O k Interpretat|on

4 1he process by whlch a courL glves meanlng Lo conLracLual language when Lhe parLles
aLLach maLerlally dlfferenL meanlngs Lo LhaL languageŦ
4 eŦqŦ leetless coseť ob[ecLlve approach Ǝ sub[ecLlve approach cannoL resolve dlspuLes ln
Lhese lnsLances because one approach says conLracL was noL ln breachţ Lhe oLher would
vold Lhe conLracL alLogeLherŦ
4 anons of |nterpretat|on
O nosclLur a soclls
A word may be affecLed by lLs lmmedlaLe conLexL (slmllar Lo e[usdem
O conLra proferenLem
AmblgulLles should be consLrued agalnsL Lhe drafLerţ usually lnvoked ln
adheslon conLracLs
O L[usdem generls
A general Lerm [olned wlLh a speclflc one wlll be deemed Lo lnclude only
Lhlngs LhaL are llke (of Lhe same genus as) Lhe speclflc one
O Lxpresslo unlus excluslo alLerlus
lf one or more speclflc lLems are llsLed wlLhouL general or lncluslve Lermsţ
all oLher Lerms are excluded
O uL magls valeaL quam peraL
An lnLerpreLaLlon LhaL makes Lhe conLracL valld ls preferred Lo on LhaL
makes Lhe k lnvalld
O lnLerpreL ConLracL as a whole
A wrlLlng should be lnLerpreLed as a parL of Lhe whole and noL as lf lsolaLed
from lL
O Þurpose of Lhe parLles
Þrlnclpal apparenL purpose of Lhe parLles ls glven greaL welghL ln
deLermlnlng Lhe meanlng Lo be glven Lo manlfesLaLlons of lnLenLlon or Lo
any parLy Lhereof
O Speclflc provlslon ls excepLlon Lo a general one
lf 2 provlslons are lnconslsLenL and lf one ls general enough Lo lnclude Lhe
speclflc slLuaLlon Lo whlch Lhe oLher ls conflnedţ Lhe speclflc provlslon wlll
be deemed Lo quallfy Lhe more general one
O PandwrlLLen or Lyped provlslons conLrol prlnLed provlslons
WrlLLen/Lyped provlslons are preferred Lo prlnLed provlslons
O Þubllc lnLeresL preferred
Where publlc lnLeresL ls affecLed by a conLracLţ go wlLh Lhe one LhaL favors
publlc lnLeresL
4 loyner v 4doms %anguage Mean|ngs)
O 8oLh parLles musL undersLand Lhe oLherƌs meanlng of language used ln a conLracLţ
especlally when Lhe meanlng aLLached Lo lL ls noL Lhe one commonly usedŦ
ÞlalnLlff and uefendanL had dlfferenL meanlngs Lo Lhe phrase ƍcompleLed
developmenLƍ regardlng subdlvlslon consLrucLlon requlremenL of renLal real
cootto ptofeteoJomť amblgulLles should be consLrued agalnsL Lhe drafLerŦ
Was noL applled ulLlmaLely because boLh parLles were aL arms lengLh and
were equally sophlsLlcaLed regardlng Lhe maLLerŦ
O A nond|t|on ls an evenLţ noL cerLaln Lo occurţ buL musL occur before performance
under conLracL ls dueŦ (Careful abouL confuslng evenLs wlLh duLles)
4 estatement Ƈ20ť Lffent of M|sunderstand|ng
O 1here ls no manlfesLaLlon of muLual assenL Lo an exchange lf Lhe parLles aLLach
maLerlally dlfferenL meanlngs Lo Lhelr manlfesLaLlons and
nelLher parLy knows or has reason Lo know Lhe meanlng aLLached by Lhe
oLherŤ or
Lach parLy knows or each parLy has reason Lo know Lhe meanlng aLLached
by Lhe oLherŦ
O 1he manlfesLaLlons of Lhe parLles are operaLlve ln accordance wlLh Lhe meanlng
aLLached Lo Lhem by one of Lhe parLles lf
1haL parLy does noL know of any dlfferenL meanlng aLLached by Lhe oLherţ
and Lhe oLher knows Lhe meanlng aLLached by Lhe flrsL parLyŤ or
1haL parLy has no reason Lo know of any dlfferenL meanlng aLLached by Lhe
oLherţ and Lhe oLher has reason Lo know Lhe meanlng aLLached by Lhe flrsL
4 Jose Mean|ng Þreva||s?
O Þ knew Ǝ u dld noLŦ u
O Þ had reason Lo know and u dld noL have reason Lo knowŦ u
O u knew Ǝ Þ dld noLŦ Þ
O u had reason Lo know and Þ dld noL know and dld noL have reason Lo knowŦ Þ
O WhaL lf Þ acLually knew and u dld noL acLually know buL had reason Lo knowŦ Þ
O 8oLh Þ and u knew each oLhersƌ meanlngŦ nC MAŤ nC k
O nelLher Þ nor u knew or had reason Lo know of Lhe oLherƌs meanlngŦ nC MAŤ nC
O AS A CLnL8AL 8uLLť 1he rule proLecLs Lhe lnnocenL parLyŦ
4 lriqo/iment lmportinq coŦ v 8ŦNŦ5Ŧ lnternotiono/ 5o/es corpŦ %Interpretat|on Ŵ
Amb|guous 1erms)
O 8reach of Lhe warranLy LhaL goods sold shall correspond Lo Lhe descrlpLlonŦ
ÞlalnLlff was unable Lo prove LhaL Lhelr narrow usage of ƍchlckenƍ should have
been known Lo Lhe defendanL because plalnLlff used vague language and
defendanLƌs use of ƍchlckenƍ colnclded wlLh common deflnlLlonsŦ
8oLh parLles admlLLed LhaL Lhe Lerm ƍchlckenƍ was amblguousţ maklng Lhe
plalnLlffƌs case more dlfflculLŦ
1he prlces of Lhe chlcken quoLed suggesLed LhaL Lhe defendanL meanL fowlţ
noL brollersŦ
O ÞlalnLlff argued LhaL Lhe prlce was closer Lo brollers as opposed Lo
fowlţ a 8Au A8CuMLn1 uC nC1 uSLŦ
D Ƈ2Ŵ208 ourse of Þerformanne and Þrant|na| onstrunt|on
Where Lhe conLracL for sale lnvolves repeaLed occaslons for performance by
elLher parLy wlLh knowledge of Lhe naLure of Lhe performance and opporLunlLy
for ob[ecLlon Lo lL by Lhe oLherţ any course of performance accepLed or
acqulesced ln wlLhouL ob[ecLlon shall be relevanL Lo deLermlne Lhe meanlng of
Lhe agreemenLŦ
1he express Lerms of Lhe agreemenL and any such course of performanceţ as
well as any course of deallng and usage of Lradeţ shall be consLrued whenever
reasonable as conslsLenL wlLh each oLherŤ buL when such consLrucLlon ls
unreasonableţ express Lerms shall conLrol course of performance and course of
performance shall conLrol boLh course of deallng and usage of Lrade (SecLlon 1Ŵ
Sub[ecL Lo Lhe provlslons of Lhe nexL secLlon on modlflcaLlon and walverţ such
course of performance shall be relevanL Lo show a walver or modlflcaLlon of any
Lerm lnconslsLenL wlLh such course of performanceŦ
D Ƈ1Ŵ20S ourse of Dea||ngs Ǝ 1rade Dsage
A course of deallng ls a sequence of prevlous conducL beLween Lhe parLles Lo a
parLlcular LransacLlon whlch ls falrly Lo be regarded as esLabllshlng a common
basls of undersLandlng for lnLerpreLlng Lhelr expresslons and oLher conducLŦ
A usage of Lrade ls any pracLlce or meLhod of deallng havlng such regularlLy of
observance ln a placeţ vocaLlon or Lrade as Lo [usLlfy an expecLaLlon LhaL lL wlll be
observed wlLh respecL Lo Lhe LransacLlon ln quesLlonŦ 1he exlsLence and scope of
such a usage are Lo be proved as facLsŦ lf lL ls esLabllshed LhaL such a usage ls
embodled ln a wrlLLen Lrade code or slmllar wrlLlng Lhe lnLerpreLaLlon of Lhe
wrlLlng ls for Lhe courLŦ
A course of deallng beLween parLles and any usage of Lrade ln Lhe vocaLlon or
Lrade ln whlch Lhey are engaged or of whlch Lhey are or should be aware glve
parLlcular meanlng Lo and supplemenL or quallfy Lerms of an agreemenLŦ
1he express Lerms of an agreemenL and an appllcable course of deallng or usage
of Lrade shall be consLrued wherever reasonable as conslsLenL wlLh each oLherŤ
buL when such consLrucLlon ls unreasonable express Lerms conLrol boLh course of
deallng and usage of Lrade and course of deallng conLrols usage of LradeŦ
