# A short course on Siegel modular forms

POSTECH Lecture series, July 2007
Winfried Kohnen
”Siegel modular forms”, as they are called today, were ﬁrst introduced by Siegel in a
paper of 1935 and nowadays often are given as a ﬁrst example of holomorphic modular
forms in several variables. The theory meanwhile has a long traditional background and
is a very important and active area in modern research, combining in many nice ways
number theory, complex analysis and algebraic geometry.
The goal of these lectures is twofold: ﬁrst I would like to introduce the basic concepts
of the theory, like the Siegel modular group and its action on the Siegel upper half-space,
reduction theory, examples of Siegel modular forms, Hecke operators and L-functions.
Secondly, following up, I would like to discuss two rather recent research topics, namely
the ”Ikeda lifting” and sign changes of Hecke eigenvalues in genus two.
For sections 1-4 we refer to [F] as a basic reference, for the results about L-functions
in sect. 4 we refer to [A]. Regarding sect. 5 the reader may consult [E-Z,I,K1,C-K,K-K]
for more details, and for sect. 6 we refer to the survey article [K2].
1 Introduction and motivation
First we would like to give some motivation why to study Siegel modular forms. This
motivation will stem from two diﬀerent sources, namely number theory and the theory of
compact Riemann surfaces.
a) From number theory
Let A ∈ M
m
(Z) be an integral (m, m)-matrix and suppose that A is even (i.e. all the
diagonal entries of A are even), A is symmetric (i.e. A = A

, where the prime

denotes
1
the transpose) and A > 0 (i.e. A is positive deﬁnite). Then
Q(x) =
1
2
x

Ax =

1≤µ<ν≤m
a
µν
x
µ
x
ν
+
m

µ=1
a
µµ
2
x
2
µ
(x ∈ R)
is an integral positive deﬁnite quadratic form in the variables x
1
, . . . , x
m
.
For t ∈ N, let
r
Q
(t) := #¦g ∈ Z
m
[Q(g) =
1
2
g

Ag = t¦
be the number of representations of t by Q.
Lemma 1.
r
Q
(t) < ∞.
Proof: Diagonalize A over R; since A > 0, it follows that M
t
:= ¦x ∈ R
m
[Q(x) = t¦
is compact, hence M
t
∩ Z
m
(intersection of a compact and a discrete set) is ﬁnite.
Problem: Given Q, ﬁnd ﬁnite, closed formulas for r
Q
(t), or at least an asymptotic
formula for r
Q
(t) when t →∞ !
Idea (Jacobi): Study the generating Fourier series (theta series)
θ
Q
(z) := 1 +

t≥1
r
Q
(t)e
2πitz
=

x∈Z
m
e
2πiQ(x)z
(z ∈ C).
Since A > 0, this series converges absolutely locally uniformly in the upper half-plane
H, i.e. for z ∈ C with Im z > 0. On H operates the group SL
2
(R) = ¦
_
a b
c d
_

M
2
(R) [ ad −bc = 1¦ by
_
a b
c d
_
◦ z =
az +b
cz +d
.
Fact: For m even, θ
Q
∈ M
m/2
(N)= space of modular forms of weight
m
2
and level N,
i.e. essentially
θ
Q
_
az +b
cz +d
_
= ±(cz +d)
m/2
θ
Q
(z) (∀
_
a b
c d
_
∈ SL
2
(Z), N[c),
where N is a certain natural number depending on Q, the so-called level of Q.
Application: M
m/2
(N) is a ﬁnite-dimensional C-vector space =⇒ results on r
Q
(t).
2
Example: m = 4, Q(x) = x
2
1
+ + x
2
4
; then θ
Q
∈ M
2
(4). Known: dim M
2
(4) = 2,
in fact M
2
(4) has a basis of two Eisenstein series E
1
(z) := P(z) − 4P(4z), E
2
(z) :=
P(z) −2P(2z), where
P(z) = 1 −24

t≥1
σ
1
(t)e
2πitz

1
(t) :=

d|t
d).
Therefore
θ
Q
(z) = αE
1
(z) +βE
2
(z)
for certain α, β ∈ C. Comparing the ﬁrst two Fourier coeﬃcients on both sides gives
1 = −3α −β,
8 = −24α −24β.
This implies
α = −
1
3
, β = 0,
hence
θ
Q
= −
1
3
E
1
.
Comparing coeﬃcients for all t ≥ 1, we obtain therefore
r
Q
(t) = 8
_
σ
1
(t) −4σ
1
(
t
4
)
_
(Jacobi),
in particular
r
Q
(t) ≥ 1, ∀t ≥ 1 (Lagrange).
In general, however, due to the presence of cusp forms, one only gets asymptotic formulas.
More general problem: Study the number of representations of a (n, n)-matrix T
by Q, i.e. study
r
Q
(T) := #¦G ∈ M
m,n
(Z) [
1
2
G

AG = T¦.
Note: if T is represented like that, then T = T

and T ≥ 0 (i.e. T is positive
semi-deﬁnite). Also T must be half-integral (i.e. 2T is even) and r
Q
(T) < ∞ (since
1
2
G

AG = T ⇒
1
2
g

ν
Ag
ν
= t
νν
where g
ν
is the ν-th column of G).
Put
θ
(n)
Q
(Z) :=

T=T

≥0
T half−integral
r
Q
(T)e
2πitr(TZ)
(Z ∈ M
n
(C)).
3
(Note that
tr(TZ) =

1≤µ<ν≤n
t
µν
z
µν
+
n

ν=1
t
νν
z
νν
(where Z = (z
µν
), T =
_
_
_
t
11
1
2
t
µν
.
.
.
1
2
t
µν
t
nn
_
_
_
) is the most general linear form in the variables
z
µν
).
This series is absolutely convergent on the Siegel upper-space H
n
:= ¦Z ∈ M
n
(C) [Z =
Z

, ImZ > 0¦ of degree n. On H
n
operates the symplectic group
Sp
n
(R) = ¦
_
A B
C D
_
∈ GL
2n
(R) [ A, B, C, D ∈ M
n

−BC

= E,
AB

= BA

, CD

= DC

¦
= ¦M ∈ GL
2n
(R) [ I
n
[M] = I
n
¦
(where I
n
=
_
0
n
E
n
−E
n
0
n
_
) by
_
A B
C D
_
◦ Z = (AZ +B)(CZ +D)
−1
.
(Note that H
1
= H, Sp
1
(R) = SL
2
(R).)
Fact: For m even, θ
(n)
Q
is a Siegel modular form of weight
m
2
, level N and degree n,
i. e. essentially
θ
(u)
Q
((AZ+B)(CZ+d)
−1
) = ±det(CZ+D)
m
2
θ
(n)
Q
(Z), (∀
_
A B
C D
_
∈ Sp
n
(Z), N [ c
µν
∀µ, ν).
Aim: To get results on r
Q
(T), study Siegel modular form of degree n!
For example, one has the following result due to Siegel: if A
1
, . . . , A
h
is a full set
of GL
m
(Z)-representatives of even, symmetric, positive deﬁnite, unimodular matrices of
size m (such matrices exist iﬀ 8[m, and the number of classes is always ﬁnite), then the
average value
n

µ=1
r

(T)
(Q
µ
)
(where (Q
µ
) := #¦G ∈ M
n
(Z)[G

A
µ
G = A
µ
¦)
4
can be expressed by Fourier coeﬃcients of Eisenstein series of degree n. The latter in turn
can be described by ”elementary” number-theoretic expressions.
b) Compact Riemann surfaces
Let X be a compact Riemann surface, i.e. a compact, connected complex manifold of
dimension 1.
Let g be the genus of X (visualize X as a sphere with g handles). Note that also dim
H
1
(X; Z) = 2g and χ(X) = 2 −2g is the Euler characteristic of X.
Examples:
i) X = S
2
= P
1
(C), g = 0;
ii) X = C/L, where L ⊂ C is a lattice (elliptic curve), g = 1.
In the following we assume that g ≥ 1. It is well-known that g is also the dimension of
the space H(X) of holomorphic diﬀerential forms on X. Let ¦a
1
, . . . , a
g
, b
1
, . . . , b
g
¦ be a
”canonical” Z-basis for H
1
(X; Z), i.e. the intersection matrix is I
g
(cf. a)). (For example,
visualize X as a 4g-sided polygon with the usual boundary identiﬁcations.) Then there
is a uniquely determined basis ¦ω
1
, . . . , ω
g
¦ of H(X) such that
_
a
i
ω
i
= δ
ij
(1 ≤ i, j ≤ g).
If one puts z
ij
:=
_
b
j
ω
i
(1 ≤ i, j ≤ g), then the period matrix Z := (z
ij
) is in H
g
. Moreover,
if one chooses a diﬀerent basis, then the corresponding period matrix
ˆ
Z is obtained from
Z by
ˆ
Z = M ◦ Z
where M ∈ Γ
g
:= Sp
g
(Z). In this way one obtains a map
φ : /
g
→/
g
:= Γ
g
¸H
g
where /
g
is the set of isomorphism classes of compact Riemann surfaces of genus g.
Theorem 2. (Torelli): φ is injective.
Known: g = 1 ⇒φ is bijective.
In general, /
g
and /
g
are ”complex spaces” of dimensions 3g − 3 and
1
2
g(g + 1),
respectively. On both spaces one can do complex analysis, and one obtains interest-
ing functions on /
g
by restricting functions on /
g
(i.e. by restricting Siegel modular
functions of degree g).
Schottky Problem: Describe the locus of /
g
inside /
g
by algebraic equations! (For
g = 2, 3 one has φ(/
g
) = /
g
, so the problem starts at g = 4). One wants a description
5
in terms of equations between modular forms. For example, for g = 4 this locus is exactly
the zero set of
θ
(4)
E
8
⊕E
8
−θ
(4)
D
+
8
where E
8
is the standard E
8
-root lattice and in general
D
+
m
:= D
m
∪ (D
m
+ (
1
2
, . . . ,
1
2
)),
with
D
m
= ¦x ∈ Z
m
[ x
1
+ +x
m
≡ 0 (mod 2)¦
(note D
+
8
= E
8
).
2 The Siegel modular group
a) Symplectic matrices
Deﬁnition: Let R be a commutative ring with 1. Let E = E
n
respectively 0 = 0
n
the
unit respectively zero matrix in M
n
(R) and put I :=
_
0 E
−E 0
_
∈ M
2n
(R). Then
Sp
n
(R) := ¦M ∈ GL
2n
(R) [ I[M] = I¦
is called the symplectic group of degree n with coeﬃcients in R. (General notation: if
A ∈ M
m
(R), B ∈ M
n
(R), we put A[B] := B

AB.)
Remark:
i) Sp
n
(R) is a subgroup of GL
2n
(R) (this is clear since I[M
1
M
2
] = (I[M
1
])[M
2
], and
I[E
2n
] = I), in fact it is the automorphism group of the alternating skew-symmetric
form deﬁned by I.
ii) Later on, we will be only interested in the cases R = Z, R.
Lemma 3. Let M =
_
A B
C D
_
∈ GL
2n
(R) with A, B, C, D ∈ M
n
(R). Then
i)
M ∈ Sp
n
(R) ⇔ A

C = C

A, B

D = D

B, A

D −C

B = E
⇔ AB

= BA

, CD

= DC

−BC

= E.
ii) M ∈ Sp
n
(R) ⇒M

∈ Sp
n
(R).
iii) M ∈ Sp
n
(R) ⇒M
−1
=
_
D

−B

−C

A

_
.
6
Proof: Simple computations, for example
M

IM = I ⇔
_
A

C

B

D

__
0 E
−E 0
__
A B
C D
_
=
_
0 E
−E 0
_

_
−C

A +A

C −C

B +A

D
−D

A +B

C −D

B +B

D
_
=
_
0 E
−E 0
_
,
hence the ﬁrst part of i) holds.
Remark: From the Lemma, in particular, it follows that Sp
1
(R) = SI
2
(R).
Examples for symplectic matrices:
i)
_
E S
0 E
_
with S = S

∈ M
n
(R);
ii)
_
U

0
0 U
−1
_
with U ∈ GL
n
(R);
iii) I =
_
0 E
−E 0
_
.
Theorem 4. Let R be a Euclidean ring. Then Sp
n
(R) is generated by the special matrices
as above under i) - iii).
Proof: More complicated, use induction on n! Details cannot be given here.
Corollary 5. Sp
n
(R) ⊂ SL
2n
(R).
Proof: The generators given in Theorem 4 obviously have determinant 1.
b) The Siegel upper half-space H
n
Deﬁnition: H
n
:= ¦Z = X + iY ∈ M
n
(C) [ X, Y real , Z = Z

, Y = Im Z > 0) is
called the Siegel upper half-space of degree n. Obviously H
n

= R
n(n+1)
2
T
n
⊂ R
n(n+1)
,
where T
n
:= ¦Y ∈ M
n
(R) [ Y = Y

, Y > 0¦.
Lemma 6. T
n
is an open subset of R
n(n+1)
2
, hence H
n
is an open subset of R
n(n+1)
.
Proof: One has Y > 0 iﬀ detY
(ν)
> 0 ∀ν = 1, ..., n where Y
(ν)
is the ν-th principal
minor of Y , and det is a continuous function.
7
Theorem 7. i) The group Sp
n
(R) operates on H
n
by
_
A B
C D
_
◦ Z := (AZ +B)(CZ +D)
−1
.
ii) One has
Im M ◦ Z = (CZ +D)

