# Karnataka State Open University

Study Material for MCA
Mathematics - Code - MCA 11
by
K.S. Srinivasa
Retd. Principal &
Professor of Mathematics
Bangalore
Sharada Vikas Trust (R)
Bangalore
MCA 11 MATHEMATICS
Syllabus
1. Complex Trigonometry
Revision of Plane Trigonometry - trigonometric ratios, expressions for relation between allied angles and trigonometrical
ratios. Addition formulae for trigonometrical ratios and simple problems. Complex numbers and functions, definition,
properties, De Moivre's Theorem (without proof), Roots of a complex number, expansions of sin (nθ), cos (nθ) in
powers of sin θ & cos θ, addition formulae for any number of angles, simple problems.
2. Matrix Theory :
Review of the fundamentals. Solution of linear equations by Cramers' Rule and by Matrix method, Eigen values and
Eigen vectors, Cayley Hamilton's Theorem, Diagonalization of matrices, simple problems.
3. Algebraic Structures
Definition of a group, properties of groups, sub groups, permutation groups, simple problems, scalars & vectors, algebra
of vectors, scalar & vector products, scalar triple product, simple problems.
4. Differential Calculus
Limits, continuity and differentiability (definition only), standard derivatives, rules for differentiation, derivatives of
function of a function and parametric functions, problems. Successive differentiation, n
th
derivative of standard functions,
statement of Leibnitz's Theorem, problems, polar forms, angle between the radius vector and the tangent to a polar
curve, (no derivation) angle between curves, pedal equation, simple problems, indeterminate forms, L' Hospital's rule,
partial derivatives, definition and simple problems.
5. Integral Calculus
Introduction, standard integrals, integration by substitution and by parts, integration of rational, irrational and trigonometric
functions, definite integrals, properties (no proof), simple problems, reduction formulae and simple problems.
6. Differential Equations of first order
Introduction, solution by separation of variables, homogeneous equations, reducible to homogeneous linear equation,
Bernoulli's equation, exact differential equations and simple problems.
Text Books
1. Elementary Engineering Mathematics by Dr. B.S. Grewal, Khanna Publications
2. Higher Engineering Mathematics by B.S. Grewal, Khanna Publications
Reference Books
1. Differential Calculus by Shanti Narayan, Publishers S. Chand & Co.
2. Integral Calculus by Shanti Narayan, Publishers S. Chand & Co.
3. Modern Abstract Algebra by Shanti Narayan, Publishers S. Chand & Co.
CONTENTS
Page Nos.
1. Complex Trigonometry 01
2. Matrix Theory 27
3. Algebraic Structures 47
4. Differential Calculus 69
5. Integral Calculus 101
6. Differential Equations 123
COMPLEX TRIGONOMETRY
Trigonometric ratios of acute angles
Consider a right-angled triangle ABC, right angled at C. Let .

è BC A · The side AC
opposite to angle θ is called ‘opposite side’. The side BC is called ‘adjacent side’. The
side AB is hypotenuse.
The ratio
AB
AC
ie
hypotenuse
side opposite
is defined as ‘sine of θ θθ θθ’ & written as sinθ.
The ratio
AB
BC
ie
hypotenuse
is defined as ‘cosine of θ θθ θθ’ & written as cosθ.
The ratio
BC
AC
ie
side opposite
is defined as ‘tangent of θ θθ θθ’ & written as tanθ.
It can be seen by the above definition that è
è
è
tan
cos
sin
·
The reciprocal of sinθ ie
AC
AB
ie
è sin
1
is defined as ‘cosecant of θ θθ θθ ’ and written as cosecθ.
The reciprocal of cosθ ie
BC
AB
ie
è cos
1
is defined as ‘secant of θ θθ θθ ’ and written as secθ.
The Reciprocal of tanθ ie
AC
BC
is defined as ‘cotangent of θ θθ θθ’ and written as cotθ.
Identities:- (1) sin
2
θ θθ θθ + cos
2
θ θθ θθ = 1
(2) sec
2
θ θθ θθ = 1 + tan
2
θ θθ θθ
(3) cosec
2
θ θθ θθ = 1 + cot
2
θ θθ θθ
Proof:- From the right angled triangle ABC
AC
2
+ BC
2
= AB
2
1 have we by divide
2
2
2
2
2
· +
AB
BC
AB
AC
AB , ie sin
2
θ + cos
2
θ = 1
2
2
2
2
2
1 have we by divide
BC
AB
BC
AC
BC · + , ie tan
2
θ + 1 = sec
2
θ
2
2
2
2
2
1 then by divide
AC
AB
AC
BC
AC · + , ie 1 + cot
2
θ = cosec
2
θ
Trigonometric ratios of 30°& 60°
Consider an equilateral triangle of side 2 units AB = BC = AC = 2. BC AD
r
to Draw ⊥ , then BD = DC = 1. Then in the
triangle ABD, ° · ° · ° · 30 & 60 90 AD B BD A DB A
 
,

2
= AB
2
– BD
2
= 4 – 1 = 3, ∴ 3 · AD
θ
B C
A
90º
In the triangle ABD
BD A

take
2
3
60 · · °
AB
sin
2
1
60 · · °
AB
BD
cos
1
3
60 · · °
BD
tan
3
1
60 2 60
3
2
60 cosec also · ° · ° · ° cot & sec ,

take
2
1
30 · · °
AB
BD
sin
2
3
30 · · °
AB
cos
3
1
30 · · °
BD
tan
3 0 3
3
2
0 3 2 30 cosec also · ° · ° · ° cot & sec ,
From the above results, it can seen that sin60º = cos30º, cos60º = sin30º and tan60º = cot30º.
Trigonometric ratios of 45º
Consider a right-angled isosceles triangle ABC where ° · 90 B C A

AC B C B A
 
· ° · 45
Let AC = BC = 1 unit then 2 · AB units
\
2
1
45 · · °
AB
AC
sin
2
1
45 · · °
AB
BC
cos
1
1
1
45 · · · °
BC
AC
tan
1 45 and 2 45 2 cosec45 also, · ° · ° · ° cot sec ,
Note :- Trigonometric ratios of 30º, 45º and 60º are called ‘Standard Trigonometric’ ratios which are always useful,
hence these values have to be always remembered.
Trigonometric ratios of any angle (from 0º to 360º)
Let XOX' & YOY' be co-ordinate axes where O is the origin. Consider a circle of radius r with centre O. Let P be any point
on the cirlce whose co-ordinates are (x, y).
Draw PM perpendicular to OX.
3
90º
60º
30º
B D C
A
2
2
1 1
2
1
A
C B
1
2 KSOU Complex Trigonometry
Then OM = x & PM = y
è P O M ·

et L
x
y
è
r
x
è
r
y
è · · · tan , cos , sin
y
x
è
x
r
è
y
r
è · · · cot , sec , cosec also
When ,

P O M satisfy 0º < θ < 90º the print P will be in first quadrant
of the circle, when it satisfy 90º < θ < 180º, P will in second quadrant,
when 180º < θ < 270º, P will be in third quadrant & finally when 270º
< θ < 360º the point P will be in fourth quadrant, because of these
positions, signs of the Trigonometric ratios changes.
In the I quadrant both x & y are +ve and r is always +ve.
Therefore sinθ, cosθ & tanθ are +ve, their reciprocals are also +ve.
In the II quadrant x is –ve, y is +ve
Therefore sinθ & cosecθ are +ve cosθ, tanθ, secθ & cotθ are –ve.
In the III quadrant both x & y are –ve
Therefore, tanθ & cotθ are +ve and sinθ, cosθ, cosecθ & secθ are –ve.
In the IV quadrant x is +ve & y is –ve
Therefore, cosθ & secθ are +ve and sinθ, tanθ, cosecθ & cotθ are –ve.
Note :- The signs of the trigonometric ratios can be easily remembered with the help of the following diagram
Trigonometric ratios of angles 0º, 90º, 180º, 270º and 360º
(can be called border angles).
Let P O M

be an angle whose measure is very close to zero (as in fig. 1)
r x y → → → , 0 0, As θ
\ 0
0
0 · · °
r
sin
Y
O
Y'
X'
X
M
P (x, y)
y
x θ
(–, +) (+, +)
(–, –) (+, –)
S A
T C
Sine is +ve All are +ve
tan is +ve cos is +ve
in short
O M
P
y
x
θ
fig.1
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 3
1 0 · · °
r
r
cos
0
0
0 · · °
r
tan
If ,

P O M is very close to 90º as in fig. 2.
r y x → → ° → , 0 , 0 9 As θ
\ 1 90 · · °
r
r
sin
0
0
90 · · °
r
cos
∞ · · °
0
90
r
tan
If θ is very close to 180º as in fig. 3
0 0 8 1 As → − → ° → y r x , , θ
\ 0
0
180 · · °
r
sin
1 180 − ·

· °
r
r
cos
0
0
180 · · °
r
tan
If θ is very close to 270º as in fig. 4
r y x − → → ° → , , 0 270 Asθ
\ 1 270 − ·

· °
r
r
sin
0
0
270 · · °
r
cos
−∞ ·

· °
0
270
r
tan
If θ is very close to 360º as in fig. 5
0 360 When → → ° → y r x , , θ
\ 0
0
360 · · °
r
sin
1 360 · · °
r
r
cos
0
0
360 · · °
r
tan
O M
P
y
x
θ
fig.2
O M
P
y
x
θ
fig.3
O
M
P
y
x
θ
fig.4
r
M
P
y
x
θ
fig.5
r
4 KSOU Complex Trigonometry
Thus we have the following
0 360 1 360 0 360
270 0 270 1 270
0 180 1 180 0 180
90 0 90 1 90
0 0 1 0 0 0
· ° · ° · °
−∞ · ° · ° − · °
· ° − · ° · °
∞ · ° · ° · °
· ° · ° · °
tan , cos , sin
tan , cos , sin
tan , cos , sin
tan , cos , sin
tan , cos , sin
Note :- From the above derivations it can be seen that the values of sinθ & cosθ always be between –1 & 1. Whereas the
value of tan θ will be between −∞ & ∞ and hence the graphs of the trigonometric functions
x y x y x y tan cos , sin · · · & are as follows.
fig.6
x y sin ·
O
x
90° 270° 180° 360°
x y cos ·
O
x
90° 270° 180° 360°
fig.7
fig.8
x y tan ·
O
x
90° 270° 180° 360°
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 5
Rules for allied angles
θ θ cos ) sin( · − ° 90
θ θ sin ) cos( · − ° 90
θ θ cot ) tan( · − ° 90
θ θ cos ) sin( · + ° 90
θ θ sin ) cos( − · + ° 90
θ θ cot ) tan( − · + ° 90
θ θ sin ) sin( · − ° 180
θ θ cos ) cos( − · − ° 180
θ θ tan ) tan( − · − ° 180
θ θ sin ) sin( − · + ° 180
θ θ cos ) cos( − · + ° 180
θ θ tan ) tan( · + ° 180
O
B
A
r
r r
θ θ cos ) sin( − · − ° 270
θ θ sin ) cos( − · − ° 270
θ θ cot ) tan( · − ° 270
θ θ cos ) sin( − · + ° 270
θ θ sin ) cos( · + ° 270
θ θ cot ) tan( − · + ° 270
θ θ sin ) sin( − · − ° 360
θ θ cos ) cos( · − ° 360
θ θ tan ) tan( − · − ° 360
θ θ sin ) sin( · + ° 360
θ θ cos ) cos( · + ° 360
θ θ tan ) tan( · + ° 360
Using the Trigonometric ratios of standard angles 30°, 45° & 60° and using the above rules for allied angles, we can
find the trigonometric ratios of other angles as follows.
Eg.1
2
3
30 30 90 120 · ° · ° + ° · ° cos ) sin( sin
or
2
3
60 60 180 120 · ° · ° − ° · ° sin ) sin( sin
Eg.2
2
3
60 60 90 150 − · ° − · ° + ° · ° sin ) cos( cos
or
2
3
30 30 180 150 − · ° − · ° − ° · ° cos ) cos( cos
Eg.3
2
1
45 45 360 315 − · ° − · ° − ° · ° sin ) sin( sin
or
2
1
45 45 270 315 − · ° − · ° + ° · ° cos ) sin( sin
Consider a circle of radius r with centre O. Let AB be a arc such that arc AB = r.
Measure of the B O A

is called a 'radian' denoted as 1
C
.
To prove that radian is a Constant angle
Consider a circle of radius r with centre O. Let arc AB = r so that B O A

Let C be a point on the circle such that .

° · 90 C O A
Since the angle subtended at the centre of a circle is proportional to the corresponding arc.
6 KSOU Complex Trigonometry
AC
AB
C O A
B O A
arc
arc
·


π
π
2
2
4
1
90
· ·
°
) ( r
r
]
]
]

· · ) ( r AC π 2
4
1
nce Circumfere
4
1
Q
° · ∴ 180 radians π
result. imp. 180 ie ° · π
, , ° · ° · 45
4
90
2
π π
. , ° · ° · 30
6
60
3
π π
Using the relation π = 180° measurement of an angle in degrees can be converted to radians and vice-versa.
Eg. (1) Qn. : Convert 40° to radians
9
2
180
40 40 : Solution
π π
· × · °
Eg. (2) Qn. : Convert
3

radians in to degrees
° · × 120
180
3
2
: Solution
π
π

Some Problems
1. Show that
A A A
2 2 2
cosec 2 1 1 · − + + ) cot ( ) cot (
A A A A cot cot cot cot 2 1 2 1 LHS : Solution
2 2
− + + + + ·
A
2
2 2 cot + ·
) cot ( A
2
1 2 + ·
. RHS cosec 2
2
· · A
2. Show that
A A
A
A
A
A
tan sec
sin
sin
sin
sin
4
1
1
1
1
·
+

+
) sin )( sin (
) sin ( ) sin
A A
A A
+ −
− − +
·
1 1
1 1 (
LHS : Solution
2 2
(taking LCM)
A
A A A A
2
2 2
1
2 1 2 1
sin
) sin sin ( ) sin sin (

− + − + +
·
A
A A A A
2
2 2
2 1 2 1
cos
sin sin sin sin + − − + +
·
A
A
A A
A
cos
sin
cos cos
sin
⋅ · ·
1
4
4
2
RHS 4 · ⋅ · A A tan sec
O
B
A
r
r
r
C
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 7
3. If sec A + tan A = a, then prove that A
a
a
sin ·
+

1
1
2
2
1 2
1 2
1
1
LHS : Solution
2 2
2 2
2
2
+ + +
− + +
·
+

·
A A A A
A A A A
a
a
tan sec tan sec
tan sec tan sec
A A A A
A A A A
tan sec tan sec
tan sec tan sec
2 1
2 1
2 2
2 2
+ + +
+ + −
·
identity) the (using
2 2
2 2
2
2
A A A
A A A
tan sec sec
tan sec tan
+
+
·
) tan (sec sec
sec tan tan
A A A
A) A A(
+
+
·
2
2
RHS
1
· · × · · A
A
A
A
A
A
sin
cos
cos
sin
sec
tan
4. If , sin
5
4
· θ find the value of
θ θ
θ θ
cot tan
cos sin

+
5
4
If : Solution · θ sin then opposite side is 4 hypotenusis 5.
3 9 16 25 side adjacent · · − · ∴
3
4
&
5
3
· · ∴ θ θ tan cos
5
12
12
7
5
7
4
3
3
4
5
3
5
4
· ·

+
·

+

θ θ
θ θ
cot tan
cos sin
5. If
θ θ
θ θ
π θ
π
θ
cosec 3 8
8 5
find
2 4
3

+
< < − ·
sec
tan cos
, tan
Solution : Since θ lies in II Quadrant sine is +ve cosine & tangant are –ve.
5
4
and
5
3
− · · ∴ θ θ cos sin

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
| −
+
,
`

.
| −
·

+

3
5
3
4
5
8
4
3
8
5
4
5
cosec 3 8
8 5

θ θ
θ θ
sec
tan cos
3
2
15
10
5 10
6 4
· ·
− −
− −
·
6. Prove that
θ
θ θ θ
θ θ θ
2
90 90 360
90 cosec 180 180
sec
) sin( ) cot( ) sec(
) ( ) sec( ) tan(
·
− ° + ° − °
+ ° − ° + °
8 KSOU Complex Trigonometry
θ
θ θ θ
θ θ θ
2
LHS : Solution sec
cos ) tan ( sec
sec ) sec ( tan
·

·
7. Prove that
θ
θ θ
π
θ
π
θ
π
θ π θ π
sin
) sin( cot tan
cot ) cos( ) sin(
·

,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
− − +
2
3
2
2
2
) sin )( tan ( cot (
tan cos ) sin (
θ θ θ
θ θ θ
− − −

· LHS : Solution
θ θ tan cos ·
RHS · · × · θ
θ
θ
θ sin
cos
sin
cos
B A B A B A sin cos cos sin ) sin( + · +
B A B A B A sin sin cos cos ) cos( − · +
B A
B A
B A
tan tan
tan tan
) tan(

+
· +
1
replacing B by –B
B A B A B A sin cos cos sin ) sin( − · −
B A B A B A sin sin cos cos ) cos( + · −
B A
B A
B A
tan tan
tan tan
) tan(
+

· −
1
Using the above formulae we can find the trigonometric ratios of 15°, 75°, 105° etc.
) sin( sin ° + ° · ° 30 45 75

° ° + ° ° · 30 45 30 45 sin cos cos sin

2 2
1 3
2
1
2
1
2
3
2
1 +
· × + × ·
) cos( cos ° + ° · ° 30 45 75

° ° − ° ° · 30 45 30 45 sin sin cos cos

2 2
1 3
2
1
2
1
2
3
2
1 −
· × − × ·
1 3
1 3
75
75
75

+
·
°
°
· °
cos
sin
tan
) sin( sin ° − ° · ° 30 45 15

° ° − ° ° · 30 45 30 45 sin cos cos sin
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 9

2
1
2
1
2
3
2
1
× − × ·

2 2
1 3 −
·
) cos( cos ° − ° · ° 30 45 15

° ° + ° ° · 30 45 30 45 sin sin cos cos

2
1
2
1
2
3
2
1
× + × ·

2 2
1 3 +
·
1 3
1 3
15
15
15
+

·
°
°
· °
cos
sin
tan
) sin( sin ° + ° · ° 45 60 105

° ° + ° ° · 45 60 45 60 sin cos cos sin

2
1
2
1
2
1
2
3
× + × ·

2 2
1 3 +
·
) cos( cos ° + ° · ° 45 60 105

° ° − ° ° · 45 60 45 60 sin sin sin cos

2
1
2
3
2
1
2
1
× − × ·

2 2
3 1−
·
3 1
1 3
105

+
· ° tan
Alternate method
° · ° − ° · ° 75 75 90 15 cos ) sin( sin
2 2
1 3 −
·
° · ° − ° · ° 75 75 90 15 sin ) cos( cos
2 2
1 3 +
·
° · ° − ° · ° 75 75 180 105 sin ) sin( sin
2 2
1 3 +
·
° − · ° − ° · ° 75 75 180 105 cos ) cos( cos
( )
2 2
3 1
2 2
1 3 −
·
− −
·
10 KSOU Complex Trigonometry
To find sin2θ θθ θθ, cos2θ θθ θθ & tan2θ θθ θθ.
B A B A B A sin cos cos sin ) sin( + · +
B A · ·θ put
θ θ θ θ θ sin cos cos sin sin + · 2

θ θ cos sin 2 ·
B A B A B A sin sin cos cos ) cos( − · +
θ · · B A put
θ θ θ θ θ sin sin cos cos cos − · 2

θ θ
2 2
sin cos − ·
θ θ
2 2
1 using cos sin − ·
1 2 2
2
− · θ θ cos cos
θ θ
2 2
1 using also sin cos − ·
θ θ
2
2 1 2 sin cos − ·
B A
B A
B A
tan tan
tan tan
) tan(

+
· +
1
B A · ·θ put
θ θ
θ θ
θ
tan tan
tan tan
tan

+
·
1
2

θ
θ
2
1
2
tan
tan

·
To find sin3θ θθ θθ, cos3θ θθ θθ & tan3θ θθ θθ.
) sin( sin θ θ θ + · 2 3

θ θ θ θ sin cos cos sin 2 2 + ·
θ θ θ θ θ sin ) sin ( cos cos sin
2
2 1 2 − + ·
θ θ θ θ
3 2
2 1 2 sin sin ) sin ( sin − + − ·

θ θ θ θ
3 3
2 2 2 sin sin sin sin − + − ·

θ θ
3
4 3 sin sin − ·
) cos( cos θ θ θ + · 2 3

θ θ θ θ sin sin cos cos 2 2 − ·
θ θ θ θ cos sin cos ) cos (
2 2
2 1 2 − − ·
θ θ θ θ cos ) cos ( cos cos
2 3
1 2 2 − − − ·

θ θ θ θ
3 3
2 2 2 cos cos cos cos + − − ·

θ θ cos cos 3 4
3
− ·
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 11
) tan( tan θ θ θ + · 2 3

θ θ
θ θ
tan tan
tan tan
2 1
2

+
·

θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
tan
tan
tan
tan
tan
tan
×

+

·
2
2
1
2
1
1
2

) tan (
tan tan
tan
) tan ( tan tan
θ
θ θ
θ
θ θ θ
2
2 2
2
2
1
2 1
1
1 2

− −

− +
·

θ
θ θ θ
2
3
3 1
2
tan
tan tan tan

− +
·

θ
θ θ
2
3
3 1
3
tan
tan tan

·
Thus we have,
θ θ θ cos sin sin 2 2 ·
θ θ θ
2 2
2 sin cos cos − ·

θ θ
2 2
2 1 1 2 sin cos − · − ·
θ
θ
θ
2
1
2
2
tan
tan
tan

·
θ θ θ
3
4 3 3 sin sin sin − ·
θ θ θ cos cos cos 3 4 3
3
− ·
θ
θ θ
θ
2
3
3 1
3
3
tan
tan tan
tan

·
Problems
1. Show that
2
3 3
· −
A
A
A
A
cos
cos
sin
sin
A
A A
A
A A
cos
cos cos
sin
sin sin 3 4 4 3
LHS : Solution
3 3

·

3 4 4 3
2 2
+ − − · A A cos sin
) cos (sin A A
2 2
4 6 + − ·

RHS 2 4 6 · · − ·
2. If
3
2
· A cos find sin2A & cos3A.
3
5
3
4 9
3
2
Given : Solution ·

· · A A sin , cos
12 KSOU Complex Trigonometry
A A A cos sin sin 2 2 ·

9
5 4
3
2
3
5
2 · × × ·
A A A cos cos cos 3 4 3
3
− ·

3
2
3
27
8
4 × − × ·

2
27
32
− ·

27
22
27
54 32 −
·

·
9
5 4
2 · ∴ A sin &
27
22
3

· A cos
3. Prove that
) ( tan
sin
sin
θ
θ
θ
+ ° ·

+
45
2 1
2 1
2
θ θ
θ θ
cos sin
cos sin
2 1
2 1
LHS : Solution

+
·

2
2
) sin (cos
) sin (cos
θ θ
θ θ

+
·

) cos
sin cos
sin cos
θ
θ θ
θ θ
by bracket the inside Dr & Nr (dividing
2

,
`

.
|

+
·

2
1
1

,
`

.
|

+
·
θ
θ
tan
tan
RHS 45 · + ° · ) tan( θ
4. Prove that
2 1
1
2
θ
θ
θ
tan
cos
cos
·
+

and hence prove that 3 2 15 − · ° tan

,
`

.
|
− +

,
`

.
|
− −
·
+
1
2
2 1
2
2 1 1
1
- 1
: Solution
2
2
θ
θ
θ
θ
cos
sin
cos
cos
using cos2 A formula
2
2
2
2
1
2
2 1
2
2 1 1
2
2
2
2
θ
θ
θ
θ
cos
sin
cos
sin
·
− +
+ −
·

2
2
θ
tan ·
2 1
1
2
θ
θ
θ
tan
cos
cos
·
+

° +
° −
· ° ° ·
30 1
30 1
15 30 put
2
cos
cos
tan . θ

3 2
3 2
2
3
1
2
3
1
+

·
+

·
( )( )
( )( ) 3 2 3 2
3 2 3 2
− +
− −
·

( )
( )
2
2
3 2
3 4
3 2
− ·

·
3 2
2
− · ∴
θ
tan
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 13
Complex Number
Definition : A number of the form 1 where − · ∈ ∈ + i R y R x iy x & , is defined as a Complex Number and usually denoted
as Z. x is called Real part & y is called Imaginary part. x – iy is called Conjugate. Complex number denoted as . z Z or A
complex number can be represented by a point on a plane by taking real part on x-axis & imaginary part on y-axis. The plane
on which complex numbers are represented is called a Complex Plane. For every point in a plane there is a complex number
& for every complex number there is a point in the plane. In a complex x-axis is called Real axis & y-axis Imaginary axis.
Properties
(1) Equality. Two complex numbers
2 2 2 1 1 1
iy x z iy x z + · + · , are said to be equal if
2 1 2 1
y y x x · · ,
2 2 2 1 1 1
If iy x z iy x z + · + · ,
) ( ) (
2 1 2 1 2 1
y y i x x z z + + + · +
(3) Subtraction. ) ( ) (
2 1 2 1 2 1
y y i x x z z − + − · −
(4) Multiplication. ) )( (
2 2 1 1 2 1
iy x iy x z z + + ·
2 1
2
2 1 1 2 2 1
y y i y ix y ix x x + + + ·
1
2
1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1
− · + + − · i y x y x i y y x x Q ) (
etc 1 1 1 : Note
4 3 2
· − · − · − · i i i i i , , ,
(5) Division.
) (
) (
2 2
1 1
2
1
iy x
iy x
z
z
+
+
·
multiply numerator & denominator by the conjugate of x
2
+ iy
2
ie x
2
– iy
2
, then
) )( (
) )( (
2 2 2 2
2 2 1 1
2
1
iy x iy x
iy x iy x
z
z
− +
− +
·
2
2
2
2
2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1
y x
y x y x i y y x x
+
− + +
·
) (
2
2
2
2
2 1 1 2
2
2
2
2
2 1 2 1
y x
y x y x
i
y x
y y x x
+

+
+
+
·
which is a complex number.
Note :- Product of a complex number with its conjugate is always a positive real number.
iy z z x z z y x iy x iy x z z 2 2 ie
2 2
· − · + + · − + · , & ) )( (
i
z z
y
z z
x
2 2

·
+
· ∴ &
Polar form the complex number
z = x + iy is called the Cartesian form.
Let P(x, y) be any point in the plane which represents a complex number.
Draw
r
PM ⊥ to x-axis & join PM. Then OM = x, MP = y. Let θ · OP M

&
OP = r.
From the triangle OPM,
O
x
M
r
y
P (x, y)
x
y
θ
14 KSOU Complex Trigonometry
θ θ cos cos r x
y
x
OP
OM
· ⇒ · ·
θ θ sin sin r y
r
y
OP
PM
· ⇒ · ·
θ θ sin cos ir r iy x z + · + · ∴ ) sin (cos θ θ i r + ·
This form of the complex number is called 'Polar form'. Where r is called Modulus & θ is called argument which are
given by
x
y
y x r
1 2 2
&

· + · tan θ
r is always positive and argument θ varies from 0° to 360°. The value of argument satisfying –π < θ ≤ π is defined
as amplitude which is unique for a complex number.
Thus we have
2 2
Mod. y x r z z + · · ·
x
y
z
1
arg

· tan and amp. z = θ where –π < θ ≤ π
x
y
y
x
· · θ θ θ sin cos and ie satisfying find to have we number, complex a of amplitude the finding while
Examples
1. Express
i
i
+
+
1
3 2
in the form x + iy
) )( (
) )( (
i i
i i
i
i
− +
− +
·
+
+
1 1
1 3 2
1
3 2
: Solution
1 1
3 2 3 2
2
+
− − +
·
i i i
2
5
2
3 2 i i +
·
+ +
·
2
1
2
5
i + ·
2. Express
i
i

+
3
1
2
) (
in the form x + iy
) (
) (
i
i i
i
i

+ +
·

+
3
2 1
3
1
: Solution
2 2
)
) )( (
) (
1 (using
3 3
3 2
2
− ·
+ −
+
· i
i i
i i
10
6 2
1 9
2 6
2
i i i + −
·
+
+
·
5
3
5
1
10
6
10
2 i i
+ − · +

·
3. Find the modulus and amplitude of 1 + i.
2 1 1 : Solution
2 2
· + · + · · y x r z
2
1
and
2
1
· · · ·
r
y
r
x
θ θ sin cos
4
45
π
θ · ° · ∴
2 is Modulus ∴
4
is amplitude and
π
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 15
4. Find the modulus & amplitude of
i + − 3
2 4 1 3 : Solution · · + · z
6
5
2
1
2
3
π
θ
θ
θ
· →
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·

·
sin
cos
6
5
is amplitude & 2 is Modulus
π

5. Find the modulus & amplitude of
3 1 i − −
2 4 3 1 : Solution · · + · z
3
2
2
3
2
1
π
θ
θ
θ
− · →
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
− ·
− ·
sin
cos
3
2
is amplitude & 2 is Modulus
π
− ∴
6. Find the modulus & amplitude of 1 – i.
2 1 1 : Solution · + · z
4
2
1
2
1
π
θ
θ
θ
− · →
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
− · ·
· ·
r
y
r
x
sin
cos
4
is amplitude & 2 is Modulus
π
− ∴
7.
1 ( that prove then
1
If
2 2 2 2
· + +
+
· + ) )( , b a
ib a
i β α β α
) )( (
) (
ib a ib a
ib a
ib a
i
− +

·
+
· +
1
: Solution β α
2 2 2 2 2 2
b a
b
i
b a
a
b a
ib a
+

+
·
+

·
Equating real and imaginary parts separately
2 2 2 2
and
b a
b
b a
a
+

·
+
· β α
16 KSOU Complex Trigonometry
( ) ( )
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
b a
b
b a
a
+
+
+
· + β α
( )
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
1
b a
b a
b a
+
·
+
+
·
) (
g multiplyin - cross ∴
1
2 2 2 2
· + + ) )( ( b a β α
DeMoivre's Theorem
Statement : If n is a +ve or –ve integer, then
n
i ) sin (cos θ θ + θ θ n i n sin cos + ·
If n is a +ve or –ve fraction, one of the values of
n
i ) sin (cos θ θ + is
. sin cos θ θ n i n +
Proof : Case (i) when n is a +ve integer proof by Mathematical Induction.
When n = 1,
1
) sin (cos θ θ i + θ θ sin cos i + · θ θ . sin . cos 1 1 i + ·
∴ result is true for n = 1.
Let us assume that the result is true for n = m
θ θ θ θ m i m i
m
sin cos ) sin (cos + · + ie
multiply both sides by θ θ sin cos i +
) sin (cos ) sin (cos θ θ θ θ i i
m
+ + ) sin )(cos sin (cos θ θ θ θ i m i m + + ·
1
ie
+
+
m
i ) sin (cos θ θ
θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ sin sin sin cos cos sin cos cos m m i m i m − + + ·
] sin cos cos [sin sin sin cos cos θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ m m i m m + + − ·
θ θ ) sin( ) cos( 1 1 + + + · m i m
∴ the result is true for n = m + 1. Thus if the result is true for n = m then it is true for n = m + 1.
ie If it is true for one integer it is true for next integer, hence by Induction the result is true for all +ve integers.
Case (ii) When
q
p
n · where p & q are +ve integers.
q
q
p
i
q
p

,
`

.
|
+ θ θ sin cos Consider
θ θ q
q
p
i q
q
p
⋅ + ⋅ · sin cos θ θ p i q sin cos + ·
p
i ) sin (cos θ θ + ·
q
p
q
p
i
q
p
i

,
`

.
|
+ · + θ θ θ θ sin cos ) sin cos ( ie
taking qth roots on both sides. One of the values of θ θ θ θ
q
p
i
q
p
i
q
p
sin cos ) sin (cos + · +
Case (iii) when n is –ve integer or –ve fraction. Let n = –m where m is a +ve integer or +ve fraction
m n
i i

+ · + ) sin (cos ) sin (cos θ θ θ θ
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 17
m
i ) sin (cos θ θ +
·
1
θ θ m i m sin cos +
·
1
) sin )(cos sin (cos
) sin (cos
θ θ θ θ
θ θ
m i m m i m
m i m
− +

·
θ θ
θ θ
m m
m i m
2 2
sin cos
sin cos
+

·
1
θ θ m i m sin cos −
· θ θ ) sin( ) cos( m i m − + − · . sin cos θ θ n i n + ·
Important Results
(i) If θ θ sin cos i x + · then
θ θ sin cos i
x
− ·
1
. sin cos θ θ i
x
x
x
x 2
1
and 2
1
· − · + ∴
(ii) If θ θ sin cos i x + ·

n n
i x ) sin (cos θ θ + · θ θ n i n sin cos + ·
θ θ sin cos i
x
− ·
1
&
n
n
i
x
) sin (cos θ θ − ·
1
θ θ n i n sin cos − ·
θ n
x
x
n
n
cos 2
1
· + ∴ & θ n i
x
x
n
n
sin 2
1
· −
Note :- For convenience θ θ sin cos i + can be written as . θ cis
Roots of a complex number
Let z = x + iy, express the complex number in the polar form.
) sin (cos θ θ i r z + · ie
[ ] ) sin( ) cos( θ π θ π + + + · k i k r 2 2 I k ∈ where
[ ]
n n n
k i k r z
1 1 1
2 2 ) sin( ) cos( θ π θ π + + + ·
]
]
]

+
+
+
·
n
k
i
n
k
r
n
) (
sin cos
θ π θ π 2 2 1
where k = 0, 1, 2, ......... n – 1. Let us denote the nth roots of the complex number by z
0
, z
1
, z
2
, ..............z
n – 1
Then,
for
n
r
n
i
n
r z k
n n
θ θ θ
cis 0
1 1
0
·
]
]
]

+ · · sin cos ,
n
r
n
i
n
r z k
n n
θ π θ π θ π +
·
]
]
]

+
+
+
· ·
2
cis
2 2
1
1 1
1
sin cos ,
n
r
n
i
n
r z k
n n
θ π θ π θ π +
·
]
]
]

+
+
+
· ·
4
cis
4 4
2
1 1
2
sin cos ,
n
n
r
n
n
i
n
n
r z n k
n n
n
θ π θ π θ π + −
·
]
]
]

+ −
+
+ −
· − ·

) ( ) (
sin
) (
cos ,
1 2
cis
1 2 1 2
1
1 1
1
the above n values gives nth roots of z = x + iy
18 KSOU Complex Trigonometry
Note :- If k = n, n + 1, n + 2 etc. The values will repeat. Hence these will be only n values of
n
z
1
which are distinct.
Using the polar form of the complex number we can plot the nth roots of the complex in the following way.
Draw a circle of radius
n
r
1
whose centre is O. Mark a point on the circle and take
OA as intial line. Take a point B such that
n
OB A
θ
·

. Then B represent z
0
. Take a
point C such that
n
OC A
θ π +
·
2

then C represent z
1
, like this all the nth roots can
be represented. This diagram is called 'Argand Diagram'.
Problems :
5 9
3 2
4 4
7 7 5 5
Simplify 1
) sin (cos ) sin (cos
) sin (cos ) sin cos
) (
θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ
i i
i i
+ −
+ −

Solution : G.E. (given expression)
5 36
21 10
) sin (cos ) sin (cos
) sin (cos ) sin (cos
θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ
i i
i i
+ +
+ +
·

− −
5 36 21 10 − + − −
+ · ) sin (cos θ θ i 1
0
· + · ) sin (cos θ θ i
10 4
3 5
4 4
3 3 2 2
Simplify 2
) sin (cos ) sin (cos
) sin (cos ) sin cos (
) (
θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ
i i
i i
+ −
− +
− −
10 16
9 10
G.E. : Solution
) sin (cos ) sin (cos
) sin (cos ) sin (cos
θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ
i i
i i
+ +
+ +
·