An appllcable usage of Lrade ln Lhe place where any parL of performance ls Lo
occur shall be used ln lnLerpreLlng Lhe agreemenL as Lo LhaL parL of Lhe
Lvldence of a relevanL usage of Lrade offered by one parLy ls noL admlsslble
unless and unLll he has glven Lhe oLher parLy such noLlce as Lhe courL flnds
sufflclenL Lo prevenL unfalr surprlse Lo Lhe laLLerŦ
1rade Dsageť
O Lstab||s te trade usage ŴŴ troug expert w|tness and oter
O ow tat bot part|es are suff|n|ent|y nonnented to oter
trade]market by sow|ng e|ter a) bot are members C b) one |s a
member and fants are sun tat nonŴmember knewţ or sou|d ave
O D1 trade usage must be nons|stent w|t express terms or tey are
-onŴtrad|t|ona| Interpretat|on
lf a k provlslon ls so broad LhaL lL would surely be sLrlcken ln a courL of law (lŦeŦ a
noncompeLlLlon agreemenL whlch prevenLs an employee from worklng wlLh
vlrLually any oLher compeLlLor ln Lhe fleld)ţ Lhen Lhe courL wlll consLrue Lhe
conLracL ln such a way LhaL makes Lhe conLracL legalţ buL frees Lhe employeeŦ eŦqŦ
see ltoblem 5et 1Ŧ5ţ Optloo J
@ls ls te Jocttloe of ut moqis vo/eot quom pereot %lotetptetotloo tot
mokes k vollJ ls ptefetteJ to ooe tot mokes lt vollJ)
c Ǝ l lerti/iterţ lncŦ v 4//ied Mutuo/ lnsuronce coŦ %easonab|e Lxpentat|ons w]
Amb|gu|ty |n k)
1he reasonable expecLaLlons docLrlne ls Lo be used ln lnsLances where
amblgulLles exlsL ln an lnsurance conLracL whlch undermlne Lhe ƍreasonable
expecLaLlonsƍ of Lhe lnsuredŦ C Ǝ ! were vlcLlms of a burglary whlch auLhorlLles
deemed Lo be an ƍouLslde [obƍţ buL lnsurance company denled coverage because
Lhere was no evldence of lllegal enLry on Lhe exLerlor of Lhe bulldlngŦ
ÞlalnLlffƌs hlgh school educaLlon was slgnlflcanL because he was an
ƍaverageƍ Amerlcan who undersLood Lhe plaln meanlng of hls lnsurance Lo
be proLecLlon agalnsL leglLlmaLe burglarlesŦ
easonab|e Lxpentat|ons Dontr|ne
Ma[orlLy 8ule
narrow and broader verslons
narrow requlres an arLlcular amblgulLy ln Lhe express Lerm or provlslon
8road requlres a parLy ln a clearly superlor poslLlon (lnsurance companles)ţ
even wlLh unamblguous languageţ go agalnsL Lhe parLles wlLh less powersƌ
estatement Ƈ211
Þaro| Lv|denne u|e
O teps
Cffered to |nterpret or exp|a|nţ or add to or vary?
O Interpret or exp|a|n? ÞL a||ows
O Add to or vary? Þrobab|y not
If add to or varyţ exnept|on?
O Cral agreemenLs ouLslde of Lhe wrlLlng of Lhe conLracL LhaL conLradlcLs or adds Lo Lhe
When parLles execuLe a wrlLlng and when one or boLh parLles Lry Lo lnLroduce
exLrlnslc evldence ouLslde of Lhe wrlLlngţ Lhen parol evldence rule ls ln effecLŦ
O ÞL8 ls noL an evldence ruleţ lL ls a rule of lawŦ
Can ralse ob[ecLlons Lo rule of law any polnL ln Lrlal phasesŦ Lvldence rules requlre
ob[ecLlon aL Llme of admlLLanceŦ
O 8aLlonaleť
1he conLracLlng parLles have reduced Lhelr agreemenL Lo a slngle and flnal
wrlLlngţ Lhe exLrlnslc evldence of pasL agreemenLs or Lerms should noL be
consldered when lnLerpreLlng LhaL wrlLlngţ as Lhe parLles had declded Lo
ulLlmaLely leave Lhem ouL of Lhe conLracLŦ
O More permlsslve creaLes more amblgulLy and creaLes more llLlgaLlonŤ
creaLlng a more sLrlcL rule could poLenLlally resLrlcL meanlngs of parLles and
hamsLrlng oLher leglLlmaLe acLlonsŦ
O Approachesť
our orners Approan %pŦ 38S)
O Cn lLƌs faceţ lf conLracL appears lnLegraLedţ Lhen lL ls consldered compleLely
lnLegraLed and a flnalţ full expresslon of Lhe parLysƌ undersLandlngŦ Look for
lnLenLlon ln wrlLlngs lLself
O 1he [udge looks for merger/lnLegraLlon clauses whlch sLaLes Lhe conLracL ls
a flnal and compleLe undersLandlngŦ lf lL ls lacklng Lhlsţ lL may be consldered
only parLlally lnLegraLed and nonŴconLradlcLory exLrlnslc evldence mlghL be
O CreaLes a poslLlve lncenLlve Lo dlscuss all poLenLlal slLuaLlons ln conLracL
O Lxamlnes |na||ty of terms and omp|eteness of wr|t|ngs
O Are Lhere Lerms made Lo be flnal?
ontextua| Approan
O Lxamlnes more Lhan wrlLlngsţ also examlnes Lhe clrcumsLances surroundlng
Lhe conLracL and puL everyLhlng lnLo conLexLŦ
O Where you areţ
O whaLƌs Lhe LesLţ
O could Lhe language flL Lhe LesL?
O 1hen go Lhrough lnLerpreLaLlon process lf lL lsŦ
O Interpretat|on
Þ|a|n mean|ng approanť courL looks aL amblguous Lermţ does Lhe Lerm on lLs
faceţ have a plaln meanlng?
O ls Lhe evldence belng offered Lo add Lo or vary whaL ls ln Lhe wrlLlng?
easonab|y usnept|b|e Approanť ls Lhe Lerm ln Lhe wrlLlng reasonably
suscepLlble Lo Lhe meanlng LhaL Lhe ouLslde evldence ls Lrylng Lo esLabllsh?
O 1n£ lN1£kPk£141lON5 lN 4 6lv£N lx wlLL 8£ £l1n£k PL4lN M£4NlN6 Ok
k£45ON48LY 5ucc£P1l8L£
O LxcepLlons
lf Lhe evldence ls belng offered as Lo an amblgulLy of Lhe four corners of Lhe
conLracLţ Lhen exLrlnslc evldence may be permlLLedŦ
o||atera| Agreement Lxnept|onť uoes Lhe evldence offered fall wlLhln Lhe scope
of whaL Lhe wrlLlng addressesţ or would lL make sense for Lhe parLles Lo noL puL
Lhe evldence ln Lhe conLracL wrlLlng?
O key pLsť Sub[ maLLer + conslderaLlon
ÞL8 uoes noL apply Lo conLemporaneous wrlLLen agreemenLsŦ
O ConslderaLlon noL requlred for Lhese (lf presenL ln oLher k)
O CrLs look for Scope Anu ConslderaLlon
ÞL8 uoes noL apply Lo subsequenL oral or wrlLLen evldence
Lvldence Lo show no valld agreemenL
Lvldence whlch would allow one parLy Lo avold Lhe conLracL (fraudţ mlsrepţ
duressţ eLcŦ)
O Lvldence of duress falls ln an excepLlon
Cral condlLlon precedenL before k formaLlonŦ
O A condlLlon LhaL speaks Lo Lhe legal effecL of Lhe wrlLlngŦ
O Lxtr|ns|n Lv|denne
O AdmlsslblllLy Lurns on amblgulLy
O ulfference ln [urlsdlcLlonal approach
Add Lo/vary
O AdmlsslblllLy Lurns on lnLegraLlons
O ls Lhe wrlLlng lnLegraLed? żAre Lhe Lerms ln wrlLlng flnal?Ž
O Pow lnLegraLed ls lL? żls Lhe wrlLlng compleLe/excluslve?Ž
O 1hompson v Libby %ÞLţ 4 norners approan)
Þarol conLemporaneous evldence ls lnadmlsslble Lo conLradlcL or vary Lhe Lerms
of a valld wrlLLen conLracLŦ Alsoţ 1o [usLlfy Lhe admlsslon of parol evldenceţ Lhe
evldence musL relaLe Lo a sub[ecL dlsLlncL from LhaL Lo whlch Lhe wrlLlng relaLes
(can add or correlaLe wrlLlngţ cannoL conLradlcL)Ŧ
O 1he parol evldence rule ls founded on Lhe lnconvenlence and ln[usLlce LhaL
would resulL lf maLLers ln wrlLlngţ made wlLh conslderaLlon and
dellberaLlon and lnLended Lo embody Lhe enLlre agreemenL of Lhe parLlesţ
were sub[ecL Lo Lhe uncerLaln LesLlmony of sllppery memoryŦ
O uuLles ln a conLracL are LhoughL of Lo depend on each oLherŦ
O used ƍfour norners approanƍ
O 1oy/or v 5tote lorm Mutuo/ 4utomobi/e lnsuronce coŦ %Interpretat|onţ ad a|t
lssueť Was Lhe exLrlnslc evldence of ÞlalnLlff's lnLenL regardlng Lhe release
properly admlLLed?