−1
Im Z (CZ +D)
−1
.
Proof: i) One has to check that
a) det(CZ +D) ,= 0, M ◦ Z ∈ H
n
(M =
_
A B
C D
_
∈ Sp
n
(R), Z ∈ H
n
),
b) E
2n
◦ Z = Z, (MN) ◦ Z = M ◦ (N ◦ Z).
This can be done by brute force calculations, using e.g. Theorem 4.
Here, to give a simple example, we only prove:
Claim: Z ∈ H
n
⇒Z invertible,
_
0 E
E 0
_
◦ Z = −Z
−1
∈ H
n
.
Proof of claim: Choose V ∈ GL
n
(R) with Y [V ] = V

Y V

= E. Then Z[V ] = T + iE
with T = X[V ]. Since (T + iE)(T − iE) = T
2
+ E = TT

+ E is positive deﬁnite, it is
invertible, so T +iE and hence Z is invertible.
Furthermore
(T +iE)
−1
= (T −iE)(T
2
+E)
−1
⇒ −Z
−1
= −(((T +iE)[V
−1
])
−1
= −V (T −iE)(T
2
+E)
−1
V

(Im Z)
−1
= V (T
2
+E)
−1
V

> 0.
ii) Use that Im Z =
1
2i
(Z −
¯
Z), insert M ◦ Z for Z and use the symplectic relations.
c) Reduction theory
Deﬁnition: The discrete subgroup Γ
n
:= Sp
n
(Z) ⊂ Sp
n
(R) is called Siegel modular group
of degree n.
Aim of reduction theory: Study the action of Γ
n
on H
n
! From each orbit ¦M◦Z [ M ∈
Γ
n
¦ choose a ”suitable” representative, a so-called ”reduced point”. The set T
n
of re-
duced points should be described by ”simple” and possibly a ﬁnite set of inequalities in
the components of Z; T
n
should have ”nice” geometric properties (e.g. should be con-
nected, measurable, etc.).
8
Recall the case n = 1, i.e. Γ
1
= SL
2
(Z), H
1
= H = ¦z ∈ C [ Im z > 0¦.
Idea: z ∈ H, z →h(z) := Im z = ”height” of z. Then
(1) h(M ◦ z) = [cz +d[
−2
h(z) (M =
_

c d
_
∈ Γ
1
).
One shows:
i) Any orbit Γ
1
◦ z contains points w of maximal height. These are characterized among
the points of Γ
1
◦ z by the conditions [cw +d[ ≥ 1, ∀c, d ∈ Z with (c, d) = 1;
ii) For every z ∈ H, ∃M ∈ Γ
1
such that M ◦ z ∈ T

1
:= ¦z = x + iy ∈ H[ [x[ ≤
1
2
, [cz +d[ ≥ 1, ∀c, d ∈ Z with (c, d) = 1¦;
iii) T

1
= T
1
:= ¦z = x +iy ∈ H [ [x[ ≤
1
2
, [z[ ≥ 1¦;
iv) No two diﬀerent inner points of T
1
are Γ
1
-equivalent.
Proof:
i) Follows easily from (1).
ii) Follows from (i) and the fact that h(z) is invariant under translations.
iii) Follows from the inequalities (valid for z ∈ T
1
),
[cz +d[
2
= c
2
(x
2
+y
2
) + 2cdx +d
2
≥ c
2
−[cd[ +d
2
≥ 1,
2
±xy +y
2
is positive deﬁnite).
iv) One uses: z

, z ∈ T
1
, z

= M ◦ z ⇒ h(M ◦ z) = h(z) by construction ⇒ [cz + d[ =
1 (M =
_

c d
_
).
For arbitrary n ≥ 1 try to do something similar: Z ∈ H
n
→ h(Z) := det(Im Z) =
”height” of Z. Then by Theorem 7, ii) one has
h(M ◦ Z) = [det(CZ +D)[
−2
h(Z).
One can show that each orbit contains points W of maximal height and these are
characterized by [det(CW + D) [ ≥ 1 ∀
_
. .
C D
_
∈ Γ
n
. Additional diﬃculty for n ≥ 1 :
h(Z) is not only invariant under translations
_
E S
0 E
_
, but also under
_
U

0
0 U
−1
_
with
U ∈ GL
n
(Z). Therefore one also has to study the action Y → Y [U] = U

Y U of GL
n
(Z)
on T
n
(Minkowski reduction theory)!
Deﬁnition: We let T
n
be the set of all Z ∈ H
n
which satisfy
9
i) [det(CZ +D)[ ≥ 1 ∀
_
. .
C D
_
∈ Γ
n
;
ii) Y = Im Z is Minkowski reduced, i.e. Y [g] ≥ y
k
(k-th diagonal element of Y ) ∀
g =
_
_
_
g
1
.
.
.
g
n
_
_
_
∈ M
n,1
(Z) with (g
k
, , g
n
) = 1, ∀k = 1, , n, and y
k,k+1
≥ 0 ∀ k
with 1 ≤ k < n;
iii) [x
ij
[ ≤
1
2
∀ 1 ≤ i, j ≤ n.
Points in T
n
are called Siegel reduced.
Theorem 8. If Z ∈ T
n
, then the following holds:
i) y
n
≥ y
n−1
≥ ≥ y
1
, [y
µν
[ ≤
1
2
y
ν
for µ ,= ν;
ii) detY ≤ y
1
y
n
≤ C
n
detY where C
n
> 0 is a constant depending only on n;
iii) y
1

1
2

3;
iv) Y ≥ δ
n
E
n
(i.e. Y −δ
n
E
n
≥ 0) where δ
n
> 0 is a constant depending only on n.
Properties i) - ii) hold for any Minkowski reduced matrix Y > 0, while iii) - iv) can
be proved in addition if Z is Siegel reduced.
Theorem 9. i) T
n
is a fundamental domain for Γ
n
, i.e.
a) for any Z ∈ T
n
, ∃M ∈ Γ
n
with M ◦ Z ∈ T
n
;
b) if Z, Z

∈ intT
n
and Z

= M ◦ Z with M ∈ Γ
n
, then M = ±E
2n
and Z = Z

;
c) #¦M ∈ Γ
n
[ M ◦ T
n
∩ T
n
,= ∅¦ < ∞.
ii) The set T
n
can be deﬁned by ﬁnitely many inequalities of the type given in the deﬁ-
nition of T
n
. One has
intT
n
= T
n
.
The proofs of Theorems 8 and 9 are diﬃcult and cannot be given here.
10
3 Siegel modular forms: basic properties
Deﬁnition: A function f : H
n
→ C is called a Siegel modular form of weight k ∈ Z and
degree n (w.r.t. Γ
n
), if
i) f is holomorphic,
ii) f((AZ +B)(CZ +D
−1
) = det(CZ +D)
k
F(Z) ∀
_
A B
C D
_
∈ Γ
n
,
iii) f is bounded in Y ≥ Y
0
, for any Y
0
> 0.
Remarks:
i) We denote M
k

n
) the C-vector space of Siegel modular forms of weight k and degree n.
ii)
f ∈ M
n

n
) ⇒ f(Z +S) = f(Z) (∀S = S

∈ M
n
(Z)),
f(Z[U]) = (detU)
k
f(Z) (∀U ∈ GL
n
(Z)),
f(−Z
−1
) = (detZ)
k
f(Z)
(apply the transformation formula ii) to the special generators of Theorem 4). The
converse is also true, since Γ
n
is generated by these special matrices (Theorem 4).
iii) kn odd ⇒M
k

n
) = ¦0¦ (since −E then acts on f by multiplication with (−1)
kn
).
Theorem 10. Let f ∈ M
k

n
). Then f has a Fourier expansion of the form
f(Z) =

T=T

half−integral
T≥0
a(T)e
2πi tr(TZ)
,
absolutely convergent on H
n
and uniformly in Y = Y

≥ Y
0
> 0. If n ≥ 2, then
condition iii) in the deﬁnition of a Siegel modular form follows from conditions i) and ii)
(”Koecher principle”).
Moreover, one has
a(T[U]) = (det U)
k
a(T) (∀T ≥ 0, ∀U ∈ GL
n
(Z)).
Proof: If n = 1, the existence of the Fourier expansion of the given shape easily follows
from the boundedness of f(Z) for Y ≥ Y
0
> 0 and Riemann’s criterion for removable
singularities (consider the map z →q := e
2πiz
and put
ˆ
f(q) := f(z)(q = e
2πiz
, z ∈ H)).
11
Now suppose n ≥ 2. Since f is holomorphic and satisﬁes f(Z +S) = f(Z) (∀S = S

M
n
(Z)), f certainly has a Fourier expansion which can be written as
f(Z) =

T=T

half−integral
a(T)e
2πitr(TZ)
(note that
tr(TZ) =

1≤µ<ν≤n
t
µν
z
µν
+
n

ν=1
t
νν
z
ν
).
Since f(Z[U]) = (det U)
k
f(Z) ∀U ∈ GL
n
(Z), the formula a(T[U]) = (det U)
k
a(T)(∀ T ≥
0, ∀ U ∈ GL
n
(Z)) easily follows by comparing Fourier coeﬃcients. In particular
a(T[U]) = a(T) (∀ U ∈ SI
n
(Z)).
Suppose that a(T) ,= 0. Then, since the Fourier series is absolutely convergent, it follows
that
(2)

S
[e
2πitr(SZ)
[ =

S
e
−2πtr(SY )
is convergent for any Y = Y

> 0, where the summation is over all the diﬀerent matrices
S = T[U] with U ∈ SI
n
(Z).
Claim: If T is not positive semi-deﬁnite, the series (2) diverges for Y = E.
Proof of Claim: By assumption ∃g ∈ R
n
with T[g] < 0 ⇒ ∃g ∈ Q
n
, hence ∃g ∈ Z
n
with components relatively prime such that T[g] < 0. By Gauss lemma, ∃U ∈ SI
n
(Z)
with ﬁrst column g. Replacing T by T[U] one can assume that t
11
= T[e
1
] < 0. Let
S
y
:= T[V
y
], V
y
:=
_
_
_
1
0
y
1
0
.
.
.
0 1
_
_
_
with y ∈ Z.
Choose a sequence (y
ν
)
ν∈N
with [y
ν
[ → ∞(ν → ∞) s.t. the corresponding matrices S

are pairwise diﬀerent. (This is possible, since S
y
[e
2
] = t
11
y
2
+t
12
y +t
22
.)
Then
tr(S

) = t
11
y
2
ν
+ ( linear terms in y
ν
) →−∞(y →∞)
⇒e
−2πtr(Syν
)
→∞([y
ν
[ →∞),
which proves the claim.
12
This proves the ﬁrst assertion about the Fourier expansion.
Now suppose that f satisﬁes conditions i) and ii). From the above arguments it then
follows that f has an expansion
f(Z) =

T=T

half−integral
T≥0
a(T)e
2πitr(TZ)
.
One then obtains for Y ≥ Y
0
> 0
[f(Z)[ ≤

T=T

half−integral
T≥0
[a(T)[ e
−2πtr(TY )

T=T

half−integral
T≥0
[a(T)[ e
−2πtr(TY
0
)
< ∞.
(in the last line we have used: S ≥ 0, T ≥ 0 ⇒tr(ST) ≥ 0).
This at the same time shows that the Fourier series is uniformly convergent in Y ≥
Y
0
> 0.
Theorem 11. (”Siegel Φ-operator”) For f ∈ M
k

n
) and Z
1
∈ H
n−1
set
(f[Φ)(Z
1
) := lim
t→∞
f
_
Z
1
0
0 it
_
.
Then the limit exists, and the Φ-operator deﬁnes a linear map Φ : M
k

n
) →M
k

n−1
)
(with the convention M
k

0
) := C). If f(Z) =

T=T

≥0
a(T)e
2πitr(TZ)
, then
(f[Φ)(Z
i
) =

T
1
=T

1
≥0
T
1
∈M
n−1
(Z) half−integral
a(
_
T
1
0
0 0
_
) e
2πitr(T
1
Z
1
)
(Z ∈ H
n−1
).
Proof: Because of uniform convergence for Y = Y

≥ Y
0
> 0, one can interchange the
limit for t → ∞ and the summation over T, and then the existence of the limit and the
shape of the Fourier expansion can easily be seen. (Observe that if T =
_
T
1

∗ t
nn
_
≥ 0
and t
nn
= 0, then the last row and last column of T must be zero.)
That f[Φ ∈ M
k

n−1
) follows from the fact: M
1
=
_
A
1
B
1
C
1
D
1
_
∈ Γ
n−1
⇒M :=
_
_
_
_
A
1
0 B
1
0
0 1 0 0
C
1
0 D
1
0
0 0 0 1
_
_
_
_
∈ Γ
n
, M ◦
_
Z
1
0
0 it
_
=
_
M
1
◦ Z
1
0
0 it
_
,
13
det(CZ +D) = det(C
1
Z +D
1
) for Z =
_
Z
1
0
0 it
_
.
Deﬁnition: We let S
k

n
) := ker Φ. Elements of S
k

n
) are called cup forms. From
Theorem 11 one can easily obtain:
Corollary 12. Let f ∈ M
k

n
). Then f ∈ S
k

n
) ⇔a(T) = 0 unless T > 0.
Examples of Siegel modular forms:
i) Theta series: We use previous notation. Let A ∈ M
m
(Z), A even, A = A