10 16 9 10 − + + −
+ · ) sin (cos θ θ i
5
) sin (cos θ θ i + · θ θ 5 5 sin cos i + ·
y
y
x
x
1
2 &
1
2 If 3 + · + · φ θ cos cos ) (
Show that
) cos( ( φ θ n m
y x
y x
m m
m m
+ · + 2
1
i) & ) cos( ( φ θ n m
x
y
y
x
m
n
n
m
− · + 2 ii)
x
x
x
x
1 1
2 : Solution
2
+
· + · θ cos
x x ⋅ · + ∴ θ cos 2 1
2
0 1 2 ie
2
· + − x x θ cos
2
4 4 2
2
− t
· ⇒
θ θ cos cos
x
2
1 4 2
2
) cos )( ( cos θ θ − − t
·
2
4 2
2
θ θ sin cos − t
·
2
2 2 θ θ sin cos i t
· θ θ sin cos i t ·
θ θ θ θ sin cos , sin cos i
x
i x − · + · ∴
1
then If
φ φ φ φ φ sin cos & sin cos , cos i
y
i y
y
y − · + · + ·
1 1
2 if Similarly
A O
C
B
z
2
z
1
z
0
z
n
n
r
1
n / θ
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 19
(i)
m m
i x ) sin (cos θ θ + · θ θ m i m sin cos + ·
n n
i y ) sin (cos φ φ + · φ φ n i n sin cos + ·
) sin )(cos sin (cos φ φ θ θ n i n m i m y x
n m
+ + ·
) sin( ) cos( φ θ φ θ n m i n m + + + · (1)
) sin( ) cos( φ θ φ θ n m i n m
y x
n m
+ − + · 2
1
(2)
adding (1) & (2)
) cos( φ θ n m
y x
y x
n m
n m
+ · + 2
1
(ii)
θ θ m i m x
m
sin cos + ·
φ φ n i n
y
n
sin cos · ·
1
) sin( ) cos( φ θ φ θ n m i n m
y
x
n
m
− + − · ∴ & ) sin( ) cos( φ θ φ θ n m i n m
x
y
m
n
− − − ·
) cos( φ θ n m
x
y
y
x
m
n
n
m
− · + 2
(4) Prove that

,
`

.
|
+ · − + +

a
b
n
m
b a ib a ib a
n
m
n
m
n
m
1 2 2
2
2 tan cos ) ( ) ( ) (
) sin (cos θ θ i r ib a + · + Let : Solution
a
b
b a r
1 2 2
& where

· + · tan θ
n
m
n
m
n
m
i r ib a ) sin (cos ) ( θ θ + · + ∴
]
]
]

+ · θ θ
n
m
i
n
m
r
n
m
sin cos
(1)
) sin (cos θ θ i r ib a − · −
]
]
]

− · − θ θ
n
m
i
n
m
r ib a
n
m
n
m
sin cos ) (
(2)
adding (1) & (2)
]
]
]

· − + + θ
n
m
r ib a ib a
n
m
n
m
n
m
cos ) ( ) ( 2
a
b
n
m
b a ib a ib a
n
m
n
m
n
m
1 2 2
2
2

,
`

.
|
+ · − + + ∴ tan cos ) ( ) (
a
b
a
b
b a r
1 2 2 −
· ⇒ · + · tan tan & θ θ Q
( )
,
`

.
|
+ · − + + ∴

a
b
n
m
b a ib a ib a
n
m
n
m
n
m
1 2 2
2 2
2
tan cos ) ( ) (
20 KSOU Complex Trigonometry
(5) Find the cube roots if 1 + i and represent them on Argand diagram.
say 1 Let : Solution ) sin (cos θ θ i r i z + · + ·
1 1 · · θ θ sin , cos r r
1 1 adding & Squaring
2 2 2
+ · + ) sin (cos θ θ r
2 2
2
· ⇒ · r r
4
2
1
2
1
π
θ
θ
θ
· →
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
·
sin
cos

,
`

.
|
+ · ∴
4 4
2
π π
sin cos i z
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+ +
,
`

.
|
+ ·
4
2
4
2 2
π
π
π
π k i k sin cos

I k ∈ for

,
`

.
|
+ · + · ∴
4
2 cis 2 1
π
π k i z
( )
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
4
8
cis 2 1
]
]
]

,
`

.
| +
· + ·
π π k
i z ) (
2 1, 0, for
12
8
cis 2
6
1
·
+
· k
k π π
° · · · cis15 2
12
cis 2 0 when
6
1
6
1
0
π
z k ,
° · · · · 135 cis 2
4
3
cis 2
12
9
cis 2 1
6
1
6
1
6
1
1
π π
z k ,
° · · · · · cis255 2
12
17
cis 2 2
12
17
cis 2 2
6
1
6
1
6
1
2 2
π π
z k z k , ,
To represent them on Argand diagram.
Draw a circle of radius
6
1
2 with centre O. Let OA be the initial line.
Take a point B on the circle such that ,

° ·15 OB A take a point C on the circle
such that ° ·135 OC A

& take a point D on the circle such that ° · 255 OD A

then
the points B, C, D represent z
0
, z
1
, z
2
.
(6) Find all the values of
4
1
2
3
2
1

,
`

.
|
−i & find their continued product.
2
3
2
1
Let : Solution i z − · ) sin (cos θ θ i r + ·
2
3
2
1
− · · ∴ θ θ sin , cos r r
1
4
4
4
3
4
1
2
· · + · r
A
O
C
B
6
1
2
D
15°
135°
255°
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 21
3
2
3
2
1
π
θ
θ
θ
− · →
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
− ·
·
sin
cos
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
− +
,
`

.
|
− · ∴
3 3
1
π π
sin cos i z

,
`

.
|
− ·
3
2 cis
π
π k z

I k ∈ for
4
1
4
1
2
3
2
1

,
`

.
|
− · i z
4
1
3
2 cis
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
− ·
π
π k

4
1
3
6
cis
]
]
]

,
`

.
| −
·
π π k
3 2 1 0 for
12
6
cis , , , ·

· k
k π π

,
`

.
|
− · ·
12
cis 0 for
0
π
z k ,
,
`

.
|
· ·
12
5
cis 1
1
π
z k ,

,
`

.
|
· ·
12
11
cis 2
2
π
z k ,
,
`

.
|
· ·
12
17
cis 3
3
π
z k ,
Their continued product

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
− ·
12
17
cis
12
11
cis
12
5
cis
12
s ci
π π π π

,
`

.
|
+ + + − ·
12
17
12
11
12
5
12
cis
π π π π
3
8
cis
12
32
cis
π π
·
,
`

.
|
·
3
2
cis
3
2
2 cis
π π
π ·
,
`

.
|
+ ·
3
2
3
2 π π
sin cos i + ·
2
3
2
1
i + − ·
Expansion of sin (nθ θθ θθ) and cos (nθ θθ θθ) in powers of sinθ θθ θθ & cosθ θθ θθ
n
i ) sin (cos θ θ + Consider θ θ n i n sin cos + ·
n
n i n ) sin cos θ θ + ( Expand
Using Binomial Theorem
n
n
n n n n
a nC a x nC a x nC x a x + + + + · +
− −
........ ) (
2 2
2
1
1
Equating real and imaginary parts separately we get the expressions of θ θ n n sin & cos
Eg. (1) Express
θ θ 5 5 sin cos i +
in powers of
θ sin
&
θ cos
.
5
5 5 : Solution ) sin (cos sin cos θ θ θ θ i i + · +
5
5
4
4
3 2
3
2 3
2
4
1
5
5 5 5 5 5 ) sin ( ) sin ( cos ) sin ( cos ) sin ( cos sin cos cos θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ i C i C i C i C i C + + + + ⋅ + ·
θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ
5 4 3 2 2 3 4 5
5 10 10 5 sin sin cos sin cos sin cos sin cos cos i i i + + − − + ·
] sin sin cos sin cos [ sin cos sin cos cos θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ
5 3 2 4 4 2 3 5
10 5 5 10 + − + + − · i
22 KSOU Complex Trigonometry
Equating real & imaginary parts separately
θ θ θ θ θ θ
4 2 3 5
5 10 5 sin cos sin cos cos cos + − · and
θ θ θ θ θ θ
5 3 2 4
10 5 5 sin sin cos sin cos sin + − ·
Eq. (2) θ θ θ θ sin cos sin & cos i + of powers in 6 6 Express
6
6 6 : Solution ) sin (cos sin cos θ θ θ θ i i + · +
4 2
4
3 3
3
2 4
2
5
1
6
6 6 6 6 ) sin ( cos ) sin ( cos ) sin ( cos ) sin ( cos cos θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ i C i C i C i C + + + + ·
6
6
5
5
6 6 ) sin ( ) sin ( cos θ θ θ i C i C + +
θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ
6 5 4 2 3 3 2 4 5 6
6 15 20 15 6 sin sin cos sin cos sin cos sin cos sin cos cos − + + − − + · i i i
] sin cos sin cos sin cos [ sin sin cos sin cos cos θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ
5 3 3 5 6 4 2 2 4 6
6 20 6 15 15 + − + − + − · i
Equating real and imaginary parts separately
and 15 15 6
6 4 2 2 4 6
θ θ θ θ θ θ θ sin sin cos sin cos cos cos − + − ·
θ θ θ θ θ θ θ
5 3 3 5
6 20 6 6 sin cos sin cos sin cos sin + − ·
Addtion formulae for any number of angles
We have,
) ... .......... .........
n n
θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ + + + + ·
3 2 1 3 2 1
cis( cis cis cis cis
n
θ θ θ θ cis cis cis cis Now
3 2 1
.........
) tan ( cos )......... tan ( cos ) tan ( cos
n n
i i i θ θ θ θ θ θ + + + · 1 1 1
2 2 1 1
) tan .....( )......... tan )( tan ( cos ......... cos cos
n n
i i i θ θ θ θ θ θ + + + · 1 1 1
2 1 2 1
) .. .......... (
n
θ θ θ θ + + + +
3 2 1
cis ie
....) .......... ( cos .......... cos cos cos + + + + ·
3
3
2
2
1 3 2 1
1 S i S i iS
n
θ θ θ θ
where
1 1
θ tan ∑ · S

2 1 2
θ θ tan tan ∑ · S

3 2 1 3
tan tan tan θ θ θ ∑ · S
.........................................
) ( cis
2 1 n
è .. .......... è è + + + ∴
....) .......... ( cos .......... cos cos
4 3 2 1 2 1
1 S iS S iS
n
+ − − + · θ θ θ
..) .......... ( cos .......... cos cos ....) .......... ( cos .......... cos cos
3 1 2 1 4 2 2 1
1 S S i S S
n n
− + + − · θ θ θ θ θ θ
Equating real and imaginary parts separately
.......) ( cos .......... cos cos ) ... .......... cos(
4 2 2 1 3 2 1
1 S S
n n
+ − · + + + + θ θ θ θ θ θ θ
and
.......) ( cos .......... cos cos ) ... .......... sin(
3 1 2 1 3 2 1
S S
n n
− · + + + + θ θ θ θ θ θ θ
....... .......... S S
....... .......... S S
è ... .......... è è è
n
4 2
3 1
3 2 1
1
) tan(
+ −

· + + + + ∴
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 23
Exercise
unity. of roots fourth of product continued the Find 1.
. ) (
3 2
3 3 4 of value the find then unity, of root cube the is ' ' If 2. ω ω ω − −
8
8 8
8 8
of value the Find 3

,
`

.
|

+
) / cos( ) / sin(
) / cos( ) / sin(
.
π π
π π
i
i
). cos sin . θ θ i + ( number complex the of inverse tive multiplica the of conjugate the Write 4
? represents 1 1 does t then wha If 5 · + + · z iy x z .
Theorem. s Moivre' De using 2 2 Simplify 6.
2
) cos (sin x i x +
. ) ( ) ( 0 1 2 3 2 equation e satisfy th which and of values real the Find 7. · + + + − y x i y x y x
. ) ( ) ( 0 4 3 2 equation e satisfy th which and of values real the Find 8. · − − + + y i x i y x
. .
3 2 1
find integer, any is ' ' If 9
+ − + − + − −
+ + +
n n n n
i i i i n
? .
101
of inverse tive multiplica the is What 10 i
. ) 1 ( ) 1 ( of value the find , '1' of root cube in the ' ' If . 11
3 2 3
ω ω ω + − +
. .
4 3 2
4 2 4 2
Simplify 12
i i i i
+ + +
form. Cartesian in the
4
3
4
3
2 Express 13
,
`

.
|
+
π π
sin cos . i
. sin cos
1
5 5
1 of part real the Find 14.

,
`

.
|
+ +
π π
i
. ) ( , .
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
that prove If 15
d c
b a
y x
id c
ib a
iy x
+
+
· +
+
+
· +
. . 1
1
1
for which ' ' integer positive least the Find 16 ·
,
`

.
|

+
n
i
i
n
. , . 9 that show 3 2 6 and If 17
2 2
· + + · + + · y x z z iy x z
. , . 1 that show 1 2 2 and If 18
2 2
· + − · − + · b a z z ib a z
. , . 1 2 that show
4 1
1
amp such that be If 19
2 2
· − + ·
,
`

.
|
+

+ · y y x
z
z
iy x z
π
form. polar in the 1 Express 20 i − .
form. polar in the
2
3
Express 21
i −
.
.
2
3
2
of amplitude and modulus the Find 22.
,
`

.
|

+
i
i
2
3
Simplify 23
) sin (cos
) cos (sin
.
α α
θ θ
i
i
+
+
24 KSOU Complex Trigonometry
4
4 2
3 3 7 7
Simplify 24

+
+ +
) sin (cos
) sin (cos ) sin (cos
.
θ θ
θ θ θ θ
i
i i
. ) )( )( )( ( . 16 1 1 1 1 that show unity, of root cube a is If 25
16 8 8 4 4 2 2
· + − + − + − + − ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω ω
. ,
5
5
1
find then cis If 26.
x
x x + · θ
terms. 2 find then 1 If 27
6 4 2 2
) ( , . n i i i i + + + + − · L

,
`

.
| −
·
+

· ·
2
that prove cis and cis If 28.
β α
β α tan , i
y x
y x
y x
. cos , .
3
2 that prove then 0 4 2 of roots the are & If 29
1 2
π
β α β α
n
x x
n n n +
· + · + −
( ) ( ) . ) ( ) (
.
46 2 1 2 1 ii) 4 1 1 i)
following the Prove 30
6 6
3 3
· + + − − · − + + i i i
. sin cos , sin cos . θ θ θ θ n i
Z
Z n
Z
Z i Z
n
n
n
n
2
1
and 2
1
that show If 31 · − · + + ·
). sin( ) cos(
, , .
β α β α
β α
+ · − + · +
· ·
i
xy
xy
xy
xy
y x
2
1
ii) 2
1
i)
that prove cis cis If 32
). 3 2 sin( 2
1
ii) ) 3 2 cos( 2
1
i)
that prove , cis , cis If . 33
3 2
3 2
3 2
3 2
β α β α
β α
+ · − + · +
· ·
i
y x
y x
y x
y x
y x
. tan , . θ θ n i
x
x
x
n
n
·
+

·
1
1
that prove cis If 34
2
2
). 2 / ( cos ) 4 cos( 2 ) sin cos 1 ( ) sin cos 1 ( that Prove . 35
8 9 8 8
θ θ θ θ θ θ ⋅ ⋅ · − + + + + i i
). sin( sin sin sin ) ) cos( cos cos cos )
, sin sin sin cos cos cos .
γ β α γ β α γ β α γ β α
γ β α γ β α
+ + · + + + + · + +
+ + · · + +
18 3 27 3 8 3 ii 18 3 27 3 8 3 i
that prove 3 2 0 3 2 If 36
). sin( ) ) cos( )
, cos cos , cos .
γ β α γ β α
γ β α
+ + · − + + · +
+ ·
1
+ · + ·
i
xyz
xyz
xyz
xyz
z
z
y
y
x
x
2
1
ii 2
1
i
that prove
1
2 and 2
1
2 If 37
[ ] ) / ( tan sin ) ( ) ( ) ( . a b n b a i ib a ib a
n n n 1 2 2 2 2
2 2 that Show 38

⋅ ⋅ + · − − +

,
`

.
|
− +
,
`

.
|
− ·
]
]
]

− +
+ +
θ
π
θ
π
θ θ
θ θ
n
n
i n
n
i
i
n
2 2 1
1
that Prove 39 sin cos
cos sin
cos sin
.
. tan
sin cos
sin cos
. θ
θ
θ θ
θ θ
7 cis
2 1
1
that Prove 40
7
7

,
`

.
|
·
]
]
]

− +
− −
i
i
i
.
tan
tan
tan
tan
.
α
α
α
α
i
i
i
i
n

+
·
]
]
]

+
1
1
1
1
that Prove 41
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 25
. , , ); / ( . i Z Z Z r Z
r
r
· ∞ ⋅ ⋅ · · L L L
3 2 1
that prove 3 2 1 3 cis If 42 π
. 3 1 of roots cube the Find . 43 i + −
. ) ( .
/ 3 2
1 of values the all Find 44 i +
. ) ( .
/ 3 2
1 of values the all Find 45 i −
diagram. Argand in the them represent and 3 1 of roots fourth the Find 46 i + .
. 0 Solve 47.
7
· − x x
. . 0 1 Solve 48
5
· + x
. cos & sin cos & sin θ θ θ θ of powers in 7 7 Express 49.
. sin & cos sin & cos . θ θ θ θ of powers in 8 8 Express 50
–––––––––––––
26 KSOU Complex Trigonometry
MATRIX THEORY
Review of the fundamentals
A rectangular array of mn elements arranged in m rows & n columns is called a 'Matrix' of a order m × n matrices are denoted
by capital letters of The English Alphabet.
Examples
Matrix of order 3 × 2 is

,
`

.
|
3 3
2 2
1 1
b a
b a
b a
Matrix of order 4 × 3 is

,
`

.
|
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
d d d
c c c
b b b
a a a
Matrix of order 3 × 3 is
]
]
]
]
]

3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c b a
c b a
c b a
Note :- Elements of Matrices are written in rows and columns with in the bracket ( ) or [ ].
Types of Matrices
(1) Equivalent Matrices : Two matrices are said to be equivalent if the order is the same.
(2) Equal Matrices : Two matrices are said to be equal if the corresponding elements are equal.
(3) Rectangular & Square Matrices : A matrix of order m × n is said to be rectangular if m ≠ n, square if m = n.
(4) Row Matrix : A matrix having only one row is called Row Matrix.
(5) Column Matrix : A matrix having only one column is called Column Matrix.
(6) Null Matrix or Zero Matrix : A matrix in which all the elements are zeros is called Null Matrix or Zero Matrix
denoted as O. [English alphabet O not zero where as elements are zeros]
(7) Diagonal Matrix : A diagonal matrix is a square matrix in which all elements except the elements in the principal
diagonal are zeros.

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
4 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 2
6 0
0 4
Example
are diagonal matrices of order 2 & 3.
(8) Scalar Matrix : A diagonal matrix in which all the elements in the principal diagonal are same.

,
`

.
|
]
]
]

8 0 0
0 8 0
0 0 8
4 0
0 4
Example
are Scalar Matrices of order 2 & 3.
(9) Unit Matrix or Identity Matrix : A diagonal matrix in which all the elements in the principal diagonal is 1 is
called Unit Matrix or Identity Matrix denoted by I.

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
1 0
0 1
: Example ,
are unit matrices of order 2 & 4.
(10) Transpose of a Matrix : If A is any matrix then the matrix obtained by interchanging the rows & columns of A is
called 'Transpose of A and it is written as A' or A
T
.
]
]
]

]
]
]
]
]

·
f d b
e c a
A
f e
d c
b a
A is then If : Example
A is of order 3 × 2 but A' is of order 2 × 3.
Two matrices can be added or subtracted if their orders are same.

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·
2 2 2
1 1 1
2 2 2
1 1 1
If : Example
e d c
e d c
B
c b a
c b a
A &

,
`

.
|
+ + +
+ + +
· +
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
e c d b c a
e c d b c a
B A

,
`

.
|
− − −
− − −
· −
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
e c d b c a
e c d b c a
B A
Matrix Multiplication
If A is a matrix of order m × p and B is matrix of order p × n, then the product AB is defined and its order is m × n. (ie. for AB
to be defined number of columns of A must be same as number of rows of B)

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·
3 3
2 2
1 1
2 2 2
1 1 1
Let : Example
β α
β α
β α
B
c b a
c b a
A &

,
`

.
|
+ + + +
+ + + +
·
3 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 2
3 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1
then
β β β α α α
β β β α α α
c b a c b a
c b a c b a
AB
which is of order 2 × 2.
Note :- If A is multiplied by A then AA is denoted as A
2
, AAA.... as A
3
etc.
28 KSOU Matrix Theory
Scalar Multiplication of a Matrix
If A is a matrix of any order and K is a scalar (a constant), then KA represent a matrix in which every element of A is multiplied
by K.

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
then If : Example
Kc Kb Ka
Kc Kb Ka
Kc Kb Ka
KA
c b a
c b a
c b a
A
Symmetric and Skew Symmetric Matrices
Let A be a matrix of order n × n an element in i
th
row and j
th
column can be denoted as aij. Hence a matrix of order n × n can
be denoted as (aij) or [aij] where i = 1, 2, .......n, j = 1, 2, .......n
A matrix of order n × n is said to be Symmetric if aij = aji and Skew Symmetric if aij = –aji or A is symmetric if A = A
T
or A = A', skew symmetric if A = –A
T
or A = –A' also A + A' is symmetric & A – A' is skew symmetric.
Note :- In a skew symmetric matrix the elements in principal diagonal are all zeros.
A A A ′ ·
]
]
]
]
]

· where symmetric is
8 6 5
6 7 3
5 3 2
: Example
B B B ′ − ·

,
`

.
|
− −

· where symmetric skew is
0 6 7
6 0 2
7 2 0
Determinant
A determinant is defined as a mapping (function) from the set of square matrices to the set of real numbers.
If A is a square matrix its determinant is denoted as . A
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
det. then Let : Example
c b a
c b a
c b a
A or A
c b a
c b a
c b a
A ·
]
]
]
]
]

·
Minors and Co-factors
3 2 1 3 2 1 Let , , , , ) ( · · · j i aij A

,
`

.
|
·
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
ie
a a a
a a a
a a a
A
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
a a a
a a a
a a a
A ·
33 32
23 22
Consider
a a
a a
which is a determinant formed by leaning all the elements of row and column in which all lies. This
determinant is called Minor of a
11
. Thus we can form nine minors. In general if A is matrix of order n × n then minor of aij is
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 29
obtained by leaning all the elements in the row and column in which aij lies in . A The order of this minor is n – 1where as the
order of given determinant is n if this minor is multiplied by (–1)
i + j
then it is called Co-factors of aij.

,
`

.
|
·
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
Let : Example
a a a
a a a
a a a
A
33 32
23 22
11
of Minor
a a
a a
a ·
33 32
23 22
33 32
23 22 1 1
11
1 of factor - Co
a a
a a
a a
a a
a · − ·
+
) (
33 32
13 12
21
is of Minor
a a
a a
a
33 32
13 12
33 32
13 12 1 2
21
1 is of factor - Co
a a
a a
a a
a a
a − · −
+
) (
Value of a determinant
Consider a matrix A of order n × n. Consider all the elements of any row or column and multiply each element by its corresponding
co-factor. Then the algebraic sum of the product is the value of the determinant.
2 2
1 1
Let : Example
b a
b a
A ·
Co-factor of a
1
is b
2
Co-factor of b
1
is –a
2
2 1 2 1
a b b a A − · ∴
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
Let
c b a
c b a
c b a
A ·
3 3
2 2
3 3
2 2 1 1
1
1 is of factor - Co
c b
c b
c b
c b
a · −
+
) (
3 3
2 2
3 3
2 2 2 1
1
1 is of factor - Co
c a
c a
c a
c a
b − · −
+
) (
3 3
2 2
3 3
2 2 3 1
1
1 is of factor - Co
b a
b a
b a
b a
c · −
+
) (
3 3
2 2
1
3 3
2 2
1
3 3
2 2
1
b a
b a
c
c a
c a
b
c b
c b
a A + − · ∴
) ( ) ( ) (
2 3 3 2 1 2 3 3 2 1 2 3 3 2 1
b a b a c c a c a b c b c b a − + − − − ·
1 2 3 1 3 2 2 1 3 3 1 2 2 3 1 3 2 1
c b a c b a c b a c b a c b a c b a − + − − − · )
30 KSOU Matrix Theory
Properties of determinants
(1) If the elements of any two rows or columns are interchanged then value of the determinant changes only in sign.
(2) If the elements of two rows or columns are identical then the value of the determinant is zero.
(3) If all the elements of any row or column is multipled by a constant K, then the value of the determinant is multipled
by K.
(4) If all the elements of any row or column are written as sum of two elements then the determinant can be written as
sum of two determinants.
(5) If all the elements of any row or column are multiplied by a constant and added to the corresponding elements of
any other row or column then the value of the determinant donot alter.
Adjoint of a Matrix

,
`

.
|
·
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
Let
c b a
c b a
c b a
A
Let us denoted the co-factors of a
1
, b
1
, c
1
, a
2
, b
2
, c
2
, a
3
, b
3
, c
3
as A
1
, B
1
, C
1
, A
2
, B
2
, C
2
, A
3
, B
3
, C
3
transpose of matrix of
co-factors is called Adjoint of the Matrix.

,
`

.
|
·
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
factors - Co of Matrix
C B A
C B A
C B A

,
`

.
|
·
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
C C C
B B B
A A A
A
A A I A A A . . . . adj adj · · Theorem

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
·
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
C C C
B B B
A A A
c b a
c b a
c b a
A A . .
]
]
]
]
]

+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +
·
3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
3 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
3 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
C c B b A a C c B b A a C c B b A a
C c B b A a C c B b A a C c B b A a
C c B b A a C c B b A a C c B b A a
∆ · + − · + +
3 3
2 2
1
3 3
2 2
1
3 3
2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Now
b a
b a
c
c a
c a
b
c b
c b
a C c B b A a The value of the det. A.
∆ · + +
2 2 2 2 2 2
Similarly C c B b A a
∆ · + +
3 3 3 3 3 3
C c B b A a
3 3
1 1
1
3 3
1 1
1
3 3
1 1
1 2 1 2 1 2 1
b a
b a
c
c a
c a
b
c b
c b
a C c B b A a − + − · + +
) ( ) ( ) (
1 3 3 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 3 3 1 1
b a b a c c a c a b c b c b a − − − + − − ·
0
1 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 3 1 3 1 1
· + − − + + − · c b a c b a c b a c b a c b a c b a
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 31
Similarly the other five elements of A adj.A is zero.
A A A · ∆

,
`

.
|

· ∴ where
0 0
0 0
0 0
I . ∆ ·

,
`

.
|
∆ ·
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
A I A A A . . . adj adj · ⋅ · ∴
Singular and Non-singular Matrices
A square matrix A is said to be singular if 0 · A and non-singular if . 0 ≠ A
Inverse of a Matrix
Two non-singular matrices A & B of the same order is said to be inverse of each other if AB = I = BA. Inverse of A is denoted
as A
–1
. Inverse of B is denoted as B
–1
and further (AB)
–1
= B
–1
A
–1
.
To find the inverse of A
I A A A ⋅ · . .adj
1 1 1
− − −
· A A A AA A . . ,
A
A
A A A A
.
.
1 1
· ⇒ ·
− −
Example : Find the inverse of

,
`

.
|

− −

1 2 1
4 5 2
2 4 1

,
`

.
|

− −

·
1 2 1
4 5 2
2 4 1
Let A
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

− − −

− − −

·
5 2
4 1
4 2
2 1
4 5
2 4
2 1
4 1
1 1
2 1
1 2
2 4
2 1
5 2
1 1
4 2
1 2
4 5
factors - Co of Matrix
]
]
]
]
]

+ − − − −
− − − + − −
+ − − − + −
·
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
8 5 4 4 10 16
4 2 2 1 4 4
5 4 4 2 8 5
]
]
]
]
]

·
3 0 6
6 3 0
9 6 3
32 KSOU Matrix Theory
]
]
]
]
]

· ∴
3 6 9
0 3 6
6 0 3
1 2 1
4 5 2
2 4 1

− −

· A ) ( ) ( ) ( 5 4 2 4 2 4 8 5 1 + − − − − + − · 9 18 24 3 · − + ·
A
A
1
1
·

,
`

.
|
·
3 6 9
0 3 6
6 0 3
9
1

,
`

.
|
·
9
3
9
6
9
9
9
3
9
6
9
6
9
3
0
0

,
`

.
|
·

3
1
3
2
3
1
3
2
3
2
3
1
1
1
0
0
A
Solutions of Linear equations
Cramer's Rule
To solve the equations
1 1 1 1
d z c y b x a · + +
2 2 2 2
d z c y b x a · + +
3 3 3 3
d z c y b x a · + +
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
Consider
c b a
c b a
c b a
· ∆
(1)
first evaluate & if it is not zero then multiply both sides of (1) by x.
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c b a
c b x a
c b x a
c b a
c b a
c b a
x x
x
· · ∆
multiply the elements of columns 2 & 3 by y & z and add to elements of column 1.
3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1
then
c b z c y b x a
c b z c y b x a
c b z c y b x a
x
+ +
+ +
+ +
· ∆
(say)
1
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
∆ · ·
c b d
c b d
c b d
(2)
multiply both sides of (1) by y
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c y b a
c y b a
c y b a
c b a
c b a
c b a
y y · · ∆
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 33
multiply the elements of columns 1 & 3 by x & z and add to the elements of column 2.
3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1
c z c y b x a a
c z c y b x a a
c z c y b x a a
+ +
+ +
+ +
· (say)
2
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
∆ · ·
c d a
c d a
c d a
(3)
multiply both sides of (1) by z
z c b a
z c b a
z c b a
c b a
c b a
c b a
z z
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
· · ∆
multiply the elements of columns 1 & 2 by x & y and add to the elements of column 3.
z c y b x a b a
z c y b x a b a
z c y b x a b a
3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1
+ +
+ +
+ +
·
(say)
3
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
∆ · ·
d b a
d b a
d b a
(4)
then (2) from
1

· x
(3) from
2

· y
(4) from
3

· z
Note :- Verification of values of x, y, z can be done by substituting in the given equations.
Example - 1
3 2 Solve · − + z y x
1 · + + z y x
4 3 2 · − − y y x
3 2 1
1 1 1
1 1 2
Let
− −
· ∆
-
(1)
) ( ) ( ) ( 1 2 1 1 3 1 2 3 2 − − − − − − + − · 5 3 4 2 · + + − ·
multiply both sides of (1) by x
3 2 1
1 1 1
1 1 2
then
− −
· ∆
-
x x

3 2
1 1
1 1 2
− −
·
x
x
- x
multiply the elements of columns 2 & 3 by y and z and add to the elements of column 1.
3 2 3 2
1 1
1 1 2
− − − −
+ +
− +
· ∆
y y x
z y x
- z y x
x
34 KSOU Matrix Theory
3 2 4
1 1 1
1 1 3
− −
·
-
) ( ) ( ) ( 4 2 1 4 3 1 2 3 3 − − − − − − + − · 10 6 7 3 · + + − ·
2
5
10 10
· ·

· ∴ x
multiply both sides of (1) by y
3 2 1
1 1
1 2
3 4 1
1 1 1
1 3 2
− −
··

· ∆
y
y
- y -
y y
multiply the elements of column 1 by x & 3 by z and to the corresponding elements of column 2.
3 3 2 1
1 1
1 2 2
then
− − −
+ +
− +
· ∆
z y x
z y x
- z y x
y
3 4 1
1 1 1
1 3 2

·
-
) ( ) ( ) ( 1 4 1 1 3 3 4 3 2 − − − − − − − · 5 3 12 14 − · − + − ·
1
5
5 5
− ·

·

· ∴ y
multiply both sides of (1) by z
z
z
-z -
z z
3 4 1
1 1
3 2
3 4 1
1 1 1
1 3 2

·

· ∆
multiply the elements of column 1 by x & column 2 by y and to the corresponding elements of column 3.
z y x
z y x
z y x
z
3 2 2 1
1 1
2 1 2
then
− − −
+ +
− +
· ∆
4 2 1
1 1 1
3 1 2

· ) ( ) ( ) ( 1 2 3 1 4 1 2 4 2 − − + − − + · 0 9 3 12 · − − ·
0
5
0 0
· ·

· ∴ z
Thus solution is x = 2, y = –1 & z = 0 which can be verified by substituting in the given equations.
Example - 2
7 4 Solve · + y x
5 4 3 · + z y

2 3 5 · + z x
3 0 2
4 3 5
0 1 4
· ∆ ) ( ) ( ) ( 15 0 0 20 0 1 0 9 4 − + − − − · 56 20 36 · + ·
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 35
3 0 2
4 3 5
0 1 7
1
· ∆ ) ( ) ( ) ( 6 0 0 8 15 1 0 9 7 − + − − − · 56 7 63 · − ·
3 2 5
4 5 0
0 7 4
2
· ∆ 168 140 28 25 0 0 20 0 7 8 15 4 · + · − + − − − · ) ( ) ( ) (
2 0 5
5 3 0
7 1 4
3
· ∆ ) ( ) ( ) ( 15 0 7 25 0 1 0 6 4 − + − − − · 56 105 25 24 − · − + ·
1
56
56
1
· ·

· ∴ x
3
56
168
2
· ·

· y
1
56
56
3
− ·

·

· z
Solution of Linear equations by Matrix Method
Given
1 1 1 1
d z c y b x a · + +
2 2 2 2
d z c y b x a · + +
3 3 3 3
d z c y b x a · + +

,
`

.
|
·
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
Consider
c b a
c b a
c b a
A

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·
3
2
1
d
d
d
B
z
y
x
X &
then given equations can be written in Matrix form as AX = B. If 0 ≠ A solution exists multiply both sides by A
–1
B A AX A
1 1 − −
· ) (
B A AX A
1 1 − −
·
B A IX
1
ie

·
B A X
1 −
· ∴
Example
13 2 3 Solve · + − z y x
3 2 · − + z y x
8 5 3 − · − + z y x

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|

·
8
3
13
5 3 1
1 1 2
2 1 3
Let B
z
y
x
X A ,
then given equations can be written as AX = B
36 KSOU Matrix Theory
B A X
1 −
· ∴ (1)
To find A
–1
5 3 1
1 1 2
2 1 3

· A 5 10 9 6 1 6 2 1 10 1 3 5 3 − · + − − · − + + − + + − · ) ( ) ( ) (
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

− −

·
1 2
1 3
1 2
2 3
1 1
2 1
3 1
1 3
5 1
2 3
5 3
2 1
3 1
1 2
5 1
1 2
5 3
1 1
factors - Co of Matrix
]
]
]
]
]

+ − − − −
+ − − − − −
− + − − + −
·
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
2 3 4 3 2 1
1 9 2 15 6 5
1 6 1 10 3 5

]
]
]
]
]

− −
− −

·
5 7 1
10 17 1
5 9 2

,
`

.
|

− −
·
5 10 5
7 17 9
1 1 2

,
`

.
|

− −
− · · ∴

5 10 5
7 17 9
1 1 2
5
1
1
1
A
A
A
Using this in (1)

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

− −
− ·
8
3
13
5 10 5
7 17 9
1 1 2
5
1
X

,
`

.
|
− −
− −

− ·
40 30 65
56 51 117
8 3 26
5
1

,
`

.
|
− ·

,
`

.
|

− ·
1
2
3
5
10
15
5
1
∴ x = 3, y = –2, z = 1 is the solution
Verification : Consider the first equation
13 2 2 9 2 3 · + + · + − z y x
Characteristic equation, Eigen Values & Eigen Vectors
Let A & I be square matrices of same order and λ a scalar then 0 · − I A λ is called Characteristic equation and the roots of
this equation ie values of λ are called Eigen Values or Characteristic roots. The matrix X satisfying AX = λX is called Eigen
Vector.
Example - 1
Find the eigen roots and eigen vectors of the matrix

,
`

.
|
3 2
4 1

,
`

.
|
·
3 2
4 1
Let A Characteristic equation is
0
1 0
0 1
3 2
4 1
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
λ
0
3 4
4 1
ie ·

λ
λ
0 8 3 1 · − − − ⇒ ) )( ( λ λ
0 8 3 3
2
· − + − − ⇒ λ λ λ

0 5 4
2
· − − ⇒ λ λ
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 37
5 1 0 1 5 , ) )( ( − · ⇒ · + − ⇒ λ λ λ
∴ Eigen roots are –1 & 5.
To find eigen vector X, corresponding to –1,
AX = –1

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
y
x
y
x
3 2
4 1
ie

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|
+
+

y
x
y x
y x
3 2
4
y x
y ix
y y x
x y x
2 ie
4
3 2
4
− ·
− ·

− · +
− · +

1 2
y x
·

∴ ⇒
∴ Eigen vector corresponding to eigen value –1 is (–2, 1)
To find the eigen vector corresponding to 5.

