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Gas Conditioning Tower
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Furthermore.e. The cooling of the gas protects the ESP from high temperatures and the higher humidity of the gas increases the performance of the ESP.Gas Conditioning Tower (GCT) Technical Description Object of GCT The object of the GCT is to condition and cool kiln gas before it is dedusted in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Both GCT types are for small to large gas flows i. General description FLSmidth Airtech is continually optimising the concept of the GCT. An additional purpose of the GCT is to cool the flue gas before it enters a process fabric filter (FF)where very low temperatures can be required in order to protect the filter bags. 50 to 500 m3/sec . Type A with gas distribution by swirl and type B by grates. Type A Type B Product Description Two main types of Gas Conditioning towers are available. One of the key features where FLSmidth Airtech differs from others is in the effort of creating a good gas distribution in the GCT. some of the dust in the kiln gas is separated from the gas by gravity in the GCT.
00 -22. it can automatically open and close lances according to the gas flow and temperature of the gas entering the tower. depending of type. the droplets get smaller and the nozzles are exposed to less wear. Type A. Furthermore.000 0. The development is based on model experiments. The water evaporates in the tower and thereby conditions the flue gas. computer simulations with the CFD program and continuous evaluation of our own experience and that of our customers In the figure.00 -16.00 -12. 50 to 500 m3/sec two main types A and B of GCT are available. one is a one phase flow back system. One of the essential features to optimise is the gas distribution inside the GCT. The flue gas leaves the tower in the bottom where a hopper collects the dust separated by the gravity.000 -6.00 -18. The water injection is controlled by the thermodynamic system developed by FLSmidth Airtech.e. Low pressure drop across the tower.000 2. which prevents build-up of wet dust.00 -20. The concepts controls the flue gas distribution in the tower giving the following key advantages: Product Description y y y y y Ensures hot flue gas at the tower wall.0000 -2. the distribution in the tower is obtained with a swirl unit and straightener In Type B the distribution is obtained with grates Type A Velocity magnitude m/sec 6. By using the two phase system.00 -14. The thermodynamic control is faster and more exact than a traditional regulation system.000 4.000 -8. and the other a two phase system where water and compressed air are mixed. Only downstream and hot flue gas around water injection nozzles.00 Type B Swirl Straightener Grate The FLSmidth Airtech concepts includes a swirl generator and straightener unit or a grate.000 -4.000 -10. FLSmidth Airtech is continually optimising the operation of the GCT. . Only lances of short length are needed. positioned in the GCT inlet. The dust is removed by a dust transport system. Gas Distribution For small to large gas flows i.FLSmidth Airtech supplies two different systems of water injection. A good mix between water droplets and flue gas.
Inlet transition Different types of inlet transition pieces are used. depending on the process involved and/or the local plant conditions. Type B-60 Type B-30 Type U-045 Without guide vanes Type B-GV With guide vanes Without guide vanes Swirl type A Grates type B For GCT type A For GCT type A and B For GCT type A and B For GCT type A and B Layout examples From cyclone Cyclone tower Product Description .
Control and interlocking of the system 2. Configuration of the measuring system 10. Start/stop of lance groups in operation 7.Control Systems FLSmidth Airtech has developed the “Conditioning Tower Thermodynamic Regulation” (CTTR) unit for regulation of the water injection to the GCT. Calculation of the mass flow rate in the tower and the required water flow rate 4. The result is used to feed the quantity of water needed to condition the flue gases which will be present in the tower seconds later. (For special purpose the control unit can work with the traditional Temperature Control System only) Conditioning Tower Thermodynamic Regulation system (CTTR) The CTTR system controls the GCT by cascade/feed forward control. Monitoring of the measuring system 3. The traditional Temperature Control System The CTTR-system is the primary control mode as it works faster and is more efficient than the Temperature Control System. Selection of lances to be set in operation 6. Handling of failures and warnings 9. This makes the regulation works faster and more efficiently than a traditional control system. The injection is finely adjusted by regulating in a small area according to the difference in the outlet temperature and the set point temperature. The measurements are transmitted to a processor calculating the necessary water injection rate. Configuration of the pump Configuration and adjustment of the system is performed on an operator panel (HMI). The CTTR-system 2. A philosophy of the GCT control is maximum fail-safe state. Start/stop control of water pumps and valve rack 5. The CTTR system contains following functions: 1. which is implemented as follows: Product Description . The control unit consists of two regulation systems: 1. Configuration of the lance system 11. where the flow rate and temperature of the gases are measured before they enter the water evaporation zone of the GCT. Regulation of the outlet temperature 8.