, A > 0.
Then the series
θ
(n)
Q
(Z) :=

G∈Mm,n(Z)
e
πitr(A[G]Z)
(Z ∈ H
n
)
is called a theta series. Obviously
θ
(n)
Q
(Z) =

T=T

half−integral
T≥0
r
Q
(T) e
2πitr(TZ)
where r
Q
(T) is the number of representations of T by Q (cf. section 1).
One can show: if detA = 1, then θ
(n)
Q
∈ M
m/2

n
). (One can show: ∃A ∈ M
m
(Z)
with A even, A > 0, detA = 1 ⇔ 8[m.) The proof is technically diﬃcult and uses
the Poisson summation formula.
ii) Eisenstein series: The formal series
E
(n)
k
(Z) :=

0
@
A B
C D
1
A
∈Γ
n,0
\Γn
det(CZ +D)
−k
(with Γ
n,0
:= ¦
_
A B
0 D
_
∈ Γ
n
¦) formally behaves like a Siegel modular form of
weight k and degree n and is called a Siegel-Eisenstein series. The main diﬃculty
is the proof of convergence (in suﬃciently large domains). One can in fact show:
Suppose k is even and k > n + 1. Then E
(n)
k
∈ M
k

n
) ¸ ¦0¦.
More generally, one can deﬁne ”generalized Eisenstein series” (so-called Klingen-Siegel-
Eisenstein series) by lifting cup forms of weight k and degree j < n to Γ
n
. For n even,
k > 2n one can show that
M
k

n
) = c
k

n
) ⊕S
k

n
),
where c
k

n
) is the subspace of ”generalized Eisenstein series”.
14
Theorem 13. One has
i) M
k

n
) = ¦0¦ for k < 0;
ii) S
0

n
) = ¦0¦, M
0

n
) = C;
iii) dim S
k

n
) = O(k
N
), dim M
k

n
) = O(k
N
) (n →∞) where N =
n(n+1)
2
.
Proof: One ﬁrst shows the basic
Lemma 14. Let f ∈ M
k

n
) and k ≥ 0. Then g(Z) := (det Y )
k/2
[f(Z)[ is Γ
n
-invariant.
If f is cuspidal, then g has a maximum on H
n
.
The ﬁrst assertion of the Lemma immediately follows from
det Im M ◦ Z = [det (CZ +D [
−2
Im Z (M ∈ Γ
n
).
To show the second one, one observes that
T
n
(C) := ¦Z ∈ T
n
[ det Y ≤ C¦ (C > 0)
is compact (it is closed by Theorem 8, iv) and bounded by loc.cit. i) −iii)), hence it suf-
ﬁces to show that lim Z∈Fn
det Y →∞
g(Z) = 0. This again follows from the reduction conditions,
using the Fourier expansion of f.
We prove e.g. ii): by Lemma 14, if f ∈ S
0

n
), f has a maximum on H
n
, hence f = c
is constant by the maximum principle. Since f is cuspidal,
c = lim
t→∞
f
_
Z 0
0 it
_
= 0,
so f = 0. Also C ⊂ M
0

n
). We prove the converse by induction on n.
If n = 0 there is nothing to prove. Suppose f ∈ M
k

n
), n ≥ 1. Then f[Φ ∈ M
k

n−1
),
so f[Φ = c by induction hypothesis, hence (f −c)[Φ = 0. Therefore f = c.
The proof of i) is similar, while the proof of iii) is more diﬃcult: One shows that there
exists µ
n
> 0 depending only on n such that if f ∈ S
k

n
) and a(T) = 0 for all T > 0
with tr(T) <
k
µn
, then f = 0.
Hence dim S
k

n
) is less or equal to the number of T ∈ M
n
(Z) such that T is half-
integral, T > 0, tr(T) <
k
µn
, and the latter number is easily seen to be O(k
N
), by a simple
counting argument.
Also
dim M
k

n
) = dim kerΦ + dim imΦ ≤ dim S
k

n
) +dim M
k

n−1
) = O(k
N
)
by induction.
15
4 Hecke operators and L-functions
a) The Hecke algebra
Let Γ := Γ
n
and GSp
+
n
(Q) := ¦M ∈ GL
2n
(Q [ I[M] = ν
M
I, ν
M
∈ Q, ν
M
> 0¦ be the
group of rational symplectic similitudes of size 2n with positive scalar factor. Then Γ is
a group anf G is a (semi-)group with Γ ⊂ G.
Let L(Γ, G) be the free C-module generated by the right cosets Γx (x ∈ Γ¸G).
Then Γ operates on L(Γ, G) by right multiplication, and we let
H
n
:= L(Γ, G)
Γ
be the subspace of Γ-invariants. If
T
1
=

x∈Γ\G
a
x
Γx, T
2
=

y∈Γ\G
b
y
Γy ∈ H
n
,
one puts
T
1
T
2
:=

x,y∈Γ\G
a
x
b
y
Γxy.
Then T
1
T
2
∈ H
n
. This follow from the fact that H
n
is ”generated” by double cosets, i.e.
by the elements

i
Γx
i
where Γ¸ΓxΓ = ∪
i
Γx
i
(ﬁnite disjoint) and x ∈ G.
The space H
n
together with the above multiplication is called the Hecke algebra. It is
a commutative associative algebra with 1 (commutativity formally follows from the fact
that ΓxΓ = Γx

Γ).
The following facts are known:
i) H
n
= ⊗
p prim
H
n,p
where H
n,p
is deﬁned in the same way as H
n
, however with G replaced by G
(p)
:=
G∩ GL
2n
(Z[p
−1
]).
ii) The local component H
n,p
is generated by the n + 1 double cosets
T(p) = Γ
_
1
n
0
0 p1
n
_
Γ
and
T
i,j
(p
2
) = Γ
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
i
0
0 p1
j
0
0
p
2
1
i
0
0 p1
j
_
_
_
_
_
_
Γ (0 ≤ i < n, i +j = n)
16
where 1
n
denotes the unit matrix of size n (the elements T(p), T
i,j
(p
2
) are alge-
braically independent). Moreover, one has
H
n,p

= C
_
X
±1
0
, . . . , X
±1
n
¸
W
,
where W is the Weyl group generated by the permuatations of the X
i
(i = 1, . . . , n)
and the maps X
0
→ X
0
X
j
, X
j
→ X
−1
j
, X
i
→ X
i
(1 ≤ i ≤ n, i ,= j), for
j ∈ ¦1, . . . , n¦. In particular, one has
Hom
C
(H
n,p
, C) = (C

)
n+1
/W
(with the obvious operation of W on (C

)
n+1
).
iii) There exist special Hecke operators T(m)(m ∈ N), T(m) :=

X∈Γ \ Om,n
Γx(O
m,n
:=
¦x ∈ GL
2n
(Z) [ I[x] = mI¦).
iv) The Hecke algebra operates on M
k

n
) resp. S
k

n
) by
F[
k
_

a
x
Γx
_
=

a
x
F [
k
x
where
(f[
k
x)(z) = r
nk−n(n+1)/2
x
det(CZ +D)
−k
f((AZ +B)(CZ +D)
−1
)
(x =
_
A B
C D
_
∈ G, r
x
= scalar factor of x).
v) The Hecke operators are hermitian with respect to the scalar product
< F, G >=
_
Fn
F(Z)G(Z)(detY )
k
dY dY
(detY )
n+1
.
Hence the space S
k

n
) has a basis of common eigenfunctions of all T ∈ H
n
. If F is
such an eigenfunction and F[T = λ(T)F (T ∈ H
n
), then T → λ(T) is a homomorphism
H
n,p
→ C for each p, hence by ii) is determined by an element (α
0,p
, α
1,p
, . . . , α
n,p
) ∈
(C

)
n+1
/W (”Satake p-paramenters”).
b) L-functions
If F ∈ S
k

n
) is a common eigenform, for Re(s) ¸0 deﬁne
L
St
(F, s) := ζ(s)

p
L
St,p
(F; p
−s
)
−1
( ”standard zeta function” )
and
L
spin
(F, s) :=

p
L
spin,p
(F; p
−s
)
−1
( ”spinor zeta function” )
17
where
L
St,p
(F; X) :=
n

i=1
(1 −α
i,p
X)(1 −α
−1
i,p
X),
L
spin,p
(F; X) := (1 −α
0,p
X)
n

ν=1

1≤i
1
<···<iν≤n
(1 −α
0,p
α
i
1
,p
. . . α
iν,p
X).
One knows that L
St
(F, s) has a meromorphic continuation C with ﬁnitely many poles
and has a functional equation under s →1 −s, for all n (B¨ocherer a.o.).
Conjecture (Andrianov, Langlands): The function L
spin
(F, s) when completed with
appropriate Γ-factors, has meromorphic continuation to C and satisﬁes a functional equa-
tion under s →nk −
n(n+1)
2
+ 1 −s.
This conjecture is known only for n ≤ 2 (for n = 1 this is classical by Hecke), for
n = 3 one knows meromorphic continuation (R. Schmidt, 2002). For n = 2 one has more
precisely
Theorem 15. (Andrianov, 1974) Suppose n = 2 and let us write Z
F
(s) = L
spin
(F, s).
i) Suppose that f[T(m) = λ(m)f for all m ≥ 1. Then
Z
F,p
(X) = 1 −λ(p)X + (λ(p)
2
−λ(p
2
) −p
2k−4
)X
2
−λ(p)p
2k−3
X
3
+p
4k−6
X
4
;
ii) The function
Z

F
(s) := (2π)
−2s
Γ(s)Γ(s −k + 2)Z
F
(s)
has meromorphic continuation to C and satisﬁes the functional equation
Z

F
(2k −2 −s) = (−1)
k
Z

F
(s).
Proof: One uses Andrianov’s formulas: if D < 0 is a fundamental discriminant,
¦T
1
, . . . , T
h(D)
¦ is a set of Γ
1
-representatives of primitive positive deﬁnite integral bi-
nary quadratic forms of discriminant D and χ is a character of the ideal class group
CL(Q(

D)),
then
L(s −k + 2, χ)
h(D)

i=1
_

n≥1
a(nT
i
)
n
s
_
=
_
_
h(D)

i=1
a(T
i
)
_
_
Z
F
(s).
(If D < 0 is an arbitrary discriminant, then there exist similar but more complicated
identities.)
The left hand side can be written as the integral over a portion of the 3-dimensional
hyperbolic space (suitably embedded in H
2
) of the product of the restriction of F to this
portion and a non-holomorphic Eisenstein series for the hyperbolic 3-space. The analytic
properties of Z
F
(s) then follow from the analytic properties of the Eisenstein series.
18
5 Liftings
a) The Saito-Kurokawa lift
Theorem 16. (Maass, Andrianov, Eichler, Zagier, 1981) Let k be even. Then for each
normalized (a(1) = 1) Hecke eigenform f ∈ S
2k−2

1
), there is a Hecke eigenform F ∈
S
k

2
) (uniquely determined up to a non-zero scalar) such that
Z
F
(s) = ζ(s −k + 1) ζ(s −k + 2)L(f, s),
where L(f, s) is the Hecke L-function of f.
The space generated by the above F’s is called the Maass space S

k

2
) ⊂ S
k

2
). For
the proof one uses
i) S
2k−2

1
)

= S
+
k−
1
2
= ¦g ∈ S
k−
1
2

0
(4)) [ g =

n≥1,n≡0,3(4)
c(n) e
2πinz
¦ as Hecke mod-
ules (Shimura isomorphism, trace formula);
ii) (Eichler, Zagier) The map
g =

n≥1
n≡0,3(4)
c(n) e
2πinz

T>0
a(T)e
2πitr(TZ)
where
a(T) :=

d | (n,r,m)
d
k−1
c
_
4mn −r
2
d
2
_ _
T =
_
n r/2
r/2 m
__
is a linear isomorphism from S
+
k−
1
2
onto S

k

2
) commuting with all Hecke operators.
From ii) one can also obtain the following linear description of the space S

k

2
).
Theorem 17. (Maass, Andrianov, Eichler, Zagier, 1981)
One has
S

k

2
) =
_
_
_
F ∈ S
k

2
) [ a
_
n r/2
r/2 m
_
=

d | (n,r,m)
d
k−1
a
_
nm
d
2
r
2d
r
2d
1
_

_
n r/2
r/2 m
_
> 0
_
_
_
(”Maass relations”)
b) Ikeda’s lifting theorem
Note (easy computation): if F ∈ S

k

2
) is a Hecke eigenform, then
L
St
(F, s) = ζ(s)(f, s +k −1)L(f, s +k −2).
19
Conjecture (Duke-Imamoglu, 1996). Let f ∈ S
2k

1
) be a normalized Hecke eigenform.
Let n ∈ N with n ≡ k (mod 2). Then there is a Hecke eigenform F ∈ S
k+n

