 11. T cells attack bodily cells that have already been attacked by bacteria or viruses. They are responsible for blood clotting and maintaining the lining of blood vessels. B and T cells leave encountered antigens so that they can be remembered for future encounters. Under the microscope. The cytoplasm is light blue to purple coloured. such as bacteria and viruses. The centre of the cell is also slightly pale relative to the amount of haemoglobin. have a biconcave shape to increase surface area which helps the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide in and out of the cell. Platelets. It breaks down unwanted chemical. They are roughly 21 micrometres in diameter. 5 centimetres divided 4 micrometres = 0. Small lymphocytes are most common. forming a elongated ‘U shaped’ chain. waste materials. The reddish colour of the cell if due to the haemoglobin. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell in the human immune system. macrophages have a circular membrane with purple granule like pattern in the cell.Lysosome – this is a membrane-bounded organelle which contains digestive enzymes and can be found in the cytoplasm. B cells respond to pathogens by producing large antibodies. 4. have 2-5 rounded lobes all linked by thin chains. 6. They role is to ingest any foreign material in the body through phagocytosis before it can have any serious effect on the body.

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