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Brain

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In animals, the brain or encephalon (Greek for "in the skull"), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. The brain is located in the head, protected by the skull and close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision, hearing, equilibrioception (balance), sense of taste, and olfaction. While all vertebrates have a brain, most invertebrates have either a centralized brain or collections of individual ganglia. Primitive animals such as sponges do not have a brain at all. Brains can be extremely complex. For example, the human brain contains more than 100 billion neurons, each linked to as many as 10,000 other neurons.

Contents
The human brain

1 Overview 2 History 3 Mind and brain 4 Comparative anatomy 4.1 Invertebrates 4.2 Vertebrates 4.2.1 Vertebrate brain regions 4.2.2 Humans 5 Neurobiology 5.1 Histology 5.2 Function 5.3 Pathology 6 Study of the brain 6.1 Fields of study 6.2 Methods of observation 6.2.1 Electrophysiology 6.2.2 EEG 6.2.3 MEG 6.2.4 fMRI and PET 6.2.5 Behavioral 6.2.6 Anatomical 6.3 Other matters 7 Brain as food 8 Brain energy consumption 9 Further reading 10 References 11 External links

Overview
Most brains exhibit a substantial distinction between the gray matter and white matter. Gray matter consists primarily of the cell bodies of the neurons, while white matter is comprised mostly of the fibers (axons) which connect neurons. The axons are surrounded by a fatty insulating sheath called myelin (oligodendroglia cells), giving the white matter its distinctive color. The outer layer of the brain is gray matter called cerebral cortex. Deep in the brain, compartments of white matter (fasciculi, fiber tracts), gray matter (nuclei) and spaces filled with cerebrospinal fluid (ventricles) are found. The brain innervates the head through cranial nerves, and it communicates with the spinal cord, which innervates the body through spinal nerves. Nervous fibers transmitting signals from the brain are called efferent fibers. The fibers transmitting signals to the brain are called afferent (or sensory) fibers. Nerves can be afferent, efferent or mixed (i.e., containing both types of fibers).

Brain MRI

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain

10/16/2007

and mentalistic language will be replaced by neurological terminology. still has some adherents. attention.wikipedia. which include such components as cognition. Mind and brain A distinction is not often made in the philosophy of mind between the mind and the brain. Every brain state is associated with characteristic brain waves. this view came to be reversed. even auditory hallucinations). and homeostatic body functions such as blood pressure. eliminative materialists believe minds do not exist at all. such as beliefs or desires. the free encyclopedia Page 2 of 9 The brain is the site of reason and intelligence.[1] The first thoughts of the field of psychology actually came from ancient philosophers. This plasticity underlies learning and adaptation. There is also a branch of psychology that deals with the anatomy and physiology of the brain. and what the hook cannot reach is mixed with drugs. (For example. The brain is defined as the physical and biological matter contained within the skull. As philosophers became more in tune with medical research over time. without the need for conscious awareness. The study of the brain is known as neuroscience. the brain is now known to be seat of intelligence. the idea of psychology emerged. additionally. from the molecular up to the psychological. in the case of computationalists. This field of study focuses on each individual part of the brain and how it affects behavior. Idealism. it is believed that sleep is important for knowledge consolidation. can be executed under spinal cord control alone. for it was the heart that was assumed to be the seat of intelligence. It makes possible cognitive." Over the next five-thousand years. motor and other forms of learning. however. possibly developing the subconscious. or a quantum effect. in preparation for mummification. known as biological psychology. such as a soul or epiphenomenon or emergent phenomenon. without sleep. normal subjects are observed to develop symptoms resembling mental illness. neurons constantly synthesize neurotransmitters. "The most perfect practice is to extract as much of the brain as possible with an iron hook. from the late Middle Kingdom onwards. as the neurons appear to organize the day's stimuli during deep sleep by randomly firing off the most recently used neuron pathways. a field of biology aimed at understanding the functions of the brain at every level. sensory gating and multisensory integration). It is notable that some unused neuron pathways (constructions which have become physically isolated from other cells) may continue to exist long after the memory is absent from consciousness. some behaviors such as simple reflexes and basic locomotion. Neurons modify their properties (guided by gene expression) under the influence of their input signals. different branches of psychology emerged with different individuals creating new ideas. Other dualisms maintain that the mind is a distinct physical phenomenon. the brain was regularly removed. Moreover. According to Herodotus. In Ancient Egypt. memory and emotion. whereas Glial cells perform supporting function. as in memorizing something "by heart". computer software (with the brain playing the role of hardware). and there Mind and Brain Portal is some controversy as to their exact relationship. In addition to being electrically active. is seen in terms of mental attributes. the belief that all is mind. such as electromagnetic field. These state transitions are crucially important for proper brain functioning. and body temperature. perception. From that point. The brain is also responsible for control of posture and movements. The brain can perform a variety of functions automatically.Brain .Wikipedia. although idiomatic variations of the former remain. The brain undergoes transitions from wakefulness to sleep (and subtypes of these states). Many adhere to metaphysically dualistic approaches in which the mind exists independently of the brain in some way. such as coordination of sensory systems (eg. Materialistic options include beliefs that mentality is behavior or function or. including Aristotle. fluid balance. History Early views on the function of the brain regarded it as little more than cranial stuffing. Comparative anatomy http://en. leading to the mind-body problem.org/wiki/Brain 10/16/2007 . The mind. Neurons are electrically active brain cells that process information. At the other extreme. walking. Diagram showing the lobes of the human cerebral cortex and the cerebellum. responsible for all electrochemical neuronal processes. during the first step of mummification. Many functions are controlled by coordinated activity of the brain and spinal cord.