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
2
1
2
1
5
3 2
4 1
ie
x
x
x
x

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
+
+

2
1
2 1
2 1
5
5
3 2
4
x
x
x x
x x
¹
'
¹
· +
· + ⇒
2 2 1
1 2 1
5 3 2
5 4
x x x
x x x
1 1
ie ie
2 1
2 1
x x
x x · ·
∴ Eigen vector is (1, 1)
∴ Eigen vector corresponding to eigen root 5 is (1, 1)
Example - 2
Find the eigen roots and eigen vectors of the matrix

,
`

.
|

− −

3 1 2
1 3 2
2 2 6

,
`

.
|

− −

·
3 1 2
1 3 2
2 2 6
Let A Characteristic equation is 0
3 1 2
1 3 2
2 2 6
·
− −
− − −
− −
λ
λ
λ
[ ] [ ] [ ] 0 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 3 6 ie
2
· − − + + − − + − − − ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( λ λ λ λ
[ ] [ ] [ ] 0 2 6 2 2 2 2 6 2 1 6 9 6 ie
2
· + − + + + − + − − + − ) ) ( λ λ λ λ λ
0 4 2 2 4 2 2 8 6 6 ie
2
· − + − + + − − ) ( ) ( ) )( ( λ λ λ λ λ
0 8 4 8 4 8 6 48 36 6 ie
2 3 2
· − + − + − + − + − λ λ λ λ λ λ λ
0 32 36 12 ie
2 3
· + − + − λ λ λ 0 32 36 12 ie
2 3
· − + − λ λ λ
which is the characteristic equation, by inspection 2 is a root
have we 2 by 32 36 12 dividing
2 3
, − − + − ∴ λ λ λ λ
0 16 10 2) -
2
· + − ) ( ( λ λ λ
0 8 2 2 ( ie · − − − ) )( )( λ λ λ λ 8 2 2 , , · ∴ λ
38 KSOU Matrix Theory
To find eigen vector or λ = 2
Consider AX = 2X

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

− −

3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
where 2
3 1 2
1 3 2
2 2 6
ie
x
x
x
X
x
x
x
x
x
x
1 3 2 1
2 2 2 6 x x x x · + − ⇒ 0 2 2 4
3 2 1
· + − ⇒ x x x
2 3 2 1
2 3 2 x x x x · − + − 0 2
3 2 1
· − + − x x x
3 3 2 1
2 3 2 x x x x · + − 0 2
3 2 1
· + − x x x
the above three equations represent one equation 2x
1
– x
2
+ x
3
= 0.
2 1
ie 2 then 0 Let
2 1
2 1 3
x x
x x x · · · ,
0 2 1
ie
3 2 1
x x x
· ·
∴ Eigen Vector is (1, 2, 0)
To find the eigen vector for λ = 8
Consider AX = 8X

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

− −

3
2
1
3
2
1
8
8
8
3 1 2
1 3 2
2 2 6
ie
x
x
x
x
x
x
1 3 2 1
8 2 2 6 ie x x x x · + − 0 2 2 2 ie
3 2 1
· + − − x x x

2 3 2 1
8 3 2 x x x x · − + − 0 5 2
3 2 1
· − − − x x x

3 3 2 1
8 3 2 x x x x · + − 0 5 2
3 2 1
· − − x x x
0 ie
3 2 1
· − + x x x (1)
0 5 2
3 2 1
· + + x x x (2)
0 5 2
3 2 1
· − − x x x (3)
adding (1) & (2) we get 0 6 3
2 1
· + x x
0 2 ie
2 1
· + x x
2 1
2 ie x x − · (Say)
1 2
2 1
K
x x
· ·

K x K x · − ·
2 1
2 then ,
subsitituting in (1)
K x x K K − · ⇒ · − + −
3 3
0 2
K x K x K x − · · − · ∴
3 2 1
2 & ,
1) 1, 2, ( is or Eigen vect − − ∴ 1) 1, (2, or −
8 2, 2, are roots Eigen ∴
) , , ( & ) , , ( & 1 1 2 0 2 1 are ors Eigen vect −
Properties of Eigen values
(1) The sum of the eigen values of a matrix is the sum of the elements of the principal diagonal.
(2) The product of the eigen values of a matrix is equal to the value of its determinant.
(3) If λ is an eigen value of A then
λ
1
is the eigen value of A
–1
.
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 39
Cayley - Hamilton Theorem
Every square matrix satisfies its characteristic equation.

,
`

.
|
·
d c
b a
A Let Characteristic equation is
0 ·

λ
λ
d c
b a
which on simplification becomes a quadric equation in λ in the form 0
2 1
2
· + + a a λ λ where a
1
, a
2
are constants.
Cayley Hamilton Theorem states that 0
2 1
2
· + + I a A a A where I is a unit matrix of order 2 & 0 is a null matrix of order 2.

,
`

.
|
·
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
If
c b a
c b a
c b a
A
then characteristic equation is 0
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
·

λ
λ
λ
c b a
c b a
c b a
which on simplification becomes 0
3 2
2
1
3
· + + + − a a a λ λ λ which is a cubic equation.
Then as per Cayley Hamilton Theorem 0
3 2
2
1
3
· + + + − I a A a A a A where I is a unit matrix of order 3 & 0 is a null
matrix of order 3.
In general if A is a square matrix of order n then characteristic equation will be of the form
0 1
2
1
· + + + + −
− −
I a a a
n
z n n n n
........ ) ( λ λ λ
and by Cayley Hamilton Theorem
0 1
2
1
· + + + + −
− −
I a A a aA A
n
z n n n n
........ ) (
where I is a unit matrix of order n & 0 is a null matrix of order n.
Note :- If we put λ = 0 in the characteristic equation then A a
n
·
∴ If a
n
= 0, matrix A is singular & 0 ≠
n
a the matrix A is non-singular & hence inverse exists and we can find the
inverse of A using Cayley Hamilton Theorem.
Example - 1

,
`

.
|
·
d c
b a
A Let
Characteristic equation is 0 ·

λ
λ
d c
b a
0 ie
2 1
2
· + + a a λ λ where a
1
, a
2
are constants.
By Cayley Hamilton Theorem
0
2 1
2
· + + I a A a A
multiply both sides by A
–1
0 then
1
2
1
1
1 2
· + +
− − −
A a AA a A A
0 ie
1
2 1
· + +

A a I a A
) ( I a A A a
1
1
2
+ − · ∴

) ( I a A
a
A
1
2
1
1
+ − · ∴

40 KSOU Matrix Theory
Example - 2
The characteristic equation of a matrix A of order 2 is . A find 0 10 5
2
· + − λ λ
Solution : put λ = 0 in C.E. then the constant 10 is . A
Example - 3
Find the inverse of

,
`

.
|

4 3
1 2
using Cayley Hamilton Theorem.

,
`

.
|

·
4 3
1 2
Let : Solution A

0
4 3
1 2
is C.E. ·
− −
− −
λ
λ
0 3 4 2 ie · − − − ) )( ( λ λ 0 3 2 4 8 ie
2
· − + − − λ λ λ
0 5 6 ie
2
· + − λ λ
by Cayley Hamilton Theorem
0 5 6
2
· + − I A A
multiply both sides by A
–1
0 5 6
1
· + −

A I A
I A A 6 5
1
+ − · ∴

]
]
]

+
]
]
]

− ·
1 0
0 1
6
4 3
1 2
]
]
]

+ − +
+ + −
·
6 4 0 3
0 1 6 2
]
]
]

·
2 3
1 4
]
]
]

1
· ∴

2 3
1 4
5
1
A
Diagonalisation of Matrices
If A is a square matrix of order n where all the eigen values are linearly independent then a matrix P can be found such that
P
–1
AP is a Diagonal Matrix.
Let A be a square matrix of order 3 and let λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
be the eigen values, corresponding to these. Let X
1
, X
2
, X
3
be three
vectors where
]
]
]
]
]

·
]
]
]
]
]

·
]
]
]
]
]

·
3
2
1
3
3
2
1
2
3
2
1
1
z
z
z
X
y
y
y
X
x
x
x
X , ,
]
]
]
]
]

·
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
Let
z y x
z y x
z y x
P

]
]
]
]
]

·

3
2
1
1
0 0
0 0
0 0
Then
λ
λ
λ
AP P
Example - 1

,
`

.
|

·
4 5
2 1
Let A
0 10 4 1 0
4 5
2 1
is C.E. · − − − ⇒ ·
− −
− −
) )( ( λ λ
λ
λ
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 41
0 6 1 0 6 5 ie
2
· − + ⇒ · − − ) )( ( λ λ λ λ es eigen valu are 6 1, − · ⇒ λ
X AX − · − · let 1 For , λ
]
]
]

·
]
]
]

]
]
]

2
1
2
1
4 5
2 1
ie
x
x
x
x
2 1
2 2 1
1 2 1
4 5
2
ie x x
x x x
x x x
· ⇒
¹
'
¹
− · + −
− · −
]
]
]

· ∴
1
1
is or eigen vect
1 1
2 1
....
x x
X AX 6 6 For · · , λ

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

2
1
2
1
6
6
4 5
2 1
ie
x
x
x
x
2 1
2 2 1
1 2 1
2 5
4 5
2
x x
x x x
x x x
− · ⇒
¹
'
¹
− · + −
− · −
5 2
ie
2 1
x x
·

]
]
]

5
2
is or eigen vect
]
]
]

·
5 1
2 1
Let P
]
]
]

·

1 1
2 5
7
1
Then
1
P
]
]
]

]
]
]

]
]
]

· ∴

5 1
2 1
4 5
2 1
1 1
2 5
7
1
1
AP P
]
]
]

]
]
]

+ − −
+ − −
·
5 1
2 1
4 2 5 1
8 10 10 5
7
1
]
]
]

]
]
]

− −
·
5 1
2 1
6 6
2 5
7
1
]
]
]

·
]
]
]

+ + −
− − −
·
42 0
0 7
7
1
30 12 6 6
10 10 2 5
7
1
]
]
]

·
6 0
0 1
]
]
]

]
]
]

·
4 5
2 1
matrix the e diagonaliz
5 1
2 1
Thus P
Example - 2

,
`

.
|
·
1 1 3
1 5 1
3 1 1
Let A
Characteristic equation is 0
1 1 3
1 5 1
3 1 1
·

λ
λ
λ
[ ] [ ] [ ] 0 5 3 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 5 (1 ie · − − + − − − − − − − ) ( ) )( ( ) λ λ λ λ λ
0 3 14 3 2 4 6 (1 ie
2
· + − + − − − + − − ) ( ) ( ) )( λ λ λ λ λ
0 9 42 2 4 6 4 6 ie
2 3 2
· + − + + − + − + − λ λ λ λ λ λ λ
0 36 7 ie
2 3
· − + − λ λ 0 36 7 ie
2 3
· + − λ λ
by inspection –2 is a root ∴ λ + 2 is a factor. ∴ equation becomes
0 18 9 2
2
· + − + ) )( ( λ λ λ
42 KSOU Matrix Theory
0 6 3 2 ie · − − + ) ( )( ( λ λ λ 6 3 2 , , − · ∴ λ
ie characteristic roots are –2, 3, 6.
To find the eigen vector for λ = –2 Consider
1 1
2X AX − ·
]
]
]
]
]

·
3
2
1
1
where
x
x
x
X

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
3
2
1
3
2
1
2
2
2
1 1 3
1 5 1
3 1 1
ie
x
x
x
x
x
x
1 3 2 1
2 3 ie x x x x − · + + 0 3 3 ie
3 2 1
· + + x x x (1)
2 3 2 1
2 5 x x x x − · + + 0 7
3 2 1
· + + x x x (2)
3 3 2 1
2 3 x x x x − · + + 0 3 3
3 2 1
· + + x x x (3)
(1) & (3) are same.
0 then (2), or (1) in 0 Put
3 1 2
· + · x x x
1 1
ie
3 1
3 1
x x
x x ·

⇒ − ·

]
]
]
]
]

· ∴
1
0
1
or eigen vect
1
X
Let X
2
be the eigen vector for λ = 3.
2 2
3 ie X AX ·
]
]
]
]
]

·

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
3
2
1
2
3
2
1
3
2
1
where
3
3
3
1 1 3
1 5 1
3 1 1
ie
y
y
y
X
y
y
y
y
y
y
1 3 2 1
3 3 ie y y y y · + + 0 3 2 ie
3 2 1
· + + − y y y (1)
2 3 2 1
3 3 5 y y y y · + + 0 2
3 2 1
· + + y y y (2)
3 3 2 1
3 3 3 y y y y · + + 0 2 3
3 2 1
· − + y y y (3)
Let us eliminate y
1
from (1) & (2)
0 3 2 is 1 1
3 2 1
· + + − × y y y ) (
0 2 4 2 is 2 2
3 2 1
· + + × y y y ) (
0 5 5 adding
3 2
· + y y
0
3 2
· + ⇒ y y
1 1
ie
3 2
3 2
y y
y y ·

⇒ − · (4)
Let us eliminate y
2
from (2) & (3)
0 5 5 g subtractin
0 4 2 6 is 2 3
0 2 is 1 2
3 2
3 2 1
3 2 1
· + −
· − + ×
· + + ×
y y
y y y
y y y
) (
) (
3 1 3 1
5 5 y y y y · ⇒ · ⇒
1 1

3 1
y y
· ∴ (5)
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 43
1 1 1
(5) & (4) From
3 2 1
y y y
·

·

]
]
]
]
]

− · ∴
1
1
1
2
X
Next, let X
3
be the eigen vector for λ = 6
3 3
6 ie X AX ·
]
]
]
]
]

·

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
3
2
1
3
3
2
1
3
2
1
where
6
6
6
1 1 3
1 5 1
3 1 1
ie
z
z
z
X
z
z
z
z
z
z
1 3 2 1
6 3 ie z z z z · + + 0 3 5 ie
3 2 1
· + + − z z z (1)
2 3 2 1
6 5 z z z z · + + 0
3 2 1
· + − z z z (2)
3 3 2 1
6 3 z z z z · + + 0 5 3
3 2 1
· − + z z z (3)
0 4 4 (2), & (1) adding
3 1
· + − z z
1 1
ie
3 1
3 1
z z
z z · ∴ · (4)
Let us eliminate z
3
from (2) & (3)
0 4 8 adding
0 5 3 is 1 3
0 5 5 5 is 5 2
2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
· −
· − + + ×
· + − ×
z z
y z z
z z z
) (
) (
2 1
2 ie
2 1
2 1
z z
z z · ⇒ · (5)
1 2 1
(5), & (4) From
3 2 1
z z z
· ·

]
]
]
]
]

· ∴
1
2
1
3
X
]
]
]
]
]

·
1 1 1
2 1 0
1 1 1
Let P

]
]
]
]
]

·

6 0 0
0 3 0
0 0 2
Then
1
AP P
]
]
]
]
]

]
]
]
]
]

· ∴
1 1 3
1 5 1
3 1 1
e diagonaliz
1 1 1
2 1 0
1 1 1
P
Exercise
. .
1 3 2
3 2 1
3 2 1
Evaluate 1 −
. .
c b b a a c
b a a c c b
a c c b b a
− − −
− − −
− − −
Evaluate 2
44 KSOU Matrix Theory
. .
4 4 3
4 3 2
3 2 1
Evaluate 3
. , . x x find then 0
1 3 1
5 6
4 0 2
If 4 ·
− −
. .
1
1
1
Evaluate 5
r q
r p
q p

. .

,
`

.
|
3 2
0 2
of adjoint the Find 6
1. of factor - co the find
2 4 3
4 3 2
3 2 1
If 7

,
`

.
|
· A .
. & . A A A A A ′ ′

,
`

.
|
· find
7 3 0
5 1 2
If 8
.
sec tan
tan sec
.

,
`

.
|
θ θ
θ θ
of inverse the Find 9
. . A B B A B A 7 6 and 3 5 find
2 4 0
3 2 1
and
5 0 1
4 3 2
If 10 − −

,
`

.
| −
·

,
`

.
|

·
. . B A A B B A and find
3 2 1
4 0 2
2 and
6 7 3
5 2 4
3 If 11

,
`

.
|

· +

,
`

.
| −
· +
. . y x
x y
y x
x
x x
and find
4 12
5 4
7 5
1
If 12

,
`

.
| −
·

,
`

.
|

+

,
`

.
| +
( ) . . A A ·

,
`

.
|
· A at verify th
10 9 8
7 6 5
If 13
. . B A B A B A − ′ ′ +

,
`

.
|

− ·

,
`

.
|

· and find
2 3
3 4
4 2
and
1 2 6
5 4 3
If 14
. . 0 10 that prove
7 5
4 3
If 15
2
· + −

,
`

.
|
· I A A A
. .

,
`

.
|
2 3
5 6
of inverse the Find 16
. .

,
`

.
|
4 0
2 1
of equation stic characteri the Find 17
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 45
. .

,
`

.
|
4 0
3 2
of es eigen valu the Find 18
Rule. s Cramer' by 2 5 2 1 2 Solve 19 − · − · + − · + y z x y z x , , .
Solve 20. 5 4 5 · + − z y x
2 5 3 2 · + + z y x
5 6 2 7 · + − z y x
by matrix method.
.
1 0
1 2
of roots stic characteri the Find 21.

,
`

.
| −
.
3 2 2
1 2 1
1 0 1
of roots stic characteri the Find 22.

,
`

.
| −
.
4 3
2 1
matrix for the Theorem Hamilton - Cayley Verify 23.

,
`

.
|
.
1 1
0 2
matrix for the Theorem Hamilton - Cayley Verify 24.

,
`

.
|

.
1 2
2 1
matrix for the ors eigen vect the Find 25.

,
`

.
|
.
3 1 2
1 3 2
2 2 6
matrix for the ors eigen vect and es eigen valu the Find 26.

,
`

.
|

− −

46 KSOU Matrix Theory
BCA 21 / IMCA 21 / Mathematics SVT 21
ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURES
Abreviations used
N : represent set of natural numbers.
Z or I : represent set of +ve and –ve integers including zero.
Z
+
: represent non-negative integers ie. +ve integers including zero.
Q : represent set of rational numbers.
R : represent set of real numbers.
C : represent set of complex numbers.
Z
n
= {0, 1, 2, 3, .............. n – 1} ie. Z
n
represent set of integers modulo n.
Q
+
: represent set of +ve rational numbers.
z - {o} : represent set of integers except 0.
Q - {o} : represent set of rational numbers except zero.
R - {o} : set of real numbers except zero.
A set in general is denoted by S.
∀ : for all
∈ : belongs to
Binary Operation
If S is a non-empty set then a mapping (function) from S × S to S is defined as Binary Operation (in short B.O.) and denoted
by ∗ (read as star). ie. : S × S → S (Star maps S cross S to S)
Another Definition
If S is non-empty set then ∗ (star) is said to be a Binary operation if ∀ a, b ∈ S, a ∗ b ∈ S.
Examples
(1) on N + and × (ie addition & multiplication) are B.O.
N ∈ · + 5 3 2 N ∈ · × 6 3 2
(2) on Z, +, – & × are B.O.
, , Z Z ∈ · − ∈ + 1 4 3 5 4 Z Z ∈ · × ∈ · − 30 6 5 1 3 4 ,
(3) On Q & R +, – & × are B.O. but ÷ is not a B.O. on Q & R Q for 0, R Q
a
& ∉
0
but on Q - {o} & R - {o} ÷ is a B.O.
(4) on C, + and × are B.O.
C y y i x x iy x iy x ∈ + + + · + + + ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1
C y x y x i y y x x iy x iy x ∈ + + − · + + + ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1
48 KSOU Algebraic Structures
Definitions
(1) A non-empty set S with one or more binary operations is called an 'Algebraic Structure'.
(N, +), (Z, +, ×), (Q, +, ×) are all algebraic structures.
(2) Closure Law : A set S is said to be closed under a B.O. ∗ if ∀ a, b ∈ S, a ∗ b ∈ S.
(3) Associative Law : A B.O. ∗ is said to be associative on S if ∀ a, b, c ∈ S
(a ∗ b) ∗ c = a ∗ (b ∗ c)
(4) Commutative Law : A B.O. ∗ is said to be commutative on S if ∀ a, b ∈ S, a ∗ b = b ∗ a.
(5) Identity Law : An element e ∈ S satisfying
a ∗ e = a = e ∗ a. ∀ a ∈ S is called an identity element for the B.O. ∗ on S.
Examples
(i) + and × (addition and multiplication) are associative and commutative on N, Z, Q & R.
(ii) B.O. – (subtraction) is not associative & commutative.
(iii) 1 is an identity for B.O. × on N but + has no identity on N. Where as O is an identity on Z, Q and R for the B.O. +.
(iv) If S is a set of 2 × 2 matrices and B.O. is matrix multiplication then
]
]
]

·
1 0
0 1
I is an identity element.
Group
A non-empty set G together with a B.O. ∗ ie (G, ∗) is said to form a group if the following axioms are satisfied.
G
1
. Closure Law : ∀ a, b ∈ G, a ∗ b ∈ G
G
2
. Associative Law : ∀ a, b, c ∈ G, (a ∗ b) ∗ c = a ∗ (b ∗ c)
G
3
. Identity Law : There exists an element e ∈ G such that ∀ a ∈ G, a ∗ e = a = e ∗ a.
G
4
. Inverse : ∀ a ∈ G, there exists an element b such that a ∗ b = e = b ∗ a. This b is called inverse of a and usually denoted
as a
–1
ie. a ∗ a
–1
= e = a
–1
∗ a.
In addition to the above four axions if ∀ a, b ∈ G, a ∗ b = b ∗ a. Then (G, ∗) is called an 'abelian group' or 'commutative
group'.
Note (1) If for (G, ∗) only G
1
is satisfied it is called a 'groupoid'.
(2) If for (G, ∗) G
1
& G
2
are satisfied it is called a 'semi-group'.
(3) If for (G, ∗) G
1
, G
2
& G
3
are satisfied it is called 'Monoid'.
Examples
(i) (N, +) is a groupoid and semigroup.
(ii) (N, ×) is a groupoid, semigroup and Monoid (identity for × is 1)
(iii) (Z, +) is a group (identity is O and a
–1
= –a) ie. a + (–a) = 0 = –a + a.
Note :- Every group is a monoid but the converse is not true, (Z, +) is a group and also a monoid but (N, ×) is a monoid but
not a group.
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 49
Properties of Groups
1. Cancellation laws are valid in a group
ie if ) , ( ∗ G is a group then , , , G c b a ∈ ∀
law) on cancellati left i ( ) ( c b c a b a · ⇒ ∗ · ∗
law) on cancellati right ii ( ) ( c b a c a b · ⇒ ∗ · ∗
Proof :- G a G a c a b a ∈ ∈ ∗ · ∗
−1
as , ,
) ( ) ( c a a b a a ∗ ∗ · ∗ ∗ ∴
− − 1 1
c a a b a a ∗ ∗ · ∗ ∗
− −
) ( ) (
1 1
ie
identity. the is where ie e c e b e ∗ · ∗
c b · ⇒
Similarly by considering
1 1 − −
∗ ∗ · ∗ ∗ a a) (c a a) (b
c b · get we
2. In a group G, the equations . , G b a b a y b x a ∈ ∀ · ∗ · ∗ solutions, unique have and
Proof :- b x a · ∗
Operating on both sides by a
–1
b a x a a ∗ · ∗ ∗
− − 1 1
) (
b a x a a ∗ · ∗ ∗
− − 1 1
ie ) (
b a x e ∗ · ∗
−1
ie
b a x ∗ · ∴
−1
To prove that the solution is unique, let x
1
& x
2
be two solutions of . b x a · ∗
b x a b x a · ∗ · ∗
2 1
ie &
2 1
x a x a ∗ · ∗ ⇒
Operating on both sides by a
–1
) ( ) (
2
1
1
1
get We x a a x a a ∗ ∗ · ∗ ∗
− −
2
1
1
1
ie x a a x a a ∗ ∗ · ∗ ∗
− −
) ( ) (
2 1
ie x e x e ∗ · ∗
2 1
x x · ⇒
∴ solution is unique.
3. In a group the identity element and inverse of an element are unique.
Proof :- To prove identity is unique. If possible let e
1
& e
2
are two identities then
a e a e a G a ∗ · · ∗ ∈ ∀
1 1
, (1)
a e a e a ∗ · · ∗
2 2
& (2)
From LHS of (1), a e a e a ∗ · · ∗
2 1
(using (2))
2 2 1
ie e a a e e a ∗ · ∗ · ∗ (using LHS of (2))
50 KSOU Algebraic Structures
by left cancellation, .
2 1
e e · Thus the identity is unique.
To prove that inverse of an element is unique.
Let , G a ∈ if possible let b & c are inverses of a c a b a · ·
− − 1 1
and ie
e c a e b a · ∗ · ∗ & Now,
where e is the identity of the group
c a b a ∗ · ∗ ∴
by left cancellation law b = c. Thus inverse of an element is unique.
4. In a group ( ) G a a a G ∈ ∀ ·

1
1
,
Proof :- As a
–1
is the inverse of a
a a e a a ∗ · · ∗
− − 1 1
have We
it can be easily seen from above relation that inverse of a
–1
is a ie ( ) a a ·

1
1
.
Note :- If b & c are elements of G, such that b c e c b ∗ · · ∗ then each is the inverse of the other.
5. In a group ) , ( ∗ G
1 1 1
) ( , ,
− − −
∗ · ∗ ∈ ∀ a b b a G b a
Proof :- ) ( ) ( Consider
1 1 − −
∗ ∗ ∗ a b b a
e a a a e a a b b a · ∗ · ∗ ∗ · ∗ ∗ ∗ ·
− − − − 1 1 1 1
) (
1 1 1 − − −
∗ · ∗ ∴ a b b a ) (
6. A group of order 3 is abelian.
Proof :- Order of group means the number of elements in a group. If a group G has n elements. The order of G is n, which
is denoted as O(G) = n.
If n is finite it is called finite group and n is Infinite then it is called Infinite group.
} , , { b a e G · Let be a group with a binary operation ∗.
e is the identity by definition of identity it commutes with every element a e a e a ∗ · · ∗ Q
So we have to prove that a b b a ∗ · ∗
a a b a a a b a ∗ · ∗ ∗ ⇒ · ∗
− − 1 1
) ( Let e b e · ∗ ⇒ e b · ⇒
which is not possible.
b b a · ∗ Let
1 1 − −
∗ · ∗ ∗ ⇒ b b b b a ) ( e e a · ∗ ⇒ e a · ⇒
which is not possible.
b a ∗ cannote be equal to a or b e b a · ∗ ∴
Similarly we can prove that
e a b · ∗
a b b a ∗ · ∗ ∴ abelian. is ) , ( ∗ ∴ G
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 51
Subgroups
A non-empty subset H of a group G is said to form a subgroup with respect to the same binary operation ∗ if ) , ( ∗ H is a
group.
Eg. (1) (z, +) is a subgroup of (Q, +)
(2) } , , { 4 2 0 · H is a subgroup of } , , , , , { 5 4 3 2 1 0 · G with B.O.
6
ie 6 ⊕ + mod
(3) } , { 1 1 − · H is a subgroup of } , , , { i i G − − · 1 1 with respect to the B.O. multiplication.
Theorem
A non-empty subset H of a group G is a subgroup of G if and only if . , , H ab H b a ∈ ∈ ∀
−1
Proof :- case (i) Let H be a subgroup of G then H is a group
law) closure & axion) inverse
1 1
( ( , , G ab G b G b a ∈ ∈ ∈ ∀ ∴
− −
∴ condition is satisfied.
case (ii) Let H be a non-empty subset of G with the property . , , H ab H b a ∈ ∈ ∀
−1
We have to prove that H is a subgroup.
H a H ea H a e H e aa H a a H a ∈ ∈ ⇒ ∈ ∈ · ⇒ ∈ ∈
− − − − 1 1 1 1
ie Let , & , ,
Since all elements of H are elements of G, associative property is satisfied.
( ) H ab b a H a H b H b ∈ ∈ ∈ ∈

− −
ie for Let
1
1 1
, & , ie closure property is satisfied.
Hence H is a group and hence a subgroup.
Permutation group
} .......... , , , {
n
a a a a S
3 2 1
Let ·
Then a one-one and onto mapping or function from S onto itself is called a Permutation.
Permutation is denoted as

,
`

.
|
) ( .......... ) ( ) ( ) (
..........
n
n
a f a f a f a f
a a a a
3 2 1
3 2 1
There will be n ! ie n ∠ permutations the set of permutations is denoted by S
n
.
. ,
n
S g f ∈ Let There is a composite mapping for f & g denoted as , g f o this can be taken as binary operation. Then the
set S
n
with binary operation 'O' (ie composite mapping) will form a group. For convenience g f o is denoted as gf.
4
1 4 3 2
4 3 2 1
2 4 1 3
4 3 2 1
Let S g f ∈

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
· & the B.O. composite function is given by

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
·
1 4 3 2
4 3 2 1
2 4 1 3
4 3 2 1
o g f o

,
`

.
|
·
? ? ? ?
4 3 2 1
to fill up the second row, following is the procedure.
1 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 in · · · · ) ( , ) ( , ) ( , ) ( : g g g g g
2 4 4 3 1 2 3 1 in · · · · ) ( , ) ( , ) ( , ) ( : & f f f f f
1 2 1 1 Now · · · ) ( )] ( [ ) ( f g f g f o
4 3 2 2 · · · ) ( )] ( [ ) ( f g f g f o
2 4 3 3 · · · ) ( )] ( [ ) ( f g f g f o
3 1 4 4 · · · ) ( )] ( [ ) ( f g f g f o
52 KSOU Algebraic Structures

,
`

.
|
· ∴
3 2 4 1
4 3 2 1
g f o
for convenience g f o is written as gf

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
·
1 4 3 2
4 3 2 1
2 4 1 3
4 3 2 1
o g f ie o

,
`

.
|
·
3 2 4 1
4 3 2 1

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
·
2 4 1 3
4 3 2 1
1 4 3 2
4 3 2 1
gf &

,
`

.
|
·
3 2 4 1
4 3 2 1
the composite function is also called product function.
Eg. (1) } , { 2 1 Let · S
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
·
1 2
2 1
2 1
2 1
then
2
, S
Let B.O. be product permutation

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
1 2
2 1
1 2
2 1
2 1
2 1
then

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
2 1
2 1
1 2
2 1
1 2
2 1
closure law is satisfied, associative law can be easily verified. inverse

,
`

.
|
·
2 1
2 1
e

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|

2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
1

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|

1 2
2 1
1 2
2 1
1
∴ S
2
forms a group.
Eg. (2) } , , { 3 2 1 Let · S
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
·
1 2 3
3 2 1
2 1 3
3 2 1
1 3 2
3 2 1
1 2 3
3 2 1
2 3 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3
S
Let us denote the elements as
6 5 4 3 2 1
f f f f f f & , , , , respectively.
{ ¦
6 5 4 3 2 1 3
ie f f f f f f S , , , , , ·
The following is the multiplication table.
f
1
f
2
f
3
f
4
f
5
f
6
f
1
f
1
f
2
f
3
f
4
f
5
f
6
f
2
f
2
f
1
f
5
f
6
f
3
f
4
f
3
f
3
f
4
f
1
f
2
f
6
f
5
f
4
f
4
f
3
f
6
f
5
f
1
f
2
f
5
f
5
f
6
f
2
f
1
f
4
f
3
f
6
f
6
f
5
f
4
f
3
f
2
f
1
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 53
It can be seen from the table that closure law is satisfied.
For associative law
3 5 6 5 4 3
Consider f f f f f f · · ) (

3 1 3 5 4 3
f f f f f f · · ) (
) ( ) (
5 4 3 5 4 3
f f f f f f · ∴ hence associative law is satisfied.
1
identity f e ·
2
1
2 1
1
1
f f f f · ·
− −
,
5
1
4 3
1
3
f f f f · ·
− −
,
6
1
6 4
1
5
f f f f · ·
− −
&
inverse of all elements exists.
∴ S
3
forms a group, but it is not an abelian group
2 3 4 6 4 3
but f f f f f f · · Q .
3 4 4 3
f f f f ≠ ∴
Examples
(1) Show that the set R - {o} with B.O. × forms a group.
Solution : For any elements a, b ∈ R - {o}. a ∗ b ∈ R - {o}
2, 3 ∈ R - {o}, 2 × 3 = 6 ∈ R - {o}
∴ closure law is satisfied.
For any three elements a, b, c ∈ R - {o}
(a × b)× c = a × (b × c)
(–3 × 4) × 5 = –12 × 5 = –60.
–3 × (4 × 5) = –3 × 20 = –60.
∴ associative law is satisfied.
Identity element is 1,
ie. ∀ a ∈ R - {o}, a × 1 = a = 1 × a.
Let a ∈ R - {o} then there exists
a
a a
a R
a
× · · × ∈
1
1
1
such that o -
1
} {
∴ inverse exists for all elements R - {o}.
∴ (R - {o}, ×) forms an abelian group.
(2) Show that ) , (
5 5
⊕ Z forms an abelian group.
Solution : Let us construct table for ) , (
5 5
⊕ Z
5

0
1
2
3
4
0
0
1
2
3
4
1
1
2
3
4
0
2
2
3
4
0
1
3
3
4
0
1
2
4
4
0
1
2
3
54 KSOU Algebraic Structures
From the above table it can be easily seen that closure law is satisfied.
4 2 2 4 3 2
5 5 5
· ⊕ · ⊕ ⊕ ) (
4 4 0 4 3 2
5 5 5
· ⊕ · ⊕ ⊕ ) (
4 3 2 4 3 2 ie
5 5 5 5
⊕ ⊕ · ⊕ ⊕ ) ( ) (
∴ associative law can be versified.
identity element is 0.
inverse of 0 is 0
inverse of 1 is 4
inverse of 2 is 3
inverse of 3 is 2
inverse of 4 is 1
∴ ) , (
5 5
⊕ Z form a group, further it can be seen from the table that for any two element a, b ∈ Z
5
a b b a
5 5
⊕ · ⊕
∴ ) , (
5 5
⊕ Z is an abelian group.
(3) Show that G = {1, 2, 3, 4} with B.O. multiplication mod 5 ie
5
⊗ is an abelian group.
Solution : The following in the relevant table for elements
From the above table it can be seen that closure law is satisfied.
4 4 1 4 3 2
5 5 5
· ⊗ · ⊗ ⊗ ) (
4 2 2 4 3 2
5 5 5
· ⊗ · ⊗ ⊗ ) (
∴ associate law is satisfied.
identity is 1.
inverse of 1 is 1
inverse of 2 is 3
inverse of 3 is 2
inverse of 4 is 4
∴ ) , (
5
⊗ G forms a group and it can be seen from the table that it forms an abelian group.
4. If R is the set of real numbers and ∗ is a binary operation defined on . , , R y x xy y x R ∈ ∀ + · ∗ 1 as
Show that ∗ is commutative but not associative.
R b a a b b a ∈ ∀ ∗ · ∗ , , property e Commutativ
xy y x + · ∗ 1
5

1
2
3
4
1
1
2
3
4
2
2
4
1
3
3
3
1
4
2
4
4
3
2
1
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 55
x y y x yx x y ∗ · ∗ ∴ + · ∗ 1
) ( ) ( z y x z y x ∗ ∗ · ∗ ∗ property e Associativ
xyz z z xy pz z P z xy + + · + + · + · ∗ · ∗ + · 1 1 1 1 1 LHS ) ( ) (
xyz x yz x xQ Q x yz x + + · + + · + · ∗ · + ∗ · 1 1 1 1 1 RHS ) ( ) (
e associativ a not is RHS LHS ∗ ∴ ≠ ∴
5. Show that set of integers with group a not is where I b a b a b a ∈ − · ∗ ,
satisfied is axiom closure ∴ ∈ − · ∗ I b a b a
. , , ), ( ) ( I b a I b a b a c b a c b a ∈ ∀ ∈ − · ∗ ∗ ∗ ≠ ∗ ∗
c b a c b a − − · ∗ − · ) ( LHS
satisfied not is axiom e associativ RHS ∴ + − · − ∗ · c b a c b a ) (
) , ( ∗ ∴ I is not a group.
When one of the axiom is not satisfied, it is not a group. Hence, we need not have to check the rest of the axioms.
6. In a group . ), , (
2
ab
b a G · ∗ ∗ Find the identity element, inverse of 4 and solve 5 4 · ∗ x
a e a e a e ∗ · · ∗ : find To
2. is element identity i.e. 2
2
· ∴ · · ∗ e a
ae
e a
a a e a a ∗ · · ∗
− − 1 1
a
a
aa
a a
4
2
2
2
1
1
1
· ∴ · ⇒ · ∗

1. is 4 of inverse 1
4
4
4
1
∴ · ·

.
2
5
4
10
5
2
4
5 4 · · ∴ · ⇒ · ∗ x
x
x
7. Prove that { ¦ real is θ θ θ sin cos i G + · is an abelian group under multiplication
{ ¦ real is θ θ θ sin cos i G + ·
Let x, y, z be any three elements of G.
. sin cos , sin cos , sin cos γ γ β β α α i z i y i x + · + · + · Take
numbers. real are , , where γ β α
i) real is ) ( ) sin( ) cos( ) sin )(cos sin (cos β α β α β α β β α α + ∈ + + + · + + · Q G i i i xy
∴ Closure axiom is satisfied
ii) ) sin )](cos sin )(cos sin [(cos ) γ γ β β α α i i i z (xy + + + ·
) sin )}(cos sin( ) {cos( γ γ β α β α i i + + + + ·
} ) sin{( } ) cos{( γ β α γ β α + + + + + · i
)} ( sin{ )} ( cos{ γ β α γ β α + + + + + · i
= x (yz) Q multiplication is associative on R ∴ Associative axiom is satisfied.
iii) element identity the is 0 0 1 G i ∈ + · sin cos
56 KSOU Algebraic Structures
iv) . sin cos sin cos ) sin )(cos sin cos θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ i i i i + − ⇒ · − + of inverse tive multiplica the is 1 (
v) ) sin )(cos sin (cos β β α θ i i xy + + ·
) sin( ) cos( β α β α + + + · i
R i on e commutativ is Q ) sin( ) cos( α β α β + + + ·

yx ·
∴ Commutative law is satisfied.
So all the axioms are satisfied. Hence, G is an abelian group under multiplication.
8. Show that the cube roots of unity form an abelian group under multiplication
We know that the cube roots of unity are } , , { . ,
2 2
1 Let and 1 ω ω ω ω · G
1 here
3
· ω
. & ω ω ω ω · ⋅ ·
3 4
i) All the entries in the table are the same as the elements of the set. This means the closure law is satisfied.
ii) 1 1 1 1 Consider
2
· ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ) ( ω ω
1 1
2 2
· ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ω ω ω ω) (
satisfied. is law e Associativ 1 1
2 2
. ) ( ) ( ω ω ω ω ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ∴
iii) The row heading 1 is the same as the topmost row.
∴ 1 is the identity element.
iv) Inverse of 1 is 1, inverse of ω is ω
2
and inverse of ω
2
is ω.
Every element has a inverse.
v) The table is symmetrical about the principal diagonal
∴ commutative law holds good.
So G is an abelian group under multiplication.
9.