O uld Lhe courL apply Lhe 4 corners rule correcLly? Ŵnoţ !xŦ uses modern
approach (reasonably suscepLlble approach)
O CorblnŴmodern approach vŦ WŦ four corners approach
1) under parol evldence ruleţ [udge ls flrsL Lo conslder proffered exLrlnslc
evldence and lf he flnds LhaL conLracL language ls reasonably suscepLlble Lo
lnLerpreLaLlon asserLed by lLs proponenLţ Lhen evldence ls admlsslble Lo
deLermlne meanlng lnLended by parLlesţ and
(2) exLrlnslc evldence lndlcaLed LhaL agreemenLţ whereby lnsured released all
conLracLual rlghLsţ clalms and causes of acLlon he had agalnsL lnsurerţ was
reasonably suscepLlble Lo lnsuredƌs lnLerpreLaLlon LhaL agreemenL dld noL release
badŴfalLh clalmţ such LhaL exLrlnslc evldence was admlsslble Lo lnLerpreL releaseŦ
O 1he general Lerms should always be followed by Lhe speclflc
O LxLrlnslc evldence
O noLhlng ln conLracL regardlng badŴfalLh clalm
O 1aylor was already ln a bad poslLlon where he owed money and SLaLe
larm caplLallzed on LhlsŤ hls glvlng up such a large clalm agalnsL SLaLe
larm ls flshy
O unlnsured MoLorlsL coverage language noL clearŦ
O 5herodţ lncŦ v MorrisonŴknudsen coŦ %ÞLţ a|terat|on not |n wr|t|ng)
Þarol Lvldence 8ule barred admlsslon of allegedly fraudulenL sLaLemenL of
general conLracLorƌs represenLaLlve LhaL Lhere were 23ţ000 cublc yds of
excavaLlon (when ln facLţ Lhere was more) and summary [udgmenL was properŦ
O Merger clauses Lend Lo be bollerplaLe ţ buL MLŦ courL had no problem wlLh
O ulsclalmer ln k essenLlally maklng defendanL lmmune from fraud ls noL
followed ln many [xŦţ buL Lhe presence effecLlvely makes lL lmposslble Lo
wln ln a fraud acLlon agalnsL LhemŦ
O Nonoku/i Povinq Ǝ kock coŦ v 5he// Oi/ coŦ %Þr|ne Þrotent|on Ŵ ondunt)
ulsLrlcL courL erred ln !nCv b/c suppller had prlor hlsLory of honorlng prlce
proLecLlonţ lndlcaLlng assenL Ŵ noL walverŦ Þrlce proLecLlon could sLlll have been
reasonably lnferredŦ
O 2 Lheorles for nanakullť
O ÞÞ ls common Lrade pracLlce ln PlŦ Ǝ uCC 2Ŵ303(2) should assume
O ÞÞ ls Lhe only commetclolly teosoooble sLandard ln PlŦ
O SomeLhlng ls lnconslsLenL wlLh express Lerms of conLracLs lf lL negaLes a
LermŤ lf lL does noL negaLe a Lermţ Lhen lL ls conslsLenLŦ
Imp||ed Cb||gat|ons
4 wood v Lucyţ Lody uuffŴ6ordon %Imp||ed |n ant 1erms)
Language of halfŴproflLs and monLhly sLaLemenLs creaLed an lmplled ln facL
promlse Lo reasonably markeL Lady uuffŴCordonƌs nameŦ Wood sued over hls
clalm LhaL LuC breached Lhelr conLracL for excluslve rlghLs Lo markeL her name on
producLs when she allowed her name Lo be used on oLher producLs under Lhe
grounds LhaL he was under no obllgaLlon Lo herţ Lherefore she was under no
obllgaLlon Lo hlmŦ
O 1echnlcally Lhere was no acLual agreemenL from Wood Lo offer a reLurn
promlse Lo LuC on hls endţ buL Cardozo recLlfled Lhls by sLaLlng LhaL Lhe law
had changed Lo allow for more lnLerpreLaLlonţ and Lhe lnLenLlon of Lhe
parLles was a promlse wlLh value and an lmplled ln facL promlse for Wood
Lo markeL her producLsŦ
4 ontrant w|n do not prov|de defau|t term|nat|on terms are term|nab|e at w||| %|ook
to D requ|rements for term|nat|on)
4 D Ƈ2Ŵ309 Absenne of pen|f|n 1|me Þrov|s|onsŤ -ot|ne of 1erm|nat|on
1he Llme for shlpmenL or dellvery or any oLher acLlon under a conLracL lf noL
provlded ln Lhls ArLlcle or agreed upon shall be a reasonable LlmeŦ
Where Lhe conLracL provldes for successlve performances buL ls lndeflnlLe ln
duraLlon lL ls valld for a reasonable Llme buL unless oLherwlse agreed may be
LermlnaLed aL any Llme by elLher parLyŦ
1ermlnaLlon of a conLracL by one parLy excepLlon on Lhe happenlng of an agreed
evenL requlres LhaL reasonable noLlflcaLlon be recelved by Lhe oLher parLy and an
agreemenL dlspenslng wlLh noLlflcaLlon ls lnvalld lf lLs operaLlon would be
4 Leibe/ v koynor %Imp||ed |n aw 1erms)
8easonable noLlflcaLlon ls requlred and lmplled ln law under Lhe uCC ln order Lo
LermlnaLe manufacLurerŴsupplles Ǝ dealerŴdlsLrlbuLor or franchlsee onŴgolng oral
agreemenLs for Lhe sale of goodsŦ Appellee dld noL provlde reasonable noLlce ln
LermlnaLlng Lhe oral agreemenL for excluslve rlghL Lo sell garage doors ln a 30
mlle radlus around LexlngLonţ k?Ŧ
4 5eidenberq v 5ummit 8onk %easonab|e Lxpentat|on of Good a|t and a|r Dea||ng)
Þarol Lvldence 8ule does noL bar evldence relaLlng Lo an lmplled covenanL of
good falLh and falr deallng because by lLs very naLure lL ls lmplled Ť Lhe courL
erred ln granLlng S! because Lhere was evldence Lo lndlcaLe LhaL defendanL
vlolaLed Lhe covenanLŦ ÞlalnLlffs sold Lhelr company Lo SummlL wlLh an lmplled
agreemenL LhaL Lhe company would acL ln good falLh Lo advance Lhe enLlLy and
preserve Lhelr poslLlons Llll Lhey reached reLlremenL age (boLh of whlch Lhey dld
noL do)Ŧ
O lmplled CovenanL ln 3 Ceneral Ways
O Cl CovŦ ÞermlLs lncluslon of Lerms and condlLlons noL expressly ln Lhe
O ƍlottles most ove loteoJeJŧ becoose tey ote oecessoty to
qlve bosloess efflcocyƍ
O 8ad lalLh ls acLlonable w/o breach of any express Lerm ln k
O CovenanL permlLs lnqulry lnLo a parLyƌs dlscreLlon ln Lhe k
O 1he lmplled CovenanL of Cl Ǝ lu A--C1 overrlde Lhe express Lerms ln
Lhe k
4 lmplled duLles Lo conLracLs only exlsL afLer formaLlonţ noL before formaLlonŦ
4 D Ƈ2Ŵ103 Def|n|t|ons
(1) ln Lhls ArLlcle unless Lhe conLexL oLherwlse requlres
(a) ƍuyerƍ means a person who buys or conLracLs Lo buy goodsŦ
(b) ƍGood fa|tƍ ln Lhe case of a merchanL means honesLy ln facL and
Lhe observance of reasonable commerclal sLandards of falr deallng ln Lhe
(c) ƍene|ptƍ of goods means Laklng physlcal possesslon of LhemŦ
(d) ƍe||erƍ means a person who sells or conLracLs Lo sell goodsŦ
4 Morin 8ui/dinq Products coŦ v 8oystone constructionţ lncŦ %Cb[ent|ve G ommern|a|
1he sLandard regardlng deLermlnaLlon of saLlsfacLlon ln commerclal consLrucLlon
pro[ecLs ls LhaL of an ob[ecLlve reasonable personŦ 1hereforeţ Ceneral MoLor's
re[ecLlon of Lhe uefendanL's work on aesLheLlc grounds was unreasonableŦ
O ConLracL had a clause whlch sLaLed ƍwhaL ls usual or cusLomary ln erecLlng
oLher bulldlngs shall ln no wlse enLer lnLo any conslderaLlon or declslonŦƍ
whlch was probably lnLended Lo defeaL a Lrade usage clalmŦ
O !udge sldesLepped Lhls clause by reasonlng wlLh Lhe whole reasonlng
(sLaLemenL ƍwlLhln Lhe Lerms of Lhe conLracLƍ) of Lhe conLracL and
Lhe clrcumsLancesť
O LhaL Lhe parLles would noL have lnLended Lo allow Lhe work Lo
be re[ecLed on arLlsLlc groundsţ as Lhls would have resulLed ln
an exLremely hlghţ almosL lmposslble sLandard LhaL would have
caused Lhe ÞlalnLlff Lo demand hlgher compensaLlonŦ 1he courL
also reasoned LhaL lf a unlform flnlsh was lmporLanL Lo Lhe