only one is used and the system transmits a warning to the central control. but if a pre-set difference between a pair is exceeded. a mode where the outlet temperature is required for the process. which is the basic mode. To increase safety and accuracy. 2. the measuring transducers are double when possible. the control automatically switches back to “Cascade”. requires that at least one of the measuring transducers of a pair is valid. The system can work in 4 modes: A “Cascade” or “Feed Forward”. The signal used for temperatures and water pressure is the highest value of default pair and for pressure transmitters the lowest value. B. The system switches automatically down from “Cascade” to “Temperature control” in the following cases: x x x Both inlet temperatures are faulty. it continues to operate in this mode. Product Description . “Temperature control”. In normal operation the average value of a pair is used. but a warning is transmitted to the central control. in case both outlet temperatures are faulty. The water flow rate cannot be measured. When the cause for switching to “temperature control” is eliminated. However. The gas flow rate cannot be measured. This is applied for the gas inlet and outlet temperature and pressure transmitters for air and water.Temp inlet Flow inlet Lance Thermodynamic Regulator Flow meter Water Temp outlet 1.
Configuration example Product Description .
Arrangement examples A-A A A D Product Description . In CENTRAL or remote control. When setting LOCAL all modes are available. the GCT stops automatically and the flow control is enabled by switching to local mode. but starting a pump locally and controlling the water flow by the bypass valve.C. it measures the outlet temperature of the GCT. “Flow control”: where the water spray rate is constant according to a value set from the panel. Temperature Control System The traditional thermal control system is of the feedback type. The two phase injection system also has a control loop for the air mixture ratio. In case all temperature and water flow rate measuring devices are faulty. and if this temperature varies from the set point temperature. Water spraying system The water used for conditioning the kiln gas is injected with single nozzle lances one meter below the conical diffuser. only the A and B modes are possible. but when switching to local mode the valve control is enabled. D. However. the GCT will stop automatically. In case both the temperature for inlet and outlet are faulty. In principle there is a 5th mode. “Valve control”: which is a mode where the position of the water valve is constant according to a valve set from the panel. operating without the control unit. the water supply to the GCT is regulated. selecting a full open by-pass for the air valve the system can work in all modes. In case both pressure transmitters for the air are faulty. the GCT stops automatically.
The tank is supplied with a float valve and a low-level switch. which stops the pump and prevents pump damage in case of supply water problems. the two phase system is always preferable because of less wear on the nozzles than with the Back Flow System and a better water atomisation. Product Description . one active and one spare. One system is the “Back Flow System” where part of the water that enters the nozzle is injected into the GCT and the rest returns to the water tank. Pressure transducer Manometer Flow meter Ring line Non-return valve Strainer Stop valve P Pneumatic valve Pump Duplex filter with pressure switch Pneumatic actuator Thermocouple Gas flow meter Inlet water Back flow water Flue gas Conditioning Tower P Water tank Water supply Dry flow feedback Overflow feedback Before the water reaches the lances. When the active filter is partially blocked. The sealing between the shaft and the pump house can be either solid graphite seal or a flexible packing ring. An overflow pipe and a high level switch gives an alarm in case of float valve malfunction. a valve is turned. Water is taken from the client’s supply line to the water tank and lifted up to the injection level by a high-pressure pump. It is supplied by one of two highpressure pumps mounted on a solid frame in parallel. The duplex filter contains two filter elements. it passes through a duplex filter. Technically.FLSmidth Airtech uses two different types of water spraying systems. the tower for a Two Phase System has the lowest evaporation height. The pump pressure is approximately 40 bar g. Back Flow System The back flow nozzle is designed to have an adjustable supply of water injection. isolating the contaminated filter and opening the parallel filter. This makes it is possible to vary the water supply according to process operations by changing the return pressure and keeping the supply pressure almost constant. The other system is the “Two Phase Injection System” where water is atomised with compressed air resulting in smaller drops at a high water volume flow rate. Because of the smaller droplet size.