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
| −

,
`

.
|
1 0
0 1
and
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
matrices four that the Show , , form an abelian group under matrix
multiplication.
} , , , { ; , , , C B A G C B A I 1
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
Take · ·

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
| −
·

,
`

.
|
C CI IC B BI IB A AI IA · · · · · · , ,
C AB ·

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|
− +
+ + −
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
| −
·
1 0
0 1
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
1 0
0 1
1 0
0 1
etc. shown that be can it Similarly, I A A A CB BC B CA AC C BA · ⋅ · · · · · , , ,
.
1
ω
ω
2
1
1
ω
ω
2
ω
ω
ω
2
1
ω
2
ω
2
1
ω
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 57
The composition table is
i) The entries in the table are the same as the elements of the set G. ∴ Closure law is satisfied.
ii) I C C C AB I A A BC A · · · · ) ( ) ( ; ) ( ) ( ∴ Associative law is satisfied.
iii) I is the identity element.
iv) Inverses of B A I , , are respectively G C B A I ∴ . , , , is a group under matrix multiplication
) , ( ⋅ ∴ G is a group.
v) Since the entries on either side of the leading diagonal are symmetric, ) , ( ⋅ G is an abelian group.
10. If every element of a group G has its own inverse, show that G is abelian
G b a a a ∈ ∀ ·

, ,
1
Given (1)
1 1 1
that, know we
− − −
· ∈ ∀ a b ab G b a ) ( , , (2)
. ) ( , ab ab b b a a · · ·
− − − 1 1 1
and (1), from Using these in (2), G b a ba ab ∈ ∀ · , ,
∴ the commutative law is satisfied, so G is abelian.
11. In a group . , , ) ( ) , ( G b a b a ab G ∈ ∀ · ⋅
2 2 2
if Prove that ) , ( ⋅ G is abelian and conversely.
) )( ( ) )( ( ) ( bb aa ab ab ab · ·
2
L.C.L. using )] ( [ )] ( [ bb a a ab b a · ⇒
RCL using b ab b ba bb a ab b ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( · ⇒ · ⇒ ab ba · ⇒ ∴ it is abelian
Conversely
If ab = ba pre operating by a we get, a ab b a a ba a ab a ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( · ⋅ ⇒ ·
b a ab b a a b ] ) [( ] ) [( · ⋅ ⋅ get we by operating post
2 2 2
) ( ) )( ( ) )( ( ab b a ab ab b b a a · ⇒ · ⋅ ⋅ ⇒
12. Given Q
0
, the set of non zero rational numbers is a multiplicative group and { ¦, Z n H
n
∈ · 2 show that H is a subgroup
of Q
0
under multiplication.
{ ¦ { ¦ ..... 2 2 , 2 , 2 ... 2
1 , 0 1 2 − −
· ∈ · Z n H
n
i) satisfied is law closure 2 2 2 2 2 ∴ ∈ · ⋅ ∈
+
H H
n m n m n m
, ,
ii) z r n m
r n m r n m
∈ ∀ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ , , ), ( ) ( 2 2 2 2 2 2 ie ) ( ) (
r n m r n m + +
· 2 2 2 2
satisfied. is law e Associativ 2 2 i.e. 2 2 ∴ · ·
+ + + + + + + + r n m r n m r n m r n m ) ( ) (
iii) 2
0
is the identity element
iv) . ;
m m m m m m − − −
∴ · ⋅ ∀ 2 is 2 of Inverse 2 2 2 such that 2 exist there 2
0
∴ H is a group under multiplication and
0
Q H ⊂ ie H is a subgroup of Q
0
under multiplication.
.
I
A
B
C
I
I
A
B
C
A
A
I
C
B
B
B
C
I
A
C
C
B
A
I
58 KSOU Algebraic Structures
Exercise
1. If N = {1, 2, 3, ....}, which of the following are binary operation of N.
b
a
b a b a b a b a b a · ∗ − · ∗ + · ∗ ) ( ) ( ) ( 5 4 3 2 2 1
2. Which of the following operations on the given set are binary
(1) on I, the set of integers, b a b a 4 3 − · ∗
(2)
2 2
on b a b a R − · * ,
(3) ab b a R · ∗ , on
3. If ∗ is given by ,
b
a b a · ∗ show that ∗ is not a binary operation of Z.
4. Why the set of rationals does not form a group w.r.t. multiplication ?
5. If x, y, z are any three elements of a group G, find (xyz)
–1
.
6. In a group ( ) . , , ,
1
1 1
find

− −
∈ ∀ b a G b a G
7. If the binary operation ∗ on the set Z is defined by , 5 + + · ∗ b a b a find the identity element.
8. In the group of non zero integers mod 5. Find the multiplicative inverse of 4.
9. . , g f S g f o find in ns permutatio are
1 3 2
3 2 1
and
3 2 1
3 2 1
If
3

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·
10. If S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} w.r.t. multiplication (mod 7), solve the equation 3x = 5 in S.
11. Show that S = {1, 2, 3} under multiplication (mod 4) is not a group.
12. . gf g f find
4 1 3 2
4 3 2 1
and
2 1 4 3
4 3 2 1
If

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
·
13. The binary operation ∗ is defined by ,
7
ab
b a · ∗ on set of rational numbers, show that ∗ is associative.
14. If ∗ is defined by ,
2
ab
b a · ∗ on the set of real numbers, show that ∗ is both commutative and associative.
15. If ∗ is defined by ,
2 2
b a b a + · ∗ show that ∗ is associative.
16. On the set of real numbers, . , , , R b a b a b a R ∈ ∀ − + · ∗ 1 Show that ∗ is associative.
17. On the set of real numbers, R, ∗ is defined by , ab b a b a + − · ∗ 3 2 examine whether ∗ is commutative and associative.
18. In the set of rationals except 1, binary operation ∗ is defined by . ab b a b a − + · ∗ Find the identity and inverse of 2.
19. On the set of positive rational numbers . , , ,
+ +
∈ ∀ · ∗ Q b a
ab
b a Q
4
Find the identity element and the inverse of 8.
20. In a group of integers, an operation ∗ is defined by . 1 − + · ∗ b a b a Find the identity element.
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 59
Vectors and Scalars
Vector : A physical quantity which has both direction and magnitude is called a 'Vector'.
Eg. Velocity, acceleration, force, weight etc.
Scalar : A physical quantity which has only magnitude and no direction is called a 'Scalar'.
Eg. speed, volume, mass, density, temperature etc.
Vectors are represented by directed line segments. Let AB be the line segment. Vector from A to B is denoted by AB and
vector from B to A is denoted by AB BA. can also be represented by . a The length of AB is magnitude of the vector denoted
as AB or a or simply a. For , AB A is the initial point and B the terminal point.
Scalar multiplication of a vector
Let λ be a scalar and a a vector then a λ represents a vector whose magnitude is λ times the magnitude of a and the direction
is same as that of a if λ is positive but opposite to that of a if λ is negative. If 0 · λ it represents a null vector denoted by
' '0 ie a null vector is a vector of magnitude zero but its direction is arbitrary.
A vector whose magnitude is 1 is called a unit vector and a unit vector in the direction of a is written as
cap) as (read or or a a
a
a
a
a

Like and unlike vectors
Vectors having same direction are called 'like vectors' and those having the opposite direction are called 'unlike vectors'.
Co-initial vectors : Vectors having the same initial point are called co-initial vectors.
Coplanar vectors : Vectors in the same plane are called 'coplanar vectors'.
Parallel vectors : Vectors having same direction but different initial
points are called 'parallel vectors'.
Triangle Law for addition of vectors
Let AB & BC represents two vectors then AC represents
b a BC AB + + ie
Parallelogram Law
b OB a OA · · & Let
Complete the parallelogram OACB.
law e by triangl then OC AC OA · +
vectors) (parallel but OB AC ·
b a OB OA OC + · + · ∴
OA OB AB − · - : Note

OB OA BA − · &
A
B
C
A
O
b
a
B
C
B
A
b
a
60 KSOU Algebraic Structures
Properties
(i) Vector addition is commutative ie . a b b a + · +
(ii) Vector addition is associative ie ( ) ( ) . c b a c b a + + · + +
(iii) Set of vectors V, with binary operation vector addition will form a 'Group'. The identity being 0 (null vector) and
inverse of . a a − is
Position vectors
(i) Let P be a point in a plane where O is the origin and OX & OY are co-
ordinate axes. OP is called position vectors of P.
y QP x OQ OX PQ
r
· · ⊥ & , then to Draw
j i

&

Let represents unit vectors in the direction of OX & OY.
j y QP i x OQ

,

· · Then
j y i x QP OQ OP
 
+ · + · ∴
2 2
y x OP + ·
Note :- A plane vector is an ordered pair of real numbers and the distance between O & P is the magnitude of . OP
(ii) Let P be a point in three dimensional space where OX, OY & OZ are co-ordinate axes. Let (x, y, z) be the co-ordinates of
P. Draw
r
PQ ⊥ to the plane XOY & QA & QB parallel to OY & OX respectives to meet OX at A & OY at B.
k j i

&

,

Let be unit vectors in the direction of OX, OY & OZ
k z QP j y OB i x OA

,

,

· · · Then
law) ram parallelog (by OB OA OQ + ·
j y i x
 
+ ·
law) le (by triang QP OQ OP + ·
k z j y i x
  
+ + ·
2 2 2
z y x OP + + ·
This position vector OP of the point P is usually
denoted by r OP r · ie
2 2 2
by given is of direction in the r unit vecto
z y x
k z j y i x
OP
+ +
+ +
  
O Q
P (x, y)
X
Y
x
i

y
j

Z
Q
P (x, y, z)
X
Y
i

j

O
B
k

A
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 61
) , , ( & ) , , ( Let
2 2 2 1 1 1
z y x P z y x P be any two points in 3-space
OPQ PQ triangle the from find to ,
OQ PQ OP · +
k z j y i x k z j y i x OP OQ PQ
     
1 1 1 2 2 2
− − − + + · − · ∴
k z z j y y i x x

) (

) (

) (
1 2 1 2 1 2
− + − + − ·
and unit vector in the direction of
2
1 2
2
1 2
2
1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
is
) ( ) ( ) (

) (

) (

) (
z z y y x x
k z z j y y i x x
PQ
− + − + −
− + − + −
Scalar product of two vectors
k b j b i b b k a j a i a a
     
3 2 1 3 2 1
and If + + · + + · are two non-zero vectors, then
3 3 2 2 1 1
b a b a b a + + is defined as 'scalar product'
of two vectors b a b a ⋅ as denoted , & also known as 'dot product'.
Vector product of two vectors
k b j b i b b k a j a i a a
  
,
  
3 2 1 3 2 1
If + + · + + · are two non-zero vectors, then a vector
k b a b a j b a b a i b a b a

) (

) (

) (
1 2 2 1 3 1 1 3 2 3 3 2
− + − + −
product. cross as known also as denoted vector two of product' vector ' as defined is ie
3 2 1
3 2 1
b a b a
b b b
a a a
k j i
× , &
  
i b a b a
b b b
a a a
k j i
b a

) (
  
∑ − · · ×
2 3 3 2
3 2 1
3 2 1
ie
Geometrical Meaning of b a b a × ⋅ and
θ · · · B O A b OB a OA

& let and Let
θ cos ab b a · ⋅ then
b b a a · · & where
ab ab b a · ° · ⋅ ° · 0 0 when cos , θ
0 90 90 when · ° · ⋅ ° · cos , ab b a θ
hence two vectors are said to be 'orthogonal' if . 0 · ⋅ b a
Let ON represent a line which is
r
⊥ to both OA & OB. ie ON is
r
⊥ to the plane OAB. Let n represent a unit vector in
the direction of ON.
0 then 0 if is and is Then · ° · × − × θ θ θ θ sin ,  sin  sin a b n ab b a n ab
a b b a × − × ∴ or is a null vector, hence two vectors are said to be parallel or coincident if vector) (null 0 · × b a
O
Y
Z
X
) , (
, 1 1 1
z y x P
) , (
, 2 2 2
z y x Q
b
a
O A
B
θ
62 KSOU Algebraic Structures
Note :-
rotation. clockwise - anti represent n ab b a  sinθ · ×
rotation. clockwise represent n ab a b  sinθ − · ×
also for unit vectors k j , i

&
 
i k j j i k k j i
  
,
  
,
  
· × · × · × .
  
,
  
,
  
& i j k j k i k i j − · × − · × − · ×
Projection of b upon a
. .

& , a b OD OA BD OB A b OB a OA
r
upon of projection the is then to Draw Let ⊥ · · · θ
ab
b a
ab b a

· · ⋅ θ θ cos , cos Since
b
OD
OB
OD
OBD
le
· · ∆ θ cos the from
ab
b a
b b OD

⋅ · · ∴ θ cos
b a b
a
a
⋅ · ⋅ · 
further area of parallelogram whose adjacent sides are OA & OB is given by
. sin sin sin θ θ θ ab b a
OB
BD
ab BD OA · × · · ⋅ but Q
∴ Area of parallelogram whose co-terminus edges are b a b a × by given is &
. b a OAB
le
× · ∆
2
1
of area therefore and
Also area of the parallelogram whose diagonals are
2 1 2 1
2
1
is d d d d × &
A
B
O
n −
N
θ
a
b
N
O
A
B
θ

a
b
b
a
O
D
B
θ
A
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 63
Scalar Triple Product
k c j c i c c k b j b i b b k a j a i a a
  
&
  
,
  
3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1
Let + + · + + · + + ·
c b a c b a ⋅ × × ⋅ ) ( ) ( or Then is called 'Scalar Triple Product'
both on computation gives
1 2 3 2 1 3 3 1 2 1 3 2 1 3 1 3 2 1
c b a c b a c b a c b a c b a c b a − + − + −
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
is which
c c c
b b b
a a a
c b a c b a ⋅ × × ⋅ ) ( ) ( or Thus
which is 'Scalar Triple Product' which is usually denoted as
[
c b a
]
also called 'Box-Product'.
Geometrical Meaning of
[
c b a
]
Consider a parallelopiped whose co-terminus edges are
c b a OC OB OA , , , , ie
Area of parallelogram c b OBDC × is
to is which upon ie of projection the be Let
r
ON a OA OP ⊥
the plane OBDC.
( )
c b
c b a
a
c b
c b
OP
×
× ⋅
· ⋅
×
×
· ∴
Volume of parallelopiped = area of parallelogram × OP

( )
c b
c b a
c b
×
× ⋅
× ·
( )· × ⋅ · c b a
[
c b a
]
∴ Volume of parallelopiped whose coterminus edges are given by c b a , , is
[
c b a
]
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
c c c
b b b
a a a
·
If
[
c b a
]
= 0 coplanar. are vectors then the c b a & ,
Vector Triple Product
If c b a , , are three non-zero vectors then
( ) ( ) ( )c b a b c a c b a ⋅ − ⋅ · × ×
also ( ) ( ) ( )a c b b c a c b a ⋅ − ⋅ · × ×
b
a
O
D
B
A
C
P
N
c
64 KSOU Algebraic Structures
Examples
1. . ) , ( ), , ( b a b a ⋅ − · · find 3 2 5 2 If
Solution : 11 15 4 · + − · ⋅ b a
2. ( ) ( ) β α β α β α 2 2 find 2 3 3 2 If + ⋅ + − − · − + · ,
  
,
  
k j i k j i
Solution : ( ) ( ) 91 56 0 35 7 7 8 3 5 2 2 · + + · − ⋅ − + · + ⋅ + )
 
( )
  
( k i k j i β α β α
3. other. each lar to perpendicu are 4 2 2 3 vectors that the Prove k j i b k j i a
  
,
  
− + · − − ·
Solution : other. each lar to perpendicu are 0 4 2 6 b a b a & ⇒ · − − · ⋅
4.
. orthogonal are 8 2 and 3 such that Find k j i k j m i m
     
− − + +
2 0 8 6 0 8 2 3 : Solution − · − ⇒ · − − ⇒ · − − ⋅ + + m m k j i k j m i )
  
( )
  
(
5. other. each to orthogonal are and that Show If b a b a b a . − · +
b a b a − · + Given : Solution
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) b a b a b a b a − ⋅ − · + ⋅ + sides, both the Squaring
( ) 0 2 i.e. · ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ − ⋅ · ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ b a b b a b b a a a b b a b b a a a
. b a b a lar to perpendicu is 0 ∴ · ⋅ ∴
6. .
     
k j i b k j i a + + − · + + · 3 on 5 3 of projection the Find
.
11
5
1 1 9
5 3 3
on of Projection : Solution ·
+ +
+ + −
·

·
b
b a
b a
7. . ,
        
b c a k j i c k j i b k j i a on of projection the find 2 4 3 and 2 2 and 2 If + + − · + − · + + ·
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
3
17
3
6 6 5
4 4 1
2 2 3 3 5
on of Projection : Solution ·
+ +
·
+ +
+ − ⋅ + −
·
⋅ +
· +
k j i k j i
b
b c a
b c a
     
8. k j i b k j i a
     
− + · + − · 2 and 3 3 4 ctors between ve angle the of cosine the Find
6 34
2
1 1 4 9 9 16
3 3 8
: Solution ·
+ + + +
− −
·

·
b a
b a
θ cos
9. k j i b k j i a
  
,
  
+ − · + − · 8 4 9 vectors of product cross the Find
k j i k j i
k j i
b a
  
) (

) (

) (

  
− + · + − + − − + − ·

− · × 23 3 8 9 32 9 4 1
1 1 8
4 1 9 : Solution
10. b a k j i b k j i a × − + · + + · find then 2 2 and 2 2 If ,
     
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 65
k j i k j i
k j i
b a
ˆ
3
ˆ
6
ˆ
6 ) 4 1 (
ˆ
) 4 2 (
ˆ
) 2 4 (
ˆ
2 1 2
2 2 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ
: Solution − + − · − + − − − − − ·

· ×
9 81 9 36 36 · · + + · ×b a
11. k j i b k j i a
     
2 3 and 2 6 vectors of pair the lar to perpendicu r unit vecto the Find − + · + − ·
k j i k j i
k j i
b a b a
  
) (

) (

) (

  
& 12 15 3 6 6 3 12 1 4
2 1 3
1 2 6 is lar to perpendicu Vector : Solution + + · + + − − − − ·

− · ×
378
12 15 3
144 225 9
12 15 3 k j i k j i
b a
b a
n
     

+ +
·
+ +
+ +
·
×
×
·
12. ( ) ( ) ( ) b a b a b a × · + × + 3 2 2 that Prove
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ). b a a b b a b b a b b a a a b a b a × · × + × · × + × + × + × · + × + 3 4 2 4 2 2 2 : Solution
13. ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 that prove vectors zero non are If · + × + + × + + × b a c a c b c b a c b a , ,
. 0 : Solution · × − × − × − × + × + × · × + × + × + × + × + × c b c a b a c b c a b a b c a c a b c b c a b a
14. k j i b k j i a
     
2 3 2 and vectors e between th angle the of sine the Find + − · + + ·
, ,
 
) (

) (

) (

  
2 2
5 5 5 5 2 3 2 2 3 2
2 3 2
1 1 1 : Solution + · × − · − − + − − + ·

· × b a k i k j i
k j i
b a
17 3
2 5
4 9 4 1 1 1
5 5
2 2
·
+ + + +
+
· ∴ θ sin
15. a c c b b a c b a × · × · × · + + that show then , 0 If
0 Given : Solution · + + c b a
( ) ( ) [ ] a c b a a a c a b a c a b a a a c b a a × · × ∴ · × × − · × ∴ · × + × + × · + + × 0 0 Q
c b b a b a b c b c a b × · × × − · × × · × or or Similarly
a c c b b a c b a c × · × · × ∴ × · × Similarly
16. k j i b k j i a
     
5 3 and 2 3 are sides whose triangle the of area the Find + − · + − ·
b a A × ·
2
1
: Solution
k j i k j i
k j i
b a
  
) (

) (

) (

  
7 14 7 2 9 1 15 3 10
5 3 1
1 2 3 − − − · + − + − − + − ·

− · ×
66 KSOU Algebraic Structures
sq.units
2
294
2
49 196 49
area ·
+ +
·
17. .
     
,
  
, k j i k j i k j i C B A + − − + + − 2 3 and 2 ly respective are and points the of ectors Position v Find the area of triangle
ABC.
.
  
)
  
( )
  
( k j i k j i k j i OA OB AB 2 2 2 : Solution − + · + − − − + · − ·
.
 
)
  
(
  
j i k j i k j i OA OC AC − · + − − + − · − · 2 2 3
.
  
) (

) (

(

  
k j i k j i
k j i
AC AB 5 4 2 4 1 4 12 0
0 1 2
2 2 1 − − − · − − + − − ·

− · ×
sq.units
2
45
25 16 4
2
1
area · + + ·
18. .
     
k j i b k j i a 3 2 and 2 3 are sides adjacent whose ram parallelog a of area the Find + + · − + ·
k j i k j i
k j i
b a
  
) (

) (

) (

  
4 10 8 2 6 1 9 2 6
3 2 1
1 2 3 : Solution + − · − + + − + · − · ×
sq.units 180 16 100 64 · + + · A
19. .
     
k j i d k j i d 4 3 and 2 3 are diagonals whose ram parallelog a of area the Find
2 1
+ − · + + ·
2 1
2
1
: Solution d d A × ·
k j i k j i
k j i
d d
  
) (

) (

) (

  
10 10 10 1 9 2 12 6 4
4 3 1
2 1 3
2 1
− − · − − + − − + ·

· ×
sq.units. 3 5 sq.units 300
2
1
2
1
100 100 100
2 1 2 1
· · × + + · × d d d d ;
20. .
     
,
  
k j i c k j i b k j i a − + · + + · + − · 3 and 3 2 3 2 vectors of product ple scalar tri the Find
( ) . ) ( ) ( ) ( 35 15 10 10 6 1 3 9 1 1 3 2 2
1 1 3
3 2 1
3 1 2
: Solution − · − − − · − + − − + − − ·

· × ⋅ c b a
21. [ ] i k k j j i
 
,
 
,
 
− − − Evaluate
0 0 1 1 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0
0 1 1
: Solution · + − + ·

) ( ) (
22. Find the volume of parallelopiped whose coterminus edges are
.
  
,
  
,
  
k j i c k j i b k j i a + · · + − · + − · 5 3 5 4 2
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 67
( ) units cubic 10 2 13 21 12 10 1 15 2 1 25 4 1
1 5 3
5 4 2
1 1 1
: Solution · + − · + − + − + + − ·

· × ⋅ ) ( ) ( ) ( c b a
23. coplanar. are 2 1 and 1 2 1 4 3 2 vectors the if Find ) , , ( ) , , ( ), , ( − · − · − · λ λ c b a
[ ] 0
2 1
1 2 1
4 3 2
: Solution ·

·
λ
c b a
0 2 1 4 2 3 1 2(4 i.e., · − − + + + − ) ( ) ( ) λ λ
. ;
5
8
8 5 0 8 4 3 6 6 · · ⇒ · − − + + λ λ λ λ
24. coplanar. are 4 4 4 and 4 9 3 1 1 0 1 5 4 points that the Show ) , , ( ) , , ( ), , , ( ), , , ( − − − D C B A
k j i OD k j i OC k j OB k j i OA
  
,
  
,
 
,
  
4 4 4 4 9 3 5 4 : Solution + + − · + + · − − · + + ·
k j i OA OD AD k j i OA OC AC k j i OA OB AB
  
,
  
,
  
3 8 3 4 2 6 4 + − − · − · + + − · − · − − − · − ·
Consider
( ) 0 66 126 60 32 1 2 24 3 6 3 12 4
3 1 8
3 4 1
2 6 4
· − + − · + − + − + + − ·
− −

− − −
· × ⋅ ) ( ) ( ) ( D A C A AB
coplanar. are and D C B A , , ∴
Exercise
1. The position vectors of the points of in terms vectors Express 3 2 and ly respective are and AB AC BC b a b a C B A, , , . , −
. b a and
2. ly. respective 2 and 3 2 4 3 3 5 4 2 are and are ectors Position v c a c b c b a c a D C B A + + − + + + , , , ,
CD AB CD AB
2
3
and that Show · ||
3. b c a a c b j i c j i b j i a 2 3 2 ii) 2 2 (i) find 3 2 4 3 If + − + − + · − · − · ( ,
 
,
 
,
 
4. .
     
,
  
k j i c k j i b k j i a c b a 6 2 2 and 2 3 3 2 4 where of direction in the r unit vecto the Find + + − · − − · + + · + +
5. . ,
   
b a j i b j i a ⋅ + − · + · find 2 and 3 2 If
6. Show that the vectors (–1, 2, 3) and (2, –5, 4) are orthogonal.
7. . orthogonal be may 2 and 3 such that of values the Find k j i k j i
     
+ + + − λ λ λ λ
8. . orthogonal are and vectors that the show r unit vecto are and If b a b a b a − +
9. . ), , , ( ) , , ( b a b a × · − · find 1 1 2 and 3 1 1 If
10. .
    
j i b k j i a b a 3 2 and 3 2 where on of projection the Find + − · − + ·
11. . .
     
a b k j i b k j i a on of projection the Find 2 and 3 2 If + − · − + ·
68 KSOU Algebraic Structures
12. . ) , ( ) , ( m b a m b a find vector, null a is and 8 and 3 2 If × · ·
13. . ), , , ( ) , , ( ), , , ( c b a c b a + + − ≡ − · − · of direction in the r unit vecto the find 7 1 2 and 4 1 2 3 1 2 If
14. r. unit vecto a is that Show k j i

cos

sin

sin cos φ θ φ θ + +
15. Show that points A (3, –2, 4), B (1, 1, 1) and C (–1, 4, –2) are collinear.
16. Show that points A (1, 1, 1), B (7, 2, 3), C (2, –1, 1) form a triangle.
17. k j i k j i k j i C B A
     
,
  
, 4 4 3 and 5 3 2 are ectors position v whose and points that Show − − − + + + respectively form a
right-angled triangle.
18. .
     
k j i b k j i a 2 3 2 and vectors e between th angle the of cosine the Find − + · + + ·
19. .
     
k j i k j i 2 3 and 3 2 vectors e between th angle the of sine the Find − + + −
20. .
     
k j i k j i 4 2 2 and 2 3 vectors the lar to perpendicu r unit vecto the Find + − + +
21. Find the volume of the parallelopiped whose co-terminal edges are represented by and 2 4 3 2 k j i b k j i a
  
;
  
− + · + − ·
.
  
k j i c 2 3 + + ·
22. coplanar. are 5 4 3 and 3 2 2 ors that vect Show k j i k j i k j i
     
,
  
− − − + + −
23. . find coplanar. are 2 9 3 and 10 2 5 2 vectors the If x k j i k j x i k j i
     
,
  
− + − + + +
24. Show that points A (2, 3, –1), B (1, –2, 3), C (3, 4, –2) and D (1, –6, 6) are coplanar.
25. .
  
,
  
,
  
k j i c k j i b k j i a + + · + + · + − · 2 2 2 of, product ple scalar tri the Find
26. ( ) ( ) ( ) b a b a b a × · + × + 5 4 3 2 that Prove
27. .
  
,
  
k j i b k j i a + + · − − · 2 2 3 by d represente sides 2 whose triangle the of area the Find
28. .
   