uefendanLţ lL would have speclfled Lhe use of a palnLed flnlsh
lnsLead of alumlnumţ whlch ls exLremely dlfflculL Lo makeŦ
O ConLracL dld noL clearly sLaLe a sub[ecLlve aesLheLlc sLandard
was noL agreed Lo due Lo Lhe dlsquallfylng language and
general lnLenLlon of k proLecLed Morln from 8aysLoneƌs
sub[ecLlve whlmŦ
4 1|rd Þarty at|sfant|on |auses
lf 2 parLles agree ln advance LhaL saLlsfacLlon wlll be [udged by a Lhlrd parLyţ Lhen
Lhe Lhlrd parLyƌs [udgmenL wlll sLandţ even lf noL ob[ecLlvely reasonable b/c we
care abouL ƍhonesLy ln facLƍŦ
O ls esLabllshed because Lhe Lhlrd parLy ls consldered ƍlndependenLƍŦ
4 Locke v worner 8rosŦţ lncŦ %ub[ent|ve D|snret|onary |ause and G Ǝ D ovenant)
Where one parLy holds a dlscreLlonary power affecLlng Lhe rlghLs of anoLherţ lL
musL exerclse such power ln good falLhŦ Poweverţ Lhe lmplled covenanL of good
falLh wlll noL be used Lo conLradlcL any express Lerms of a conLracLŦ 1husţ where
one parLy's acLlons are auLhorlzed by an express provlslon Lo Lhe conLracLţ no
covenanL of good falLh can be lmplled Lo forbld such conducLŦ
1he CourL held LhaL ÞlalnLlff lnLroduced sufflclenL evldence Lo call lnLo quesLlon
wheLher uefendanLţ ln exerclslng lLs dlscreLlonary power Lo refuse Lo develop a
movle wlLh ÞlalnLlffţ dld so wlLh good falLhŦ 1hey furLher held LhaL ÞlalnLlff
lnLroduced sufflclenL clrcumsLanLlal evldence Lo show LhaL uefendanL had no
lnLenL Lo honor Lhe agreemenL aL Lhe Llme Lhe agreemenL was enLered lnLoŦ
O When Lhere ls an e|ent|ve r|gtţ no covenanL of Cl and luŦ When
d|snret|onary r|gtţ lmplled covenanL of Cl and lu wlll governŦ
O LlecLlve rlghLs are rlghLs were |t |s not |n quest|on LhaL a parLy has
compleLe freedom Lo acLŤ MD1 L LA 1nLL I A CMÞL1L
4 Good a|t Ǝ a|r Dea||ng
O Look Lo splrlL of Lhe bargalnť ls one parLy galnlng or loslng dlsproporLlonaLely wlLh
respecL Lo Lhe conLracLual agreemenL?
4 uonohue v ledero/ £xpress corp %AtŴJ||| Lmp|oyment w|t G Ǝ D)
no lmplled duLy of good falLh and falr deallng applles Lo LermlnaLlon of a pure aLŴ
wlll employmenL conLracLŦ
O 1he AppellaLe CourL held LhaL Lhere ls no lmplled duLy of good falLh and falr
deallng wlLh respecL Lo employmenL aLŴwlll conLracLsţ excepL where Lhe
LermlnaLlon LhreaLens clear publlc pollcyŦ
O 1he CourL furLher held LhaLţ excepL where an employee handbook ls
expllclLly lncorporaLed lnLo Lhe Lerms of an employmenL conLracLţ an
employer ls under no conLracLual duLy Lo adhere Lo such guldellnesŦ
O 1he CourL held LhaL excepL for when an employee ls under a legal
obllgaLlon Lo do soţ LermlnaLlon for whlsLle blowlng ls noL a vlolaLlon of
publlc pollcyŦ |ear examp|es of pub||n po||ny v|o|at|ons are (1) requlrlng
employee Lo commlL a crlmeţ (2) prevenLlng an employee from complylng
wlLh sLaLuLorlly requlred duLyţ and (3) when sLaLuLe prohlblLs dlscharglng
such employeeŦ
O 1he CourL flnally held LhaL AppellanL's bare allegaLlon LhaL he performed
superlor work for Appellee was lnsufflclenL Lo esLabllsh addlLlonal
4 Lmp|oyment AtŴJ|||
O Defau|t |s term|nab|e at w|||ţ un|ess a nase ar|ses were s|gn|f|nant nap|ta|
|nvestments ave been made %sun as dea|erŴd|str|butorţ manufanturerŴse||er
O Þub||n Þo||ny Lxnept|on
Can be found ln sLaLuLe or a sLrong publlc safeLy lmperaLlve
AddlLlonal ConslderaLlon Lo overcome aLŴwlll presumpLlon (eŦgŦ cosJollot
v Metcy nospŦ of llttsbotq)
O Cashdollar ls an excepLlonţ noL Lhe rule
O Jarrant|es
4 D 2Ŵ313 Ŵ Lxpress Jarrant|es
O Seller need noL lnLend Lhe warranLy expresslyţ [usL has Loţ ln wordsţ achleve Lhe
equlvalenL of a warranLy or guaranLeeŦ
4 D 2Ŵ314 Ŵ Imp||ed Jarranty of Mernantab|||ty
O MerchanLs of goods have an lmplled warranLy as Lo Lhe quallLy of Lhe goods Lhey
deal lnŦ
O SLandardť
Þass wlLhouL ob[ecLlon ln Lhe Lrade
llL for Lhe ordlnary purpose for whlch such goods are used
4 D 2Ŵ31S Ŵ Imp||ed warranty of f|tness for a part|nu|ar purpose
O lf a buyer relles on a sellerƌs advlce Ŵ Lhen only need Lo show goods do noL flL Lhe
buyerƌs purpose LhaL was made known Lo Lhe sellerţ no need for a defecLŦ
4 D 2Ŵ316
O When confllcL beLween express warranLy and Lerms of kţ sLarL by lnLerpreLlng Lo
be conslsLenL wlLh each oLherţ Lhen express LrumpsŦ
4 Jarrant|es asson|ated w|t |easeo|ds and new omes %not nover|ng)
4 8oy/iner Morine corpŦ v crow %Imp||ed Jarrant|es)
O (1) manufacLurer made no express warranLles regardlng boaLƌs speed capablllLlesŤ
!usL relled on lnformaLlon from brochure whlch sLaLed whaL Lhe boaL ls
capable of achlevlng ln ldeal clrcumsLances
O (2) purchaser falled Lo prove breach of lmplled warranLy of merchanLablllLyŤ and
1he record conLalned no ev|denne of te standard of mernantab|||ty |n
te offsore f|s|ng boat tradeŦ
-or d|d te renord nonta|n any ev|denne support|ng a nonn|us|on tat a
s|gn|f|nant port|on of te boatŴbuy|ng pub||n wou|d ob[ent to purnas|ng
an offsore f|s|ng boat w|t te speed napab|||ty of te 3486 1ropy
O (3) purchaser falled Lo prove breach of lmplled warranLy of flLness for parLlcular
purposeŦ Þurchaser of flshlng boaL sued manufacLurer for breach of express
warranLles and lmplled warranLles of merchanLablllLy and flLnessŦ
Crow used boaL for over 830 hours (lncludlng malnLenance) and wenL on
several flshlng Lrlps wlLh lLŦ
Pe was also unable Lo esLabllsh LhaL Lhe boaL was noL flL for hls purposes
when Lhls lnformaLlon facLored lnLo hls clalmsŦ
lurLhermoreţ Lhe lnformaLlon he was glven when he purchased Lhe boaL
was found Lo be mere ƍpufferyƍţ noL an acLual vlolaLlonţ whlch ls noL lllegalŦ
O Avo|d|ng Lnfornementť Innapan|tyţ arga|n|ng M|snonduntţ Dnnonsn|onab|||tyţ and Þub||n
4 Innapan|ty
O uodson v 5hroder %M|nor seek|ng esn|ss|on Ǝ est|tut|on)
(1) mlnor could noL recover amounL acLually pald wlLhouL reasonable
compensaLlon Lo vendor for Lhe useţ depreclaLlon and wlllful or negllgenL
damage Lo Lhe arLlcle whlle ln mlnorƌs handsţ so long as Lhe conLracL was
falr and reasonableţ Lhere was no undue lnfluence or overreachlngţ and
mlnor had acLually pald money on Lhe purchase prlce and Laken and used
Lhe arLlcle purchasedţ and (2) quesLlon of any overreachlng on Lhe parL of
Lhe seller and Lhe falr markeL value of Lhe properLy reLurned was a quesLlon
for Lhe Lrler of facLŦ
Mlnor purchased a Lruck from auLo sellers wlLhouL any dlscusslon of ageţ
afLer a few moLhs Lhe mlnor falled Lo replace a parL whlch had worn
LhroughŦ AfLer a whlle long of drlvlng w/ worn parLţ englne blew upŦ Seller
refused Lo refund money and a week laLer Lhe Lruck was also hlL by a hlLŴ
andŴrun drlver whlle parked ouL fronL of mlnorƌs parenLsƌ houseŦ
Cn remandţ 1C musL deLermlneť
O Was Lhere any overreachlng by Lhe adulL?