2n
) such
that
L
St
(F, s) = ζ(s)
2n

j=1
L(f, s +k +n −j).
Using the functional equation of L(f, s) under s →2k −s, one easily checks a functional
equation of the right hand side above under s →1 −s.
Theorem 18. (Ikeda, 1999) The conjecture is true. Moreover the Fourier coeﬃcients of
F are given by
a(T) = c([D
T,0
[)f
k−
1
2
T

p|D
T
˜
F
p
(T; α
p
)
In the above the notation is as follows:
i) D
T
= (−1)
n
det(2T)(≡ 0, 1 (mod 4)) is the discriminant of T, D
T
= D
T,0
f
2
T
with D
T,0
a fundamental discriminant and f
T
∈ N.
ii) c([D
T,0
[) = [D
T,0
[-th Fourier coeﬃcient of a Hecke eigenform
g =

m≥1,(−1)
k
m≡0,(4)
c(m)e
2πimz
∈ S
+
k+
1
2
⊂ S
k+
1
2

0
(4))
corresponding to f under the Shimura correspondence.
iii)
˜
F
p
(T; X)is a ”non-trivial” part of a modiﬁed local singular series (Laurent-) polyno-
mial attached to T. More precisely, let
b
p
(T; s) =

R
v
p
(R)
−s
e
p
(tr(TR)) (s ∈ C)
where R runs over all symmetric matrices in M
2n
(Q
p
/Z
p
), v
p
(R) = power of p equal
to the product of denominators of the elementary divisors of R, e
p
(x) = e
2πix

(x ∈
Q
p
) with x

= fractional part of x. One knows
b
p
(T; s) = γ
p
(T; p
−s
)F
p
(T; p
−s
)
where
γ
p
(T; X) = (1 −X)(1 −
_
D
T,0
p
_
p
n
X)
−1
n

j=1
(1 −p
2j
X
2
)
and F
p
(T; X) is a polynomial. Put
˜
F
p
(T; X) = X
−ordp f
T
F
p
(T; p
−n−
1
2
X) (= Laurent polynomial).
˜
F
p
(T; X) is symmetric, i.e.
˜
F
p
(T; X
−1
) =
˜
F
p
(T; X).
20
iv) α
p
= p-th Satake parameter of f, i.a.w. if a(p) = p-th Fourier coeﬃcient of f, then
1 −a(p)X +p
2k−1
X
2
= (1 −p
k−
1
2
α
p
X)(1 −p
k−
1
2
α
−1
p
X).
The proof (diﬃcult) uses representation theory and techniques from the theory of
Fourier-Jacobi expansions.
We now want to give a linear version of Ikeda’s lifting theorem.
Notation:
i) Let T ∈ M
2n
(Q) be half-integral, T = T

, p a prime. Let V/F
p
over F
p
obtained from reducing the quadratic form attached to T modulo p, R(V ) =
p
= dim R(V ), V = R(V )
´
⊕W,
λ
p
(T) :=
_
1 if W hyperbolic
−1 otherwise .
Put
H
n,p
(T, X) :=
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
1 if s
p
= 0

[
Sp−1
2
]
j=1
(1 −p
2j−1
X
2
) if s
p
> 0, odd
(1 +λp(T)p
Sp−1
2
X)

[
Sp−1
2
]
j=1
(1 −p
2j−1
X
2
) if s
p
> 0, even.
ii) Deﬁne ρ
T
(p
µ
) (p prime, µ ≥ 0) by

µ≥0
ρ
T
(p
µ
)X
µ
:=
_
(1 −X
2
)H
n,p
(T, X) if p[f
T
1 if not
and ρ
T
(a)(a ≥ 1) by

n≥1
ρ
T
(a)a
−s
:=

p|f
T
(1 −p
−2s
)H
n,p
(T, p
−s
).
iii) For a ∈ N with a [ f
T
put
ϕ(a; T) :=

a

d
2
|a

G∈D(T), | detG |=d
ρ
T[G
−1
]
(
a
d
2
)
where D(T) = GL
2n
(Z ¸ ¦G ∈ M
2n
(Z)∩GL
2n
(Q) [ T[G
−1
] := G
−1
TG
−1
half-integral ¦
(ﬁnite set); note that ϕ(a; T) ∈ Z.
21
Theorem 19. (Kohnen, 2001) The Fourier coeﬃcients of the Ikeda lift F of f are given
by
a(T) =

a | f
T
a
k−1
φ(a; T)c
_
[D
T
[
a
2
_
.
Corollary 20. The map

m≥1
(−1
k
m≡0,(4)
c(m)e
2πimz

T>0
(

a | f
T
a
k−1
φ(a; T)c([D
T
0
[
f
2
T
a
2
))e
2πitr(TZ)
is a linear map I
k,n
from S
+
k+
1
2
to S
k+n

2n
) which on Hecke eigenforms coincides with
the Ikeda lift.
Proof: One combines
i) formulas of B¨ocherer-Kitaoka for the local singular series polynomials which expresses
Π
p | f
T
˜
F
p
(T; X) as a ﬁnite sum over G ∈ D(T) of ”simple” polynomials (without any
obvious functional equations);
ii) the functional equation of
˜
F
p
(T; X) and a symmetrization trick;
iii) the multiplicative structure of the Fourier coeﬃcients c([D
T,0
[m
2
) (m ∈ N).
Remark: If n = 1, one can show that
φ(a; T) =
_
a if a[(n, r, m)
0 otherwise
(T =
_
n
r
2
r
2
m
_
)
and so one recovers the formula of Eichler-Zagier (see a) ).
The same technique as above can also be applied in the context of Eisenstein series.
One obtains
Theorem 21. (Kohnen, 2001) Let k ≡ 0 (mod 2), k > 2n + 1. Then the T-th Fourier
coeﬃcient (T > 0) of the Siegel-Eisenstein series E
(2n)
k
of weight k and degree 2n is given
by
a
k,2n
(T) =
2
n
ζ(1 −k)

n
j=1
ζ(1 −2k + 2j)

a|f
T
a
k−n−1
ϕ(a; T)H(k −n, [D
T,0
[ (
f
T
a
)
2
),
where H(k, m) is the generalized Cohen class number function.
22
Problem: The function ϕ(a; T) looks nasty and seems to be diﬃcult to compute for
n > 1. Can one give a simpler interpretation for ϕ(a; T)?
Let V

be the ( + 1)-dimensional C-vector space of symmetric Laurent polynomials

ν=0
c
ν
(X
ν
+X
−ν
) (c
ν
∈ C)
of degree ≤ . For j ∈ ¦0, 1, . . . , + 1¦ set
ψ
j
(X) :=
X
j
−X
−j
X −X
−1
.
Then the ψ
j
(j = 1, . . . , + 1) form a basis of V

. Note that
˜
F
p
(T; X) ∈ V

where
e = e
p
:= ord
p
f
T
Theorem 22. (Choie, Kohnen, 2006) Let p be a prime with p [ f
T
and e = e
p
:= ord
p
f
T
.
Then
˜
F
p
(T; X) =
+1

j=1
φ(p
−j+1
; T) p

−j+1
2

j
(X) −(
D
T,0
p
)p

1
2
ψ
j−1
(X)].
c) A Maass relation in higher genus
Problem: Is it possible to characterize the image of the Ikeda lift by linear relations,
similarly as in the case n = 1 (Saito-Kurokawa lift, Maass relations)?
Let I
k,n
be the linear map S
+
k+
1
2
→S
k+n

2n
) deﬁned in Corollary 20 and put S

k+n

2n
) :=
im I
k,n
.
Theorem 23. (Kojima, Kohnen, 2005) Suppose that n ≡ 0, 1 (mod 4) and let k ≡ n
(mod 2). Let F ∈ S
k+n

2n
). Then the following assertions are equivalent:
i) F ∈ S

k+n

2n
);
ii) ∃ c(m) ∈ C (m ≥ 1, (−1)
k
m ≡ 0, 1 (mod 4)) such that
a(T) =

a | f
T
a
k−1
φ(a; T)c
_
[D
T
[
a
2
_
∀ T > 0.
23
Remark: For g ∈ N there exists a unique genus of even integral symmetric matrices of
size g with determinant equal to 2. A matrix in this genus is positive deﬁnite if and only
if g ≡ ±1 (mod 8), and then as representative one can take
(3) S
0
:=
_
_
_
E
g−1
8
8
⊕2 if g ≡ 1 (mod 8)
E
g−7
8
8
⊕E
7
if g ≡ 7 (mod 8).
Let g := 2n−1 and deﬁne S
0
by the right-hand-side of (3). For m ∈ N, (−1)
n
m ≡ 0, 1
(mod 4) put
T
m
:=
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
0
@
1
2
S
0
0
0
m
4
1
A
if m ≡ 0 (mod 4)
0
@
1
2
S
0
1
2
e
2n−1
1
2
e

2n−1
m+2+(−1)
n
4
1
A
if (−1)
n
m ≡ 1 (mod 4).
One checks: T
m
> 0, det (2T
m
) = m.
Theorem 24. (Kojima, Kohnen, 2005) Under the assumption as above, F ∈ S

k+n

2n
)
iﬀ
a(T) =

a|f
T
a
k−1
φ(a; T)a(T
|D
T
|/a
2)
∀T > 0.
Idea of proof: Let T
0
:=
1
2
S
0
and study the Fourier-Jacobi coeﬃcients φ
T
0
(τ, z)(τ ∈
H, z ∈ C
2n−1,1
) of index T
0
of F. Then ϕ
T
0
is a Jacobi cusp form of even weight k +n on
the semi-direct product of Γ
1
and Z
2n−1,1
Z
2n−1,1
. Write
φ
T
0
(τ, z) =

λ∈Λ
h
λ
(τ)ϑ
λ
(τ, z)
where Λ = S
−1
0
Z
2n−1,1
/Z
2n−1,1
and (h
λ
)
λ∈Λ
is a vector-valued cuspform of weight k +
n −
2n−1
2
= k +
1
2
on the metaplectic cover of Γ
1
. Now [Λ[ = 2, and then h(τ) :=
h
λ
0
(4τ) + h
λ
1
(4τ) ∈ S
+
k+
1
2
. Let ˜ c(m) (m ∈ N, (−1)
k
m ≡ 0, 1 (mod 4)) be the Fourier
coeﬃcients of h. One shows ˜ c(m) = c(m) for all m.
6 Sign changes of eigenvalues
Fourier coeﬃcients of cup forms are mysterious objects and in general no simple arith-
metic formulas are known for them. If one checks tables, for example one ﬁnds that quite
often sign changes of these coeﬃcients occur and it is a natural question to try to under-
stand them. For example, one may ask if there are inﬁnitely many sign changes or when
24
the ﬁrst sign change occurs, hoping for a bound depending only on the weight and the level.
This might be particularly interesting when the cusp form is a Hecke eigenform and
so the Fourier coeﬃcients are proportional to the eigenvalues in degree 1 or in degree 2,
where the relations between Fourier coeﬃcients and eigenvalues are quite well understood.
a) Elliptic modular forms
The result in the following Theorem seems to be well-known. As usual, we deﬁne
Γ
0
(N) := ¦
_
a b
c d
_
∈ Γ
1
[ c ≡ 0 (mod N)¦.
Theorem 25. Let f be a non-zero cusp form of even integral weight k on Γ
0
(N) and sup-
pose that its Fourier coeﬃcients a(n) are real for all n ≥ 1. Then the sequence (a(n))
n∈N
has inﬁnitely many sign changes, i. e. there are inﬁnitely many n such that a(n) > 0 and
there are inﬁnitely many n such that a(n) < 0.
According to the above Theorem, a reasonable question to ask is if it is possible to
obtain a bound on the ﬁrst sign change, say in terms of k and N.
In the following, we look at a normalized Hecke eigenform f that is a newform of level
N. Recall that “normalized” means that a(1) = 1.
Theorem 26. (Kohnen, Sengupta, 2006) Suppose that f is a normalized Hecke eigenform
of even integral weight k and squarefree level N that is a newform. Then one has a(n) < 0
for some n with
n ¸kN exp
_
c
_
log N/ log log 3N
_
(log k)
27
, (n, N) = 1.
Here c > 2 and the constant implied in ¸ is absolute.
Note that it is reasonable to assume that (n, N) = 1, since the eigenvalues a(p) with
p[N are explicitly known by Atkin-Lehner theory. The proof of the above result uses tech-
niques from analytic number theory. Recently, the above result was improved as follows.
25
Theorem 27. (Iwaniec, Kohnen, Sengupta, 2006) Suppose that f is a normalized Hecke
eigenform of even integral weight k and level N (not necessarily squarefree) that is a
newform. Then one has a(n) < 0 for some n with
n << k

N log
8+
(kN), (n, N) = 1 ( > 0).
The proof is “elementary” in the sense that it avoids the use of the symmetric square
L-function. Instead, the Hecke relations for the eigenvalues are exploited. Using similar
ideas one can obtain
Theorem 28. (Iwaniec, Kohnen, Sengupta, 2006) Suppose that f is a normalized Hecke
eigenform of level N (not necessarily squarefree) and even integral weight k. Then a(n) <
0 for some n with
n << (k
2
N)
29
60
, (n, N) = 1.
b) Siegel modular forms of genus two.
Using the analytic properties of the Koecher-Maass Dirichlet series attached to F and of
the Rankin-Selberg Dirichlet zeta function attached to F, it should be easy to generalize
Theorem 25 to the situation here. Now suppose that F is an eigenfunction of all Hecke
operators and g = 2. As a ﬁrst surprise, it is not generally true that the eigenvalues of a
Hecke eigenform in S
k