,
  
k j k j k j i 3 and 2 2 are vertices whose triangle the of area the Find + + + −
29. .
     
k j i b k j i a 4 3 and 2 3 are diagonals whose ram parallelog of area the Find + − · − + ·
30. ( ) ( ) . ). , , ( & ) , , ( ), , , ( c b a c b a c b a × × × × − · · − · and Find 4 2 3 3 2 1 2 1 1 If
BCA 21 / IMCA 21 / Mathematics SVT 65
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Limits of functions
1
1
Consider
2

· ·
x
x
x f y ) (
the function is defined for all values of x except for x = 1.
0
0
1 1
1 1
1 for ·

· · ∴ ) ( , x f x which is indeterminate.
Let us consider the values of f (x) as x approaches 1
x
1
1
2

·
x
x
x f ) (
.9 1.9
.99 1.99
.999 1.999
1.01 2.01
1.001 2.001
1.0001 2.0001
It can be seen from the above values that as x approaches 1,
1
1
2

x
x
approaches 2.
. lim 2
1
1
or
1
1
as written be can which 1" approaches as
1
1
of Limit " called is 2 value This
2
1
2
1
2
·

→ → x
x
Lt
x
x
x
x
x
x x
In general the limit of a function f (x) as x approaches a is denoted as l and which is written as
l x f Lt l x f
a x a x
· ·
→ →
) ( ) ( lim or
Properties
(1) [ ] ) ( lim ) ( lim ) ( ) ( lim x g x f x g x f
a x a x a x → → →
t · t
(2) [ ] ) ( lim ) ( lim ) ( lim ) ( lim ) ( ) ( lim x f k x kf x g x f x g x f
a x a x a x a x a x → → → → →
⋅ · · particular in where k is a contant
(3) . ) ( lim
) ( lim
) ( lim
) (
) (
lim 0 provided ≠ ·

x g
x g
x f
x g
x f
a x
a x
a x
a x
Standard Limits
(1)
1 −

·

n
n n
a x
na
a x
a x
lim
70 KSOU Differential Calculus
(2) 1 also radians) in 1
0 0
· ·
→ → θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ θ
tan
lim (
sin
lim
(3)
e x e e
n
x
x
n
n
· + < < ·
,
`

.
|
+
→ ∞ →
1
0
1 or 3 2
1
1 ) ( lim lim
(4) . lim ) ( log lim 1
1
particular in 0
1
0 0
·

> ·

→ → x
e
a a
x
a
x
x
e
x
x
Examples
(1)
4
3
4 0 0
3 0 0
4 5
3 4
2
2
0
·
+ −
+ +
·
+ −
+ +

x x
x x
x
lim
(2) ) lim
2
2
2
by Dr & Nr (dividing
1 2 3
4 3 2
x
x x
x x
x
+ +
+ −
∞ →

3
2
0 0 3
0 0 2
1 2
3
4 3
2
2
2
·
+ +
+ −
·
+ +
+ −
·
∞ →
x x
x x
x
lim
(3) 108 3 4
3
3
3
81
3
4 4
3
4
3
· ·

·

→ →
) ( lim lim
x
x
x
x
x x
(4)
2
4
6
5
7 7
5 5
7 7
5 5
7 7
5
7
5
7
a
a
a
a x
a x
a x
a x
a x
a x
a x
a x
a x
a x
a x a x a x
·
− −

·
− −
− −
− −
− −
·
+
+
+
+
·
+
+
5
− → − → − →
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
lim lim lim
(5) 7 7 1 7
7 7
0 0
· × · × ·
→ → x
x
x
x
x x
sin
lim
sin
lim
(6) 2
2 2 1
2
2
0
2
0
· ·

→ →
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ θ
sin
lim
cos
lim
(7) )
sin
tan
lim x
x x
x x
x
by Dr & Nr (dividing
3
3
0

1
1 3
1 3
3
1
3
0
·

·

·

x
x
x
x
x sin
tan
lim
(8)
ab
ab
ax
x
x
b
x
e ax ax ·
]
]
]
]

+ · +
→ →
1
0 0
1 1 ) ( lim ) ( lim
(9)
3
3
3
3
1
3
1 e
n n
n
n
n
n
·
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+ ·
,
`

.
|
+
∞ → ∞ →
lim lim
(10)
2
2
2
1
0
1
0
2 1 2 1

→ →
·
]
]
]
]

− · − e x x
x
x
x
x
) ( lim ) ( lim
(11)
x
x b x a
x
b a
x x
x
x x
x
) ( ) (
lim lim
− − −
·

→ → 0 0 b
a
b a
x
x b
x
x a
e e e
x
x
x
x
log log log lim lim · − ·

·
→ → 0 0
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 71
(12) 2
1
2
1 2
1 2
0 0
e
e
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
log
log
sin
lim
sin
lim · ·

·

→ →
Continuity of a function
) ( ) ( lim ) ( a f x f a x x f
a x
· ·

if at continuous be to said is function A
equal. are they and exists exists, if continuous be to said is function A
0
) ( ) ( lim ) ( a f x f x f
x→

If these donot happen then the function is said to be not continuous or discontinuous.
A function f (x) is said to be continuous in an interval if it is continuous at all points in the interval.
Examples
(1) exists. donot
0
0
0 but exists 2
1
1
1 at continuous not is
1
1
2
1
2
· ·

·

·

) ( lim ) ( f
x
x
x
x
x
x f
x
Q
where as it is continuous at all other values of x.
(2)
¹
'
¹
< +
≥ +
·
4 for 7 3
4 for 3 4
function of continuity the Discuss
x
x x
x f ) ( at x = 4.
Solution : While finding the limit of a function f (x) as x approaches a, if we consider the limit of the function as x approaches
a from left hand side, the limit is called 'Left Hand Limit' (LHL) and if x approaches a from right hand side the
limit is called 'Right Hand Limit' (RHL) and the limit of the function is said to exists if both LHL & RHL exists
and are equal, for convenience LHL & RHL are denoted as ) ( lim ) ( lim x f x f
a x a x
+ −
→ →
and and further
) ( lim ) ( lim & ) ( lim ) ( lim h a f x f h a f x f
h a x h a x
+ · · − · ·
→ → → →
+ −
0 0
RHL LHL
For the given problem
19 7 4 3 4 is 4 at LHL
0 0 4
· + − · − · ·
→ → →

) ( lim ) ( lim ) ( lim h h f x f x
h h x
19 3 4 4 4 is 4 at RHL
0 0 4
· + + · + · ·
→ → →
+
) ( lim ) ( lim ) ( lim h h f x f x
h h x
19 4 and · ) ( f
4 at continuous is function The · ∴ x
(3)
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·

·
0 for 2
0 for
of continuity the Examine
x
x
x
x
x f
sin
) ( at x = 0.
2 0 but 1 : Solution
0
· ·

) ( ,
sin
lim f
x
x
x
. 0 at ous discontinu is function The · ∴ x
(4)
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
≥ +
< < −
≤ < −
·
2 for 4 4
2 1 for 2 4
1 0 for 4 5
function the of continuity the Examine
2
x x
x x x
x x
x f ) (
. 2 and 1 at · · x x
72 KSOU Differential Calculus
, 1 at · x 1 4 1 5 1 LHL
0 0 1
· − − · − · ·
→ → →

) ( lim ) ( lim ) ( lim h h f x f
h h x
2 2 4 1 2 1 4 1 RHL
2
0 0
· − · + − + · + ·
→ →
) ( ) ( lim ) ( lim h h h f
h h
1 at RHL LHL · ≠ x
. 1 at ous discontinu is function The · ∴ x
, 2 at · x 12 4 16 2 2 2 4 2 LHL
2
0 0
· − · − − − · − ·
→ →
) ( ) ( lim ) ( lim h h h f
h h
12 4 2 4 2 RHL
0 0
· + + · + ·
→ →
) ( lim ) ( lim h h f
h h
12 4 2 4 2 and · + × · ) ( f
) ( ) ( lim 2
2
f x f
x
· ∴

. 2 at continuous is function The · ∴ x
Differentiability of a function
is derivative the and exists if point a at able differenti be to said is function A
0
h
a f h a f
a x f
h
) ( ) (
lim ) (
− +

). ( ' a f as denoted
). ( '
) ( ) (
lim ) ( x f
x
x f x x f
x x f
x
as denoted is derivative the and exists if at able differenti be to said is function A
0
δ
δ
δ
− +

[δx is called the increment in x which is very very small].
) ( ' ), ( x f
dx
dy
x f y or by denoted is derivative the If ·
Note :- A function which is differentiable is always continuous but the converse is not always true.
¹
'
¹

< −
· · ·
0 for
0 for
eg.
x x
x x
x x f y ) ( is continuous for all x but not differentiable at x = 0.
To find the derivates of x
n
, log
e
x, a
x
, sin x, cos x and a constant C with respect to x.
(1)
1
0
Let

·
− +
− +
· ·
n
n n
x
n
nx
x x x
x x x
dx
dy
x y
δ
δ
δ
) (
lim ,

( ) ( )
5 4 6 7
4 ii 7 (i) Eg.
− −
− · · x x
dx
d
x x
dx
d
) ( , ( )
4
5
4
9
4
9
4
9
4
9
(iii)
1
x x x
dx
d
· ·

( )
3
8
3
5
3
5
3
5
3
5
(iv)
1 − − − −
− · − · x x x
dx
d
( )
x
x
dx
d
2
1
v) · (
(2) x y
e
log · Let
x
x x x
dx
dy
e e
x δ
δ
δ
log ) ( log
lim
− +
·
→0
then
. log log lim log lim
x
e
x x
x
x x
x x
x
x
x
e
x
x
x x
1 1
1
1 1
0 0
· ·
,
`

.
|
+ ⋅ ·
,
`

.
| +
⋅ ·
→ →
δ
δ δ
δ δ
δ
(3)
x
a y · Let
) ( log
) (
lim lim 0
1
0 0
> ·

·

·

+

a a a
x
a
a
x
a a
dx
dy
e
x
x
x
x
x x x
x δ δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
in particular
x x
e e
dx
d
· ) (
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 73
(4) x y sin · et L
x
x x x
dx
dy
x δ
δ
δ
sin ) sin(
lim
− +
·
→0
. sin ) cos(
sin
cos lim
sin cos
lim x x
x
x
x
x
x
x x x x x x
x x
· ⋅ + · ⋅
,
`

.
|
+ ·
− + + +
·
→ →
1 0
2
2
2
2 2
2
0 0 δ
δ
δ
δ
δ δ
δ δ
(5) x y cos · Let
x
x x x
dx
dy
x δ
δ
δ
cos ) cos(
lim
− +
·
→0
. sin ) sin(
sin
sin lim x x
x
x
x
x
x
− · ⋅ + − · ⋅
,
`

.
|
+ − ·

1 0
2
2
2
0 δ
δ
δ
δ
(6) constant) a Let ( c y · 0
0
·

·
→ x
c c
dx
dy
x δ δ
lim
Thus derivative of a constant is zero.
Thus we have the following standard derivatives
Function y = f (x) Derivative
n
x
1 − n
nx
x log
x
1
x
a
a a
e
x
log
x sin x cos
x cos
x sin −
constant zero
Rules for differentiation
I Sum Rule
dx
dy
x v u v u y find then to of functions are whose If & + ·
ly. respective be in increments ing correspond let the to increment small a Give y v u y v u x x δ δ δ δ & , & , ,
v v u u y y δ δ δ + + + · + Then
Subtracting
v u v v u u y y y − − + + + · − + δ δ δ v u y δ δ δ + · ie
x
v
x
u
x
y
x
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ + · then by out through divide
. 0 as sides both on limits take → x δ
x
v
x
u
x
y
x x x δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ δ δ 0 0 0
Then
→ → →
+ · lim lim lim
74 KSOU Differential Calculus
dx
dv
dx
du
dx
dy
+ · ie
dx
dw
dx
dv
dx
du
dx
dy
w v u y − + · − + · then If - : Note

) (cos ) (sin ) ( cos sin x
dx
d
x
dx
d
x
dx
d
dx
dy
x x x y − + · − + ·
6 6
then If (1) Eg.
. sin cos ) sin ( cos x x x x x x + + · − − + ·
5 5
6 6
. log log ) ( 0
1
3 3 then 3 If 2 + − · + − ·
x dx
dy
c x y
e
x
e
x
II Product Rule
. &
dx
dy
x v u uv y find then to of functions are where If ·
ly. respective be in increments ing correspond let the to increment small a Give y v u y v u x x δ δ δ δ & , & , ,
v u u v v u uv v v u u y y δ δ δ δ δ δ δ ⋅ + + + · + + · + ) )( ( then
v u u v v u y y y y δ δ δ δ δ δ ⋅ + + · − + · ∴
, x δ by out through divide
x
v
u
x
u
v
x
v
u
x
y
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
⋅ + + ·
, 0 as sides both on limit take → x δ
x
v
u
x
u
v
x
v
u
x
y
x x x x δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ δ δ δ
⋅ + + ·
→ → → → 0 0 0 0
then lim lim lim lim
dx
dv
o
dx
du
v
dx
dv
u
dx
dy
+ + · ie
dx
du
v
dx
dv
u
dx
dy
+ · ie
constant a is where If (1) Note k kv y ·
dx
dv
k
dx
dy
· then
dx
du
vw
dx
dv
uw
dx
dw
uv
dx
dy
uvw y + + · · then If 2 , ) (

,
`

.
|
+ · ·
2
3
2
3
2
3
then If (1) Eg. x
dx
d
x x
dx
d
x
dx
dy
x x y sin ) (sin sin
2
1
2
3
2
3
x x x x ⋅ + · sin cos
x
dx
dy
x y sin cos ) ( 8 then 8 If 2 − · ·
) ( log sin ) (sin log ) (log sin log sin ) (
x x x x
e
dx
d
x x x
dx
d
x e x
dx
d
x e
dx
dy
x x e y ⋅ + ⋅ + · ⋅ · then If 3
. log sin cos log sin
x x x
e x x x x e
x
x e ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ·
1
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 75
III Quotient Rule
. &
dx
dy
x v u
v
u
y find then to of functions are where If ·
ly. respective be in increments ing correspond let the to increment small a Give y v u y v u x x δ δ δ δ & , & , ,
v v
u u
y y
δ
δ
δ
+
+
· + then
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
v v v
v u uv u v vu
v v v
v v u u u v
v
u
v v
u u
y
δ
δ δ
δ
δ δ
δ
δ
δ
+
− − +
·
+
+ − +
· −
+
+
· ∴
x δ by out through divide
) ( v v v
x
v
u
x
u
v
x
y
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
+

·
0 as sides both on limit take → x δ
) (
lim lim
v v v
x
v
u
x
u
v
x
y
x x δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ δ +

·
→ → 0 0
ie
2
ie
v
dx
dv
u
dx
du
v
dx
dy

·
This rule can be easily remembered in the following manner
(say) If
Dr
Nr
v
u
y · ·
2
of derivative of derivative
Then
) (
) ( ) (
Dr
Dr Nr Nr Dr
dx
dy −
·
constant a is where If - : Note k
v
k
y ·

dx
dv
v
k
dx
dy
2
then − ·
x
x
x y
cos
sin
tan · · If (1) Eg.
x
x
dx
d
x x
dx
d
x
dx
dy
2
then
cos
) (cos sin ) (sin cos −
·
. sec
cos cos
sin cos
cos
) sin ( sin cos cos
x
x x
x x
x
x x x x
2
2 2
2 2
2
1
· ·
+
·
− − ⋅
·
. sec , tan x
dx
dy
x y
2
then If · · ∴
x
x
x y
sin
cos
cot ) ( · · If 2
x
x x x x
dx
dy
2
then
sin
) (cos cos ) sin ( sin − −
·
.
sin sin
cos sin
x
x x
x x
2
2 2
2 2
cosec
1
− ·

·
− −
·
76 KSOU Differential Calculus
. , cot x
dx
dy
x y
2
cosec then If − · ∴
x
x y
cos
sec ) (
1
If 3 · ·
) (cos
cos
x
dx
d
x dx
dy
⋅ − ·
2
1
then
. tan sec
cos
sin
cos
) (sin
cos
) sin (
cos
x x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
· ⋅ · · − − ·
1 1 1
2
. tan sec , sec x x
dx
dy
x y · · ∴ then If
x
x y
sin
) (
1
cosec If 4 · ·
x
x dx
dy
cos
sin
⋅ − ·
2
1
then
. cot
sin
cos
sin
x x
x
x
x
⋅ − · ⋅ − · cosec
1
. cot , x x
dx
dy
x y ⋅ − · · ∴ cosec then cosec If
IV Chain Rule or function of a function rule
x
u
u
y
x
y
dx
dy
x g u u f y
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
× · · · consider find to where If , ) ( ) (
x
u
u
y
x
y
x x δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ
δ δ
× · ∴
→ → 0 0
lim lim
dx
dv
dv
du
du
dy
dx
dy
x h v v g u x f y
dx
du
du
dy
dx
dy
⋅ ⋅ · · · · ⋅ · then if also ie ) ( & ) ( ), (
c bx ax u c bx ax y
n
+ + · + + ·
2 2
put then If (1) Eg. ) (
1 −
· ∴ ·
n n
nu
du
dy
u y
c bx ax u + + ·
2
b ax
dx
du
+ · 2
). ( ) ( b ax c bx ax
dx
du
du
dy
dx
dy
n
+ + + · ⋅ · ∴ 2
2
) log( ) ( 7 2 If 2
2 3
+ − · x x y
7 2
4 3
7 2
7 2
1
then
2 3
2
2 3
2 3
+ −

· + − ×
+ −
·
x x
x x
x x
dx
d
x x dx
dy
) (
) (
) sin( ) ( 3 4 2 If 3
2
− + · x x y
) cos( ) ( ) )( cos( 3 4 2 1 4 4 4 3 4 2 then
2 2
− + + · + − + · x x x x x x
dx
dy
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 77

,
`

.
|
+

·
1
1
If 4
2
2
x
x
y tan ) (

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
+

·
1
1
1
1
then
2
2
2
2
2
x
x
dx
d
x
x
dx
dy
sec
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
1
1 1 2
1
1
1
2 1 2 1
1
1
) (
) (
sec
) (
) ( ) )( (
sec
+
+ − +
×

,
`

.
|
+

·
+
− − +
×

,
`

.
|
+

·
x
x x x
x
x
x
x x x x
x
x
2 2 2
2
2
1
4
1
1
) (
sec
+
×

,
`

.
|
+

·
x
x
x
x
Derivative of Hyperbolic functions
, sinh ) ( x y · If 1
. cosh ) (sinh x
e e e e
dx
d
x
dx
d
dx
dy
x x x x
·

·

,
`

.
|
+
· ·
− −
2 2
then
, cosh ) ( x y · If 2
. sinh ) (cosh x
e e e e
dx
d
x
dx
d
dx
dy
x x x x
·
+
·

,
`

.
|

· ·
− −
2 2
then
,
cosh
sinh
tanh ) (
x
x
x y · · If 3

,
`

.
|
·
x
x
dx
d
dx
dy
cosh
sinh
then
.
cosh cosh
sinh cosh
cosh
sinh sinh cosh cosh
x
x x
x x
x
x x x x
2
2 2
2 2
2
sech
1
· ·

·

·
,
sinh
cosh
coth ) (
x
x
x y · · If 4

,
`

.
|
·
x
x
dx
d
dx
dy
sinh
cosh
then
.
sinh sinh
cosh sinh
sinh
cosh cosh sinh sinh
x
x x
x x
x
x x x x
2
2 2
2 2
2
cosech
1
− ·

·

·

·
,
cosh
) (
x
x y
1
sech If 5 · ·
) (cosh
cosh cosh
x
dx
d
x x dx
d
dx
dy
2
1 1
then − ·
,
`

.
|
·
. tanh
cosh
sinh
sinh
cosh
x x
x
x
x
x
x
sech
sech
1 1
2
− · ⋅

· ⋅

·
78 KSOU Differential Calculus
,
sinh
) (
x
x y
1
cosech If 6 · ·
) (sinh
sinh
x
dx
d
x dx
dy
2
1
then

− ·
. coth
sinh
cosh
sinh
cosh
sinh
x x
x
x
x
x
x
⋅ − · ⋅

· ⋅

· cosech
1 1
2
Implicit Functions
Function of the type 0 · ) , ( y x f is called Implicit function.
rule. chain use of function a as treat find To & x y
dx
dy
0 2 If (1) Eg.
2 2
· + + by hxy ax
0 2 2 2 then · +
,
`

.
|
+ +
dx
dy
by y
dx
dy
x h ax
hy ax
dx
dy
by hx 2 2 2 2 ( ie − − · + )
by hx
hy ax
by hx
hy ax
dx
dy
+
+ −
·
+
+ −
· ∴
) (
) (
) (
2
2
10 If (2) Eg. · + x y y x sin sin
differentiating w.r.t. x
0 · + + +
dx
dy
x x y y
dx
dy
y x sin cos sin cos
x y y
dx
dy
x y x cos sin ) sin cos ( − − · + ie
) sin cos (
) cos (sin
x y x
x y y
dx
dy
+
+ −
· ∴
Parametric functions
) ( ), ( t g y t f x · · type the of Functions taken together is called Parametric function, where t is the paramter. Parametric
functions are also denoted as parameter. the is whereθ θ θ ) ( ), ( f y f x · ·
θ θ d
dy
d
dx
dt
dy
dt
dx
dx
dy
& or consider find To & ,
θ
θ
d dx
d dy
dx
dy
dt dx
dt dy
dx
dy
· · or then
dx
dy
t a y t a x find If (1) Eg.
3 3
, sin , cos · ·
t t a
dt
dx
t a x sin cos , cos
2 3
3 : Solution − · ·
,
t t a
dt
dy
t a y cos sin , sin
2 3
3 · ·
t
t t a
t t a
dt dx
dt dy
dx
dy
tan
sin cos
cos sin
− ·

· · ∴
2
2
3
3
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 79
dx
dy
a y a x find 4 3 4 3 If 2
3 3
), cos sin ( & ) sin cos ( ) ( θ θ θ θ − · − ·
) cos sin 12 sin 3 (
) sin cos 12 cos 3 (
: Solution
2
2
θ θ
θ θ θ
θ
θ
− −
+
· ·
a
a
d dx
d dy
dx
dy
θ
θ θ θ
θ θ θ
cot
) cos sin 4 1 ( sin 3
) cos sin 4 1 ( cos 3
− ·
+ −
+
·
Differentiation using Logarithms
) (
) (
x g
x f y · If
use logarithms on both sides
) ( log ) ( ) ( log log
) (
x f x g x f y
x g
· ·
differentiating w.r.t. x
) ( log ) ( '
) (
) ( ' ) (
) ( log ) ( ' ) ( '
) (
) ( x f x g
x f
x f x g
x f x g x f
x f
x g
dx
dy
y
+ · + ·
1 1
]
]
]

+ · ∴ ) ( log ) ( '
) (
) ( ' ) (
) (
) (
x f x g
x f
x f x g
x f
dx
dy
x g
x
x y
dx
dy
· if Find (1) Eg.
x x y log log · : Solution
1
1 1
⋅ + ⋅ · ∴ x
x
x
dx
dy
y
log
] log [ x x
dx
dy
x
+ · 1 ie
. , ) (cos ) (
tan sin
dx
dy
x x y
x x
find If 2 + ·
x x
x v x u v u y
tan sin
) (cos & · · + · where Let : Solution
x x u log sin log ·
x x
x
x
dx
du
u
log cos
sin
+ · ∴
1
]
]
]

+ · x x
x
x
x
dx
du
x
log cos
sin
sin
ie
x
x v
tan
) (cos ·
x x v cos log tan log ·
x x
x
x
x
dx
dv
v
cos log sec
cos
) sin (
tan
2
1 1
+

· ∴
] cos log sec tan [ ) (cos
tan
x x x x
dx
dv
x 2 2
+ − · ∴
] cos log sec tan [ ) (cos log cos
sin
tan sin
x x x x x x
x
x
x
dx
dv
dx
du
dx
dy
x x 2 2
+ − +
]
]
]

+ · + · ∴
80 KSOU Differential Calculus
Derivatives of inverse Trigonometric functions
1 for
1
1
1
2
1
<

·

x
x
x
dx
d
) (sin ) (
1 for
1
1
2
2
1
<

·

x
x
x
dx
d
) (cos ) (
2
1
1
1
3
x
x
dx
d
+
·

) (tan ) (
2
1
1
1
4
x
x
dx
d
+

·

) (cot ) (
1 for
1
1
5
2
1
>

·

| | ) (sec ) ( x
x x
x
dx
d
1 for
1
1
cosec 6
2
1
>

·

x
x x
x
dx
d
) ( ) (
Derivatives of inverse hyperbolic functions
x
x
x
dx
d

+
·

2
1
1
1
1 ) (sinh ) (
1 for
1
1
2
2
1
>

·

x
x
x
dx
d
) (cosh ) (
1 for
1
1
3
2
1
<

·

x
x
x
dx
d
) (tanh ) (
1 for
1
1
4
2
1
>

·

x
x
x
dx
d
) (coth ) (
1 for
1
1
sech 5
2
1
<

·

x
x x
x
dx
d
) ( ) (
2
1
1
1
cosech 6
x x
x
dx
d
+

·

) ( ) (
Exercise
following the of Find
dx
dy
x y x y a x y .
e e
cos log . ) ( log . · + · + · 3 2 3 2 1
2 2
2 2
3 2 6 5
1
1
4 ) ( . . . + · ·

+
· x y e x y
x
x
y
x
3 1 2
5 3 9 8 7
/
) ( . . . + · · + + · x y e y c bx ax y
x
x y x x x y e x x x y
x
e
1 5 2
12 cosec 11 10

· + − · + + + · sinh . tan . log sin .
x x y x x y x x y
1 1 1 1
cosec 15 14 13
− − − −
+ · ⋅ · · sec . sin sin . sinh sinh .
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 81
x
x x
y x x y x x y
1
18 1 17 1 16
2
2 1 2
+ +
· + · + ·

. sin ) ( . tan ) ( .
) cos (sin . log . ) ( ) ( . x x e y x e y x x y
x
e
x
+ · + · + + · 21 4 5 20 2 1 19
2
x x y
e e
y
x
e
y
x x x
2 24
2
23 22
2
sin sin . . . ⋅ ·
+
· ·

,
`

.
|

+
·
+
· + + + ·
− −
ax
a x
y
x
x
y c x b x a x y
1
27
1
2
26 25
1
2
1
tan . sin . ) )( )( ( .
x y e y
x
x
y
e
x
sin log . .
cos
cos
.
sinh
· ·
+

· 30 29
1
1
28

,
`

.
|

+
· − · ·
− −
x
x
y x x y x x y
e
1
1
33 1 32 31
1 1 2 2
tan . cos ) ( . ) tan ( log .
0 36 35
1
1
34
1 1 2 1
· + ·
,
`

.
|
+

·
− − −
y x c xy
x
x
y sin sin . . tan .
at y at x a y x a y x 2 39 38 37
2 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 2
· · · + · + , . . .
/ / /
t b y t a x t y t x
t
y t x sin , cos . sinh , cosh . , . · · · · · · 42 4 4 41
1
40
xy y xy x y t y t x
e
sin . cos . tan , sec log . · · · · 45 44 43
2
x x y
e e
e e
y
x x
e x
y
x x
x x
e
x
tan ) ( . .
log
) (
.
2
2
1 48 47
cosec
1
46 + ·
+

·

+
·

x
x
y
x x
e x
y
x
xe
y
e e
x x
log
cos
.
log
.
cos
.
1 2
51
1
50
1
49

·

+
·
+
·

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|

+
· ·
− −
− 2
3
1
2
2
1
1
3
3 1
3
54
1
1
53 52
x
x x
y
x
x
y
x
e x
y
x
tan . sec .
cos
.
x
x
x
y
x
x
y
x
x x
y sec .
sin
sin
.
cosh
.
1
3
57
1
1
56
cosech
5
55
3

+
·

+
· ·
0 60 59 1 cosec 1 58
1 2
· + + · + − − ·

y x x y y x y x x x y
e
sin sin . ) ( log ) sin( . ) ( ) ( .
t a y t a x t t e y t t e x
t t 4 4
62 61 sin , cos . ) sin (cos ), sin (cos . · · − · + ·
nx x y
t
a
y
t
a
x t y t x
n
e
sin sin .
cos
,
cos
. tan , sec log . ⋅ ·

·
+
· · · 65
1 1
64 63
2
x x x
x y x y x y
1
68 67 66
1

· · ·
− tan sin tan
) (sin . ) (sin . ) (sin .
y x y x x
x
e e e x y
e
+ · ·
+
. ) (log .
log
70 69
82 KSOU Differential Calculus
Successive Differentiation
obtained. be can s derivative further hence of function a also is then If , ) ( ) ( x x f
dx
dy
x f y ′ · ·
. ) ( y D y x f
dx
y d
2
2
2
2
or or or by denoted is derivative second The ′ ′
. ) ( y D y x f
dx
y d
3
3
3
3
or or or by denoted is derivative third The ′ ′ ′
. ) (
) (
y D y x f
dx
y d
n
n
n
n
n
n
or or or as denoted is derivative general In
th
Examples
1 at find 1 If 1
2
2
1 2
· + ·

x
dx
y d
x x y tan ) ( .
x x y
1 2
1 : Solution

+ · tan ) (
. tan ) ( tan ) ( x x x x
x
x
dx
dy
1 1
2
2
2 1 2
1
1
1
− −
+ · ⋅ +
+
× + ·
x
x
x
dx
y d
1
2 2
2
2
1
1
2 0

+
+
× + · tan
. ,
2
1
4
2
1 1
2
1 at
1
2
2
π π
+ · × +
+
·

,
`

.
|
·
· x
dx
y d
x
3 2
2
2
4
that show 4 If 2
y
a
dx
y d
ax y

· · , .
ax y 4 : Solution
2
·
x w.r.t. ating differenti
y
a
dx
dy
a
dx
dy
y
2
4 2 · ⇒ ·
x w.r.t. ating differenti again
3
2
2 2 2
2
4 2 2 2
y
a
y
a
y
a
dx
dy
y
a
dx
y d −
·

,
`

.
|
− · − ·
t a
t
dx
y d
t a y
t
t a x
4 2
2
that show then
2
If 3
cos
sin
, sin & tan log cos . · ·
,
`

.
|
+ ·

,
`

.
|
+ ·
2
: Solution
t
t x tan log cos
]
]
]
]
]
]

+ − · ∴
2 2
1
2
1
1
2
t
t a
dt
dx
sec
tan
sin
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 83
t
t a
t
t
a
t
t a
t t
t a
t
t a
sin
cos
sin
sin
sin
sin
cos sin
sin
cos tan
sin
2 2
2
1 1
2 2
2
1
2 2
1
2
1
·
]
]
]
]

+ −
·
]
]
]

+ − ·
]
]
]
]
]
]

+ − ·
]
]
]
]
]
]

+ − ·
t a
dt
dy
t a y cos , sin · ∴ ·
t t
t a
t a
dt dx
dt dy
dx
dy
tan sin
cos
cos
· × · · ∴
2
t
t a
t
dt dx
t
dx
dt
dx
dy
dt
d
dx
dy
dx
d
dx
y d
sin
cos
sec
sec
2
2
2
2
2
1
· × ·
,
`

.
|
·
,
`

.
|
· ∴
t a
t
dx
y d
4 2
2
cos
sin
· ∴
2
2
2
find If 4
dx
y d
x y , sin . ·
x x x
dx
dy
2 2 : Solution sin cos sin · ·
x x
dx
y d
2 2 2 2
2
2
cos cos · ⋅ ·
2
2
2
find If 5
dx
y d
x x y
e
log . ·
) log ( log 1 2 2
1
: Solution
2
+ · ⋅ + ⋅ · x x x x
x
x
dx
dy
e e
x x
x
x
dx
y d
e e
log ) log ( 2 3 1 2
2
2
2
+ · + +
,
`

.
|
·
2
2
find If 6
dx
y d
c bx e y
ax
) sin( . + ⋅ ·
ax ax
ae c bx b c bx e
dx
dy
⋅ + + ⋅ + ⋅ · ) sin( ) cos( : Solution
{ ¦ ) sin( ) cos( c bx a c bx b e
dx
dy
ax
+ + + ·
{ ¦ { ¦ ) sin( ) cos( ) cos( ) sin( c bx a c bx b ae c bx ab c bx b e
dx
y d
ax ax
+ + + + + + + − ·
2
2
2
{ ¦ ) sin( ) ( ) cos( c bx b a c bx ab e
ax
+ − + + ·
2 2
2
2
2
find 1 If 7
dx
y d
b y a x ) cos ( ), sin ( . θ θ θ − · − ·
θ
θ
θ
θ
sin ), cos ( b
d
dy
a
d
dx
· − · 1 : Solution
) cot(
) ( sin
) cos( ) sin(
) cos (
sin
2
2 2
2 2 2
1
2
θ
θ
θ θ
θ
θ
a
b
a
b
a
b
dx
dy
·

·

·
84 KSOU Differential Calculus
). (
) cos (
2 cosec
4 1
1
2
cosec
2 2
1
2
cosec
4
2
2 2
2
2
θ
θ
θ θ θ
a
b
a a
b
dx
d
a
b
dx
y d
− ·

⋅ − · ⋅ ⋅ − ·
0 1 that prove then If 8
2
1 2
2
1
· − − − ·

y m xy y x e y
x m
) ( , .
sin
2
1
: Solution
1
x
m
e
dx
dy
x m

⋅ ·

sin
cross multiplying & squaring, we have
2 2 2
1
2
1 y m y x · − ) (
differentiating w.r.t. x
1
2 2
1 2 1
2
2 2 2 1 yy m x y y y x ⋅ · − + ⋅ − ) ( ) (
0 1 get we 2 by t throughou Dividing
2
1 2
2
1
· − − − y m xy y x y ) ( ,
0 1 that prove then If 9
2
1 2
2 1
· + − − ·

y m xy y x x m y ) ( ), sin sin( .
2
1
1
1
: Solution
x
m
x m y

⋅ ·

) sin cos(
) ( ) (
2 2 2
1
2
2
2
1
1 1
1
1
y m y x
x
y m
y − · − ⇒

·
differentiating w.r.t. x
) ( ) ( ) (
1
2 2
1 2 1
2
2 2 2 1 yy m x y y y x − · − + −
. ) ( 0 1 get we 2 by ut throughto Dividing
2
1 2
2
1
· + − − y m xy y x y
0 1 1 2 1 that prove If 10
2
1
2
2
2 1
· − + + − − + ·

y x y x x y x x e y
x
) ( ) ( ) ( , tan .
x e
x
e
dx
dy
x x 1
2
1
1
: Solution

+
+
⋅ · tan
x
e y y x · − + ] )[ (
1
2
1
differentiating w.r.t. x
x
e y y x y y x · − + − + ) ( ) )( (
1 1 2
2
2 1
y x y x xy y x x y x ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1 1 2 2 1 1 + − + · − − + − +
0 1 1 2 1
2
1
2
2
2
· − + − + − + ⇒ y x y x x y x ) ( ) ( ) (
Exercise
2 2
2
2 2
9
16
that show 36 9 4 If 1
y dx
y d
y x − · · + ) (
3 2
2
2 2
3
2
that prove 1 3 2 If 2
) (
) (
y x dx
y d
y xy x
+

· · + +
2
2
3 3
find If 3
dx
y d
a y a x θ θ sin , cos ) ( · ·
2
2
find 2
2
1
If 4
dx
y d
a y a x θ θ sin , tan ) ( · ·
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 85
θ
θ
θ θ θ θ θ θ
a dx
y d
a y a x
3
2
2
that show If 5
sec
) cos (sin ), sin (cos ) ( · − · + ·
2
2
1
find then 2 If 6
dx
y d
x y , sin ) (

·
2
2
find then If 7
dx
y d
x x y
e
, log ) ( ·
2
2
4
find then 3 If 8
dx
y d
x e y
x
, sec ) ( ⋅ ·
2
2
find then If 9
dx
y d
a y
x
, ) ( ·
2
2
2
find then 2 If 10
dx
y d
at y at x , , ) ( · ·
2
2
3 3
find then If 11
dx
y d
a y x
x
, ) ( ·
0 that prove If 12
2
2
2
· + + · y m
dx
y d
mx b mx a y , sin cos ) (
0 1 that prove 1 If 13
2
1 2
2 2
· − + +

,
`

.
|
+ + · y m xy y x x x y
m
) ( , ) (
0 1 that prove If 14
2
2 1
· + − + ·
− +
y n n y x bx ax y
n n
) ( , ) (
0 1 that prove If 15
2
1 2
2
· + − − · · y p xy y x pt y t x ) ( , sin , sin ) (
0 6 2 that prove then 1 If 16
2
3 2 2
· + + · + + y y x y xy x ) ( , ) (
0 2 that prove If 17
2 2
1 2
· + + − · y b a ay y bx e y
ax
) ( sin ) (
0 2 that show then If 18
1 2
2
2
· − + + · ) ( ) ( y xy y x
x
b
ax y
y n n y x
x
b
ax y
n
n
) ( ) ( 1 that show then If 19
2
2 1
+ · + ·
+
0 that show then If 20
2
2
2
· + + · x n
dt
x d
nt b nt a x sin cos ) (
n
th
derivative of Standard functions
n
m
y b ax y find to If 1 ) ( . + ·
2 2
2
1
1
1 : Solution a b ax m m y a b ax m y
m m − −
+ − · + · ) )( ( ; ) (
have we times, ating differenti n
n n m
n
a b ax n m m m y

+ + − − · ) )( ( ) ( 1 1 L
b ax
y m
+
· − ·
1
ie 1 if particular in ,
n n
n
a b ax n y
− −
+ − − − − ·
1
3 2 1 ) )( ( ) )( )( ( L
1
1
ie
+
+

·
n
n n
n
b ax
a n
y
) (
! ) (
n
y b ax y find to If 2 ) log( . + ·
a
b ax
y ⋅
+
·
1
: Solution
1
86 KSOU Differential Calculus
times 1 ating differenti ) ( − n
n
n n
n
n n
n
b ax
a
a
b ax
a
y
) (
) (
) (
) (
+

· ⋅
+

·
− − − 1 1 1
1 1
n
mx
y a y find to If 3 · .
2 2
2 1
: Solution ) (log ; ) (log a m a y a m a y
mx mx
⋅ · ⋅ ·
mx n n
n
a a m y ) (log · ∴ general, In
n
y b ax y find to If 4 ) sin( . + ·

,
`

.
|
+ + · + ·
2
: Solution
1
π
b ax a b ax a y sin ) cos(
x w.r.t. ating differenti again

,
`

.
|
⋅ + + ·
,
`

.
|
+ + ·
2
2
2
2 2
2
π π
b ax a b ax a y sin cos

,
`

.
|
⋅ + + ·
,
`

.
|
⋅ + + ·
2
3
2
2
3 3
3
π π
b ax a b ax a y sin cos

,
`

.
|
⋅ + + · ∴
2
general, In
π
n b ax a y
n
n
sin
n
y b ax y find to If 5 ) cos( . + ·

,
`

.
|
+ + · + − ·
2
: Solution
1
π
b ax a b ax a y cos ) sin(
x w.r.t. ating differenti again