O WhaL was Lhe falr markeL value of Lhe Lruck (aL varlous polnLs)?
O uld mlnor conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe depreclaLlon of Lhe Lruck by drlvlng lL
afLer mechanlc warned of problem?
O WhaL was Lhe exLenL of damage from Lhe hƎr accldenL? WhaL was
Lhe falr markeL value when mlnor flrsL Lrled Lo reLurn Lruck?
O urrent Approan for M|nor|ty and Vo|dab|||ty
Any k enLered lnLo by a mlnor ls voldable aL Lhelr elecLlonŦ
O 1hls elecLlon may be exerclsed aL any polnL durlng Lhe mlnorlLy or
wlLhln a reasonable Llme afLer Lhey reach Lhe age of ma[orlLyŦ
Dpon d|saff|rmanneţ wat appens?
O 1radlLlonal 8ule
O Mlnor noL llable for anyLhlng Lhey have used or for any
depreclaLlon ln valueŦ
O LxcepLlons
O MlsrepresenLaLlon of age by mlnorŦ Ma[Ŧ Approach ŴŴ
mlnor may dlsafflrm buL ls llable only for anyLhlng LhaL
cannoL be resLoredŤ mlnorlLy approach ŴŴ k canƌL be
O necessarles ŴŴ Ma[Ŧ Approach ŴŴ mlnor may dlsafflrm k
buL ls llable ln resLlLuLlon for Lhe reasonable value of
whaL has been ƍconsumedƍ and cannoL be resLoredŦ
Some courLs say LhaL a conLracL for necessarles cannoL be
O Mlnor as clalmanL (cash v credlL)
O Mlnors don'L undersLand credlLţ glven large
O new Pampshlre ƍ8eneflL 8uleƍ
O Cregon 8ule
O 1he mlnor ls enLlLled Lo a full refund of Lhelr purchase prlceţ
wlLh deducLlon for Lhe mlnorƌs ƍuseƍ of Lhe conslderaLlon
recelved under Lhe kţ or for Lhe ƍdepreclaLlonƍ or
ƍdeLerloraLlonƍ of Lhe conslderaLlon recelvedŦ
O estatement Ƈ1S Ŵ Menta| Innapan|ty
%1)%a) nogn|t|ve
%1)%b) vo||t|ona|
O Less generous for menLal lncapaclLy Lhan for mlnorsŤ unless
overreachlng acLlon on oLher parLyţ person asserLs Lhe defense ls
responslble Lo replace all beneflLs recelvedŦ
O 1otem Morine 1uq Ǝ 8orqeţ lncŦ v 4/yesko Pipe/ine 5ervice coŦ %Lnonom|n Duress
Lconomlc uuress exlsLs whereť (1) wrongful LhreaL (one parLy lnvolunLarlly
accepLed Lhe Lerms of anoLher)ţ (2) clrcumsLances permlLLed no oLher
alLernaLlveţ and (3) such clrcumsLances were Lhe resulL of coerclve acLs of
Lhe oLher parLy (causaLlon)Ŧ 5ome jotlsJlctloos tepolte o ptotest by te
coetceJ potty
O 1oLem presenLed a case whlchţ lf provedţ would be enough Lo susLaln
a verdlcL of economlc duress agalnsL Alyeska when Alyeska dld noL
make paymenLs lmmedlaLely Lo 1oLem and forced Lhem Lo seLLle ln a
release agreemenL for subsLanLlally less Lhan was owed due Lo 1oLem
belng on Lhe verge of bankrupLcyŦ
O Cld sLandard of duress was a LhreaL of (1) harm Lo personŤ or (2)
harm Lo properLyŤ (3) ln clrcumsLances where Lhe wlll of Lhe person
lnduced was overcome raLher Lhan LhaL of a reasonably flrm personŦ
O Þollcy shlfLed Lo beyond physlcal harm on Lhe grounds LhaL
Lhere was a need ln Lhe law Lo recognlze and correcL
lnequlLable or unequal exchanges beLween parLles of
dlsproporLlonaLe bargalnlng power and a greaLer wllllngness Lo
noL enLer lnLo agreemenLs whlch were enLered lnLo under
coerclve clrcumsLnacesŦ
O Odoritti v 8/oomfie/d 5choo/ uistrict %Dndue Inf|uenne)
undue lnfluence exlsLs whenever Lhere resulLs ƍLhaL klnd of lnfluence or
supremacy of one mlnd over anoLher by whlch LhaL oLher ls prevenLed from
acLlng accordlng Lo hls own wlsh or [udgmenLţ and whereby Lhe wlll of Lhe
person ls overborne and he ls lnduced Lo do or forbear Lo do an acL whlch
he would noL doţ or would doţ lf lefL Lo acL freelyŦ (If w||| as been
overnome aga|nst [udgmentţ nonsent may be resn|nded)Ŧ
O ÞlalnLlff consenLed Lo reslgnaLlon from Leachlng poslLlon afLer a
personal vlslL from school superlnLendenL afLer Lhe plalnLlff was
charged wlLh homosexual conducLŤ sulL was laLer dlsmlssed and
plalnLlff aLLempLed Lo regaln hls posLŦ
O antors of overpersuas|on
O ulscusslon of LransacLlon aL an usual or lnapproprlaLe LlmeŤ
O ConsummaLlon of Lhe LransacLlon durlng LhaL LlmeŤ
O lnslsLenL demand LhaL buslness be flnlshed aL onceŤ
O LxLreme emphasls on unLoward consequences of delayŤ
O 1he use of mulLlple persuaders by Lhe domlnanL parLy agalnsL a
slngle servlenL parLyŤ
O Absence of advlsers Lo Lhe servlenL parLyŤ
O SLaLemenLs LhaL Lhere ls no Llme Lo consulL Lhe flnanclal
advlsers or aLLorneysŦ
4 arga|n|ng M|snondunt
O M|srepresentat|on
A k ls voldable by an lnnocenL parLy who [usLlflably relles on a maLerlal
mlsrepresenLaLlon made by anoLherŦ 1he represenLaLlon need noL be
fraudulenLŦ lL ls enough lf Lhe mlsrepresenLaLlon would lnduce a reasonable
person Lo agreeţ or Lhe mlsrepresenLlng parLy knows LhaL Lhe
mlsrepresenLaLlon would make Lhe parLlcular person agreeŦ
estatement 164%1) ŴŴ If a partyƌs man|festat|on of assent |s |nduned by
e|ter a fraudu|ent or a mater|a| m|srepresentat|on by te oter party
upon w|n te ren|p|ent |s [ust|f|ed |n re|y|ngţ te nontrant |s vo|dab|eŦ
O L|ementsť
O M|srepresentat|on
O An asserLlon of facL LhaL ls false
O Cplnlon Ŵ See Ƈ 168 Ǝ 169
O nondlsclosure Ŵ see Ƈ161
O raudu|ent C Mater|a| %estatement Ƈ162)
O raudu|ent |f lL ls ln facL false and Lhe maker knows Lhls
O Mater|a| |f maker knows LhaL Lhe false represenLaLlon
made would lnduce Lhe reclplenL lnLo bargalnlng or ls
llkely Lo do soŦ
O ust|f|ab|e e||anne
O 8ellance needs Lo be [usLlfledţ cannoL have had an oppLy
Lo lnspecL orţ lf oppLy presenLţ was [usLlfled ln noL flndlng
Lhe mlsrepresenLaLlon
O J|n |ndunes assent
O 8elylng parLy says ƍyesƍ Lo Lhe agreemenL
O uoes noL have Lo be Lhe sole lnduclng facLorţ [usL need Lo
credlbly say lL affecLed Lhe declslon slgnlflcanLlyŦ
5yester v 8onto %a|e of Dnneeded erv|nes)
O ConLlnually selllng servlces Lo a cusLomer who nelLher needs nor uses
Lhemţ by falsely Lelllng Lhe cusLomer LhaL she can become a
professlonal consLlLuLes fraudŦ uefendanL sold 68 year old woman
$30ţ000 worLh of dance lessons by conLlnually promlslng her she
could become a professlonal wlLh Lhelr helpŦ
ni// v lones %Duty to D|sn|ose)
O |rnumstannes J|t A Duty to d|sn|ose
O ulsclosure ls necessary Lo prevenL a prevlous asserLlon from