2
) change signs inﬁnitely often.
Theorem 29. (Breulmann, 1999) Suppose that k is even and let F be a Hecke eigenform
in S

k

2
), with eigenvalues λ(n) (n ∈ N). Then λ(n) > 0 for all n.
On the contrary to the above, one has the following
Theorem 30. (Kohnen, 2005) Let F be a Hecke eigenform in S
k

2
) with Hecke eigen-
values λ
n
(n ∈ N). Suppose that F lies in the orthogonal complement of S

k

2
) if k is
even. Then the sequence (λ
n
)
n∈N
has inﬁnitely many sign changes.
The proof is based on Landau’s theorem coupled with the analytic properties of the
spinor zeta function of F and a theorem of Weissauer according to which the generalized
1,p
[ = [α
2,p
[ = 1 for all p) is true for forms
as in Theorem 30. Of course, after Theorem 30 the question arises when the ﬁrst sign
change occurs.
26
Theorem 31. (Kohnen, Sengupta, 2006) Let F be a Siegel-Hecke eigenform in S
k

2
)
and suppose either that k is odd or that k is even and F is in the orthogonal complement
of S

k

2
). Denote by λ(n) (n ∈ N) the eigenvalues of F. Then there exists n ∈ N with
n ¸k
2
log
20
k
such that λ(n) < 0. Here the constant implied in ¸ is absolute.
The proof follows a similar pattern as that of Theorem 28, with the Hecke L-function
L
f
(s) replaced by the spinor zeta function.
References
[A] A.N. Andrianov: Euler products corresponding to Siegel modular forms of genus 2.
Russ. Math. Surv. 29 (1974), 45-116
[C-K] Y.J. Choie and W. Kohnen: A remark on the Ikeda lift and local singular series
polynomials. To appear in Proc. AMS
[E-Z] M. Eichler and D. Zagier: The theory of Jacobi forms. Birkh¨auser 1985
[F] E. Freitag: Siegelsche Modulformen. Springer 1983
[I] T. Ikeda: On the lifting of elliptic modular forms to Siegel cusp forms of degree 2n.
Ann of Maths. 154 (2001), 641-681
[K-K] H. Kojima and W. Kohnen: A Maass space in higher genus. Compos. Math. 141
(2005), 313-322
[K1] W. Kohnen: Lifting modular forms of half-integral weight to Siegel modular forms
of even genus. Math. Ann. 322 (2002), 787-809
[K2] W. Kohnen: Sign changes of Fourier coeﬃcients and Hecke eigenvalues of cusp
forms: a survey. To appear in Proc. of a conference on Number Theory, Shandong
Univ., Weihai, China 2006
Mathematisches Institut
Universit¨at Heidelberg
D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
winfried@mathi.uni-heidelberg.de
27

the transpose) and A > 0 (i.e. A is positive deﬁnite). Then 1 aµµ 2 Q(x) = x Ax = x aµν xµ xν + 2 2 µ µ=1 1≤µ<ν≤m
m

(x ∈ R)

is an integral positive deﬁnite quadratic form in the variables x1 , . . . , xm . 1 rQ (t) := #{g ∈ Zm |Q(g) = g Ag = t} 2 be the number of representations of t by Q. Lemma 1. rQ (t) < ∞. Proof: Diagonalize A over R; since A > 0, it follows that Mt := {x ∈ Rm |Q(x) = t} is compact, hence Mt ∩ Zm (intersection of a compact and a discrete set) is ﬁnite. Problem: Given Q, ﬁnd ﬁnite, closed formulas for rQ (t), or at least an asymptotic formula for rQ (t) when t → ∞ ! Idea (Jacobi): Study the generating Fourier series (theta series) θQ (z) := 1 +
t≥1

For t ∈ N, let

rQ (t)e2πitz =
x∈Zm

e2πiQ(x)z

(z ∈ C).

Since A > 0, this series converges absolutely locally uniformly in the upper half-plane a b H, i.e. for z ∈ C with Im z > 0. On H operates the group SL2 (R) = { ∈ c d M2 (R) | ad − bc = 1} by az + b a b . ◦z = c d cz + d Fact: For m even, θQ ∈ Mm/2 (N )= space of modular forms of weight i.e. essentially θQ az + b cz + d = ±(cz + d)m/2 θQ (z) (∀ a b c d
m 2

and level N ,

∈ SL2 (Z), N |c),

where N is a certain natural number depending on Q, the so-called level of Q. Application: Mm/2 (N ) is a ﬁnite-dimensional C-vector space =⇒ results on rQ (t).

2

8 = −24α − 24β. ∀t ≥ 1 (Lagrange). 1 4 in fact M2 (4) has a basis of two Eisenstein series E1 (z) := P (z) − 4P (4z). (n) rQ (T )e2πitr(T Z) (Z ∈ Mn (C)). Comparing the ﬁrst two Fourier coeﬃcients on both sides gives 1 = −3α − β.Example: m = 4.e. due to the presence of cusp forms. Therefore θQ (z) = αE1 (z) + βE2 (z) for certain α. Known: dim M2 (4) = 2. β ∈ C. In general. then T = T and T ≥ 0 (i. 2T is even) and rQ (T ) < ∞ (since 1 G AG = T ⇒ 1 gν Agν = tνν where gν is the ν-th column of G). then θQ ∈ M2 (4). 2 2 Put θQ (Z) := T =T ≥0 T half −integral (Jacobi). i. E2 (z) := P (z) − 2P (2z). This implies 1 α = − . 3 Comparing coeﬃcients for all t ≥ 1. Q(x) = x2 + · · · + x2 . β = 0. study 1 rQ (T ) := #{G ∈ Mm. More general problem: Study the number of representations of a (n. we obtain therefore t rQ (t) = 8 σ1 (t) − 4σ1 ( ) 4 in particular rQ (t) ≥ 1. Also T must be half-integral (i.e. however. one only gets asymptotic formulas. where P (z) = 1 − 24 t≥1 σ1 (t)e2πitz (σ1 (t) := d|t d). 2 Note: if T is represented like that.e. 3 hence 1 θQ = − E1 .n (Z) | G AG = T }. n)-matrix T by Q. 3 . T is positive semi-deﬁnite).

B. C. AB = BA . CD = DC } = {M ∈ GL2n (R) | In [M ] = In } (where In = 0n En ) by −En 0n A B ◦ Z = (AZ + B)(CZ + D)−1 . positive deﬁnite.. N | cµν ∀µ. 1 t 2 µν   ) is the most general linear form in the variables tnn This series is absolutely convergent on the Siegel upper-space Hn := {Z ∈ Mn (C) |Z = Z . and the number of classes is always ﬁnite). t11 . one has the following result due to Siegel: if A1 . Sp1 (R) = SL2 (R). AD − BC = E. .(Note that n tr(T Z) = 1≤µ<ν≤n tµν zµν + ν=1 1 t 2 µν tνν zνν   (where Z = (zµν ).) Fact: For m even. D ∈ Mn (R). ν). (n) A B C D ∈ Spn (Z). unimodular matrices of size m (such matrices exist iﬀ 8|m. T =  zµν ). . e. 2 level N and degree n. . symmetric. Ah is a full set of GLm (Z)-representatives of even. Aim: To get results on rQ (T ). C D (Note that H1 = H.. Im Z > 0} of degree n. (∀ (u) m (n) m . On Hn operates the symplectic group Spn (R) = { A B C D ∈ GL2n (R) | A. study Siegel modular form of degree n! For example. essentially θQ ((AZ+B)(CZ+d)−1 ) = ±det(CZ+D) 2 θQ (Z). θQ is a Siegel modular form of weight i. then the average value n µ=1 rQµ (T ) (where (Qµ ) := #{G ∈ Mn (Z)|G Aµ G = Aµ }) (Qµ ) 4 . .

ωi (1 ≤ i. then the corresponding period matrix Z is obtained from Z by ˆ Z =M ◦Z If one puts zij := bj where M ∈ Γg := Spg (Z). where L ⊂ C is a lattice (elliptic curve).e. b) Compact Riemann surfaces Let X be a compact Riemann surface. a compact. the intersection matrix is Ig (cf. . One wants a description 5 . by restricting Siegel modular functions of degree g). Schottky Problem: Describe the locus of Mg inside Ag by algebraic equations! (For g = 2. It is well-known that g is also the dimension of the space H(X) of holomorphic diﬀerential forms on X. . ˆ if one chooses a diﬀerent basis. then the period matrix Z := (zij ) is in Hg . Z). ii) X = C/L.e. b1 . . Examples: i) X = S 2 = P1 (C). . and one obtains interesting functions on Mg by restricting functions on Ag (i. j ≤ g). Let g be the genus of X (visualize X as a sphere with g handles). (For example. On both spaces one can do complex analysis. In this way one obtains a map φ : Mg → Ag := Γg \Hg where Mg is the set of isomorphism classes of compact Riemann surfaces of genus g. g = 1. visualize X as a 4g-sided polygon with the usual boundary identiﬁcations. . . so the problem starts at g = 4). . . i. ωg } of H(X) such that ωi = δij ai (1 ≤ i. . g = 0. Moreover. Note that also dim H1 (X. The latter in turn can be described by ”elementary” number-theoretic expressions.) Then there is a uniquely determined basis {ω1 . 1 In general. In the following we assume that g ≥ 1. ag . . . Theorem 2.can be expressed by Fourier coeﬃcients of Eisenstein series of degree n. . bg } be a ”canonical” Z-basis for H1 (X. i. Let {a1 .e. respectively. Mg and Ag are ”complex spaces” of dimensions 3g − 3 and 2 g(g + 1). (Torelli): φ is injective. 3 one has φ(Mg ) = Ag . Z) = 2g and χ(X) = 2 − 2g is the Euler characteristic of X. j ≤ g). Known: g = 1 ⇒ φ is bijective. a)). connected complex manifold of dimension 1.

for g = 4 this locus is exactly the zero set of (4) (4) θE8 ⊕E8 − θD+ 8 where E8 is the standard E8 -root lattice and in general 1 1 + Dm := Dm ∪ (Dm + ( . R. B D = D B. B. Let E = En respectively 0 = 0n the 0 E unit respectively zero matrix in Mn (R) and put I := ∈ M2n (R). D ∈ Mn (R). Then M ∈ Spn (R) ⇔ A C = C A. A D − C B = E ⇔ AB = BA .) Remark: i) Spn (R) is a subgroup of GL2n (R) (this is clear since I[M1 M2 ] = (I[M1 ])[M2 ]. ii) M ∈ Spn (R) ⇒ M ∈ Spn (R). 2 The Siegel modular group a) Symplectic matrices Deﬁnition: Let R be a commutative ring with 1. . For example. C. 2 2 with Dm = {x ∈ Zm | x1 + · · · + xm ≡ 0 (mod 2)} + (note D8 = E8 ). iii) M ∈ Spn (R) ⇒ M −1 = D −C −B A . )). Then −E 0 Spn (R) := {M ∈ GL2n (R) | I[M ] = I} is called the symplectic group of degree n with coeﬃcients in R. B ∈ Mn (R). CD = DC . . 6 . Lemma 3. Let M = i) A B C D ∈ GL2n (R) with A. ii) Later on. and I[E2n ] = I).in terms of equations between modular forms. . in fact it is the automorphism group of the alternating skew-symmetric form deﬁned by I. we put A[B] := B AB. AD − BC = E. (General notation: if A ∈ Mm (R). . we will be only interested in the cases R = Z.

. b) The Siegel upper half-space Hn Deﬁnition: Hn := {Z = X + iY ∈ Mn (C) | X. Then Spn (R) is generated by the special matrices as above under i) ..Proof: Simple computations. for example M IM = I ⇔ ⇔ hence the ﬁrst part of i) holds. and det is a continuous function. Remark: From the Lemma. it follows that Sp1 (R) = SI2 (R). Z = Z . Let R be a Euclidean ring. Y = Im Z > 0) is n(n+1) called the Siegel upper half-space of degree n. Proof: More complicated. n where Y (ν) is the ν-th principal minor of Y . Spn (R) ⊂ SL2n (R). . 0 U −1 with U ∈ GLn (R). in particular. −D A + B C −D B + B D −E 0 iii) I = 0 E .iii). Lemma 6. Obviously Hn ∼ R 2 × Pn ⊂ Rn(n+1) . hence Hn is an open subset of Rn(n+1) . Proof: One has Y > 0 iﬀ detY (ν) > 0 ∀ν = 1. = where Pn := {Y ∈ Mn (R) | Y = Y . −E 0 Theorem 4. Pn is an open subset of R n(n+1) 2 . use induction on n! Details cannot be given here. Corollary 5. 7 . Y > 0}. Proof: The generators given in Theorem 4 obviously have determinant 1. Examples for symplectic matrices: i) ii) E S 0 E U 0 with S = S ∈ Mn (R). A C 0 E A B 0 E = B D −E 0 C D −E 0 −C A + A C −C B + A D 0 E = .. Y real .