for reading the pump pressure. all water from the water tank will be injected and if it is fully open. a strainer is positioned in the supply line and a check valve in the return line.Each lance is coupled to two ring pipes with flexible hoses. one for the supply line and one for the return line. The two conduits are connected to the nozzle in the spraying end and to two-threaded pipe stubs at the other end. Inlet water Back flow water Nozzle Pneumatic actuator Non-return valve Valve Flexible rubber hose Strainer The Lance has two ball valves. as it passes the regulating valve and enters the water tank. Flow rate meters can be fitted to the supply pipe and to the return pipe and the signals from these transducers are an important part of the thermodynamic control system. For reading the supply and return pressure. a Bourdon manometer is fitted to the common supply pipe. One ring pipe contains the supply water and the other the return water. The pressure of the return water differs between 0-18 bar g. there is a manually controllable by-pass valve parallel to the regulating valve. Furthermore. two Bourdon manometers are fitted to the ring pipes. The injected water rate is controlled via the return flow pressure by means of a pneumatically operated valve fitted to the return pipe. Nozzle and lance for the back flow system The lance consists of an inner tube (the return water tube) and an outer tube. Likewise. If the control valve is closed. Supply and return pressures are measured by pressure transducers giving electrical signals to the automatic control. If the automatic control for some reason is out of order. Product Description . a minimum of water will be injected.
an extra shut-off valves with a common actuator are fitted together with a solenoid valve for controlling the on/off position of the lances.If the control system is of the thermodynamic type. a nozzle cap with a centre injection hole and a centre pipe for the return flow. In special cases cooling air or purge air can be fitted onto the lance arrangement. always with one as standby. The nozzle consists of a swirl disc supplied with "tangential" holes. The water at the nozzle wall is directed towards the nozzle exit hole. Lance Inlet water Back flow water Nozzle Two Phase Injection System The two phase injection system mixes compressed air and water creating an injection of exceptionally small drops. Water is taken from client’s supply line to the water tank and lifted up to the injection level by a medium pressure pump. and the water in the centre region is directed towards the return hole. The water tank is supplied with a float valve and a low level switch. By controlling the air and water pressures the injection rate varies. The sealing between the shaft and the pump house might be either solid graphite seal or a flexible packing ring. The air from compressors passes through the pressure vessel and on to the lances. Normally two pumps are in parallel. The pump pressure is approximately 16 bar g. Product Description . An overflow pipe and a high level switch gives alarm in case of float valve malfunction. which stops the pump and prevents it from self destruction in case of supply water problems.
manually bypass valves can be utilised.5 bar g (50 Hz) or 7. Air and water pressures are measured by pressure transducers giving electrical signals to the automatic control. one active and one spare. When the active filter. a valve is turned. two Bourdon manometers are fitted to the ring pipes. The pressures are 7. The duplex filter contains two filter elements. In case of defective control valves. standard mesh size 200 µm. For reading the water pressure.Pressure transducer Manometer Flow meter Ring line P B P Non-return valve B Block valve Stop valve Pneumatic valve Relief valve Pump Duplex filter with pressure switch Pneumatic actuator Thermocouple Gas flow meter Water Air Flue gas P Conditioning Tower Air B Water tank Pressure vessel Water supply Dry flow feedback Overflow feedback More compressors can be applied depending on total air mass flow rate and demands for redundancy with one spare compressor. From the supply pipe a shunt pipe with a damped relief valve will lead the water back to the tank if the supply pressure exceeds a limiting pressure. Flow rate meters are fitted to the water supply pipe and the signals from this transducer is an important part of the thermodynamic control system. is partially blocked. isolating the contaminated filter and opening the parallel filter. Two pneumatically activated control valves for water and compressed air regulate water and air flow rates according to the needs of the specific nozzle types. Each lance is coupled to two ring pipes with flexible hoses. Before the water reaches the lances it passes through a duplex filter. Product Description . One ring pipe consists the supply water and the other the supply air.0 bar g (60 Hz).
two extra solenoid valves are fitted together with a solenoid valve for controlling the air supply. and to two threaded pipe stubs in the other end. Air Water Nozzle Pneumatic actuator Valve Flexible rubber hose The lances are supplied with two shutoff valves and. The nozzle consists of a fluid tip with a centre hole for the water and smaller holes around it for the air. if thermodynamic control is used. The two conduits are connected to the nozzle in the spraying end.Nozzle and lance description for the two phase system The typical lance consists of two concentric tubes for water and air. The two fluids are mixed in an air cap and hit a stump. and the droplets are ejected through small holes into the gas stream. Air Water Lance Fluid tip Cap not Air guide Air cap Product Description .