belng a mlsrepresenLaLlon or from belng fraudulenL or maLerlal
O ulsclosure would correcL a mlsLake of Lhe oLher parLy as Lo a
baslc assumpLlon on whlch LhaL parLy ls maklng Lhe conLracL
and lf nondlsclosure amounLs Lo a fallure Lo acL ln good falLh
and ln accordance wlLh reasonable sLandards of falr deallng
O ulsclosure would correcL a mlsLake of Lhe oLher parLy as Lo Lhe
conLenLs or effecL of a wrlLlngţ evldenclng or embodylng an
agreemenL ln whole or ln parL
O 1he oLher person ls enLlLled Lo know Lhe facL because of a
relaLlonshlp of LrusL and confldence beLween Lhem
O 8uyers purchased a home from sellersţ buL noLlced a rlpple ln a wood
sLep on Lhe floor and was Lold lL was waLer damageţ noL LermlLesŦ
AfLer purchaslng Lhe homeţ Lhey learned lL was LermlLe damage and
Lhe house had had LermlLe problems Lwlce beforeţ wlLh a loL of
evldence lndlcaLlng Lhe sellers mlghL have even lnLenLlonally Lrled Lo
conceal Lhe LermlLe evldenceŦ
e||ers typ|na||y are not afforded tese protent|ons to te degree tat
buyers are benause |t max|m|zes son|a| ut|||ty by promot|ng te wea|t of
son|ety and te free f|ow of goods to te|r most produnt|ve useŦ
4 Dnnonsn|onab|||ty %ubstanne of arga|n)
O wi//ioms v wo/kerŴ1homos lurniture coŦ %Inequa||ty of arga|n|ng Þower)
Where Lhere ls lnequallLy ln bargalnlng power beLween a seller and buyer
and Lhere ls an absence of meanlngful cholce for one parLy ln a conLracL
whlch has Lerms LhaL unreasonably favor Lhe oLher parLyţ Lhen
unconsclonablllLy ls presenLŦ
Wllllams was a dlvorced moLher of 7 llvlng off of a $218 a monLh welfare
checkŦ 1he seller was a doorŴLoŴdoor furnlLure sales company and sold her
several pleces of furnlLure under a conLracL provlslon whlch sLaLedť ƍżAŽnd
all paymenLs now and hereafLer made by żpurchaserŽ shall be credlLed pro
raLa on all ouLsLandlng leasesţ bllls and accounLsŧƍ essenLlally glvlng Lhe
seller Lo replevy oll furnlLure whlch ls sLlll owed money for lf a paymenL ls
mlssedţ even lf Lhe buyer had pald off Lhe falr value of Lhe lLem because Lhe
debL was spread over all lLemsţ noL each lndlvlduallyŦ
O L|ements
O Absence of meanlngful cholce on Lhe parL of one of Lhe parLlesŦ
O Cn Lerms whlch are unreasonably favorable Lo Lhe oLher parLyŦ
O Þr|ne as term |n quest|on
estatement Ƈ79
O If te requ|rement of nons|derat|on |s metţ tere |s no add|t|ona|
requ|rement of
A ga|nţ advantageţ or benef|t to te prom|sor or a |ossţ
d|sadvantageţ or a detr|ment to te prom|seeŤ or
Lqu|va|enne of te va|ues exnangedŤ or
ƍmutua||ty of ob||gat|onƍ
O 4d/er v lred Lind Monor %Vo|d for ubstant|ve Dnnonsn|onab|||ty)
ln some [urlsdlcLlons (WA lncluded)ţ conLracL provlslons may be volded for
subsLanLlve unconsclonablllLy alone ţ procedural unconsclonablllLy need
noL be demonsLraLedŦ
Adler enLered lnLo an employmenL agreemenL wlLh lLM provldlng for a
blndlng arblLraLlon agreemenLŦ
1he courL found Lhe arblLraLlon agreemenL Lo be
unconsclonable lf on remand Lhe Lrlal courL found Lhe cosLs of
arblLraLlon Lo be unreasonably prohlblLlve Lo AdlerŦ
lurLhermoreţ Lhe courL also found Lhe 180Ŵday llmlLaLlon
provlslon Lo be subsLanLlvely unconsclonable because lL would bar
Adler from pursulng oLher admlnlsLraLlve acLlons and because lL
could bar dlscrlmlnaLory clalms LhaL flrsL began ouLslde of Lhe
llmlLaLlon agreemenLŦ
Pe saL on Lhe arblLraLlon agreemenL for a weekţ Lhe courL
concluded he had meanlngful opporLunlLy Lo conslder Lhe agreemenL
and Lherefore hls rlghL Lo [ury Lrlal was walvedŦ (CourLs favor allowlng
arblLraLlon ln Lerms of agreemenLs where lL ls reasonable)
4 Þub||n Þo||ny
O eason|ng
AlLhough slLuaLlons may arlse where Lhe process of conLracL formaLlon ls
unLalnLedţ a conLracL may sLlll be unenforceable because Lhe conLracL lLself
elLher vlolaLes or runs dlrecLly conLrary Lo some publlc pollcyŦ 1hey are
ofLen sald Lo be unenforceable due Lo ƍlllegallLyƍţ buL lL also exLends
beyond provlslons LhaL are lllegalŦ
O vo//ey Medico/ 5pecio/ists v lorber %estr|nt|ve ovenant on Lmp|oyment)
An employer may noL lmpose a resLrlcLlve covenanL ln a docLorƌs
employmenL conLracL when Lhe covenanL exLends for an unreasonable
amounL of Llme and/or blankeL prohlblLlon of pracLlclng medlclne wlLhln a
large deflned LerrlLoryŦ
urŦ larber enLered lnLo an employmenL conLracL w/ a hosplLal whlch had a
resLrlcLlve covenanL whlch prohlblLed hlm from pracLlclng medlclne for 3
years wlLhln a 3 mlle radlus of any hosplLal owned by Lhe employerŦ
8ecause of lƌs speclalLy ln medlclneţ lL was unreasonable Lo
expecL hlm refuse pracLlclng wlLh compeLlLors for 3 years as lL would
vlolaLe AMA pollcy whlch sLrongly dlscourages such agreemenLs ln
Lhe medlcal professlonŦ
lurLhermoreţ alLhough vMS has a leglLlmaLe lnLeresL ln
proLecLlng Lhelr cusLomer baseţ Lhe personal relaLlonshlp beLween a
docLor and paLlenL affecLs Lhe exLend of LhaL lnLeresLŦ vMS never
Lralned lţ Lherefore vMSƌs lnLeresLs are ouLwelghed by oLher facLorsŦ
1he courL of appeals revlsed Lhe agreemenL Lo ellmlnaLe unreasonable
provlslonsţ buL Lhls appllcaLlon of Lhe ƍblue pencllƍ rule was lmproperŦ
O onsequennes of -onperformanneť Lxpress ond|t|onsţ Mater|a| reanţ and Ant|n|patory
4 Lxpress ond|t|ons
O estatement Ƈ 224 A condlLlon ls an evenLţ noL cerLaln Lo occurţ whlch musL
occurţ unless lLs nonŴoccurrence ls excusedţ before performance under a conLracL
becomes dueŦ
O ond|t|ons Þrenedent
CondlLlons whlch musL occur ln order Lo creaLe an absoluLe duLy Lo
performŤ LhaL lsţ Lhere ls no duLy owed unLll Lhe condlLlonal facL or evenL
ƍA promlses Lo pay 8 $1ţ000 lf 8 palnLs Aƌs house by !une 1ƍ
O ond|t|ons ubsequent
CondlLlons whlch Lhe occurrence Lhereof would exLlngulsh a prevlously
absoluLe duLy Lo performŦ
ƍA agrees Lo work for 8 for one year unless A ls drafLed lnLo mlllLary
O ond|t|ons onnurrent
CondlLlons whlch have muLually dependenL performances LhaL are capable