Z ∈ Hn ). (M N ) ◦ Z = M ◦ (N ◦ Z). Proof: i) One has to check that a) det(CZ + D) = 0. i) The group Spn (R) operates on Hn by A B ◦ Z := (AZ + B)(CZ + D)−1 .g. Here. C D ii) One has Im M ◦ Z = (CZ + D) −1 Im Z (CZ + D) . to give a simple example. 1 (Z 2i ¯ − Z). Furthermore (T + iE)−1 = (T − iE)(T 2 + E)−1 ⇒ −Z −1 = −(((T + iE)[V −1 ])−1 = −V (T − iE)(T 2 + E)−1 V ⇒ (Im Z)−1 = V (T 2 + E)−1 V > 0. Then Z[V ] = T + iE with T = X[V ].).g. measurable. Theorem 4. The set Fn of reduced points should be described by ”simple” and possibly a ﬁnite set of inequalities in the components of Z. so T + iE and hence Z is invertible. we only prove: Claim: Z ∈ Hn ⇒ Z invertible. This can be done by brute force calculations. etc. using e. Fn should have ”nice” geometric properties (e. insert M ◦ Z for Z and use the symplectic relations. ii) Use that Im Z = c) Reduction theory Deﬁnition: The discrete subgroup Γn := Spn (Z) ⊂ Spn (R) is called Siegel modular group of degree n. Since (T + iE)(T − iE) = T 2 + E = T T + E is positive deﬁnite. 0 E E 0 ◦ Z = −Z −1 ∈ Hn . −1 b) E2n ◦ Z = Z. 8 . should be connected. it is invertible.Theorem 7. Aim of reduction theory: Study the action of Γn on Hn ! From each orbit {M ◦Z | M ∈ Γn } choose a ”suitable” representative. a so-called ”reduced point”. M ◦ Z ∈ Hn (M = A B C D ∈ Spn (R). Proof of claim: Choose V ∈ GLn (R) with Y [V ] = V Y V = E.

z → h(z) := Im z = ”height” of z. Idea: z ∈ H. |cz + d|2 = c2 (x2 + y 2 ) + 2cdx + d2 ≥ c2 − |cd| + d2 ≥ 1. Then by Theorem 7. . z ∈ F1 .Recall the case n = 1. ∀c. . Proof: i) Follows easily from (1). c d For arbitrary n ≥ 1 try to do something similar: Z ∈ Hn → h(Z) := det(Im Z) = ”height” of Z. d) = 1}. Therefore one also has to study the action Y → Y [U ] = U Y U of GLn (Z) on Pn (Minkowski reduction theory)! Deﬁnition: We let Fn be the set of all Z ∈ Hn which satisfy 9 · · c d ∈ Γ1 ). |cz + d| ≥ 1. These are characterized among the points of Γ1 ◦ z by the conditions |cw + d| ≥ 1. ∀c. Then (1) h(M ◦ z) = |cz + d|−2 h(z) (M = One shows: i) Any orbit Γ1 ◦ z contains points w of maximal height. Additional diﬃculty for n ≥ 1 : C D E S U 0 h(Z) is not only invariant under translations . z = M ◦ z ⇒ h(M ◦ z) = h(z) by construction ⇒ |cz + d| = · · 1 (M = ). H1 = H = {z ∈ C | Im z > 0}. ii) one has h(M ◦ Z) = |det(CZ + D)|−2 h(Z). Γ1 = SL2 (Z). 2 iv) No two diﬀerent inner points of F1 are Γ1 -equivalent. (since the quadratic form x2 ± xy + y 2 is positive deﬁnite). characterized by |det(CW + D) | ≥ 1 ∀ ∈ Γn . ii) For every z ∈ H. i. 2 iii) F1 = F1 := {z = x + iy ∈ H | |x| ≤ 1 . ∃M ∈ Γ1 such that M ◦ z ∈ F1 := {z = x + iy ∈ H| |x| ≤ 1 .e. One can show that each orbit contains points W of maximal height and these are . |z| ≥ 1}. ii) Follows from (i) and the fact that h(z) is invariant under translations. d ∈ Z with (c. iii) Follows from the inequalities (valid for z ∈ F1 ). but also under with 0 E 0 U −1 U ∈ GLn (Z). d) = 1. iv) One uses: z . d ∈ Z with (c.

Z ∈ intFn and Z = M ◦ Z with M ∈ Γn . 10 . c) #{M ∈ Γn | M ◦ Fn ∩ Fn = ∅} < ∞. iii) |xij | ≤ 1 2 ∀ 1 ≤ i. . iv) Y ≥ δn En (i. The proofs of Theorems 8 and 9 are diﬃcult and cannot be given here. |yµν | ≤ 1 yν for µ = ν. ii) Y = Im Z is Minkowski reduced. ∃M ∈ Γn with M ◦ Z ∈ Fn .e. gn ) = 1.e.iv) can be proved in addition if Z is Siegel reduced. i. · · · . a) for any Z ∈ Fn .k+1 ≥ 0 ∀ k gn with 1 ≤ k < n.  g =  . Properties i) . 2 ii) detY ≤ y1 · · · yn ≤ Cn detY where Cn > 0 is a constant depending only on n. n.i) |det(CZ + D)| ≥ 1 ∀ . ∀k = 1.e. Theorem 9. √ 1 iii) y1 ≥ 2 3. If Z ∈ Fn . while iii) . C D ∈ Γn .ii) hold for any Minkowski reduced matrix Y > 0. b) if Z. j ≤ n. and yk.1 (Z) with (gk . i. Points in Fn are called Siegel reduced. Y [g] ≥ yk (k-th diagonal element of Y ) ∀   g1 . then the following holds: i) yn ≥ yn−1 ≥ · · · ≥ y1 . i) Fn is a fundamental domain for Γn . then M = ±E2n and Z = Z . ii) The set Fn can be deﬁned by ﬁnitely many inequalities of the type given in the deﬁnition of Fn . Y − δn En ≥ 0) where δn > 0 is a constant depending only on n. · · · .  ∈ Mn. . Theorem 8. One has intFn = Fn .

r. 11 . a(T )e2πi tr(T Z) . Moreover. ii) f ∈ Mn (Γn ) ⇒ f (Z + S) = f (Z) (∀S = S ∈ Mn (Z)). Γn ). Theorem 10. Proof: If n = 1.t. for any Y0 > 0. Then f has a Fourier expansion of the form f (Z) = T =T half −integral T ≥0 A B C D ∈ Γn . one has a(T [U ]) = (det U )k a(T ) (∀T ≥ 0. Remarks: i) We denote Mk (Γn ) the C-vector space of Siegel modular forms of weight k and degree n. if i) f is holomorphic. absolutely convergent on Hn and uniformly in Y = Y ≥ Y0 > 0. the existence of the Fourier expansion of the given shape easily follows from the boundedness of f (Z) for Y ≥ Y0 > 0 and Riemann’s criterion for removable ˆ singularities (consider the map z → q := e2πiz and put f (q) := f (z)(q = e2πiz . ∀U ∈ GLn (Z)). z ∈ H)). Let f ∈ Mk (Γn ). since Γn is generated by these special matrices (Theorem 4).3 Siegel modular forms: basic properties Deﬁnition: A function f : Hn → C is called a Siegel modular form of weight k ∈ Z and degree n (w. If n ≥ 2. ii) f ((AZ + B)(CZ + D−1 ) = det(CZ + D)k F (Z) ∀ iii) f is bounded in Y ≥ Y0 . then condition iii) in the deﬁnition of a Siegel modular form follows from conditions i) and ii) (”Koecher principle”). f (Z[U ]) = (detU )k f (Z) (∀U ∈ GLn (Z)). f (−Z −1 ) = (detZ)k f (Z) (apply the transformation formula ii) to the special generators of Theorem 4). iii) kn odd ⇒ Mk (Γn ) = {0} (since −E then acts on f by multiplication with (−1)kn ). The converse is also true.

hence ∃g ∈ Zn with components relatively prime such that T [g] < 0. By Gauss lemma.t.Now suppose n ≥ 2. Since f is holomorphic and satisﬁes f (Z + S) = f (Z) (∀S = S ∈ Mn (Z)). Vy :=   0 1 Choose a sequence (yν )ν∈N with |yν | → ∞(ν → ∞) s. since the Fourier series is absolutely convergent. since Sy [e2 ] = t11 y 2 + t12 y + t22 . 12 . which proves the claim. f certainly has a Fourier expansion which can be written as f (Z) = T =T half −integral a(T )e2πitr(T Z) (note that n tr(T Z) = 1≤µ<ν≤n tµν zµν + ν=1 tνν zν ). it follows that (2) |e2πitr(SZ) | = S S e−2πtr(SY ) is convergent for any Y = Y > 0. (This is possible.) Then 2 tr(Syν ) = t11 yν + ( linear terms in yν ) → −∞ (y → ∞) ⇒ e−2πtr(Syν ) → ∞ (|yν | → ∞).  with y ∈ Z. ∃U ∈ SIn (Z) with ﬁrst column g. Sy := T [Vy ]. where the summation is over all the diﬀerent matrices S = T [U ] with U ∈ SIn (Z). . In particular a(T [U ]) = a(T ) (∀ U ∈ SIn (Z)). the corresponding matrices Syν are pairwise diﬀerent. ∀ U ∈ GLn (Z)) easily follows by comparing Fourier coeﬃcients. Proof of Claim: By assumption ∃g ∈ Rn with T [g] < 0 ⇒ ∃g ∈ Qn . Replacing T by T [U ] one can assume that t11 = T [e1 ] < 0. . the series (2) diverges for Y = E. Since f (Z[U ]) = (det U )k f (Z) ∀U ∈ GLn (Z). the formula a(T [U ]) = (det U )k a(T )(∀ T ≥ 0. Claim: If T is not positive semi-deﬁnite. Then. Let 1 y  0 0 1  . Suppose that a(T ) = 0.

M ◦ Z1 0 0 0 it 1 13 = M 1 ◦ Z1 0 0 . it . Theorem 11. One then obtains for Y ≥ Y0 > 0 |f (Z)| ≤ T =T half −integral T ≥0 |a(T )| e−2πtr(T Y ) ≤ T =T half −integral T ≥0 |a(T )| e−2πtr(T Y0 ) < ∞. If f (Z) = T =T ≥0 a(T )e2πitr(T Z) . (Observe that if T = ≥0 ∗ tnn and tnn = 0. one can interchange the limit for t → ∞ and the summation over T . then the last row and last column of T must be zero.This proves the ﬁrst assertion about the Fourier expansion. 0 it Then the limit exists. and then the existence of the limit and the T1 ∗ shape of the Fourier expansion can easily be seen.) That f |Φ ∈ Mk (Γn−1 ) follows from the fact: M1 = A1 0 ⇒ M :=  C1 0  0 1 0 0 B1 0 D1 0 A1 B1 C1 D1 ∈ Γn−1  0 0  ∈ Γn . (”Siegel Φ-operator”) For f ∈ Mk (Γn ) and Z1 ∈ Hn−1 set (f |Φ)(Z1 ) := lim f t→∞ Z1 0 . and the Φ-operator deﬁnes a linear map Φ : Mk (Γn ) → Mk (Γn−1 ) (with the convention Mk (Γ0 ) := C). From the above arguments it then follows that f has an expansion f (Z) = T =T half −integral T ≥0 a(T )e2πitr(T Z) . 0 0 Proof: Because of uniform convergence for Y = Y ≥ Y0 > 0. (in the last line we have used: S ≥ 0. Now suppose that f satisﬁes conditions i) and ii). This at the same time shows that the Fourier series is uniformly convergent in Y ≥ Y0 > 0. then (f |Φ)(Zi ) = T1 =T1 ≥0 T1 ∈Mn−1 (Z) half −integral a( T1 0 ) e2πitr(T1 Z1 ) (Z ∈ Hn−1 ). T ≥ 0 ⇒ tr(ST ) ≥ 0).