,
`

.
|
⋅ + + ·
,
`

.
|
+ + − ·
2
2
2
2 2
2
π π
b ax a b ax a y cos sin

,
`

.
|
⋅ + + · ∴
2
general, In
π
n b ax a y
n
n
cos
n
ax
y c bx e y find to If 6 ) cos( . + ·
x w.r.t. ating differenti : Solution
) sin( ) cos( c bx be c bx ae y
ax ax
+ − + ·
1
α α sin , cos r b r a · · put
α α sin ) sin( cos ) cos( c bx re c bx re y
ax ax
+ − + ·
1
then
) cos( ] sin ) sin( cos ) [cos( α α α + + · + − + · c bx re c bx c bx re
ax ax
get we g, simplifyin w.r.t. ating differenti again & x
) cos( α 2
2
2
+ + · c bx e r y
ax
a
b
b a r n c bx e r y
ax n
n
1 2 2
where general, In

· + · + + · tan & ) cos( α α
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 87
n
ax
y c bx e y find to If 7 ) sin( . + ·
x w.r.t. ating differenti : Solution
) cos( ) sin( c bx be c bx ae y
ax ax
+ + + ·
1
α α sin , cos r b r a · · put
) sin( ] sin ) cos( cos ) [sin( α α α + + · + + + · c bx re c bx c bx re y
ax ax
1
then
get we g, simplifyin w.r.t. ating differenti again & x
) sin( α 2
2
2
+ + · c bx e r y
ax
a
b
b a r n c bx e r y
ax n
n
1 2 2
where general, In

· + · + + · tan & ) sin( α α
8. Statement of Leibmitz's Theorem on n
th
derivative of a product
by given is product the of derivative the of functions are If
th
uv n x v u , &
n n n n n n
uv nc v u nc v u nc v u uv + + + + ·
− −
L L
2 2 2 2 1 1
) (
. & & v u v u of s derivative the of order represent of suffixes where
Examples
8 6
1
of derivative the Find 1
2
th
+ − x x
n .
(Say)
4 2 4 2
1
8 6
1
Let : Solution
2
) ( ) ( ) )( ( −
+

·
− −
·
+ −
·
x
B
x
A
x x x x
y
) )( ( 4 2 by t throughou g multiplyin − − x x
) ( ) ( 2 4 1 − + − · x B x A
2
1
2 1 2 put − · ⇒ − · · A A x ) ( ,
2
1
2 1 4 put · ⇒ · · B B x ,
) ( ) ( 4
2
1
2
2
1

+

· ∴
x x
y
1 1
4
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
have we times, ating differenti
+ +

+

− −
·
n
n
n
n
n
x
n
x
n
y n
) (
! ) (
) (
! ) (
x x n
3 2 th
of derivative the Find 2. cos sin
4
3 3
2
2 1
Let : Solution
3 2
x x x
x x y
cos cos ) cos (
cos sin
+
×

· ·
] cos cos cos cos cos [cos x x x x x x y 2 3 2 3 3 3
8
1
ie − − + ·
]
]
]

+ − + − + · ) cos (cos ) cos (cos cos cos x x x x x x 3
2
3
5
2
1
3 3
8
1
]
]
]

− − − − + · ) cos cos cos cos cos cos x x x x x x
2
3
3
2
3
2
1
5
2
1
3 3
8
1
88 KSOU Differential Calculus
]
]
]

− − · ∴ x x x y 5
2
1
3
2
1
8
1
cos cos cos
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+ ⋅ −
,
`

.
|
+ ⋅ −
,
`

.
|
+ ·
2
5 5
2
1
2
3 3
2
1
2 8
1
have we times, ating differenti
π π π
n x n x x y n
n n
n
cos cos cos
n
x
y x e y find to If 3
2 2
sin . ·
) cos ( x e y
x
2 1
2
1
: Solution
2
− · x e e y
x x
2
2
1
2
1
2 2
cos − ·
) cos( α − + ⋅ − · n x e r e y n
x n x n
n
2
2
1
2
2
1
have we times, ating differenti
2 2
4
1
2
2
8 4 4 where
1 1
π
α · · · · + ·
− −
tan tan , r
( )
,
`

.
|
⋅ + − · ∴

2
2 8
2
1
2
2 1
π
n x e y
n
x n
n
cos
n
x
y x x e y find 3 5 If 4
4
cos sin . ·
] sin [sin x x e y
x
2 8
2
1
: Solution
4
+ · x e x e y
x x
2
2
1
8
2
1
ie
4 4
sin sin + ·
( ) ( )
,
`

.
|
+ + +
,
`

.
|
+ + ·
− −
4
2
2 4 16
2
1
4
8
8 64 16
2
1
have we times, ating differenti
1 4 1 4
tan sin tan sin n x e n x e y n
x
n
x
n
n
( ) ( )
,
`

.
|
+ + + ·
− −
2
1
2 20
2
1
2 8 80
2
1
ie
1 4 1 4
tan sin ) tan sin( n x e n x e y
x
n
x
n
n
n
y x x y find 3 If 5
2
log . ·
x x y 3 : Solution
2
log ·
x x u log log log + · · 3 3 Let
2
1
1
x v
x
u
n
n
n
·

· ∴

,
) (
Theorem, s Leibnitz' using times, ating differenti n
2
1
2
1 1
2
3
2
1
2
1
2
1

+

+ ⋅

· ·

− −
n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
x
nC x
x
nC x
x
uv y
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
[ ] [ ] n n n
x
n n n
x
n
n
n
n
− + −

· − + − + −

·

2
2
3
1 2
2
3
2 1
1
1 2 1 1
1 ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
[ ] 1 3
1
ie
2
2
3
+ −

·

n n
x
y
n
n
n
) (
0 1 1 2 that show If 6
2
1 2
2
· + + + + + ·
+ + n n
x
n
y n y n y x x b x a y ) ( ) ( ) sin(log ) cos(log .
) sin(log ) cos(log x b x a y + · Let : Solution
x w.r.t. ating differenti
x
x b
x
x a y
1 1
1
) cos(log ) sin(log + − ·
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 89
) cos(log ) sin(log x b x a xy + − ·
1
ie
again w.r.t. ating differenti x
x
x b
x
x a y xy
1 1
1 2
) sin(log ) cos(log − − · +
y x b x a xy y x − · − − · + ) sin(log ) cos(log
1 2
2
ie
0 ie
1 2
2
· + + y xy y x
have we Theorem, s Leibnitz' using times, ating differenti n
0 1 1 1 2 adding,
0
1
2 2
1 2
2
1 1
2 1 1 2
2
· + + − + + +
· +
⋅ + +
⋅ + +
+ +
+
+ +
n n n
n
n n
n n n
y n n n xy n y x
y
y nC xy
y nC xy nC y x
] ) ( [ ) (
0 1 1 2 ie
2
1 2
2
· + + + +
+ + n n n
y n xy n y x ) ( ) (
0 1 2 1 that prove If 7
2 2
1 2
2
1
· + − + − − ·
+ +

n n n
x m
y m n xy n y x e y ) ( ) ( ) ( , .
cos
x m
e y
1
: Solution

·
cos
x w.r.t. ating differenti
2
1
1 x
m
e y
x m

⋅ ·
cos
my y x − · −
1
2
1 ie
squaring both sides
2 2 2
1
2
1 y m y x · − ) (
, x t. again w.r. ating differenti
1
2 2
1 2 1
2
2 2 2 1 yy m x y y y x · − + − ) ( ) (
have we 2 by dividing
1
, y
0 1
2
1 2
2
· − − − y m xy y x ) (
Theorem, s Leibnitz' using times w.r.t. ating differenti n x,
0 1 2 1 adding,
0
1
2 2 1
2 2
1 2
2
2
1 1
2 1 1 2
2
· + + − − + − −
· −
− + −
− + − + −
+ +
+
+ +
n n n
n
n n
n n n
y m n n n xy n y x
y m
y nC xy
y nC x y nC y x
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
0 1 2 1 ie
2 2
1 2
2
· + − + − −
+ + n n n
y m n xy n y x ) ( ) ( ) (
0 1 2 1 that prove 2 If 8
2 2
1 2
2 1 1
· − + + + − · +
+ +

n n n
m m
y m n xy n y x x y y ) ( ) ( ) ( , .
x y y
m m
2 : Solution
1 1
· +

( )
m m
xy y
1
2
1
2 1 ie · +
( ) 0 1 2
1
2
1
· + − ∴
m m
xy y
90 KSOU Differential Calculus
1
2
4 4 2
in equation quadratic a is which
2
2
1 1
− t ·
− t
· ∴ x x
x x
y y
m m
m
m
x x y x x y

,
`

.
|
− + · ∴ − + · 1 1 Consider,
2 2 1
x w.r.t. ating differenti
1
1
1
1 2
2
1 1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
1

,
`

.
|
+ −

,
`

.
|
− + ·

,
`

.
|

+

,
`

.
|
− + ·
− −
x
x x
x x m
x
x
x x m y
m m
my y x · −
1
2
1 ie
2 2 2
1
2
1 sides both Squaring y m y x · − ) (
x w.r.t. ating differenti
1
2 2
1 2 1
2
2 2 2 1 yy m x y y y x · + − ) ( ) (
have we 2 by t throughou dividing
1
, y
0 1
2
1 2
2
· − + − y m xy y x ) (
Theorem s Leibnitz' using times ating differenti n
0 1 2 1 adding,
0
1
2 2 1
2 2
1 2
2
2
1 1
2 1 1 2
2
· − + − + + + −
· −
+ +
+ + −
+ +
+
+ +
n n n
n
n n
n n n
y m n n n xy n y x
y m
y nC xy
y nC x y nC y x
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
0 1 2 1 ie
2 2
1 2
2
· − + + + −
+ + n n n
y m n xy n y x ) ( ) ( ) (
m
m
x x y x x y

,
`

.
|
− − ·

,
`

.
|
− − · 1 ie 1 if result same obtain the We
2 2 1
Exercise
6 5
1
of derivative the Find 1
2
th
+ − x x
n .
. cos cos ) ( sin sin ) ( cos sin ) ( cos ) ( sin ) ( . x x v x x iv x x iii x ii x i n 5 4 8 3 4 of derivative the Find 2
3 3 th
x x e iii x e ii x e i n
x x x
2 5 of derivative the Find 3
2 2 2 3 th
cos sin ) ( cos ) ( sin ) ( .
0 1 2 1 that prove If 4
2 2
1 2
2 1
· − − + − − ·
+ +

n n n
y m n xy n y x x m y ) ( ) ( ) ( ), sin sin( .
0 1 2 1 that prove If 5
2 2
1 2
2
1
· + − + − − ·
+ +

n n n
x a
y a n xy n y x e y ) ( ) ( ) ( , .
sin
0 1 2 1 that prove 1 If 6
1 2
2 2
· + − + − − ·
+ + n n n
n
y n n xy y x x y ) ( ) ( , ) ( .
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 91
Polar Co-ordinates
curve. on the point any be Let line. initial the and point fixed a be Let P OA O
r OP P O A · · &

θ Let
ordinates. - co Polar called are which are of ordinates - co then ) , ( θ r P
direction. anticlock in measured the is and
from of distance is which vector, radius called is
P O A O
P r

θ
) (θ f r · as taken is curve the o Equation t
Let PT be the tangent to the curve r = f (θ) at P, then angle made by
the tangent with radius vector OP is denoted as ϕ ϕ · PT O

ie and angle
made by the tangent with initial line OA is denoted by ψ. It can be seen
from the figure that
ϕ θ ψ + · (1)
Let OQ represent perpendicular from the pole O upon the tangent at P, it is denoted as p.
r
p
OP
OQ
OPQ · · φ sin that triangle the from seen be can It
φ sin r p · ∴ (2)
result) (important that prove To
dr
rdθ
φ · tan
θ cos ) , ( r x y x P · then are of ordinates - co Cartesian the If
dx
dy
r y · · ψ θ tan sin and
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ θ
θ
θ
ψ
sin cos
sin cos
tan
r
d
dr
d
dr
r
d dx
d dy

+
· · ∴
have we by RHS of Dr & Nr dividing & (1) using , cos
θ
θ
d
dr
θ
θ
θ
θ
ϕ θ
tan
tan
) tan(
dr
d
r
dr
d
r

+
· +
1
dr
d
r
dr
d
r
θ
θ
θ
θ
φ θ
φ θ
⋅ −
+
·

+
tan
tan
tan tan
tan tan
1
1
ie
Comparing LHS & RHS, we have
dr
d
r
θ
φ · tan (3)
φ sin r p · (2) from [ ] (3) using
1 1
1
1
cosec
1 1
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
]
]
]

+ · + · · ∴
θ
φ φ
rd
dr
r r r r p
cot
2
4 2
2
1 1 1

,
`

.
|
+ ·
θ d
dr
r r p
(4)
curve, for the between relation a obtain and eliminate can we 4 using r p f r & ) ( & ) ( θ θ · which is called Pedal
Equation or (p, r) equation of the curve.
P r ( , ) q
r = f ( ) q
j
q
y
A
Q
T
p
O
r
92 KSOU Differential Calculus
To find the angle between two curves ) ( & ) ( θ θ g r f r · ·
. ) ( & ) ( P g r f r at intersect curves two Let the θ θ · ·
2 1
Let PT PT & be the tangents to the two curves and let
2 1
φ φ & bet the angles
made by the tangents with the radius vector OP.
2 1
by given is curves o between tw Angle φ φ − ∴
( )
2 1
2 1
2 1
1
Now
φ φ
φ φ
φ φ
tan tan
tan tan
tan
+

· −
(5)
2 1
find can we (3) in result the using φ φ tan & tan and hence angle between two
curves at the point of intersection can be found out.
( ) 0 then If
2 1 2 1
· − · φ φ φ φ tan tan tan
. at other each touch curves two the ie
2 1
P ∴ · φ φ
2
then 1 If
2 1 2 1
π
φ φ φ φ · − − · tan tan
ly. orthogonal intersect to said are curves two the ∴
Examples
vector. radius the to angle constant a at inclined is tangent the spiral r equiangula in the that Show (1)
α θ cot
ae r ·
α θ cot
ae r · : Solution
α α
θ
θ
α θ
cot cot , w.r.t. ating differenti
cot
r ae
d
dr
· ·
α φ α
α
θ
θ
φ · ⇒ · · · · tan
cot
tan
r
r
d
dr
r
dr
d
r hence the result.
line. initial the to parallel is
3
point at the 1 Cardiod the o tangent t that the Show 2
π
θ θ · + · ) cos ( ) ( a r
) cos ( θ + · 1 : Solution a r
) sin 0 ( , w.r.t. ating differenti θ
θ
θ − · a
d
dr

,
`

.
|
+ · − ·

·

+
· · ·
2 2 2
2 2
2
2
1
2
θ π θ
θ θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
φ tan cot
cos sin
cos
sin
) cos (
tan
a
a
d
dr
r
dr
d
r
2 2
θ π
φ + · ∴ π
π π π
φ θ ψ
π π
φ
π
θ · + + · + · + · ·
6 2 3 6 2 3
when & ,
line. initial the to parallel is tangent the ∴
2
cosec ( and
2
( that show 1
2
curve For the (3)
θ θ
π φ θ a p ii i
r
a
· − · − · ) ) cos
θ cos − ·1
2
: Solution
r
a
r = f ( ) q
r = g ( ) q
P
T
2
T
1
f
2
f
1
f
1
-f
2
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 93
a
r
d
dr
d
dr
r
a
2
sin
sin
2
, w.r.t. ating differenti
2
2
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ

· ∴ · −
2
2 2
2
2
1 2
2
Now
2
2
θ
θ θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
φ tan
cos sin
sin
sin
cos
sin
sin
tan − ·

·

· − ·

· · ·
r
a
a
r
r
d
dr
r
dr
d
r

,
`

.
|
− · − ·
2 2
ie
θ
π
θ
φ tan tan tan
2 2 2
θ θ
π φ
θ
π φ sin sin sin & r r r p ·
,
`

.
|
− · · − · ∴
2 2
2
2
2 1
2
2
ie
2
θ θ
θ
θ
θ
sin sin
sin
cos
sin
a a a
p · ⋅ ·

⋅ ·
2
cosec
θ
a p · ∴
. cos sin & sin ) ( θ θ θ + · · r r 2 curves e between th angle the Find 4
θ
θ
θ cos , sin 2 2 : Solution · ·
d
dr
r
vector radius on with intersecti of point at the tangent by the made angle the be Let
1
φ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
φ tan
cos
sin
tan · · · · ∴
2
2
1
d
dr
r
dr
d
r
θ φ · ∴
1
(1)
θ θ cos sin + · r curve for the
θ θ
θ
sin cos − ·
d
dr
curve this w.r.t. angle the be Let
2
φ

,
`

.
|
+ ·

+
·

+
· · · ∴
4 1
1
2
π
θ
θ
θ
θ θ
θ θ
θ
θ
φ tan
tan
tan
sin cos
cos sin
tan
d
dr
r
dr
d
r
4
2
π
θ φ + · ∴ (2)
θ
π
θ φ φ − + · −
4
(2) & (1) from
2 1
4
is curves o between tw angle
π

angles. right at intersect 1 1 curves that the Prove 5 ) cos ( & ) cos ( ) ( θ θ − · + · b r a r
) cos ( θ + · 1 Consider : Solution a r
θ
θ
sin a
d
dr
− ·
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
φ
sin
) cos (
sin
) cos (
tan

+
·

+
· · · ∴
1 1
1
a
a
d
dr
r
dr
d
r
(1)
94 KSOU Differential Calculus
θ
θ
θ sin ), cos ( b
d
dr
b r · − · 1 Consider
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
φ
sin
) cos (
sin
) cos (
tan

·

· · ·
1 1
2
b
b
d
dr
r
dr
d
r
(2)
(2) & (1) from
1
1 1 1
2
2
2
2
2 1
− ·

·

·

×

+
·
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
φ φ
sin
sin
sin
cos
sin
) cos (
sin
) cos (
tan tan
ly. orthogonal intersect curves two the ∴
θ cos ) + ·1
2
of equation pedal the Find (6
r
a
θ cos + ·1
2
: Solution
r
a
θ w.r.t. ating differenti
θ
θ
sin − · −
d
dr
r
a
2
2
a d
dr
r 2
1
ie
2
θ
θ
sin
·
(1)
(1) using
4
1 1 1 1 1 1
Now
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
4 2
2
a r d
dr
r r d
dr
r r p
θ
θ θ
sin
+ ·
,
`

.
|
+ ·
,
`

.
|
+ ·
[ ]
]
]
]
]

+ − − + ·
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
− − + · − + ·
r
a
r
a
a r r
a
a r a r
4
1
4
1
4
1 1
1
2
1
4
1 1
1
4
1 1
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
θ cos
ar ar r r r
a
r
a
a r p
1 1 1 1 4 4
4
1 1 1
ie
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
· + − ·
]
]
]
]

+

+ ·
equation. pedal required the is which
2
ar p · ∴
Exercise
) cos 1 ( curve. the o tangent t on the pole the from lar perpendicu the of length the Find 1. θ − · a r
,
`

.
|
2
sin 2 : Ans
3
θ
a
. 3 that show 2 curve the 2
2 2
θ ψ θ · · sin For . a r
θ θ cos , sin 2 2 curves the of on intersecti of angle the Find 3. · · r r
,
`

.
|
2
π
ly. orthogonal intersect 1 1 curves that the Show 4 ) sin ( & ) sin ( . θ θ − · + · a r a r
θ m a r
m m
cos · curve the of equation pedal the Find 5.
1
+
·
m m
r pa
θ a r · of equation pedal the Find 6.
4 2 2 2
: Answer r a r p · + ) (
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 95
Indeterminate Forms
[ ] ° ∞° ∞ − ∞

→ → →
0 1
0
0
forms the it takes when or or evaluating While , , , , , ) ( lim ) ( ) ( lim
) (
) (
lim
) ( x g
a x a x a x
x f x g x f
x g
x f
they
are called Indeterminate forms and to evaluate such forms the following rule known as L' Hospital's Rule is used.
L' Hospital's Rule
then or
0
0
form the of is this if again then or
0
0
form the of is If

·

→ → →
) (
) (
lim
) (
) (
lim
) (
) (
lim
x g
x f
x g
x f
x g
x f
a x a x a x
applied. be can rule This or
0
0
the of is it whenever

′ ′
′ ′
·
→ →
) (
) (
lim
) (
) (
lim
x g
x f
x g
x f
a x a x
[ ] then form the of is it when evaluate To , ) ( ) ( lim ∞ − ∞ −

x g x f
a x
[ ] applied. be can Rule s Hospital' L' hence
0
0
form the of is which
1
1 1
Consider &
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
lim ) ( ) ( lim
x f x g
x f x g
x g x f
a x a x

· −
→ →
say) Consider ( ) ( lim
) (
y x f
x g
a x
·

) (
) ( log
lim ) ( log ) ( lim ) ( log lim log
) (
x g
x f
x f x g x f y
a x a x
x g
a x 1
then
→ → →
· · ·
applied. be can rule s Hospital' L' hence and or
0
0
form the of is which

Examples
2 3
Evaluate (1)
2
1
+ −

x x
x
x
log
lim
0
0
form the of is this
2 3
: Solution
2
1
+ −

x x
x
x
log
lim rule s Hospital' L' using ∴
1
3 2
1
3 2
1
1
− ·

·

·

x
x
x
lim
3
0
2 2
Evaluate (2)
x
x x
x
sin sin
lim

3
0
2 2
: Solution
x
x x
x
sin sin
lim

rule s Hospital' L' applying
0
0
form the of is This ∴
2
0
3
2 2 2
x
x x
x
cos cos
lim

·

again rule s Hospital' L' applying
0
0
form the of is it again ∴
1 1
3
4
1
6
2
2
2
3
4
6
2
6
2 4 2
0 0 0
· × + × − ·
]
]
]

+ ⋅ − ·
+ −
·
→ → →
θ
θ
θ
sin
lim
sin sin
lim
sin sin
lim Q
x
x
x
x
x
x x
x x
1
3
4
3
1
· + − ·
96 KSOU Differential Calculus
x x
x x
x
tan
tan
lim ) (
2
0
Evaluate 3

1 : Solution
0
3
0
3
0
2
0
·

· ×

·

→ → → →
x
x
x
x x
x
x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x x x
tan
lim
tan
lim
tan
tan
lim
tan
tan
lim Q
rule s Hospital' L' using
0
0
form the of is This ∴
0
0
3
1
2
2
0
·

·

x
x
x
sec
lim
again rule the using ∴
3
1
1
6
2
6
2
6
2
2
0 0
· × · × ·

·
→ →
x
x x
x
x x x
x x
tan sec
lim
tan sec sec
lim
]
]
]

1
1 1
Evaluate (4)
0
x
x
e x
lim
∞ − ∞ form the of is This : Solution
0
0
form the of is which
1
1
1
1 1
0 0
x e
x e
e x
x
x
x
x
x
) (
) (
lim lim

− −
·
]
]
]

− ∴
→ →
rule s Hospital' L' using ∴
x x
x
x
xe e
e
+ −

·

1
1
0
lim
again rule the using
0
0
form the of again is which ∴
2
1
1 0 1
1
0
·
+ +
·
+ +
·

x x x
x
x
e xe e
e
lim

,
`

.
|

− → x x
x
x log
lim ) (
1
1
Evaluate 5
1
∞ − ∞ form the of This : Solution

,
`

.
| −

·

,
`

.
|

→ →
x
x
x
x
x
x
x x
x
x x 1
1
1
1
1 1
log
log
lim
log
lim
rule s Hospital' L' using
0
0
form the of is This ∴
rule s Hospital' L' the applying again form
0
0
is
1
1
1 1 1
1 1
1
2
2
1
− +

·
×

+
,
`

.
|
×

·
→ →
x x
x
x x
x
x
x
x x
x x
log
lim
log
lim
2
1
1
1
1
1
·
+
·

x
x
lim
x
x
x
cot
) (tan lim ) (
2
Evaluate 6
π

MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 97
0
form the of is This : Solution ∞
x
x
x y
cot
) (tan lim
2
Let
π

·
x
x
x x x y
x x
x
x
tan
tan log
lim tan log cot lim ) log(tan lim log
cot
2 2 2
π π π
→ → →
· · · rule s Hospital' L' using
0
1
1
2 2
2
2
2
· · ·

·
→ → →
x
x x
x
x
x x x
cot lim
tan
lim
sec
sec
tan
lim
π π π
1
0
· · ∴ e y
x
x x
x
1
0
Evaluate 7
,
`

.
|

sin
lim ) (

1 form the of is This : Solution
x
x x
x
y
1
0
Let
,
`

.
|
·

sin
lim
x
x
x
x
x
x
y
x x

,
`

.
|
·
,
`

.
|
·
→ →
sin
log
lim
sin
log lim log
0 0
1
rule s Hospital' L' the applying
0
0
form the of is This ∴
2
0
2
0
2
0
1
1 x
x x x
x
x x x
x
x
x
x x x
x
x
x x x
sin cos
lim
sin cos
sin
lim
sin cos
sin
lim

× ·

× ·

×
·
→ → →
rule s Hospital' L' the applying again
0
0
form the of is This ∴
0
2 2 2
0 0 0
·

·

·
− −
·
→ → →
x
x
x x
x
x x x x
x x x
sin
lim
sin
lim
cos sin cos
lim
1 0 ie · ∴ · y y log
limit. the and of value the find finite, is
2
If 8
3
0
a
x
x x a
x
tan
sin sin
lim ) (

rule s Hospital' L' the applying
0
0
form the of is limit given The : Solution ∴
x x
x x a
x
2 2
0
3
2 2
sec tan
cos cos
lim

·

0
0
form the of is this if exists limit
2 0 for 0 2 2 · ∴ · · − ∴ a x x x a cos cos
0
0
form of is 1 1
3
2 2 3 1
3
2 2 2
2
0
2 2
2
2
0
× ×

· × ×

·
→ →
x
x x
x x
x
x
x x
x x
cos cos
lim
sec tan
cos cos
lim
98 KSOU Differential Calculus
rule s Hospital' L' using ∴
1
3
4
3
1
3
4
6
2
2
2
3
4
6
2
6
2 4 2
0 0
· + − · + − · × +

·
+ −
·
→ →
x
x
x
x
x
x x
x x
sin sin
lim
sin sin
lim
1. is limit the and 2 · ∴ a
Exercise
Evaluate the following
x x
e e
x x
x x
x x
x x
sin
lim ) (
sin
cos cosh
lim
sin

− −
→ → 0 0
2 (1)
2
0 0
1
4
1
1
3
x
x xe
x
x e
x
x
x
x
) log(
lim ) (
) log(
sin
lim ) (
+ −
+
− −
→ →

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

→ →
x x x x
x x
1 1
6
1 1
5
0
2 2
0
sin
lim ) (
sin
lim ) (
x
x
x
x
x x

→ →
1
1
1
1
0
8 7
2
) ( lim ) ( ) (cos lim ) (
x
x x x
x
x
x
c b a
x
1
0
1
0
3
10 9

,
`

.
|
+ +
→ →
lim ) ( ) (cot lim ) (
log
3
1
10
1
9
1
8
1
7 0 6
3
1
5
2
3
(4) 2 (3) 1 (2) 1 (1) : Answers ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( abc
e e
e

MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 99
Partial Derivatives
A function of two independent variables and a dependent variable is denoted as ) , ( y x f z · which is explicit function where
x & y are independent variables and z a dependent variable. Implicit function is denoted by C z y x · ) , , ( φ
x
f
x
z
x f z
x
y x f y x x f
x ∂

∂ − +

or by denoted and w.r.t. or of derivative Partial called is it then exists If
0
δ
δ
δ
) , ( ) , (
lim
y
f
y
z
y f z
y
y x f y y x f
y ∂

∂ − +

or by denoted and w.r.t. or of derivative Partial called is it then exists If
0
δ
δ
δ
) , ( ) , (
lim
y
z
y x
x
z

finding while and constant a as treating .r.t. function w given the ate differenti derivative the obtaining while
differentiate the given function with respect to y, treating x as a constant.
y x
y
z
y x y x
x
z
y xy x z 2 2 0 2 then If (1) Eg.
2 2
− ·

+ · + + ·

− + · &
) cos ( cos & sin cos sin ) ( xy x x xy x x
y
z
xy y xy x xy
x
z
xy x y x z − · ⋅ − ·

− ⋅ − ·

− · 1 2 then If 2
2 2 2
( )
( )
2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2 2 2
1
2 2 2
4
1
1
then
2
If 3
y x
x xy y y x
y x
y x x
z
y x
xy
z

⋅ − −
×

+
·

,
`

.
|

·

) (
tan ) (
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2 3
2
2 2
2 3 2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2 2 2 4 2 2
4
y x
y
y x
x y y
y x
y x y
y x
y x y y x
y x y x
y x
+

·
+
+ −
·
+
− −
·

− −
×
+ −

·
) (
( )
( )
2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
4
1
1
y x
y xy x y x
y x
y x y
z

− − −
×

+
·

∂ ) ( ) )( (
&
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2 3
2
2 2
2 2 3
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2 2 2 4 2 2
4
y x
x
y x
y x x
y x
xy x
y x
xy xy y x
y x y x
y x
+
·
+
+
·
+
+
·

+ −
×
+ −

·
) (
Successive derivatives
are s derivative partial order second the s, derivative partial order first are & ) , ( function For the
y
z
x
z
y x f z

·
. general in but , , , as denoted are which , , ,
2 2
2
2 2 2
2
2
x y
z
y x
z
y
z
x y
z
y x
z
x
z
y
z
y x
z
y y
z
x x
z
x ∂ ∂

·
∂ ∂

∂ ∂

∂ ∂

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

1 & 1 , 2 , 2 (1) example In
2 2
2
2
2
2
·
∂ ∂

·
∂ ∂

− ·

·

x y
z
y x
z
y
z
x
z
xy x xy y x x
y x
z
xy x xy x xy y x x
x y
z
cos 2 sin 2 & cos cos sin 2 (2) example In
2
2
2
2
− + ·
∂ ∂

− − + ·
∂ ∂

x y
z
y x
z
∂ ∂

·
∂ ∂

2 2
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
) ( 2 4 2 2 2 2 ) 2 )( ( 2
(3) example In
y x
y x
y x
y y x
y x
y y y x
y x
y
y x y
z
+
− −
·
+
+ − −
·
+
⋅ + − +
·

,
`

.
|
+

·
∂ ∂

( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
) ( 2 2 2 2 2 2 ) ( 2
and
y x
y x
y x
x y
y x
x x y x
y x
x
x y x
z
+
− −
·
+

·
+
⋅ − +
·

,
`

.
|
+ ∂

·
∂ ∂

x y
z
y x
z
∂ ∂

·
∂ ∂

2 2
always general, in Thus
Exercise
x y
z
y x
z
y x z
y
z
x
z
∂ ∂

·
∂ ∂

+ ·

2 2
2 2
that show and ) log( for , Find ) 1 (
constant. a is where that show ) ( ) ( If ) 2 (
2
2
2
2
2
c
x
z
c
t
z
ct x ct x f x

·

− + + · φ
abz
y
z
a
x
z
b by ax f e z
by ax
2 that show then ) ( If (3) ·

+

− ·
+

,
`

.
|

− ·

,
`

.
|

+
+
·
y
u
x
u
y
u
x
u
y x
y x
u 1 4 that show then If ) 4 (
2
2 2
. that show then sin If ) 5 (
2 2
1
x y
u
y x
u
x
y
u
∂ ∂

·
∂ ∂

,
`

.
|
·

100 KSOU Differential Calculus
105 KSOU Matrix Theory
INTEGRAL CALCULUS
called is finding of process the Given y x f
dx
dy
, ) ( · 'Integration' and the resulting function is called 'Integral'. If g (x) is
the integral then ) ( ) ( x g dx x f ·

is the notation used to represent the process.
In the above notation f (x) is called 'Integrand' and further [ ] . ) ( ) ( x f x g
dx
d
·
[ ] t constan a is when But c x g c x g
dx
d
) ( ) ( ′ · +

+ · ∴ c x g dx x f ) ( ) (
Thus integral of a function is not unique and two integrals always differ by a constant.
Properties
[ ]
∫ ∫ ∫
t · t dx x dx x f dx x x f ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ϕ φ 1
constant a is where 2 K dx x f K dx x Kf
∫ ∫
· ) ( ) ( ) (

· constant) (a 0 (3) c dx
Standard Integrals
n
n n
n
x c
n
x
dx
d
n c
n
x
dx x ·

,
`

.
|
+
+
− ≠ +
+
·
+ +

1
1
1
1
1 1
Q ) ( .
x
c x
dx
d
c x dx
x
e
1 1
2 · + + ·

) (log log . Q
∫ ∫
+ · ·

,
`

.
|
+ + · c e dx e a c
a
a
dx
d
c
a
a
dx a
x x x
x x
x
particular in 3
log log
. Q

+ − · c x dx x cos sin . 4

+ · c x dx x sin cos . 5

+ · 1 6 x dx x x sec tan sec .

+ − · c x dx x x cosec cosec 7 cot .

+ · c x dx x cosh sinh . 8

+ · c x dx x sinh cosh . 9

+ − · c x dx x x sech sech 10 tanh .