of nearly slmulLaneous performance by Lhe parLlesŦ
ƍA covenanLs Lo dellver wldges on !une 1 and 8 promlses Lo pay for Lhemƍ
O Interpretat|on
Þart|esƌ Intentť Lhe lnLenL of Lhe parLles deLermlnes wheLher a parLlcular
provlslon ls a promlse or a condlLlonŦ
antors ons|dered to Determ|ne Intent
Jords Dsedť ƍprovldedţƍ ƍlfţƍ ƍwhenţƍ and so forLh usually
lndlcaLe LhaL a condlLlon ls lnvolvedŦ Words llke ƍpromlseţƍ ƍagreedţƍ
eLcŦţ generally lndlcaLe a promlse was lnLendedŦ
ustomť Common usage or undersLandlng may be
Þrotent|on of Lxpentann|es of te Þart|esť uoubLful provlslons
are normally consLrued as promlses raLher Lhan condlLlons
(8esLaLemenL (Second) Ƈ227)
O unllaLeral condlLlons whlch are used Lo proLecL Lhe parLy
expecLed Lo perform lL buL are noL meL are only voldable by Lhe
condlLloned parLyŦ
O Lxnuses
MaLerlal condlLlons cannoL be wa|vedţ musL have a
modlflcaLlon supporLed by conslderaLlonţ all oLher condlLlons can be
O Walvers can be Laken backţ buL Lhe oLher parLy can use rellance
Lo esLopp Lhe parLy from Laklng lL back
O LlecLlon ls a nonŴreLracLable walverţ once you glve lL you can
noL Lake lL backŦ
Þrevent|on]reanť A condlLlon wlll be legally excused lf Lhe parLy whose
duLy was condlLlonal wrongfully prevenLs or hlnders Lhe occurrence of Lhe
Þrevent orfe|tureť lf Lhe nonoccurrence of a condlLlon would cause
dlsproporLlonaLe forfelLureţ Lhe nonoccurrence may be excused unless Lhe
condlLlon was a maLerlal parL of Lhe agreed exchangeŦ
O orefe|ture
Oppenheimer Ǝ coŦ v Oppenheimţ 4ppe/ţ uixon Ǝ coŦ %pen|f|n ond|t|on
Cenerallyţ an express condlLlon precedenL musL be llLerally
performedŦ An lmplled or consLrucLlve condlLlon usually arlses from
Lhe language of promlse and may be saLlsfled by subsLanLlal
O Þ falled Lo show Lhe nonoccurrence of Lhe express condlLlon
should be excused because of forfelLureŦ Þ only clalmed LhaL u
walved or should be esLopped from enforclng Lhe condlLlon for
wrlLLen consenL for LenanL modlflcaLlons and LhaLţ aL any raLeţ
lL subsLanLlally complled by provldlng verbal consenL over Lhe
O SubsLanLlal compllance ls lnappllcable Lo express condlLlonsŦ
lŦNŦ4Ŧ keo/ty corpŦ v cross 8oy che/seoţ lncŦ %e||ef from orfe|ture)
Where a LenanL would suffer a forfelLureţ he ls enLlLled Lo
equlLable rellef where Lhe defaulL has noL pre[udlced Lhe landlord
and lL ls a resulL of an honesL mlsLakeŦ
1he courL found LhaL Lhe uefendanL would have suffered
forfelLure slnce lL made subsLanLlal lmprovemenLs Lo Lhe properLyŦ
1he courL also found LhaL Lhe uefendanL's fallure Lo renew Lhe
lease was due Lo ºmere forgeLfulness" and was noL an lnLenLlonal
aLLempL Lo explolL a flucLuaLlng real esLaLe markeLŦ
1he courL found LhaL lL was unclear wheLher Lhe ÞlalnLlff
suffered a pre[udlce from Lhe uefendanL's overslghL and Lherefore a
new Lrlal should be granLedŦ
O Mater|a| rean
ubstant|a| Þerformanne
Þerformanne Ŵ GL1 DLI-I1IC-
aranter|z|ng rean %estatement Ƈ241 Ǝ 242 %w||| be
prov|ded on examţ st||| need to |earn))
O 1ota| or Þart|a|
O Þart|a| and mater|a|
O May noL LermlnaLe conLracLţ may sue on breachţ
musL fulflll duLles Lhough andţ lf commerclally
reasonableţ suspend your performanceŦ
O Þart|a| and |mmater|a|
O May noL LermlnaLe C8 suspend conLracL
O 1ota|
O Cnly polnL where LermlnaLlon of a conLracL ls okŤ
many parLles geL lnLo Lrouble because Lhey overŴ
respondţ mlscharacLerlzlng a parLlal breach as LoLalŦ
locob Ǝ Younqsţ lncŦ v kent %omp|ete Ǝ ubstant|a|
Þerformanneţ M|nor rean)
O Where compleLe performance ln accord wlLh conLracL
speclflcaLlons ls a condlLlon precedenL Lo paymenLţ and lf
subsLanLlal performance has been renderedţ a mlnor fallure Lo
perform wlll be excused lf Lhe omlsslon was Lrlvlal and noL
O uamages for u should be measured by Lhe loss ln value (raLher
Lhan cosL of replaclng Lhe plpe)
O ! Ǝ ? had enLered lnLo a conLracL wlLh kenL Lo supply all
plumblng be of a speclflc brandŦ Poweverţ only a small
porLlon was of LhaL brand because of negllgence ln
lnspecLlng Lhe plpes afLer Lhe flrsL shlpmenL was
dellveredŦ 8ecause Lhere was no real dlfference ln Lhe
plpesţ Lhe courL deemed Lhe damages Lrlvlal and
furLhermore LhaL Lhe burden on ! Ǝ ? would be Loo
subsLanLlal Lo [usLlfy awardlng damages Lo kenLŦ
O Cardozo (paraphrased) Ŵ lL makes sense Lo hold parLles
accounLable for express condlLlons lf lL ls sLaLed clearlyŦ 1hls
conLracL does noL have such clear Lermsţ due Lo lack of
language consLlLuLlng uslng oLher plplng as a breachŦ
O Alsoţ Cardozo was Lrylng Lo prevenL conLracLlng parLles
for clalmlng breach for any mlnor devlaLlonţ desplLe
funcLlonallLy belng effecLlvely unalLeredŦ
O Cnce a parLy ls held llable for a breachţ Lhey are glven $$
as a remedy and are under no obllgaLlon Lo flx lLţ whlch
could resulL ln a wlndfall Lo kenL because Lhe plplng was
subsLanLlally equal Lo Lhe 8eadlng plplngŦ
ardozoƌs fantors for ubstant|a| Þerformanne %l Ǝ Y v kent)
O LffecL of breach on nonŴbreachlng parLyƌs expecLaLlons glven
Lhe purpose of Lhe k
O Lxcuse for devlaLlon/good falLh on parL of breachlng parLy
O lorfelLure suffered by breachlng parLy
O 8u1 Ŵ Wlllful Lransgressor cannoL uLlllze Lhls docLrlne
O -ť 8e reasonable abouL followlng Lhlngs Lo Lhe 1ţ Lhlngs LhaL
maLLer wlll be proLecLedţ need Lo be speclflc of Lhose Lhlngs
and creaLe express condlLlonsŦ
O 8ullder can accounL for Lhese condlLlons by charglng a
premlum Ǝ maklng sure Lhelr work ls done rlghLŦ
O AbsenL communlcaLlon of lmporLanceţ Cardozo may have
a sLrong polnL because wlLh many Lhlngsţ almosL good
enough ls golng Lo be reasonably good enoughŦ
5ockett v 5pind/er %Þayment of CneŴ1|rd Þurnase Þr|ne)
O lL ls a LoLal breach when a buyer pays abouL oneŴLhlrd of Lhe
purchase prlce buL falls Lo pay Lhe balanceŦ 1he maLerlallLy of
Lhe breach deLermlnes wheLher lL ls parLlal or compleLeŦ
O AlLhough Þ had pald parL of Lhe purchase prlceţ u was