Examples of Siegel modular forms: i) Theta series: We use previous notation. A even.) The proof is technically diﬃcult and uses the Poisson summation formula. one can deﬁne ”generalized Eisenstein series” (so-called Klingen-SiegelEisenstein series) by lifting cup forms of weight k and degree j < n to Γn . ii) Eisenstein series: The formal series Ek (Z) := 0 @ (n) (n) det(CZ + D)−k A BA ∈Γn. From Theorem 11 one can easily obtain: Corollary 12.det(CZ + D) = det(C1 Z + D1 ) for Z = Z1 0 . Elements of Sk (Γn ) are called cup forms. Then Ek ∈ Mk (Γn ) \ {0}. 14 . One can in fact show: (n) Suppose k is even and k > n + 1. then θQ ∈ Mm/2 (Γn ). Then the series (n) eπitr(A[G]Z) (Z ∈ Hn ) θQ (Z) := G∈Mm. (with Γn. (One can show: ∃A ∈ Mm (Z) with A even. One can show: if detA = 1. section 1).n (Z) is called a theta series. 0 it Deﬁnition: We let Sk (Γn ) := ker Φ. Let A ∈ Mm (Z). k > 2n one can show that Mk (Γn ) = Ek (Γn ) ⊕ Sk (Γn ). For n even. A = A . A > 0. Let f ∈ Mk (Γn ).0 \Γn C D 1 A B ∈ Γn }) formally behaves like a Siegel modular form of 0 D weight k and degree n and is called a Siegel-Eisenstein series.0 := { More generally. Then f ∈ Sk (Γn ) ⇔ a(T ) = 0 unless T > 0. The main diﬃculty is the proof of convergence (in suﬃciently large domains). Obviously θQ (Z) = T =T half −integral T ≥0 (n) rQ (T ) e2πitr(T Z) where rQ (T ) is the number of representations of T by Q (cf. A > 0. detA = 1 ⇔ 8|m. where Ek (Γn ) is the subspace of ”generalized Eisenstein series”.

then f = 0. iii) dim Sk (Γn ) = O(k N ). This again follows from the reduction conditions. The proof of i) is similar. The ﬁrst assertion of the Lemma immediately follows from det Im M ◦ Z = |det (CZ + D |−2 Im Z To show the second one. c = lim f t→∞ n(n+1) . We prove the converse by induction on n. if f ∈ S0 (Γn ). ii) S0 (Γn ) = {0}. Then g(Z) := (det Y )k/2 |f (Z)| is Γn -invariant. Therefore f = c. f has a maximum on Hn .Theorem 13.g. one observes that Fn (C) := {Z ∈ Fn | det Y ≤ C} (C > 0) is compact (it is closed by Theorem 8. i) − iii)). If n = 0 there is nothing to prove. so f = 0. If f is cuspidal. det Y →∞ using the Fourier expansion of f . hence (f − c)|Φ = 0. so f |Φ = c by induction hypothesis. by a simple counting argument. iv) and bounded by loc. 2 (M ∈ Γn ). hence it sufﬁces to show that lim Z∈Fn g(Z) = 0. M0 (Γn ) = C. Then f |Φ ∈ Mk (Γn−1 ). One has i) Mk (Γn ) = {0} for k < 0. Hence dim Sk (Γn ) is less or equal to the number of T ∈ Mn (Z) such that T is halfintegral. Suppose f ∈ Mk (Γn ). T > 0. and the latter number is easily seen to be O(k N ). Also dim Mk (Γn ) = dim kerΦ + dim imΦ ≤ dim Sk (Γn ) + dim Mk (Γn−1 ) = O(k N ) by induction. tr(T ) < µkn . while the proof of iii) is more diﬃcult: One shows that there exists µn > 0 depending only on n such that if f ∈ Sk (Γn ) and a(T ) = 0 for all T > 0 with tr(T ) < µkn . ii): by Lemma 14.cit. 15 . Also C ⊂ M0 (Γn ). dim Mk (Γn ) = O(k N ) (n → ∞) where N = Proof: One ﬁrst shows the basic Lemma 14. n ≥ 1. Let f ∈ Mk (Γn ) and k ≥ 0. We prove e. Since f is cuspidal. Z 0 0 it = 0. hence f = c is constant by the maximum principle. then g has a maximum on Hn .

p is deﬁned in the same way as Hn . i + j = n) . This follow from the fact that Hn is ”generated” by double cosets. Let L(Γ.j (p2 ) = Γ    0   0 p 1i 0 0 p1j 16 2 1n 0 Γ 0 p1n   Γ   (0 ≤ i < n. G) be the free C-module generated by the right cosets Γx (x ∈ Γ\G). by the elements i Γxi where Γ\ΓxΓ = ∪i Γxi (ﬁnite disjoint) and x ∈ G. T2 = y∈Γ\G by Γy ∈ Hn . Then Γ operates on L(Γ. It is a commutative associative algebra with 1 (commutativity formally follows from the fact that ΓxΓ = Γx Γ). ii) The local component Hn. one puts T1 · T2 := x. Then Γ is a group anf G is a (semi-)group with Γ ⊂ G. Then T1 · T2 ∈ Hn . and we let Hn := L(Γ.p is generated by the n + 1 double cosets T (p) = Γ and 1i 0  0 p1j  Ti. however with G replaced by G(p) := G ∩ GL2n (Z[p−1 ]).p where Hn. νM ∈ Q.y∈Γ\G ax by Γxy.4 Hecke operators and L-functions a) The Hecke algebra Let Γ := Γn and GSp+ (Q) := {M ∈ GL2n (Q | I[M ] = νM I. i. G)Γ be the subspace of Γ-invariants. νM > 0} be the n group of rational symplectic similitudes of size 2n with positive scalar factor. The space Hn together with the above multiplication is called the Hecke algebra. The following facts are known: i) Hn = ⊗p prim Hn.e. G) by right multiplication. If T1 = x∈Γ\G ax Γx.

v) The Hecke operators are hermitian with respect to the scalar product < F. .p . s) := p Lspin. .p . s) := ζ(s) p 0 deﬁne LSt.p ∼ C X0 . In particular. Xn = W . If F is such an eigenfunction and F |T = λ(T )F (T ∈ Hn ).p (F . .j (p2 ) are algebraically independent). Xj → Xj . . C) = (C∗ )n+1 /W (with the obvious operation of W on (C∗ )n+1 ). .where 1n denotes the unit matrix of size n (the elements T (p). . . hence by ii) is determined by an element (α0.p → C for each p. . . then T → λ(T ) is a homomorphism Hn. one has ±1 ±1 Hn.p (F . G >= Fn F (Z)G(Z)(detY )k dY dY . α1. (detY )n+1 Hence the space Sk (Γn ) has a basis of common eigenfunctions of all T ∈ Hn . for Re(s) LSt (F. n) −1 and the maps X0 → X0 Xj . . rx = scalar factor of x). αn. T (m) := {x ∈ GL2n (Z) | I[x] = mI}). iii) There exist special Hecke operators T (m)(m ∈ N).p ) ∈ (C∗ )n+1 /W (”Satake p-paramenters”).n Γx(Om. p−s )−1 ( ”spinor zeta function” ) 17 . . one has HomC (Hn. b) L-functions If F ∈ Sk (Γn ) is a common eigenform. Sk (Γn ) by F |k where nk−n(n+1)/2 (f |k x)(z) = rx · det(CZ + D)−k f ((AZ + B)(CZ + D)−1 ) X∈Γ \ Om. . . where W is the Weyl group generated by the permuatations of the Xi (i = 1. p−s )−1 ( ”standard zeta function” ) and Lspin (F.p . . n}. for j ∈ {1.n := ax Γx = ax F |k x (x = A B C D ∈ G. . Ti. Xi → Xi (1 ≤ i ≤ n. Moreover. iv) The Hecke algebra operates on Mk (Γn ) resp. i = j). .

One knows that LSt (F.p (F . . ii) The function ∗ ZF (s) := (2π)−2s Γ(s)Γ(s − k + 2)ZF (s) has meromorphic continuation to C and satisﬁes the functional equation ∗ ∗ ZF (2k − 2 − s) = (−1)k ZF (s).p (X) = 1 − λ(p)X + (λ(p)2 − λ(p2 ) − p2k−4 )X 2 − λ(p)p2k−3 X 3 + p4k−6 X 4 . The analytic properties of ZF (s) then follow from the analytic properties of the Eisenstein series. χ) i=1 a(nTi ) ns h(D)  a(Ti ) ZF (s). For n = 2 one has more precisely Theorem 15.) The left hand side can be written as the integral over a portion of the 3-dimensional hyperbolic space (suitably embedded in H2 ) of the product of the restriction of F to this portion and a non-holomorphic Eisenstein series for the hyperbolic 3-space. 2002). . Schmidt.where LSt. 1974) Suppose n = 2 and let us write ZF (s) = Lspin (F.p X). (Andrianov. for n = 3 one knows meromorphic continuation (R. 18 . X) := (1 − α0. for all n (B¨cherer a.). s) has a meromorphic continuation C with ﬁnitely many poles and has a functional equation under s → 1 − s. has meromorphic continuation to C and satisﬁes a functional equation under s → nk − n(n+1) + 1 − s. o Conjecture (Andrianov.p (F . i=1 n Lspin.p X) ν=1 1≤i1 <···<iν ≤n (1 − α0. 2 This conjecture is known only for n ≤ 2 (for n = 1 this is classical by Hecke). . X) := n −1 (1 − αi. Proof: One uses Andrianov’s formulas: if D < 0 is a fundamental discriminant. .p X). then h(D)  n≥1 L(s − k + 2. . Th(D) } is a set of Γ1 -representatives of primitive positive deﬁnite integral binary quadratic forms of discriminant D and χ is a character of the ideal class group √ CL(Q( D)). then there exist similar but more complicated identities. αiν . i) Suppose that f |T (m) = λ(m)f for all m ≥ 1.p αi1 . Langlands): The function Lspin (F. s) when completed with appropriate Γ-factors. . Then ZF.p .o. {T1 . s).p X)(1 − αi. = i=1 (If D < 0 is an arbitrary discriminant.

then LSt (F. Andrianov. Then for each normalized (a(1) = 1) Hecke eigenform f ∈ S2k−2 (Γ1 ).3(4) c(n) e2πinz } as Hecke mod- c(n) e2πinz → T >0 a(T )e2πitr(T Z) where a(T ) := d | (n.r.r. ∗ The space generated by the above F ’s is called the Maass space Sk (Γ2 ) ⊂ Sk (Γ2 ). 1981) One has   nm n r/2 ∗ Sk (Γ2 ) = F ∈ Sk (Γ2 ) | a = dk−1 a dr2 r/2 m  2d d | (n. s + k − 1)L(f. ii) (Eichler.m) dk−1 c 4mn − r2 d2 T = n r/2 r/2 m + ∗ is a linear isomorphism from Sk− 1 onto Sk (Γ2 ) commuting with all Hecke operators. For the proof one uses i) S2k−2 (Γ1 ) ∼ Sk− 1 = {g ∈ Sk− 1 (Γ0 (4)) | g = = + 2 2 ules (Shimura isomorphism.n≡0. s) is the Hecke L-function of f . Zagier. Eichler. (Maass. where L(f. Theorem 17. Zagier. Zagier) The map g= n≥1 n≡0. s). s) = ζ(s)(f. 19 .m) r 2d 1 ∀ n r/2 r/2 m   >0  (”Maass relations”) b) Ikeda’s lifting theorem ∗ Note (easy computation): if F ∈ Sk (Γ2 ) is a Hecke eigenform. s + k − 2).5 Liftings a) The Saito-Kurokawa lift Theorem 16.3(4) n≥1. 1981) Let k be even. trace formula). Andrianov. Eichler. (Maass. 2 ∗ From ii) one can also obtain the following linear description of the space Sk (Γ2 ). there is a Hecke eigenform F ∈ Sk (Γ2 ) (uniquely determined up to a non-zero scalar) such that ZF (s) = ζ(s − k + 1) ζ(s − k + 2)L(f.

DT. αp ) p|DT In the above the notation is as follows: 2 i) DT = (−1)n det(2T )(≡ 0. X −1 ) = Fp (T . p−s )Fp (T . Then there is a Hecke eigenform F ∈ Sk+n (Γ2n ) such that 2n LSt (F. let bp (T . X) = X −ordp fT Fp (T . X)is a ”non-trivial” part of a modiﬁed local singular series (Laurent-) polynomial attached to T .0 a fundamental discriminant and fT ∈ N.(−1)k m≡0. More precisely. s) = R vp (R)−s ep (tr(T R)) (s ∈ C) where R runs over all symmetric matrices in M2n (Qp /Zp ). p−n− 2 X) (= Laurent polynomial). 1996). X) = (1 − X)(1 − and Fp (T . p−s ) where γp (T .(4) + c(m)e2πimz ∈ Sk+ 1 ⊂ Sk+ 1 (Γ0 (4)) 2 2 corresponding to f under the Shimura correspondence. ˜ iii) Fp (T . X) is symmetric. i. 1999) The conjecture is true. Theorem 18. s) = ζ(s) j=1 L(f. vp (R) = power of p equal to the product of denominators of the elementary divisors of R. Moreover the Fourier coeﬃcients of F are given by k− 1 ˜ a(T ) = c(|DT. (Ikeda. Using the functional equation of L(f. Let n ∈ N with n ≡ k (mod 2).Conjecture (Duke-Imamoglu. Fp (T . 20 . s + k + n − j). ii) c(|DT.0 |) = |DT.e. s) = γp (T .0 |)fT 2 Fp (T . X). 1 (mod 4)) is the discriminant of T.0 |-th Fourier coeﬃcient of a Hecke eigenform g= m≥1. One knows bp (T . X) is a polynomial. ep (x) = e2πix (x ∈ Qp ) with x = fractional part of x.0 fT with DT. Let f ∈ S2k (Γ1 ) be a normalized Hecke eigenform. Put 1 ˜ Fp (T .0 p n p X) n −1 j=1 (1 − p2j X 2 ) ˜ ˜ ˜ Katsurada(1999) has proved: Fp (T . one easily checks a functional equation of the right hand side above under s → 1 − s. s) under s → 2k − s. DT = DT.