+ − · c x dx x x cosesh cosech 11 coth .
c x c x dx
x
+ − + ·
+
− −

1 1
2
or
1
1
12 cot tan .
c x c x dx
x
+ − + ·

− −

1 1
2
or
1
1
13 cos sin .
c x dx
x
+ ·
+

1
2
1
1
14 sinh .
c x dx
x
+ ·

1
2
1
1
15 cosh .
c x c x dx
x x
+ − + ·

− −

1 1
2
cosec or
1
1
16 sec .
c x dx
x x
+ − ·

1
2
sech
1
1
17.
c x dx
x x
+ − ·
+

1
2
cosech
1
1
18.
Methods of Integration
There are two methods (1) Integration by substitution & (2) Integration by parts.
1. Integration by substitution

dx x f ) ( Consider

dt t dx t
dt
dx
t x ) ( ) ( ) ( φ φ φ ′ · ′ · · ie then put
[ ] dt t t f dx x f ) ( ) ( ) ( φ φ ′ · ∴
∫ ∫
now for the new integrand, we can use the standard forms, ie. we have to make a proper substitution so that the given
integrand reduced to a standard one.
Examples
dx
x
x
dx x
∫ ∫
·
cos
sin
tan . 1
dt dx x
dx
dt
x t x − · · − · sin sin , cos ie then put
c x x t
t
dt
dx x + · − · − · − · ∴
∫ ∫
sec log cos log log tan
∫ ∫
· dx
x
x x
dx x
sec
sec tan
tan or
x t x w.r.t. ating differenti put , sec ·
dx
dt
x x · tan sec dt dx x x · ∴ tan sec
102 KSOU Integral Calculus
c x t
t
dt
dx x + · · · ∴
∫ ∫
sec log log tan
∫ ∫
· dx
x
x
dx x
sin
cos
cot . 2
x t x w.r.t. ating differenti put , sin · dt dx x
dx
dt
x · · cos cos ie
∫ ∫
+ · · · ∴ c x t
t
dt
dx x sin log log cot

+ · c x dx x cosh log tanh . 3

+ · c x dx x sinh log coth . 4

+ + · c x x dx x ) tan log(sec sec . 5

+ − · c x x dx x ) cot log( . cosec cosec 6
[ ]
[ ]
) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( log
) (
) (
1
1
also general In
1
− ≠ +
+
· ′ + ·

+
∫ ∫
n c
n
x f
dx x f x f c x f dx
x f
x f
n
n
2. Integration by parts
dx
du
v
dx
dv
u uv
dx
d
x v u + · ) ( , & that, know we of functions are If
n Integratio of definition By ∴
(1) property using
∫ ∫ ∫
+ ·
,
`

.
|
+ · dx
dx
du
v dx
dx
dv
u dx
dx
du
v
dx
dv
u uv
∫ ∫
− · ∴ dx
dx
du
v uv dx
dx
dv
u
The result can be used as the standard result. Out of the two functions of the product, one has to be taken as u & another
dx
dv
then the RHS after evaluation gives the integral or if both functions have taken as u & v then the result is as follows
dx dx v
dx
du
dx v u dx uv
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

,
`

.
|
⋅ − ·
∫ ∫
′ − · ′ dx v u uv dx v u as written be also can one first The e. convenienc on depending used be can form one any
Examples
x x x
e v u e v v u dx xe · · ′ · ′ ·

, , , . 1 put 1
c e xe dx e xe dx v u uv dx xe
x x x x x
+ − · ⋅ − · ′ − · ∴
∫ ∫ ∫
1
c x x x dx x x x dx x x x dx x du x x dx x x + + − · + − · − − − · ⋅ − ·
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
sin cos cos cos cos cos sin sin sin . 1 2

· · ′ · ′ · x v
x
u v x u dx x , , , log log .
1
1 put 3
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 103
∫ ∫
′ − · ′ ∴ dx v u uv dx v u
c x x x dx x x dx x
x
x x dx x + − · ⋅ − · ⋅ − ·
∫ ∫ ∫
log log log log 1
1
ie
x v
x
u v x u dx x ·

· ′ · ′ ·
− −

, , , sin sin .
2
1 1
1
1
1 put 4
dx x
x
x x dx x
∫ ∫

− · ∴
− −
2
1 1
1
1
sin sin
2 2
2
1 put
1
evaluate to t x dx
x
x
· −

x w.r.t. ating differenti
dt t dx x dt t dx x · − ⇒ · − 2 2
2
2 2
1 1
1
x t dt
t
dt t
x
dx x
− · · ⋅ · ·

∫ ∫ ∫
c x x x dx x + − − · ∴

− − 2 1 1
1 sin sin
Special Types of Integrals
Type I
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
+ + − − + C Bx Ax
dx
x a
dx
a x
dx
x a
dx
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
4 3 2 (1) ) ( & ) ( , ) ( ,
dt a dx at x · · , put (1) evaluate to
c
a
x
a
t
a t
dt
a t a a
dt a
x a
dx
+ · ·
+
·
+
·
+

− −
∫ ∫ ∫
1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1
1
1
tan tan
fractions partial use (3) & (2) evaluate to
(Say)
1 1
2 2
a x
B
a x
A
a x a x a x −
+
+
·
− +
·
− ) )( (
2 2
by hroughout multiply t a x −
) ( ) ( a x B a x A + + − · 1
a
B a B a x
2
1
2 0 1 put · ∴ ⋅ + · · ,
a
A a A a x
2
1
0 2 1 put

· ∴ + − · − · ) ( ,
a x
a
a x
a
a x −
+
+

·

2
1
2
1
1
2 2
a x
a x
a
a x
a
a x
a a x
dx
a a x
dx
a
dx
a x +

· − + + − ·

+
+
− ·

∫ ∫ ∫
log ) log( ) log(
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1 1
2 2
c
a x
a x
a a x
dx
+
+

·

log
2
1
2 2
104 KSOU Integral Calculus
(Say)
1 1
next,
2 2
x a
B
x a
A
x a x a a x −
+
+
·
− +
·
− ) )( (
then by t throughou g multiplyin
2 2
, x a −
) ( ) ( x a B x a A + + − · 1
a
B a B a x
2
1
2 0 1 put · ⇒ + · · ) ( ,
a
A a A a x
2
1
0 2 put · ⇒ + − · ) ( ,
x a
a
x a
a
x a −
+
+
·

2
1
2
1
1
2 2

,
`

.
|

+
· − − + ·

+
+
·

∫ ∫ ∫
x a
x a
a
x a
a
x a
a
dx
x a a
dx
x a a
dx
x a
log ) log( ) log(
2
1
2
1
2
1 1
2
1 1
2
1 1
2 2
c
x a
x a
a
dx
x a
+
,
`

.
|

+
·

log
2
1 1
2 2

+ + c Bx Ax
dx
2
(4) evaluate to
∫ ∫ ∫

,
`

.
|
+
·
+ −
,
`

.
|
+
·
+ +
·
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
1
4 2
1 1
G.I.
A
AC B
A
B
x
dx
A
A
C
A
B
A
B
x
dx
A
A
C
x
A
B
x
dx
A
This integral will take any one of (1), (2) or (3) and hence can be evaluated.
Examples

+ − 4 2 3
Evaluate 1
2
x x
dx
) (
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
+ −
+
,
`

.
|

·
+ −
,
`

.
|

·
+ −
·
+ −
9
12 4
3
1
3
1
3
4
9
4
3
1
3
1
3
4
3
2
3
1
4 2 3
: Solution
2 2
2
2
x
dx
x
dx
x x
dx
x x
dx
c
x
x
x
dx
x
dx
+

,
`

.
| −
·

× ·

,
`

.
|
− +

,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
− +

,
`

.
|
·
− −
∫ ∫
2 2
1 3
2 2
1
3
2 2
3
1
3
2 2
1
3
1
3
1
3
2 2
3
1
3
1
3
8
3
1
1 1
2
2
2
2
tan tan

+ − 21 10
Evaluate 2
2
x x
dx
) (
c
x
x
x
x
x
dx
x
dx
x x
dx
+

·
+ −
− −
×
·
− −
·
+ − −
·
+ −
∫ ∫ ∫
3
7
4
1
2 5
2 5
2 2
1
2 5 21 25 5 21 10
: Solution
2 2 2 2
log log
) ( ) (
∫ 2
− − x x
dx
2 4 6
Evaluate 3) (
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 105
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
+ −
·
+ + −
·
+ −
·
− −
2 2 2 2 2
1 2 2
1
1 1 3 2
1
2 3 2
1
2 4 6
: Solution
) ( ) ( ) ( x
dx
x
dx
x x
dx
x x
dx
c
x
x
x
x
+
,
`

.
|

+
·
+ −
+ +
×
× ·
1
3
8
1
1 2
1 2
2 2
1
2
1
log
) (
) (
log
Type II
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
+ + − + − C Bx Ax
dx
a x
dx
x a
dx
x a
dx
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
4 3 2 (1) ) ( , ) ( , ) ( ,
θ θ θ d a dx a x
x a
dx
cos , sin · ·

put evaluate to
2 2
a
x
d
a
d a
a a
d a
x a
dx
1
2 2 2 2 2
1

· · ⋅ · ·

·

∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
sin
cos
cos
sin
cos
θ θ
θ
θ θ
θ
θ θ
c
a
x
x a
dx
+ ·

1
2 2
sin
θ θ θ d a dx a x
x a
dx
cosh , sinh · ·
+

put evaluate to
2 2
a
x
d
a
d a
a a
d a
x a
dx
1
2 2 2 2 2
1

· · ⋅ · ·
+
·
+

∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
sinh
cosh
cosh
sinh
cosh
θ θ
θ
θ θ
θ
θ θ
c
a
x
x a
dx
+ ·
+

1
2 2
sinh
θ θ θ d a dx a x
a x
dx
sinh , cosh · ·

put evaluate to
2 2
c
a
x
a x
dx
+ ·

1
2 2
cosh
a
x
d
a
d a
a a
d a
a x
dx
1
2 2 2 2 2
1

· · ⋅ · ·

·

∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
cosh
sinh
sinh
cosh
sinh
θ θ
θ
θ θ
θ
θ θ

+ + C Bx Ax
dx
2
evaluate to
∫ ∫ ∫

,
`

.
|
+
·
+ −
,
`

.
|
+
·
+ +
·
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
2
1
4 2
1 1
G.I.
A
AC B
A
B
x
dx
A
A
C
A
B
A
B
x
dx
A
A
C
x
A
B
x
dx
A
This will reduce to any one of (1), (2) & (3) and hence can be evaluated.
Examples

2
5 2
Evaluate 1
x x
dx
) (
106 KSOU Integral Calculus
c x
x
x
dx
x x
dx
x x
dx
+ − × ·

·

,
`

.
|
− −
,
`

.
|
·

,
`

.
|
− −
·

− −
∫ ∫ ∫
) ( sin sin 1 5
5
1
5
1
5
1
5
1
5
1
5
1
5
1
5
2 5
1
5
2
5
1
: Solution
1 1
2 2
2 2

+ − 5 2
Evaluate 2
2
x x
dx
) (
c
x
x
dx
x
dx
x x
dx
+

·
− +
·
+ −
·
+ −

∫ ∫ ∫
2
1
1 2 2 1 5 2
: Solution
1
2 2 2 2 2
sinh
) ( ) (

+ − 8 12 4
Evaluate 3
2
x x
dx
) (
∫ ∫ ∫

,
`

.
|

·
+ −
,
`

.
|

·
+ −
·
4
8 9
2
3
2
1
2
4
9
2
3
2
1
2 3
4
1
G.I. : Solution
2 2 2
x
dx
x
dx
x x
dx
c x
x
x
dx
+ − ·

·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

·
− −

) ( cosh cosh 3 2
2
1
2
1
2
3
2
1
2
1
2
3
2
1
1 1
2 2
Type III
∫ ∫
+ +
+
+ +
+
C Bx Ax
q px
dx
C Bx Ax
q px
2
2
and
m B Ax l m C Bx Ax l q px + + · + + + · + ) ( ) ( 2 of derivative put evaluate to
2
where l & m are the constants to be found out by equating the co-efficients of corresponding terms on both sides. ie. to
solve for m & n from the equations
q m lB p Al · + · and 2
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
+ +
+ + + ⋅ ·
+ +
+
+ +
+
·
+ +
+
C Bx Ax
dx
m C Bx Ax l
C Bx Ax
dx
m dx
C Bx Ax
B Ax
l dx
c Bx Ax
q px
2
2
2 2 2
2
then ) log(
the second integral in RHS is Type I and hence can be evaluated.
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
+ +
+ + + ·
+ +
+
+ +
+
·
+ +
+
C Bx Ax
dl
m C Bx Ax l
C Bx Ax
dx
m dx
C Bx Ax
q px
l dx
C Bx Ax
q px
2
2
2 2 2
2
the second integral in RHS is Type II and hence can be evaluated.
Examples
dx
x x
x

+ −
+
5 4 3
3 2
Evaluate 1
2
) (
m l lx m x l x + − · + − · + 4 6 4 6 3 2 Put : Solution ) (
3
13
3
4
3 ie 3 4
3
1
2 6 · + · · + − · ⇒ · ∴ m m l l l ,
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 107
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
+ −
+ + − ·
+ −
+
+ −

·
+ −
+

3
5
3
4
9
13
5 4 3
3
1
5 4 3 3
13
5 4 3
4 6
3
1
5 4 3
3 2
2
2
2 2 2
x x
dx
x x
x x
dx
dx
x x
x
dx
x x
x
) log(
∫ ∫

,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|

+ + − ·
+ −
,
`

.
|

+ + − ·
2
2
2
2
2
3
11
3
2
9
13
5 4 3
3
1
3
5
9
4
3
2
9
13
5 4 3
3
1
x
dx
x x
x
dx
x x ) log( ) log(
c
x
x x
x
x x +

,
`

.
| −
+ + − ·

,
`

.
|

× + + − ·
− −
11
2 3
11 3
13
5 4 3
3
1
3
11
3
2
11
3
9
13
5 4 3
3
1
1 2 1 2
tan ) log( tan ) log(
dx
x x
x

− −

2 3
7 5
Evaluate 2
2
) (
m l lx m x l x + + − · + − · − 3 2 2 3 7 5 Put : Solution ) (
2
1
2
15
7 3 7 7 3
2
5
5 2 · + − · − − · ⇒ − · + − · ⇒ · − ∴ l m m l l l &
∫ ∫ ∫
− − −
+
− −

− ·
− −

) ( x x
dx
dx
x x
x
dx
x x
x
3 2
2
1
2 3
2 3
2
5
2 3
7 5
2 2 2
∫ ∫

,
`

.
|
− −
,
`

.
|
1
+ − − − ·
+
,
`

.
|
− − −
+ − − ⋅ − ·
2 2
2
2
2
2
3
2
1
2
2 3 5
4
9
2
3
2
2
1
2 3 2
2
5
x
dx
x x
x
dx
x x
c x x x
x
x x + − + − − − ·

,
`

.
|

× + − − − ·
− −
) ( sin sin 3 2
2
1
2 3 5
2
1
2
3
2
1
2 3 5
1 2 1 2
Type IV

+ + c x b x a
dx
sin cos
dx
dt x
x t
x
· ·
2 2
1
w.r.t. ating differenti then
2
put evalute to
2
sec tan
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2 1
1
1 1
1
2 2 1
2
2
1
2
2
2
ie
t
t
t
t
t
x x
x
t
dt
x
dt
x
dt
dx
+

·
+

+
· − ·
+
·
+
· · sin cos cos &
tan sec
2
2 2
1
2
1
1
1
2
2 2
2
t
t
t t
t x x
x
+
·
+
×
+
· · cos sin sin &
2 2
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
when
t
t
x
t
t
x
t
dt
dx t
x
+
·
+

·
+
· · ∴ sin & cos , , tan
108 KSOU Integral Calculus
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
+ + + −
·
+ + + −
·
+
+
+
+

+
·
+ +

c a bt t a c
dt
t c bt t a
dt
c
t
t
b
t
t
a
t
dt
c x b x a
dx
2
2
1 2 1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
2 2 2
2 2
2
2
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) (
) (
sin cos
which is Type I and hence can be evaluated.
Examples

+ − 5 3 2
Evaluate 1
x x
dx
sin cos
) (
2 2
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
then
2
Put : Solution
t
t
x
t
t
x
t
dt
dx t
x
+
·
+

·
+
· · sin & cos , , tan
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
+ −
2
·
+ −
·
+ + − −
·
+
+
×

+

+
·
3
7
2
3 7 6 3
2
1 5 6 1 2
2
5
1
2 3
1
1 2
1
2
G.I.
2
2 2 2
2 2
2
2
t t
dt
t t
dt
t t t
dt
t
t
t
t
t
dt
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( tan tan
) (
) (
1
2
3
3
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
3
2
1
3
2
3
7
1 1
3
2
1 1
2
2
2
− ·

,
`

.
|

× ·

,
`

.
|
+ −
·
+ − −
·
− −
∫ ∫
t
t
t
dt
t
dt
c
x
x x
dx
+
,
`

.
|
− ·
+ −

1
2 2
3
3
1
5 3 2
1
tan tan
sin cos

− x
dx
cos
) (
5 3
Evaluate 2
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
then
2
Put : Solution
t
t
x
t
dt
dx t
x
+

·
+
· · cos & , tan
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

,
`

.
|

·

·

·
− − +
·
+

+
·

2
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
1
4
1
8
2
8
2
2 8
2
1 5 1 3
2
1
1 5
3
1
2
5 3
t
dt
t
dt
t
dt
t t
dt
t
t
t
dt
x
dx
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
cos
2
1
2
2
1
2
4
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
4
1
+

·
+

×
× ·
x
x
t
t
tan
tan
log log
c
x
x
x
dx
+
+

·

1
2
2
1
2
2
4
1
5 3
tan
tan
log
cos

+ x
dx
sin
) (
2 3
Evaluate 3
2 2
1
2
and
1
2
then
2
Put : Solution
t
t
x
t
dt
dx t
x
+
·
+
· · sin , tan
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 109
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
+ −
,
`

.
|
+
·
+ +
·
+ +
·
+
+
+
·
+

1
9
4
3
2
3
2
3
4
1
3
2
4 1 3
2
1
4
3
1
2
2 3
2
2
2
2
2
t
dt
t t
dt
t t
dt
t
t
t
dt
x
dx
) ( sin
5
2 3
5
2
3
5
3
2
3
5
1
3
2
3
5
3
2
3
2
1 1
2
2
+
·
+
× ·

,
`

.
|
+
,
`

.
|
+
·
− −

t
t
t
dt
tan tan
c
x
x
dx
+

,
`

.
|
+
·
+

5
2
2
3
5
2
2 3
1
tan
tan
sin
Type V
dx
x e x c
x b x a

+
+
cos sin
sin cos
r) denominato of e (derivativ r) Denominato put evaluate to : Solution m l x b x a + · + ( sin cos
) sin cos ( ) cos sin ( sin cos ie x e x c m x e x c l x b x a − + + · +
. separately of efficients - co the equating by foundout be to constants are where x x m l cos & sin &
a mc le b me lc · + · − & equations the from ie
c x e x c m lx dx
x e x c
x e x c
m dx
x e x c
x e x c
l dx
x e x c
x b x a
+ + + ·
+

+
+
+
·
+
+
∫ ∫ ∫
) cos sin log(
cos sin
sin cos
cos sin
cos sin
cos sin
sin cos
then
Examples
dx
x x
x x

+

cos sin
sin cos
4
2 3
Evaluate
) sin cos ( ) cos sin ( sin cos x x m x x l x x − + + · − 4 4 2 3 Put : Solution
2 4 − · − ∴ m l (1)
3 4 · + m l (2)
17
5
3 4 1 2
8 4 16 4 1
− · ⇒ − ·
· + ×
− · − ×
l l
m l
m l
) (
) (
17
14
17
34 20
2
17
20
2 4 (1), from ·
+ −
· + − · + · l m
) cos sin log(
cos sin
sin cos
cos sin
cos sin
cos sin
sin cos
x x dx
x x
x x
dx
x x
x x
dx
x x
x x
+ + ⋅ − ·
+

+
+
+
− ·
+

∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
4
17
14
1
17
5
4
4
17
14
4
4
17
5
4
2 3
c x x x + + + − · ) cos sin log(4
17
14
17
5
110 KSOU Integral Calculus
Type VI
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( x x x f dx e x f
x
φ φ ′ + ·

where
∫ ∫ ∫
′ + · dx e x dx e x dx e x f
x x x
) ( ) ( ) ( φ φ : Solution
(1)

dx e x
x
) ( φ Consider
x x
e v x u e v x u · · ′ · ′ · ), ( , ), ( φ φ put
∫ ∫
′ − · ∴ dx e x e x dx e x
x x x
) ( ) ( ) ( φ φ φ
have we (1), in this ng substituti
∫ ∫ ∫
+ · ′ + ′ − · c e x dx e x dx e x e x dx e x f
x x x x x
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( φ φ φ φ
Examples
dx
x
xe
x

+
2
1
Evaluate 1
) (
) (
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
+

+
·
+

+
+
·
+
− +
·
+
dx
x
e
dx
x
e
dx
x
e
dx
x
e x
dx
x
e x
dx
x
xe
x x x x x x
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
1
1
1 1
1
: Solution
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
(1)
dx
x
e
x

+ ) (1
Consider
x x
e v
x
u e v
x
u ·
+

· ′ · ′
+
· ,
) (
, ,
2
1
1
1
1
put
∫ ∫ ∫
+
+
+
·
+

+
·
+
∴ dx
x
e
x
e
dx
x
e
x
e
dx
x
e
x x x x x
2 2
1 1 1 1 1 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
(1) in ng substituti
c
x
e
dx
x
e
dx
x
e
x
e
dx
x
xe
x x x x
+
+
·
+

+
+
+
·
+
∫ ∫ ∫
1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2
2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
dx
x
x x

cos
sin
) (
1
Evaluate 2
dx
x
x x
dx
x
x
dx
x
x
dx
x
x
dx
x
x x
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
− ·

·

2
2
2 2
2
2
2
1 1 1
: Solution
2 2
sin
cos sin
sin
cos
sin
cos cos
sin
∫ ∫
− · dx
x
dx
x
x
2 2
cosec
2
1
2
cot (1)

dx x x
2
cosec
2
1
Consider
2
1
2
cosec
2
1
put
2
x
v u
x
v x u cot , , , − · · ′ · ′ ·
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 111
dx
x x
x dx
x
x
∫ ∫
+ − ·
2 2 2
cosec
2
1
2
cot cot
(1) in ng substituti
c
x
x dx
x
dx
x x
x dx
x
x x
+ − · − + − ·

∫ ∫ ∫
2 2 2 2 1
cot cot cot cot
cos
sin
Other examples
dx
x
x x

+
4
1
Evaluate 1
sin
cos sin
) (
dt dx x x t x · · cos sin , sin 2 then Put : Solution
2
c x t
t
dt
dx
x
x x
+ · ·
+
·
+

− −
∫ ∫
) (sin tan tan
sin
cos sin
2 1 1
2 4
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
dx
x x
x

+ +
+
) )( (
) (
2 1
1
Evaluate 2
2
2
2 1 2 1
1
Let : Solution
2 2
2
+
+
+
+
·
+ +
+
x
C Bx
x
A
x x
x
) )( (
) )( ( 2 1 by t throughou g multiplyin
2
+ + x x
) )( ( ) ( 1 2 1 then
2 2
+ + + + · + x C Bx x A x
3
2
0 2 1 2 1 put · ⇒ + + · − · A A x ) ( ,
3
1
3
4
1 2 1 0 put − · − · ⇒ + · · C C A x ,
sides both on of efficient - co Equating
2
x
3
1
3
2
1 1 1 · − · − · ⇒ · + A B B A
2
3
1
3
1
1
3
2
2 1
1
2 2
2
+

+
+
·
+ +
+

x
x
x x x
x
) )( (
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
+

+
+
+
·
+

+
+
·
+ +
+

2 3
1
2
2
6
1
1 3
2
2
1
3
1
1 3
2
2 1
1
2 2 2 2
2
x
dx
dx
x
x
x
dx
dx
x
x
x
dx
dx
x x
x
) )( (
c
x
x x + − + + + ·

2 2 3
1
2
6
1
1
3
2
1 2
tan ) log( ) log(
Type VII
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
+ + − + − dx C Bx Ax dx a x dx x a dx x a
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
4 3 2 (1) ) ( ) ( ) (

+ + + dx C Bx Ax q px
2
5 ) ( ) (
112 KSOU Integral Calculus
θ θ θ d a dx a x dx x a cos , sin · · −

put evaluate To (1)
2 2
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
+ · · ⋅ · ⋅ − · − θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ d
a
d a d a a d a a a dx x a ) cos ( cos cos cos cos sin 2 1
2
2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
θ θ θ θ θ θ
θ
θ
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1
2 2 2 2 2
2
2 2
sin sin cos sin
sin
− ⋅ ⋅ + · + · × + ·
a a a a a a
2 2
2
2
1
2
2
2 2
1
2
2 2
1
2 2
x a
a
x a
a
x a
a
x
a
x a
a
x a
− ⋅ + · − ⋅ + ·
− −
sin sin

+ + − · − ∴

c
a
x a
x a
x
dx x a
1
2
2 2 2 2
2 2
sin
θ θ θ d a dx a x dx x a cosh , sinh ) ( · · +

then put evaluate To 2
2 2
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
+ · · ⋅ + · + θ θ θ θ θ θ θ d
a
d a d a a a dx x a ) cosh ( cosh cosh sinh 2 1
2
2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
θ θ θ
θ
θ θ θ θ cosh sinh
sinh
cosh × + · ⋅ + · + ⋅ ·
∫ ∫
2 2 2
2
2 2
2
2
1
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
a a a a
d
a
d
a
2 2 1
2
2
2 2
1
2
2
2 2
2 2
1
2 2
1
2 2
x a
x
a
x a
a
x
a
x a
a
x a a a
+ + · + ⋅ + · + + ·
− −
sinh sinh sinh sinh θ θ θ

+ + + · + ∴

c
a
x a
x a
x
dx x a
1
2
2 2 2 2
2 2
sinh
θ θ d a dx a x dx a x sinh , cosh ) ( · · −

then put evaluate To 3
2 2
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
− · · ⋅ · ⋅ − · − θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ d
a
d a d a a d a a a dx a x ) (cosh sinh sinh sinh sinh cosh 1 2
2
2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
a
x a a a a
d
a
d
a
1
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2
2
1
2
2
2

− · − ⋅ · ⋅ − ·
∫ ∫
cosh cosh sinh
sinh
cosh θ θ θ
θ
θ θ θ
a
x a
a x
x x a
a
x
a
x a
a
x a a
1
2
2 2 1
2
2
2 2
1
2
2
2
2 2 2 2
1
2 2
1
2
− − −
− − · − ⋅ − · − − · cosh cosh cosh cosh cosh θ θ
c
a
x a
a x
x
dx a x + − − · − ∴

1
2
2 2 2 2
2 2
cosh
∫ ∫
+ + · + + (3) or (2) (1), form the take will This evaluate To 4
2 2
. ) ( dx
A
C
x
A
B
x A dx C Bx Ax and hence can be
evaluated.

+ + + dx C Bx Ax q px
2
evaluate To 5 ) ( ) (
m B Ax l m C Bx Ax l q px + + · + + + · + ) ( ) ( 2 of derivative put
2
out, found be to constants are where m l &
∫ ∫ ∫
+ + + + + + · + + + C Bx Ax m dx C Bx Ax B Ax l dx C Bx Ax q px
2 2 2
2 then, ) ( ) (
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 113

+
Β
+ + + + · dx
A
C
x
A
x A m C Bx Ax
l
2
2
3
2
3
2
) (
evaluated. be can hence and (3) or (2) (1), to reduces integral second the
Type VIII

+ + + C Bx Ax q px
dx
2
) (

,
`

.
|
− ·

· · + q
t p
x dt
t
dx p
t
q px
1 1 1
then
1
put
2
&
∫ ∫ ∫
+ − + −

·
+
,
`

.
|

Β
+
,
`

.
|

·
+ + +

2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1 1 1
Ct qt t
p
B
tq
p
A
dt
C q
t p
q
t p
A
t
t
dt
C Bx Ax q px
dx
) ( ) (
) (
This integral reduces to any one of Type II and hence can be solved.
Type IX
∫ ∫
+ + dx c bx e dx c bx e
ax ax
) sin( ) cos( and
parts. by n integratio use to have we evaluate To
∫ ∫
+ · + · dx c bx e S dx c bx e C
ax ax
) sin( & ) cos( Let

+ · dx c bx e C
ax
) cos( Consider
b
c bx
v c bx v ae u e u
ax ax
) sin(
), cos( , ,
+
· + · ′ · ′ · put

+ −
+
· dx c bx e
b
a
b
c bx e
C
ax
ax
) sin(
) sin(
aS c bx e bC
ax
− + · ) sin(
) sin( c bx e bC aS
ax
+ · + ∴ (1)

+ · dx c bx e S
ax
) sin( Consider
b
c bx
v c bx v ae u e u
ax ax
) cos(
), sin( , ,
+ −
· + · ′ · ′ · put

+ +
+ −
· ∴ dx c bx e
b
a
b
c bx e
S
ax
ax
) cos(
) cos(
aC c bx ea bS
ax
+ + − · ) cos(
) cos( c bx e aC bS
ax
+ − · − ie (2)
[ ] ) cos( ) sin( )
) cos( ) (
) sin( ) (
c bx b c bx a e S b (a
c bx be abC S b b
c bx ae abC S a a
ax
ax
ax
+ − + · +
+ − · − ×
+ · + ×
2 2
2
2
2
1
114 KSOU Integral Calculus
[ ]
) (
) cos( ) sin(
2 2
b a
c bx b c bx a e
S
ax
+
+ − +
· ∴
[ ] ) cos( ) sin( ) (
) cos( ) (
) sin( ) (
c bx a c bx b e C b a
c bx ae C a abS a
c bx be C b abS b
ax
ax
ax
+ + + · +
+ − · − ×
+ · + ×
2 2
2
2
g subtractin
2
1
[ ]
) (
) sin( ) cos(
2 2
b a
c bx b c bx a e
C
ax
+
+ + +
· ∴
Examples
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
+ · + · dx e dx x e dx x x e dx x x e
x x x x
sin sin ] sin [sin cos sin ) (
2 2 2 2
2
1
5
2
1
5
2
1
2 3 1
c
x x
e
x x
e
x x
+

+

·
5
2
2
1
29
5 5 5 2
2
1
2 2
) cos sin ( ) cos sin (
4 9
2 2 2 3
2
1
3 2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2 1
2
1
2
3 3 3 3 2 3
+
+
+ × · + · + ·
3
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
) sin cos (
cos ) cos ( cos ) (
x x
e
e
dx x e dx e dx x e dx x e
x
x
x x x x
c x x
e e
x x
+ + + · ) sin cos ( 2 2 2 3
26 6
3 3
Exercise
x w.r.t. following the Integrate
2
2 2
1
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
x
e
x x x
x
x

− sin
) (
) (log cos
) (
sin
) (
) )( (
) (
) ( ) (
) (
) tan ( tan
sec
) (
4 1
6
3 1
2 3
5
2
4
2 2
2
+ − + +

+ x x
x
x x
x
x x
x
18 6
1 4
9
2 22
5 4
8
1
2
7
2
2 2
3
+ −
+
+ +
+

− −
x x
x
x x
x
x
x x
) ( ) ( ) (
x x x
e
x
x
x
cos
) (
sin cos
) (
) (
) (
) (
4 3
1
12
2
1
11
2
1
10
2
+ − + +
+
x
e
x
x
x x x x
x x
) cos (
) sin (
) (
sin cos
) (
cos sin
cos sin
) (
+
+
+ +
+
1
1
15
9 4
1
14
5 4
3 2
13
2 2
2 3 5 2 18 2 4 6 17
1
1
16
2 2
+ − − − −
+
x x x x x
x x
n
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) (
x x e
x x x x x
x
2 4 21
1 1
1
20
4 3 2 1
1
19
2
2 2
sin sin ) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
− + + + +
x e x e x x e
x x x 3 4 3 3 2
24 23 3 22 sin ) ( cos ) ( cos cos ) (
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 115
Definite Integrals

+ · c x g dx x f b a x f ) ( ) ( ) , ( ) ( and interval in the defined function a be Let
[ ] [ ] c a g c b g a x b x + − + · · ) ( ) ( ie at integral the of value the minus at integral the of value The

b
a
dx x f a g b g ) ( ) ( ) ( as denoted and integral Definite as defined is ie
∫ ∫
− · · ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( a g b g dx x f x g dx x f
b
a
then If ie
limit. lower called is and limit upper called is a b
Examples

+ −
2
1
2 3
3 2 Evaluate (1) dx x x ) (
3
3
2
4
1
6
3
16
4 3
3
2
4
1
2 3
3
2
2
4
2
3
3
2
4
3 2 : Solution
1
3 4
2
1
3 4
2
1
2 3
− + − + · ·
,
`

.
|
+ − −

,
`

.
|
⋅ + × − ·
]
]
]
]

+ × − · + −

x
x x
dx x x ) (
12
25
12
8 3 64 84
3
2
4
1
3
16
7 ·
+ − −
· + − − ·
dx
x
x

1
0 2
2 1
1
Evaluate 2
) (sin
) (
dt dx
x
t x ·

·

2
1
1
1
then Put : Solution sin
2
1 1 when 0 0 0 when
1 1
π
· · · · · ·
− −
sin , sin , t x t x
24 2 3
1
3
1
3
3
2
0
3
2
0
2
1
0 2
2 1
π π
π
π
·
,
`

.
|
·
]
]
]
]
· ·

∫ ∫

t
dt t dx
x
x) (sin

+ +
1
1
2
5 2
Evaluate 3 dx
x x
dx
) (

,
`

.
| + −

,
`

.
| +
·
]
]
]

,
`

.
| +
·
+ +
·
+ +
− −

− −
∫ ∫
2
1 1
2
1
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1 5 2
: Solution
1 1
1
1
1
1
1
2 2
1
1
2
tan tan tan
) (
x
x
dx
dx
x x
dx

8
0
4 2
1
0
2
1
1
2
1
1 1
π π
· − · − ·
− −
tan tan

+
π
0 3 4
Evaluate 4
x
dx
cos
) (
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
then
2
Put : Solution
t
t
x
t
dt
dx t
x
+

·
+
· · cos , tan
∞ · · · · · ·
2
when 0 0 0 when
π
π tan , tan , t x t x
116 KSOU Integral Calculus
( )

∞ ∞ ∞
]
]
]
·
+
·
− + +
·
+

+
+
·
+
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
0
1
0
2
2 0
2 2
0
2
2
2
0
7 7
1
7
2
1 3 1 4
2
1
1 3
4
1
2
3 4
t
t
dt
t t
dt
t
t
t
dt
x
dx
tan
) ( ) (
) (
) ( cos
π
7 2
2
7
1
0
7
1
7
1
1 1
π π
· × · − ∞ ·
− −
tan tan
Properties of Definite Integrals
∫ ∫
·
b
a
b
a
dy y f dx x f ) ( ) ( . 1
∫ ∫
− ·
a
b
b
a
dx x f dx x f ) ( ) ( . 2
b c a dx x f dx x f dx x f
b
c
c
a
b
a
< < + ·
∫ ∫ ∫
where 3 ) ( ) ( ) ( .
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
− + · − ·
b
a
b
a
a a
dx x b a f dx x f dx x a f dx x f ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( . also 4
0 0
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·

function odd an is if
function even an is if
5
0
2
0
) (
) (
) ( .
) (
x f
x f
dx x f
a
dx x f
a
a
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
− · −
· −
·

) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) ( .
) (
x f x a f
x f x a f
dx x f
a
dx x f
a
2 if
2 if
6
0
2
2
0
0
Examples

+
2
0
Evaluate 1
π
dx
x x
x
n n
n
sin cos
sin
) (
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
− ·

,
`

.
|
− +
,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

·
+
·
a a
n n
n
n n
n
dx x a f dx x f dx
x x
x
dx
x x
x
I
0 0
2
0
2
0
using
2 2
2
Let : Solution ) ( ) (
sin cos
sin
sin cos
sin
π π
π π
π

+
·
2
0
π
dx
x x
x
n n
n
cos sin
cos
2
1 2
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
π
π π π π π
· · ⋅ ·
+
+
·
+
+
+
· ∴
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
]
) sin (cos
) cos (sin
cos sin
cos
sin cos
sin
x dx dx
x x
x x
dx
x x
x
dx
x x
x
I
n n
n n
n n
n
n n
n
4
π
· ∴ I

+
π
0 1
Evaluate 2 dx
x
x x
sin
sin
) (
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
− ·
− +
− −
·
+
·
a a
dx x a f dx x f dx
x
x x
dx
x
x x
I
0 0 0 0
using
1 1
Let : Solution ) ( ) (
) sin(
) sin( ) (
sin
sin
π π
π
π π
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 117

+

·
π
π
0 1
ie dx
x
x x
I
sin
sin ) (
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
+
·
+
·
+
− +
·
+

+
+
· ∴
π π π π π
π
π π π
0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
2
x
x
dx
x
x
dx
x
x x x x
dx
x
x x
dx
x
x x
I
sin
sin
sin
sin
sin
sin ) ( sin
sin
sin ) (
sin
sin
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
− ·

·
− +

·
π π π π
π π π π
0 0
2
0
2
2
0 1 1
1
dx x dx x x dx
x
x x
dx
x x
x x
tan tan sec
cos
sin sin
) sin )( sin (
) sin ( sin
[ ] [ ] [ ] 0 0 0 1
0
0 0
2
0
+ − − + − · + − ·
]
]
]

+ − ·
∫ ∫ ∫
tan sec tan sec tan sec sec tan sec π π π π π π π
π
π π π
x x x dx dx x x x
[ ] [ ] [ ] π π π π π + − · − + − · 2 1 1
) ( 2
2
− · ∴ π
π
I

+
3
6
1
Evaluate 3
π
π
x
dx
tan
) (
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
− ·

,
`

.
|
− +
,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

·
+
·
b
a
b
a
dx x a f dx x f
x x
dx x
x x
dx x
I ) ( ) (
sin cos
cos
sin cos
cos
using
2 2
2
Let : Solution
3
6
3
6
π
π
π
π
π π
π

+
· ∴
3
6
π
π
dx
x x
dx x
I
cos sin
sin
3
6
3
6
3
6
3
6
1 2
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
]
]
]
· ⋅ ·

,
`

.
|
+
+
·
]
]
]
]

+
+
+
· ∴
∫ ∫ ∫
x dx dx
x x
x x
dx
x x
dx x
x x
dx x
I
sin cos
sin cos
cos sin
sin
sin cos
cos
6 6 3
π π π
· − ·
12
π
· ∴ I
Exercise
Evaluate the following
∫ ∫ ∫
+
4 2
0
2
1 0
2
3 2
1
1
π π
dx
x
e
dx x dx
x
x
x
e
cos
) ( log ) (
cos
sin
) (
tan
∫ ∫ ∫

− −

1
1
1
0
1
2
6 5
9
4
2
1
2
1
dx xe dx x x
x
dx
x
) ( tan ) ( ) (
∫ ∫ ∫
+
+ + +

4 2
0 0
2
0
2 2 2 2
1 9
1 1
8 7
π π
θ θ d
x x
dx x
x b x a
dx
) tan log( ) (
) )( (
) (
sin cos
) (
∫ ∫ ∫
+
+
+ − +
1
0
2
0
2
0
1
1
12 11
2
10
2
dx
x
x
x x
dx x
dx
x a f x f
x f
a
) (
) log(
) (
cos sin
) (
) ( ) (
) (
) (
π
, ) ( , ) ( , ) ( , ) ( , log ) ( , ) ( , ) ( ,
4
8
2
7
2
6
2
1
4
5
5
7
3
1
4 1 3 1 2
4
π π π π
ab e
e − − −
( ) 2
8
12 1 2
2 2
11 10 2
8
9 log ) ( log ) ( ) ( log ) (
π π π
+ a
118 KSOU Integral Calculus
Reduction formulae
I.
∫ ∫
·
2
0
evaluate to hence and for formula reduction obtain the To
π
dx x dx x I
n n
n
sin sin

⋅ ·

dx x x I
n
n
sin sin
1
: Solution
x v x x n u x v x u
n n
cos & cos sin ) ( , sin & sin − · − · ′ · ′ ·
− − 2 1
1 put
∫ ∫
− − + − · − + − · ∴
− − − −
dx x x n x dx x x n x x I
n n n n
n
) sin ( sin ) ( cos sin cos sin ) ( cos sin
2 2 1 2 2 1
1 1 1
n n
n n n n
I n I n x dx x n dx x n x x ) ( ) ( cos sin sin ) ( sin ) ( cos sin 1 1 1 1
2
1 2 1
− − − + − · − − − + − ·

− − −
∫ ∫
2
1
1 1

− + − · − + ∴
n
n
n n
I n x x I n I ) ( cos sin ) (
2
1
1 1 (1 ie

− + − · − +
n
n
n
I n x x I n ) ( cos sin )
2
1
1
ie

+

·
n
n
n
I
n
n
n
x x
I
cos sin
odd or even is as according or is integral ultimate the
1 0
n I I
∫ ∫
− · · · · x dx x I n x dx I n cos sin
1 0
odd is If 1 even is If
then If
2
0

·
π
dx x I
n
n
sin
2 2
2
0
1
1
0
1
− −

+ ·

+
]
]
]
]

·
n n
n
n
I
n
n
I
n
n
n
x x
I
π
cos sin
6 4 2
4
5
2
3 1
2
3 1 1
− − −

×

×

·

×

·

· ∴
n n n n
I
n
n
n
n
n
n
I
n
n
n
n
I
n
n
I
general in
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
× × ×

×

× × ×

×

·
odd. is if 1
3
2
2
3 1
even. is if
2 2
1
2
3 1
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
I
n
L L
L L
π

· × × × · ·
2
0
6
6
32
5
2 2
1
4
3
6
5
(1) Eg.
π
π π
dx x I sin

· × × · ·
2
0
5
5
15
8
1
3
2
5
4
2
π
dx x I sin ) (
II.
∫ ∫
·
2
0
evaluate to and for formula reduction obtain the To
π
dx x dx I
n n
n
cos cos
obtain we I in as parts by n integratio using : Solution
n
n
n
I
n
n
n
x x
I
1
1

+ ·

sin cos
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
− ·
,
`

.
|
− · ·
a a
n n
n
dx x a f dx x f dx x dx x I
0 0 0 0
using
2
if further and
2 2
) ( ) ( cos cos
π π
π
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 119
I dx x
n
is which
2
0

·
π
sin
35
16
1
3
2
5
4
7
6
(1) Eg.
2
0
7
· × × × · ∴

π
dx x cos

256
35
2 2
1
4
3
6
5
8
7
2
2
0
8
π π
π
· × × × × ·

dx x cos ) (
III.