[usLlfled ln LermlnaLlng Lhe conLracL ln CcLober because
Þƌs offers Lo perform and hls assurances LhaL he would
perform were such LhaL lL was exLremely uncerLaln
wheLher Þ acLually lnLended Lo compleLe Lhe conLracLŦ
O u was a ma[orlLy owner of a newspaper company and enLered
lnLo a conLracL for $83ţ000 wlLh Þ for sLock ln Lhe companyŦ Þ
only dellvered abouL oneŴLhlrd of Lhe agreed upon purchase
prlce and repeaLedly mlssed deadllnes/promlses/paymenLs
agreed upon Lhe u and uƌs aLLorneyŦ
estatement Ƈ241 Ŵ|rnumstannes |gn|f|nant |n Determ|n|ng
Jeter a a||ure |s Mater|a|
1he exLenL Lo whlch Lhe ln[ured parLy wlll be deprlved
of Lhe beneflL whlch he reasonably expecLedŤ
1he exLenL Lo whlch Lhe ln[ured parLy can be adequaLely
compensaLed for Lhe parL of LhaL beneflL of whlch he wlll be
1he exLenL Lo whlch Lhe parLy falllng Lo perform or Lo
Lffer Lo perform wlll suffer forfelLureŤ
1he llkellhood LhaL Lhe parLy falllng Lo perform or Lo
offer Lo perform wlll cure hls fallureţ Laklng accounL of all Lhe
clrcumsLances lncludlng any reasonable assurancesŤ
1he exLenL Lo whlch Lhe behavlor of Lhe parLy falllng Lo
perform or Lo offer Lo perform comporLs wlLh sLandards of
good falLh and falr deallngŦ
estatement Ƈ242 Ŵ |rnumstannes |gn|f|nant |n Determ|n|ng
Jen ema|n|ng Dut|es are D|snarged
1hose sLaLed ln Ƈ241Ť
1he exLenL Lo whlch lL reasonably appears Lo Lhe ln[ured
parLy LhaL delay may prevenL or hlnder hlm ln maklng
reasonable subsLlLuLe arrangemenLsŤ
1he exLenL Lo whlch Lhe agreemenL provldes for
performance wlLhouL delayţ buL a maLerlal fallure Lo perform or
Lo offer Lo perform on a sLaLed day does noL of lLself dlscharge
Lhe oLher parLyƌs remalnlng duLles unless Lhe clrcumsLancesţ
lncludlng Lhe language of Lhe agreemenLţ lndlcaLe LhaL
performance or an offer Lo perform by LhaL day ls lmporLanLŦ
enovery from rean Ŵ est|tut|on and D|v|s|b|||ty
Dnder ť Many courLs wlll allow a breachlng conLracLor
Lo recover ln resLlLuLlon for Lhe reasonable value of lLs servlcesŦ
estatement Ƈ240 Ŵ D|v|s|b|||ty
O lL musL be posslble Lo apporLlon Lhe performances of Lhe
parLles lnLo correspondlng palrs of parL performances
O lL musL be proper Lo LreaL Lhese palrs of Lhe parL
performances as ƍagreed equlvalenLsƍ
O ueslgned Lo proLecL Lhe expecLaLlons of Lhe
conLracLlng parLlesŤ proLecLs nonŴbreachlng parLy
from havlng Lo pay exacLly for whaL was promlsed
wlLh only a fracLlon of performanceţ unless lL ls
apparenL LhaL Lhe beneflL recelved ls worLh roughly
LhaL same fracLlon of whaL full performance would
have been worLhŦ
Ant|n|patory epud|at|on
1rumon LŦ l/ott Ǝ 5ons coŦ v 5chupf
O Damages
4 Lxpentat|on Damages
O a|nu|at|ng Lxpentat|on Damages %see pgŦ 8S0)
k for sa|e of |andţ %A) uyer reanes
D ƹ |oss |n va|ue + CŦŦ Ŵ ŦAŦ Ŵ ŦAŦ
nereţ |oss |n va|ue ƹ k pr|ne Ŵ market pr|ne and CŦŦ ƹ |nn|denta|
Ǝ nonsequent|a|
Conslder how much was Lo be paldţ Lhen cosLţ and Lhen
oLher Lhlngs llke Lhe Llme dlmenslonŦ
esu|t Ŵ se||er renovers for |oss |n va|ue |f and on|y |f market
pr|ne at t|me of brean |s |ower tan k pr|neŤ |f market pr|ne at t|me
of brean |s te same or |s |ger tan te k pr|neţ ten te brean
by buyer does not nause a |oss |n va|ue to te se||erŦ
estr|nt|ons ons|dered by ourtsť
M|t|gat|on eqs %CCk DÞ)
?ou are noL llable for Lhose damages you could have reasonably
1he exLenL of damages are llmlLed by reasonable cerLalnLy
Inn|denta| Damages
1ose damages tat onnur or nosts |nnurred to m|t|gate a |oss
onsequent|a| Damages
Market va|ue ls Lo be calculaLed aL Llme of breach
koesch v 8roy
nondicopped chi/drenƌs £ducotiono/ 8d v Lukostewski
An employer may recover damages for Lhe exLra salary lL has Lo
pay Lo replace an employee who breaches a conLracL by qulLLlngŦ
uamages are measured by Lhe parLlesƌ expecLaLlonsţ and ln an
employmenL conLracL caseţ damages can lnclude Lhe cosL of
obLalnlng oLher servlces equlvalenL Lo LhaL promlsed buL noL
8ecause Þ mlLlgaLed lLs damages by hlrlng Lhe leasL expenslveţ
quallfled replacemenL avallableţ Þ ls enLlLled Lo have Lhe beneflL of
Lhe bargaln resLoredŦ
over Þr|ne vs ontrant Þr|neŦ
4mericon 5tondord v 5chectmon %rean of onstrunt|on ontrant)
Where a parLy has subsLanLlally performedţ buL Lhe cosL Lo
compleLe ls sLlll hlghţ Lhe oLher parLy may recover compleLlon cosLs
even when Lhe falr markeL value of Lhe properLy ls essenLlally
unaffecLed by Lhe lncompleLe workŦ
1he general rule of damages for breach of a
consLrucLlon conLracL allows recovery for any damages LhaL are
Lhe dlrecLţ naLuralţ and lmmedlaLe consequence of Lhe breach
and LhaL were wlLhln Lhe conLemplaLlon of Lhe parLles when
Lhe conLracL was madeŦ Jete te coottoctotƌs petfotmooce
wos Jefectlve ot locompleteţ te teosoooble cost of
teplocemeot ot completloo ls te meosoteŦ

O oreseeab|||tyţ erta|ntyţ and ausat|on
nod/ey v 8oxendo/e %oreseeab|||ty)
OA nonbreachlng parLy may noL recover damages for losses lL susLalns
buL whlch would noL ordlnarlly be expecLed
O normallyţ damages are Lhose LhaL arlse naLurally from a breach
of Lhe conLracLŦ
O ln addlLlonţ where Lhere are damages because of speclal
clrcumsLancesţ Lhey wlll be assessed agalnsL Lhe defendanL only
where Lhey were reasonably wlLhln Lhe conLemplaLlon of boLh
parLles as belng Lhe probable consequence of a breachŦ
O Slnce losL proflLs would noL ordlnarlly flow from uƌs breachţ and
slnce Lhe speclal clrcumsLances were never communlcaLed Lo
uţ loss of proflLs should noL have been consldered ln esLlmaLlng
Oneed Lo be able Lo calculaLe damages reasonably cerLalnŦ
kockinqhom county v Luten 8ridqe coŦ %M|t|gat|on of Damages)
Oln generalţ Lhe llmlLaLlon on damages are unrelmbursed expendlLures +
neL proflLţ one cannoL plle on damages and Lhe nonŴbreachlng parLy
musL LreaL Lhe k as lf Lhere ls a breachŦ A parLy may noL conLlnue
performance afLer noLlce of breach and recover Lhe full conLracL

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