The geometry of the GCT is put together by following parts: . . This construction is specific.A bottom hopper with gas outlet . Product Description Cylindrical unit with supporting unit The main body of the GCT consists of a cylindrical unit with a supporting unit. and moveable weights on stairs. i.An inlet unit (with a swirl generator) . ladders and platforms. The cylindrical unit gives the tower its required volume for conditioning the flue gas.A cylindrical unit with a supporting unit .Dust transport Conical diffuser unit The conical diffuser unit has an angle of 150 from vertical.Mechanical description Apart from dead loads.A conical diffuser .e. weight from dust in hopper. the tower is constructed to withstand wind loads and loads from earthquakes. made for each tower individually Inlet unit Conical diffuser unit Cylindrical unit Supporting unit Reinforcement unit Transition unit Hopper unit The tower is also designed to withstand normal and excessive temperatures and gauge pressures. i.A transition unit .e. tower weight.
both made of square tube profiles that are welded together during erection. Dust transport The dust separated from the flue gas is removed from the hopper by a drag chain or a screw conveyor. Direction of motion Guide ring Tower Spherical top Guide ring Foundation bolt Spherical top Concrete Product Description .In this unit the injection ports for the water injection are installed and one or more inspection doors. Insulation The tower is insulated in order to avoid corrosion and in order to avoid the possibility of too high temperature on the outside (safety). a motor driven double flap valve or a pneumatically activated slide gate. The dust is normally discharged from the hopper by a standard air sluice. Transition unit The transition connects the cylindrical unit with the bottom hopper and changes the cross-section from circular to rectangular. Supports Pendular Support The pendular support is a combination of vertical columns and cross diagonals. Bottom hopper with gas outlet The bottom hopper is of the longitudinal type and has a gas outlet from the side and dust transport in the bottom. The hopper is also insulated in order to prevent dust from building up due to moisture. The heat expansion of the GCT during operation is absorbed by the angular movement in relation to the points of support on the foundation.
so the heat expansion of the GCT can take place safely. 8 or 12 bearings Concrete Support An other alternative is the concrete support.Rigid Steel Support An alternative support is the traditional rigid steel support. 8 or 12 bearings . Direction of motion Securing bolt Guide block GCT flange Securing/Anchor bolt (Teflon covered steel plate) Product Description 4. the GCT is equipped with a slide bearing. so the heat expansion of the GCT is conducted safely. in this system the GCT is also equipped with a slide bearing. Direction of motion Securing bolt Guide block GCT flange Steel support (Teflon covered steel plate) 4. When using the rigid steel support system.
double flap gate. rotary air lock. slide gate.Dust removal All dust is collected in the hopper and discharged via screw conveyor or drag chain. D=500 mm Air lock Ball bearing Drag chain Turning station GCT hopper Drive station Ball bearing Turning roller 300 mm chain Ball bearing Traction wheel Product Description . The solution of type depends of the process or customer requirement Screw conveyor GCT hopper Ball bearing Drive station Screw. air slide.
ﬂue gas ducts.Smidth Airtech. Evenly distributed 3kN/m2 Walks.Smidth Airtech standard. DIN Product Description FLSmidth Airtech supplies Air Pollution Control equipment: Electrostatic precipitators • FabriClean pulse-jet fabric ﬁlters • Gas conditioning towers • Desulphurization systems • COROMAX pulse systems • PIACS microprocessor controllers and other advanced electrical control systems • Dust transport and storage equipment • All kinds of auxiliary equipment like fans. they can be made according to any standard. Single load 3 kN within 100x100 mm Railings. +45 3618 2000 Fax.L.L. Gangways are made of sectional steel and grating is equipped with railing made of tubes.9 x 2. A gangway is mounted all the way around the tower at the level of the lances for operation of lances and maintenance.4 kN/m Standard. Horizontal 0.3 x 3.ﬂsairtech. If no standard is specified.com 500 Rev.2 Tube 26.com www. Tube 48. 1100 Ramsingsvej 30 DK-2500 Valby Tel. the GCT is provided with the necessary access facilities.6 Grate 30 x 30 x 3 1500 ø25 1000 100 Max 9000 500 Min 2200 Max 3000 Dimensioned for loads: Walks. • We supply new equipment or upgrading of existing equipment – no matter whether the existing equipment is supplied by us or not.2 MRS . cyclones etc. If ladders and gangways are included in the supply from F. +45 3618 2030 E-mail: info@ﬂsairtech.Access Facilities For operation and maintenance purposes. they are made according to the German DIN or the F.
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