1 1 The proof (diﬃcult) uses representation theory and techniques from the theory of Fourier-Jacobi expansions.a.p (T. even.iv) αp = p-th Satake parameter of f . 21 . p−s ). Let V /Fp be the quadratic space over Fp obtained from reducing the quadratic form attached to T modulo p. then −1 1 − a(p)X + p2k−1 X 2 = (1 − pk− 2 αp X)(1 − pk− 2 αp X). We now want to give a linear version of Ikeda’s lifting theorem. if a(p) = p-th Fourier coeﬃcient of f . j=1 (1 − p ] ii) Deﬁne ρT (pµ ) (p prime. i. T ) ∈ Z. p a prime. T = T . λp (T ) := Put     1 [ p2 j=1 S −1 1 if W hyperbolic −1 otherwise . R(V ) = radical of V . | detG |=d ρT [G−1 ] ( a ) d2 where D(T ) = GL2n (Z \ {G ∈ M2n (Z)∩GL2n (Q) | T [G−1 ] := G −1 T G−1 half-integral } (ﬁnite set). V = R(V )⊕W . sp = dim R(V ).p (T. X) := (1 − p2j−1 X 2 ) if sp > 0.p (T. if sp = 0 Hn. X) if p|fT 1 if not and ρT (a)(a ≥ 1) by ρT (a)a−s := n≥1 p|fT (1 − p−2s )Hn.w. T ) := √ a d2 |a G∈D(T ). µ ≥ 0) by ρT (pµ )X µ := µ≥0 (1 − X 2 )Hn. Notation: i) Let T ∈ M2n (Q) be half-integral. odd  S −1 Sp −1  [ p2 ]  (1 + λp(T )p 2 X) 2j−1 2 X ) if sp > 0. note that ϕ(a. iii) For a ∈ N with a | fT put ϕ(a.

a(T ) = a2 a | fT Corollary 20. Proof: One combines i) formulas of B¨cherer-Kitaoka for the local singular series polynomials which expresses o ˜p (T . 22 . ˜ ii) the functional equation of Fp (T . T )H(k − n. T )c(|DT0 | 2 fT 2πitr(T Z) ))e a2 + is a linear map Ik. 2001) Let k ≡ 0 (mod 2). Then the T -th Fourier (2n) coeﬃcient (T > 0) of the Siegel-Eisenstein series Ek of weight k and degree 2n is given by ak. T )c .2n (T ) = ζ(1 − k) n j=1 2n ζ(1 − 2k + 2j) ak−n−1 ϕ(a. X) as a ﬁnite sum over G ∈ D(T ) of ”simple” polynomials (without any Πp | f T F obvious functional equations).(4) ( T >0 a | fT ak−1 φ(a.0 |m2 ) (m ∈ N). 2001) The Fourier coeﬃcients of the Ikeda lift F of f are given by |DT | ak−1 φ(a. m) is the generalized Cohen class number function.0 | ( a|fT fT 2 ) ). k > 2n + 1. T ) = a if a|(n. a where H(k. one can show that φ(a. iii) the multiplicative structure of the Fourier coeﬃcients c(|DT. (Kohnen. m) (T = 0 otherwise n r 2 r 2 m ) and so one recovers the formula of Eichler-Zagier (see a) ).n from Sk+ 1 to Sk+n (Γ2n ) which on Hecke eigenforms coincides with 2 the Ikeda lift. |DT. The map c(m)e2πimz → m≥1 (−1k m≡0. r. One obtains Theorem 21.Theorem 19. (Kohnen. The same technique as above can also be applied in the context of Eisenstein series. Remark: If n = 1. X) and a symmetrization trick.

23 . 1 (mod 4)) such that a(T ) = a | fT ak−1 φ(a. (−1)k m ≡ 0. T ) p− −j+1 2 [ψj (X) − ( DT. T )c |DT | a2 ∀ T > 0. X) = j=1 φ(p −j+1 .n . T )? Let V be the ( + 1)-dimensional C-vector space of symmetric Laurent polynomials cν (X ν + X −ν ) (cν ∈ C) ν=0 of degree ≤ . 2006) Let p be a prime with p | fT and e = ep := ordp fT . . . Note that Fp (T . ii) ∃ c(m) ∈ C (m ≥ 1. Can one give a simpler interpretation for ϕ(a. (Choie. Let F ∈ Sk+n (Γ2n ). 1 (mod 4) and let k ≡ n (mod 2). 2005) Suppose that n ≡ 0. Maass relations)? + ∗ Let Ik. Kohnen. Then +1 ˜ Fp (T . X − X −1 ˜ Then the ψj (j = 1. . (Kojima. 1.Problem: The function ϕ(a. . + 1} set ψj (X) := X j − X −j . . For j ∈ {0.0 − 1 )p 2 ψj−1 (X)]. by Katsurada’s results. . similarly as in the case n = 1 (Saito-Kurokawa lift. + 1) form a basis of V . T ) looks nasty and seems to be diﬃcult to compute for n > 1. p c) A Maass relation in higher genus Problem: Is it possible to characterize the image of the Ikeda lift by linear relations. X) ∈ V where e = ep := ordp fT . Then the following assertions are equivalent: ∗ i) F ∈ Sk+n (Γ2n ). . . Kohnen. Theorem 22.n be the linear map Sk+ 1 → Sk+n (Γ2n ) deﬁned in Corollary 20 and put Sk+n (Γ2n ) := 2 im Ik. Theorem 23.

(−1)k m ≡ 0. Write φT0 (τ. Let c(m) (m ∈ N. 1 ˜ 2 hλ (τ )ϑλ (τ. A matrix in this genus is positive deﬁnite if and only if g ≡ ±1 (mod 8). for example one ﬁnds that quite often sign changes of these coeﬃcients occur and it is a natural question to try to understand them. z)(τ ∈ 2 H. Idea of proof: Let T0 := 1 S0 and study the Fourier-Jacobi coeﬃcients φT0 (τ. z ∈ C2n−1. Now |Λ| 2 2 + hλ0 (4τ ) + hλ1 (4τ ) ∈ Sk+ 1 .1 . For m ∈ N. 1 (mod 4) put 0 1  1 S0 0 A  @ 2  if m ≡ 0 (mod 4)  0 m 4 0 1 Tm := 1 e  @ 1 S0 2 2 2n−1 n A if (−1)n m ≡ 1  (mod 4). z) cuspform of weight k + = 2. For example. Kohnen. det (2Tm ) = m.Remark: For g ∈ N there exists a unique genus of even integral symmetric matrices of size g with determinant equal to 2.  m+2+(−1) 1 e 2 2n−1 4 One checks: Tm > 0. F ∈ Sk+n (Γ2n ) iﬀ a(T ) = ak−1 φ(a. Then ϕT0 is a Jacobi cusp form of even weight k + n on the semi-direct product of Γ1 and Z2n−1. and then h(τ ) := (mod 4)) be the Fourier coeﬃcients of h. If one checks tables. (−1)n m ≡ 0. ∗ Theorem 24. One shows c(m) = c(m) for all m. z) = λ∈Λ −1 where Λ = S0 Z2n−1.1 × Z2n−1. and then as representative one can take  g−1  E 8 ⊕ 2 if g ≡ 1 (mod 8) 8 g−7 (3) S0 :=  E8 8 ⊕ E7 if g ≡ 7 (mod 8).1 ) of index T0 of F . T )a(T|DT |/a2 ) a|fT ∀T > 0. Let g := 2n − 1 and deﬁne S0 by the right-hand-side of (3). one may ask if there are inﬁnitely many sign changes or when 24 .1 and (hλ )λ∈Λ is a vector-valued n − 2n−1 = k + 1 on the metaplectic cover of Γ1 . 2005) Under the assumption as above. (Kojima. ˜ 6 Sign changes of eigenvalues Fourier coeﬃcients of cup forms are mysterious objects and in general no simple arithmetic formulas are known for them.1 /Z2n−1.

a) Elliptic modular forms The result in the following Theorem seems to be well-known. According to the above Theorem. As usual. Then one has a(n) < 0 for some n with n kN exp c log N/ log log 3N (log k)27 . Theorem 25. Recently. 2006) Suppose that f is a normalized Hecke eigenform of even integral weight k and squarefree level N that is a newform. In the following. N ) = 1. This might be particularly interesting when the cusp form is a Hecke eigenform and so the Fourier coeﬃcients are proportional to the eigenvalues in degree 1 or in degree 2. say in terms of k and N . Then the sequence (a(n))n∈N has inﬁnitely many sign changes. the above result was improved as follows. hoping for a bound depending only on the weight and the level.the ﬁrst sign change occurs. since the eigenvalues a(p) with p|N are explicitly known by Atkin-Lehner theory. (n. 25 . Let f be a non-zero cusp form of even integral weight k on Γ0 (N ) and suppose that its Fourier coeﬃcients a(n) are real for all n ≥ 1. is absolute. Recall that “normalized” means that a(1) = 1. e. Here c > 2 and the constant implied in Note that it is reasonable to assume that (n. we look at a normalized Hecke eigenform f that is a newform of level N . The proof of the above result uses techniques from analytic number theory. Theorem 26. Sengupta. N ) = 1. (Kohnen. a reasonable question to ask is if it is possible to obtain a bound on the ﬁrst sign change. where the relations between Fourier coeﬃcients and eigenvalues are quite well understood. i. we deﬁne Γ0 (N ) := { a b c d ∈ Γ1 | c ≡ 0 (mod N )}. there are inﬁnitely many n such that a(n) > 0 and there are inﬁnitely many n such that a(n) < 0.

(Kohnen. it is not generally true that the eigenvalues of a Hecke eigenform in Sk (Γ2 ) change signs inﬁnitely often. Sengupta. 2006) Suppose that f is a normalized Hecke eigenform of even integral weight k and level N (not necessarily squarefree) that is a newform.p | = 1 for all p) is true for forms as in Theorem 30. Now suppose that F is an eigenfunction of all Hecke operators and g = 2. Then the sequence (λn )n∈N has inﬁnitely many sign changes.p | = |α2. Then λ(n) > 0 for all n. b) Siegel modular forms of genus two. 1999) Suppose that k is even and let F be a Hecke eigenform ∗ in Sk (Γ2 ). N ) = 1. N ) = 1 ( > 0). Instead. The proof is based on Landau’s theorem coupled with the analytic properties of the spinor zeta function of F and a theorem of Weissauer according to which the generalized Ramanujan-Petersson conjecture (saying that |α1. On the contrary to the above. after Theorem 30 the question arises when the ﬁrst sign change occurs. The proof is “elementary” in the sense that it avoids the use of the symmetric square L-function.Theorem 27. Using similar ideas one can obtain Theorem 28. As a ﬁrst surprise. (Iwaniec. Using the analytic properties of the Koecher-Maass Dirichlet series attached to F and of the Rankin-Selberg Dirichlet zeta function attached to F . Kohnen. one has the following Theorem 30. Of course. the Hecke relations for the eigenvalues are exploited. (Iwaniec. Kohnen. Sengupta. Suppose that F lies in the orthogonal complement of Sk (Γ2 ) if k is even. 26 . (n. (Breulmann. Then one has a(n) < 0 for some n with √ n << k N · log8+ (kN ). 2005) Let F be a Hecke eigenform in Sk (Γ2 ) with Hecke eigen∗ values λn (n ∈ N). 2006) Suppose that f is a normalized Hecke eigenform of level N (not necessarily squarefree) and even integral weight k. (n. it should be easy to generalize Theorem 25 to the situation here. with eigenvalues λ(n) (n ∈ N). Then a(n) < 0 for some n with 29 n << (k 2 N ) 60 . Theorem 29.

Ikeda: On the lifting of elliptic modular forms to Siegel cusp forms of degree 2n. 45-116 [C-K] Y. Springer 1983 [I] T. Then there exists n ∈ N with n k 2 log20 k is absolute.N. Kohnen: Sign changes of Fourier coeﬃcients and Hecke eigenvalues of cusp forms: a survey. Ann. References [A] A.J. Math. Choie and W. Birkh¨user 1985 a [F] E. Russ. Here the constant implied in The proof follows a similar pattern as that of Theorem 28. Kohnen: Lifting modular forms of half-integral weight to Siegel modular forms of even genus. AMS [E-Z] M.. Compos. Shandong Univ. Kohnen: A remark on the Ikeda lift and local singular series polynomials. Freitag: Siegelsche Modulformen. Eichler and D.Theorem 31. of a conference on Number Theory. Denote by λ(n) (n ∈ N) the eigenvalues of F .de 27 . Andrianov: Euler products corresponding to Siegel modular forms of genus 2. Zagier: The theory of Jacobi forms. Weihai. 641-681 [K-K] H. To appear in Proc. 2006) Let F be a Siegel-Hecke eigenform in Sk (Γ2 ) and suppose either that k is odd or that k is even and F is in the orthogonal complement ∗ of Sk (Γ2 ). Sengupta. Math. 141 (2005). Kojima and W.uni-heidelberg. 787-809 [K2] W. 154 (2001). Ann of Maths. with the Hecke L-function Lf (s) replaced by the spinor zeta function. Germany winfried@mathi. Kohnen: A Maass space in higher genus. 313-322 [K1] W. To appear in Proc. Math. China 2006 Mathematisches Institut Universit¨t Heidelberg a D-69120 Heidelberg. such that λ(n) < 0. (Kohnen. Surv. 29 (1974). 322 (2002).