· dx x I
n
n
tan for formula reduction obtain the To
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
− − − −
− ⋅ · − ⋅ · ⋅ · dx x dx x x dx x x dx x x I
n n n n
n
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 : Solution tan sec tan ) (sec tan tan tan
formula. required the is which
1
2
1

·
n
n
n
I
n
x
I
tan
IV.

· dx x I
n
n
cot for formula reduction obtain the To
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
− − − −
− · − ⋅ · ⋅ · dx x dx x x dx x x dx x x I
n n n n
n
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cosec 1 cosec : Solution cot cot ) ( cot cot cot
2
1
1

·
n
n
n
I
n
x
I
cot
V.

· dx x I
n
n
sec for formula reduction obtain the To

⋅ ·

dx x x I
n
n
2 2
: Solution sec sec
x v x x x n u x v x u
n n
tan & tan sec sec ) ( , sec & sec · ⋅ − · ′ · ′ ·
− − 3 2 2
2 put
∫ ∫
− − − · ⋅ − − · ∴
− − − −
dx x n x x dx x x n x I
n n n n
n
) 1 (sec sec ) 2 ( tan sec tan sec ) 2 ( tan sec
2 2 2 2 2 2
∫ ∫
− −
− + − − · dx x n dx x n x x
n n n 2 2
2 2 sec ) ( sec ) ( tan sec
2
2
2 2

− + · − + ∴
n
n
n n
I n x x I n I ) ( tan sec ) (
2
2
2 2 1

− + · − +
n
n
n
I n x x I n ) ( tan sec ) (
formula. reduction required the is which
1
2
1
2
2

+

· ∴
n
n
n
I
n
n
n
x x
I
tan sec
VI.

· dx x I
n
n
cosec for formula reduction obtain the To

⋅ ·

dx x I
n
n
2 2
cosec cosec : Solution
x v x x x n u x v x u
n n
cot & cot ) ( , & − · ⋅ − − · ′ · ′ ·
− −
cosec cosec 2 cosec cosec put
3 2 2
dx x x n x x dx x x n x x I
n n n n
n
) ( ) ( cot cot ) ( cot 1 cosec cosec 2 cosec cosec 2 cosec
2 2 2 2 2 2
− − − − · ⋅ − − − · ∴
∫ ∫
− − − −
2
2 2 2
2 2 cosec cosec 2 cosec 2 cosec

− − −
− + − − − · − + − − − ·
∫ ∫
n n
n n n n
I n I n x x dx x n dx x n x x ) ( ) ( cot ) ( ) ( cot
120 KSOU Integral Calculus
2
2
2 cosec 2 ie

− + − · − +
n
n
n n
I n x x I n I ) ( cot ) (
2
2
2 cosec 1 ie

− + − · −
n
n
n
I n x x I n ) ( cot ) (
formula. reduction required the is which
1
2
1
cosec
ie
2
2

+

·
n
n
n
I
n
n
n
x x
I
) (
) (
) (
cot
VII.
∫ ∫
·
2
0
evaluate to hence and of formula reduction obtain the To
π
dx x x dx x x I
n m n m
n m
cos sin cos sin
,

⋅ ·

dx x x x I
n m
n m
cos cos sin
,
1
: Solution
x v x x n x x m u x v x x u
n m n m n m
sin & cos sin ) ( cos sin , cos & cos sin · ⋅ − − ⋅ · ′ · ′ ·
− + − − 2 1 1 1
1 put
( ) dx x x n x x m x x x I
n m n m n m
n m
sin cos sin ) ( cos sin sin cos sin
,

− + − −
− − − ⋅ · ∴
2 1 1 1
1
∫ ∫
− + − +
⋅ − + − · dx x x n dx x x m x x
n m n m n m 2 2 1 1
1 cos sin ) ( cos sin cos sin

− − +
− − + − · dx x x x n mI x x
n m
n m
n m 2 2 1 1
1 1 cos ) cos ( sin ) ( cos sin
,

− − + − ·
− − +
dx x x x x n mI x x
n m n m
n m
n m
) cos sin cos (sin ) ( cos sin
,
2 1 1
1
n m m m n m
n m
I n I n mI x x
, , ,
) ( ) ( cos sin 1 1
2
1 1
− − − + − ·

− +
2
1 1
1 1 ie

− +
− + · − + +
n m
n m
n m n m n m
I n x x x I n mI I
, , , ,
) ( cos sin ) (
2
1 1
1
ie

− +
+

+
+
·
n m
n m
n m
I
n m
n
n m
x x
I
, ,
) (
) (
cos sin

·
2
0
if formula, reduction required the is which
π
dx x x I
n m
n m
cos sin
,
2 2
2
0
1 1
1
0
1
then
− −
− +
+

+ ·
+

+
]
]
]
]
+
·
n m n m
n m
n m
I
n m
n
I
n m
n
n m
x x
I
, , ,
) (
cos sin
π
2
1

+

· ∴
n m n m
I
n m
n
I
, ,
have we ly, continuous formula reduction this applying
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
× × ×

×

×
+
× ×
− +

×
+

× × ×

×

×
+
× ×
− +

×
+

+
×
+
× ×
− +

×
+

·
even is & even is if
2 2
1
2
3 1
2
1
2
3 1
odd is & even is if 1
3
2
2
3 1
2
1
2
3 1
even or odd & odd is if
1
1
3
2
2
3 1
m n
m
m
m
m
m n m
n
n m
n
m n
m
m
m
m
m n m
n
n m
n
m n
m m n m
n
n m
n
I
n m
π
L L L L
L L L L
L L
,
Examples
60
1
6
1
8
2
10
4
1
2
0
5 5
5 5
· × × · ·

π
dx x x I cos sin ) (
,
693
8
7
1
9
2
11
4
2
2
0
5 6
5 6
· × × · ·

π
dx x x I cos sin ) (
,
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 121
3465
48
1
3
2
5
4
7
6
9
1
11
3
3
2
0
4 7
4 7
· × × × × × · ·

π
dx x x I cos sin ) (
,
2048
5
2 2
1
4
3
6
5
8
1
10
3
12
5
4
2
0
6 6
6 6
π π
π
· × × × × × × · ·

dx x x I cos sin ) (
,

1
0 2
9
1
Evaluate 5 dx
x
x
) (
θ θ θ d dx x cos , sin · · put : Solution
2
1 when 0 0 when
π
θ θ · · · · , , x x
315
128
1
3
2
5
4
7
6
9
8
1 1
2 2 2
0
9
0
9
0 2
9
1
0 2
9
· × × × × · ·

·

·

∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
π π π
θ θ
θ
θ θ θ
θ
θ θ θ
d
d d
dx
x
x
sin
cos
cos sin
sin
cos sin

a
x ax
dx x
2
0 2
3
2
Evaluate 6) (
∫ ∫
− −
·

a a
a x a
dx x
x ax
dx x
2
0 2 2
3
2
0 2
3
2
: Solution
) (

θ θ θ d a dx a a x cos , sin · · − put
2
1 2 when
2
1 0 when
π
θ θ
π
θ θ · ⇒ · · − · ⇒ − · · sin , sin , a x x
∫ ∫ ∫
− − −
+ + + ·
+
·

⋅ +
· ∴
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 3 3
3 3
2 2 2
3
3 3 1
1
G.I.
π
π
π
π
π
π
θ θ θ θ
θ
θ θ θ
θ
θ θ θ
d a
a
d a a
a a
d a a a
) sin sin sin (
cos
cos ) sin (
sin
cos ) sin (
]
]
]

+ + + ·
]
]
]

+ + + ·
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
− − − − −
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
0
2 3 2 3 3
6 0 0 3 3 1
π
π
π π
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ d a d d d d a sin sin sin sin
3 3 3
2
5
2
3
2 2
1
6
2 2
a a a
π π
π
π π π
·
,
`

.
|
+ ·
]
]
]

× × +
,
`

.
|
− ·
Exercise
Evaluate the following
( )
∫ ∫ ∫

1
0
2 4
0
7
0
5 2
3
6
1 3 2 3 1 dx x x dx x x d ) ( sin ) ( sin ) (
π
π
θ θ
( )
∫ ∫ ∫
− −
+
∞ 2
0
1
0
2 6
0 2
2 6 1 5
1
4
2
5
2
7
dx x x dx x x
x
dx
) ( ) ( ) (
∫ ∫ ∫
+

π
θ
θ
θ
θ
π
π
π
π
0
2 5 4
1
1
9 cosec 8 7
2
6
2
4
d dx x dx x
cos
cos
sin ) ( ) ( cot ) (
( )
∫ ∫ ∫
− + −
a
x a
dx x
dx
x
x
dx
x
x
0 2 2
7
1
0
4
2
3
1
0 4
7
12
1
11
1
10 ) ( ) ( ) (
( ) , ) ( , log ) ( , ) ( , ) ( , ) ( , ) ( , ) ( , ) ( ,
3
2 8
9 3 2
8
3
4
3 11
8
12
8 3
7
8
5
6
256
5
5
15
8
4
256
3
3
35
16
2
45
8
(1) : Answers + +
− π π π π π
35
16
12
24
1
11
3
1
10
7
a
) ( , ) ( , ) (
122 KSOU Integral Calculus
127 KSOU Matrix Theory
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
An equation which consists of one dependent variable and its derivatives with respect to one or more independent variables is
called a 'Differential Equation'. A differential equation of one dependent and one independent variable is called 'Ordinary
Differential Equation'. A differential equation having one dependent and more than one independent variable is called
'Partial Differential Equation'.
Examples of ordinary differential equation
0 2 0 1 · − · − dx y dx x
x
y
dx
dy
. .
0 4 0 3
2
2
· · +
dx
y d
dy by dx ax . .
1 6 4
4 3 2
6
4 3
7 3 2
5
+ −
+ −
·
+ −
− +
·
y x
y x
dx
dy
y x
y x
dx
dy
. .
0 8 1 7
2
3
2
2
2
· +
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

,
`

.
|
+ · dy x dx y
dx
dy
dx
y d
a . .
0 3 2 10 0 3 4 9
2
2
2
2
2
2
· + − · +
,
`

.
|
− y
dx
dy
x
dx
y d
x y
dx
dy
dx
y d
. .
Order and Degree of a differential equation
Order
The order of the highest derivative occurring in a differential equation is called 'Order' of the differential equation.
Degree
The highest degree of the highest order derivative occurring in a differential equation (after removing the radicals if any) is
called 'Degree' of the differential equation.
In the examples given above (1), (2), (3), (5), (6) & (8) are of order one and degree one, (4), (9) & (10) are of order two
and degree one where as (7) is of order two and degree two after removing the radicals.
Formation of Differential Equation
Differential equations are formed by eliminating the arbitrary constants. Arbitrary constants are eliminated by differentiation.
Examples
2 2 2
from constant the g eliminatin by equation al differenti the Form 1 a y x a · + ) (
2 2 2
: Solution a y x · +
have we w.r.t. ating differenti , x
equation. al differenti the is which 0 0 2 2 · + ⇒ · + dy y dx x
dx
dy
y x
c mx y c m + · from ' g eliminatin by equation al differenti the Form (2) ' ' & '
c mx y + · : Solution
m
dx
dy
x · have we w.r.t. ating differenti ,
have we w.r.t. ating differenti again , x
equation. al differenti required the is 0
2
2
·
dx
y d
x b x a y b a 3 3 from ' g eliminatin by equation al differenti Obtain the (3) sin cos ' ' & ' + ·
x b x a y 3 3 : Solution sin cos + ·
have we w.r.t. ating differenti , x
x b x a
dx
dy
3 3 3 3 cos sin + − ·
have we w.r.t. ating differenti again , x
y x b x a
dx
y d
9 3 9 3 9
2
2
− · − − · sin cos
equation. al differenti required the is which 0 9y ie
2
2
· +
dx
y d
Note :- It can be seen from the above examples that the order of the differential equation depends on the number of
arbitrary constants in the equation. ie. if arbitrary constant is one then order is one and if the arbitrary constants are
two then the order is two.
Solution of equations of first order and first degree
I. Variable Separable
, separable' Variable ' called is type then this 0 as written be can equation al differenti given the If · + dy y g dx x f ) ( ) ( solution
is obtained by integration
∫ ∫
· + Constant ie dy y g dx x f ) ( ) (
0 1 1 Solve 1. Eg.
2 2
· − + − dx y x dy x y
2 2
1 1 by t throughou divide : Solution y x − −
0
1 1
becomes equation
2 2
·

+
− x
dx x
y
dy y
Constant
1 1
g integratin
2 2
·

+

∫ ∫
x
dx x
y
dy y
C x y − · − − − −
2 2
1 1 ie
solution. the is 1 1 ie
2 2
C x y · − + −
0 1 3 Solve 2. Eg.
2
· − + dy y e dx y e
x x
sec ) ( tan
have we 1 by t throughou dividing : Solution ), ( tan
x
e y −
124 KSOU Differential Equations
0
1
3
2
· +

dy
y
y
dx
e
e
x
x
tan
sec
∫ ∫
· +

Constant
1
3
g, integratin
2
dy
y
y
dx
e
e
x
x
tan
sec
C y e
x
log tan log ) log( · + − − 1 3
C
e
y
x
log
) (
tan
log ·

3
1
ie
solution. the is 1
3
) ( tan
x
e C y − · ∴
xy y x
dx
dy
xy + + + ·1 Solve 3. Eg.
) )( ( y x
dx
dy
xy + + · 1 1 is equation given : Solution
dx y x dy xy ) )( ( + + · 1 1 ie
) ( y x + 1 by t throughou divide
x
dx x
y
dy y ) ( +
·
+
1
1
then
dx
x
x
dy
y
y

,
`

.
| +
·

,
`

.
|
+
− + 1
1
1 1
ie
dx
x
dy
y

,
`

.
|
+ ·

,
`

.
|
+
− 1
1
1
1
1 ie
soluton the is 1 g, integratin c x x y y + + · + − log ) log(
2 2
Solve 4. Eg. a
dx
dy
y x · − ) (
u y x · − put : Solution
dx
du
dx
dy
· − 1 then
dx
dy
dx
du
· − 1 ie
2 2
1 becomes equation given a
dx
du
u ·
,
`

.
|

2 2 2
ie u a
dx
du
u − · −
dx
a u
du u
·

2 2
2
ie
dx du
a u
a a u
·

,
`

.
|

+ −
2 2
2 2 2
ie
dx du
a u
a
·

,
`

.
|

+
2 2
2
1 ie
c x
a u
a u
a
a
u + ·
+

+ log
2
g integratin
2
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 125
c x
a y x
a y x a
y x + ·
+ −
− −
+ − log
2
ie
solution. the is
2
ie c y
a y x
a y x a
+ ·
+ −
− −
log
0 when 0 given Solve 5. Eg.
2
· · ·

x y xe
dx
dy
x y
2
is equation given : Solution
x y
e xe
dx
dy

⋅ ·
dx xe dy e
x y
2
ie
− −
·
c e e
x y
+ − · −
− −
2
2
1
g, integratin
2
1
2
1
1 0 0 when − · ⇒ + − · − ∴ · · c c y x ,
2
1
2
1
is solution
2
− − · − ∴
− − x y
e e

1 2 ie
2
+ ·
− − x y
e e
II. Homogeneous Equation
s expression s homogeneou are where 0 or type the of Equation ) , ( & ) , ( ) , ( ) , (
) , (
) , (
y x g y x f dy y x g dx y x f
y x f
y x f
dx
dy
· + ·
Equation'. s Homogeneou ' a called is degree same of & in y x
vx y · put solve To
dv x dx v dy
dx
dv
x v
dx
dy
+ · + · or then
solved. be can hence and form separable variable to reduces equation given the this, ng substituti by
2 2
3 2 Solve (1) Eg. x y
dx
dy
xy + ·
dx
dv
x v
dx
dy
vx y + · · then put : Solution
2 2 2 2
3 2 becomes equation given x v x
dx
dv
x v v x + ·
]
]
]

+
2
by t throughou divide x
1 3 2 then
2
+ ·
,
`

.
|
+ v
dx
dv
x v v
1 3 2 2 ie
2 2
+ · + v
dx
dv
vx v
1 2 ie
2
+ · v
dx
dv
vx

x
dx
v
dv v
·
+1
2
ie
2
c x v log log ) log( + · +1 have we g, integratin
2
126 KSOU Differential Equations
c x
x
y
log log log + ·

,
`

.
|
+1 ie
2
2
c x
x
x y
log log
) (
log + ·
+
2
2 2
ie
c x x x y log log log ) ( log + · − +
2 2 2
ie
3 2 2
3 cx c x x y log log log ) ( log · + · + ∴
3 2 2
is solution cx x y · + ∴
0 1 1 Solve (2) Eg. ·

,
`

.
|
− +
,
`

.
|
+ dy
y
x
e dx e
y
x
y
x
dv y dy v dx vy x + · · then put : Solution
0 1 (1 becomes equation · − + + + dy v e dv y dy v e
v v
) ( ) )(
0 ie · − + + + + dy ve dy e dv ye dy ve dv y dy v
v v v v
0 1 ie · + + − + + dv e y dy e e ve v
v v v v
) ( ) (
0 1 ie · + + + dv e y dy e v
v v
) ( ) (
) (
v
e v y + by t throughou divide
0
1
·
+
+
+ ∴
v
v
e v
dv e
y
dy ) (
c e v y
v
log ) log( log · + + g, integratin
c e v y
v
log ) ( log · + ie
c e v y
v
· + ) ( ie
c e
y
x
y
y
x
·

,
`

.
|
+
solution the is ie c ye x
y
x
· +
Equations reducible to homogeneous equatins
0 or Give
2 2 2 1 1 1
2 2 2
1 1 1
· + + + + +
+ +
+ +
· dy c y b x a dx c y b x a
c y b x a
c y b x a
dx
dy
) ( ) (
solved. be can hence and equation s homogeneou to reduces it then put If (i) Case
1 1
2
1
2
1
t y b x a
b
b
a
a
· + ·
k Y y h X x
b
b
a
a
+ · + · ≠ & put If (ii) Case
2
1
2
1
0 0 such that out found be to constants are where
2 2 2 1 1 1
· + + · + + c k b h a c k b h a k h & &
to reduces equation given then
solved. be can hence and s homogeneou is which 0 or
2 2 1 1
2 2
1 1
· + + +
+
+
· dY Y b X a dX Y b X a
Y b X a
Y b X a
dX
dY
) ( ) (
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 127
3 2 2
1
Solve (1) Eg.
+ +
− +
·
y x
y x
dx
dy
dx
dt
dx
dy
t y x · + · + 1 then put : Solution
3 2
1
1 becomes equation given
+

· − ∴
t
t
dx
dt
3 2
2 3
3 2
3 2 1
1
3 2
1
+
+
·
+
+ + −
· +
+

·
t
t
t
t t
t
t
dx
dt
dx dt
t
t
·
+
+
2 3
3 2
ie

+ ·
+
+
c x dt
t
t
2 3
3 2
g integratin
m l lt m t l t + + · + + · + 3 3 2 3 3 2 put ) (
3
2
2 3 · ⇒ · ∴ l l

3
5
3
4
3 2 3 3 2 · − · − · ⇒ · + l m m l
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

,
`

.
|
+ + ·
+
+ ·
+
+
+
+
· + ∴
3
2
9
5
3
2
3
2
9
5
1
3
2
2 3 3
5
2 3
2 3
3
2
t t
t
dt
dt
t
dt
dt
t
t
c x log

,
`

.
|
+ + + + · + ∴
3
2
9
5
3
2
y x y x c x log ) (
solution the is
3
2
9
5
3
2
3
1
ie
,
`

.
|
+ + + · + y x y c x log
dx y x dy y x ) ( ) ( 3 2 3 2 Solve (2) Eg. − + · − +
k Y y h X x + · + · , put : Solution
such that choose k h &
3 2 · + k h (1)
3 2 · + k h (2)
1 2 3 2 3 1 3 3 g subtractin
3 2 1 2
6 2 4 2 1
· − · − · · ⇒ ·
· + ×
· + ×
h k h h
k h
k h
,
) (
) (
dX Y X dY Y X ) ( ) ( 2 2 to reduces equation given The + · +
dv X dX v dY vX Y + · · then put
dX vX X dv X dX v vX X ) ( ) )( ( 2 2 + · + + ∴
X by t throughou divide
dX v dv X v dX v v ) ( ) ( ) ( 2 1 2 2 2 then + · + + +
0 2 2 1 2
2
· + + − − + ∴ dv X v dX v v v ) ( ) (
0 2 1 ie
2
· + + − dv X v dX v ) ( ) (
0
1
2
ie
2
·

+
+
v
dv v
X
dX ) (
128 KSOU Differential Equations

·

+
+ Constant
1
2
g, integratin
2
v
dv v
X
) (
log
∫ ∫
·

+

+ Constant
1
2
1
2
2
1
ie
2 2
v
dv
v
dv v
X log
c
v
v
v X log log ) log( log ·
+

× + − +
1
1
2
1
2 1
2
1
ie
2
c
X
Y
X
Y
X
Y
X log log log log 2
1
1
2 1 2 ie
2
2
·
+

+

,
`

.
|
− +
c X Y X Y X X Y X log ) log( ) log( log ) log( log 2 2 2 2 2 ie
2 2
· + − − + − − +
c X Y X Y X Y X Y log ) log( ) log( ) log( ) log( 2 2 2 ie · + − − + − + +
c X Y X Y log ) log( ) log( 2 3 · + − −
2
3
ie c
X Y
X Y
log
) (
log ·
+

1 1 but
2 3
− · − · + · − ∴ y Y x X X Y c X Y , ) ( ) (
solution. the is 2
2 3
) ( ) ( − + · − ∴ x y c x y
III. Linear Equation (Leibnitz's Equation)
Equation'. Linear ' a called is of functions are where type the of Equation x Q P Q Py
dx
dy
& · +

dx P
e by equation given the of sides both multiply solution the find To
∫ ∫
·
,
`

.
|
+
dx P dx P
Qe e Py
dx
dy
then
∫ ∫ ∫
· +
dx P dx P dx P
Qe yPe e
dx
dy
ie
∫ ∫
·
]
]
]

dx P dx P
Qe ye
dx
d
ie

+ · ∴
∫ ∫
solution. required the is c dx Qe ye
dx P dx P

+ · · +
∫ ∫
c dy Qe xe Q P Q Px
dy
dx dy P dy P
is solution its and equation linear a also is y of function are where - : Note &
x x y
dx
dy
cos tan · + equation the Solve (1) Eg.
equation standard with the Comparing : Solution
x Q x P cos & tan · ·
∫ ∫
· · x dx x dx P sec log tan
x e e
x
dx P
sec
sec log
· ·

MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 129

+ · ∴
∫ ∫
c dx Qe ye
dx P dx P
is Solution
∫ ∫
+ · + · + ⋅ · c x c dx c dx x x x y 1 ie sec cos sec
0 (1 (2) Eg.
1
2
· − + +

dy e x dx y
y
) ( )
tan
dy y )
2
(1 by t throughou divide : Solution +
0
1
2
1
·
+

+ ∴

) (
tan
y
e x
dy
dx
y
1 1
ie
2 2
1
+
·
+
+

y
e
y
x
dy
dx
y tan
equation standard with Comparing
1 1
1
2 2
1
+
·
+
·

y
e
Q
y
P
y tan

· y dy P
1
tan c dy e Q xe
dy P dy P
+ · ∴
∫ ∫

is Solution
c dy e
y
e
xe
y
y
y
+
+
·

1
1
1
tan
2
tan
tan
) 1 (
ie
c y c
y
dy
xe
y
+ · +
+
·

1
2
tan
tan
1
ie
1
c y xe
y
+ · ∴

1 tan
tan is Solution
1
Bernoulli's Equation
Equation. s Bernoulli' called is of functions are where equation The x Q P Qy Py
dx
dy
n
& · +
Q
y
P
dx
dy
y
y
n n
n
· +
−1
1
then by divide solution the find To
z y z
y
n
n
· ·
+ −

1
1
ie
1
put
x w.r.t. ating differenti
dx
dz
dx
dy
y n
n
· + −

) ( 1

) (
) (
1
1
1 1
ie − ≠
+ −
· n
dx
dz
n dx
dy
y
n
Q Pz
dx
dz
n
· +
+ −

) ( 1
1
becomes equation
solved. be can hence and equation linear a is which 1 1 ie Q n Pz n
dx
dz
) ( ) ( + − · + − +
Q n Pz n
dy
dz
Qx Px
dy
dx
n
) ( ) ( 1 1 by given is solution whose equation, s Bernoulli' also is - : Note + − · + − + · +
y Q P of functions are where &
130 KSOU Differential Equations
x y x y
dx
dy
sec tan
2
Solve (1) Eg. · +
2
by t throughou divide : Solution y
x x
y dx
dy
y
sec tan · +
1 1
then
2
dx
dz
dx
dy
y
z
y
· − ·
2
1
then
1
put
x z x
dx
dz
sec tan · ⋅ + − ∴ becomes equation
x z x
dx
dz
sec tan − · ⋅ − ie
x Q x P sec , tan − · − · re linear whe is which
∫ ∫
· − · x dx x dx P cos log tan
x e e
x dx p
cos
cos log
· ·

c x c dx c dx x x x z + − · + − · + ⋅ − · ∴
∫ ∫
1 is Solution cos sec cos
c x
y
x
+ − · ∴
cos
is Solution
y e x
x
y
dx
dy
x
sec ) (
) (
tan
+ ·
+
− 1
1
Solve (2) Eg.
x
e x
x
y
dx
dy
y ) (
) (
sin
cos + ·
+
− 1
1
is equation given the : Solution
dx
dz
dx
dy
y z y · · cos , sin then put
here equation w linear a is which 1
1
becomes equation
x
e x
x
z
dx
dz
) ( + ·
+
− ∴
x
e x Q
x
P ) ( , + ·
+
− · 1
1
1
) log(
) (
x dx
x
dx P + − ·
+
− ·
∫ ∫
1
1
1
x
e e e
x
x dx P
+
· · · ∴
+
+ − ∫
1
1
1
1
1
log
) log(
∫ ∫
+ · ·
+
+ ·
+
⋅ ∴ c e dx e dx
x
e x
x
z
x x x
) (
) (
1
1
1
1
1
is Solution
c e
x
y
x
+ ·
+

1
is Solution
sin
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 131
IV. Exact Differential Equation
if Exact' ' to said is equation the of functions are here equation w al differenti the be 0 Let , & & y x N M dy N dx M · +
solution the find to and
x
N
y
M

·

dx M Consider
(1)

dy N y x take and constant a as treating w.r.t. done is n integratio the where
(2)
N x y in containing terms the omitting w.r.t. done is n integratio the here
Constant. is (2) (1) is soltuion then the +
0 2 3 2 2 Solve (1) Eg.
2 2 3
· + − + − − dy x y x dx y xy x ) ( ) (
equation standard with Comparing : Solution
x y x N y xy x M 2 , 3 2 2
2 2 3
− − · + − − ·
2 2 , 2 2 − − ·

− − ·

xy
x
N
xy
y
M

exact is equation hence
x
N
y
M

·

x xy
y x x
x xy
x
y
x
dx y xy x dx M 3 2
2 2
3 2
2 4
2 3 2 2
2 2 4 2
2
4
2 3
+ − − · + − ⋅ − ⋅ · + − − ·
∫ ∫
) ( (1)
∫ ∫ ∫
⋅ · − − · dy dy x y x dy N 0 2
2
) ( (omitting the terms which contain x)
= Constant
2
3 2
2 2
is solution
2 2 4
c
x xy
y x x
· + − − ∴
c x xy y x x · + − − 6 4 ie
2 2 4
0 Solve (2) Eg.
2 2 2 2 2 2
· − − + − + dy y b y x dx x a y x ) ( ) (
equation standard with Comparing : Solution
y b y y x N x a xy x M
2 3 2 2 2 3
− − · − + · ,
xy
x
N
xy
y
M
2 2 ·

·

,
exact is equation ∴

·

x
N
y
M
constant) a as (treating
2 2 4
consider solution, for
2 2 2 2 4
2 2 3
y
x a y x x
dx x a xy x dx M − + · − + ·
∫ ∫
) (
x dy y b y dy y b y y x dy N contain which terms the omitting
2 3 2 3 2
∫ ∫ ∫
− − · − − · ) ( ) (
2 4
2 2 4
y b y
− − ·
4 2 4 2 2 4
is solution
2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4
c y b y x a y x x
· − − −

+ ∴
c y b y x a y x x · − − − +
2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4
2 2 2 ie
132 KSOU Differential Equations
Exercise
Solve the following
y y x
e x e
dx
dy
x y
dx
dy
y x
3 2 3 2 2 2
4 2 0 1 1 1
− −
+ · · + + − ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
dx dy y x
y y y
x x
dx
dy
· +
+
+
· ) cos( ) (
) cos (sin
) log (
) ( 4
1 2
3
y
e
dx
dy
x
dx
dy
y a
dx
dy
x y

· + +
,
`

.
|
+ · − 1 1 6 5
2
) ( ) ( ) (
x
y
x
y
dx
dy
dx y x dx y dy x sin ) ( ) ( + · + · − 8 7
2 2
0 1 2 5 1 5 2 10 0 9
3 3 2
· − + − + + · + − dy y x dx y x dy y x dx y x ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3 3
4 2
12 0 2 2 3 1 6 4 11
+ −
− −
· · − − + − −
x y
x y
dx
dy
dy x y dx y x ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1 when 2 if 2 14 13
3 2
· · − · · + x y xy x
dx
dy
x y
dx
dy
x x ) ( ) (log log ) (
6 3 3
16 2 15 y x y
dx
dy
x x y x y
dx
dy
· + · + ) ( sin cos ) (
0 2 18 1 17
2 2 2 1 2
· + − + − + − · +

dy y y x x dx y y xy dy x y dx y ) sec tan ( ) tan ( ) ( ) (tan ) ( ) (
0
1
1 20 0
3 2
19
4
2 2
3
· − + +
]
]
]

+
,
`

.
|
+ ·

+ dy y x x x dy y
x
y dy
y
x y
dx
y
x
) sin log ( cos ) ( ) (
c e x c
y x
y c x x y y c x e e c
y x y
x
y y x
· − + +
+
· + · · + − · − − ) )( ( ) ( tan ) ( log sin ) ( ) ( log 2 1 5
2
4 3 8 2 3 2
1 1
(1)
2 3 3 2
3
7
3
1 2 2 2
3
2
10 3 9 2 8 7 1 1 6
,
`

.
|
− − · + ·

,
`

.
|
· · + + · − +

y x c y x cy
y
x
cx x y cx y x y c e x
y
) ( ) ( log ) ( ) ( tan ) ( ) ( ) )( ( ) (
( )
( )
3 2 where
21 5 2
21 5 2
12 12 8 7
4
5
2 11
21
1
2 2
− · − ·
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
− −
+ +
· + − · + − + − y Y x X
X Y
X Y
c Y XY X c y x y x , ) ( ) ( ) log( ) ( ) (
1
2
5
16 1 2 15 4 1 2 14
3
1
13
2 5 3 2 2 1 2 3
2
·
,
`

.
|
+ + + · · + − + ·
− −
cx y x x ce y e x y c x x y
x x
) ( sin ) ( ) ( ) (log log ) (
sin
c y x x x y cy y x c y y x xy y x ce y x
y
· + + · − · + − + + − ·

− −
cos ) log ( ) ( ) ( tan tan ) ( tan ) (
tan
20 19 18 1 17
3 2 2 2 1
1
MCA 11 - Mathematics SVT 133

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