Apart from the gross embryological divisions of the brain. In some species such as bees. The supra. which respond to smell.Wikipedia. the mushroom body receives input from the visual pathway as well. Behind (or in humans. This is the structure that is most easily visible in brain specimens.wikipedia. An outgrowth of the telencephalon called the olfactory bulb is a major structure in many animals. primary sensory regions. the optic lobes perform much visual processing. The cerebellum is known to be involved in the control of movement. The folds are called gyri. in addition to having some parts of the brain that are allocortex. Because humans walk upright. Although the general histology of the brain is similar from person to person. Most regions of the human cerebral cortex have six layers of neurons (neocortex). Their brains also contain deep brain nuclei and fiber tracts forming the white matter. similar to a really long slinky being able to fit into a tiny box when completely pushed together. The telencephalic hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum.Brain . squids.[4] In mammals.[2] The brain of craniates develops from the anterior section of a single dorsal nerve cord. the brain has four parts. the location of specific gyri and sulci. The deutocerebrum includes the antennal lobes. the cephalopods (octopuses. the brain has two regions: the supraesophageal mass and the subesophageal mass. comparing the locations of certain brain structures between humans and other vertebrates often reveals a number of differences. layered and interconnected neuronal circuitry.[2] The large optic lobes are sometimes not considered to be part of the brain. there is a flexure. These convolutions provide a larger surface area for a greater number of neurons while keeping the volume of the brain compact enough to fit inside the skull. Generally.[4] http://en. Other vertebrates do not have this flexure. Encephalization refers to the tendency for more complex organisms to gain larger brains through evolutionary time.[4] More complex vertebrates such as mammals have a six-layered neocortex (or homotypic cortex. the protocerebrum.[3] In craniates. and the central body complex. and other structures differs between species. Larger vertebrates develop a complex.[5] and is connected by thick white matter fibers (cerebellar peduncles) to the pons.and subesophageal masses are connected to each other on either side of the esophagus by the basal lobes and the dorsal magnocellular lobes. while the spaces between the folds are called sulci.[4] The cerebrum has two cerebral hemispheres. the deutocerebrum. crustaceans. brains are covered with gray matter that has a three-layer structure (allocortex).[2] separated by the esophagus. which A mouse brain.[2] The protocerebrum contains the mushroom bodies. and amphibians have fewer than six layers of neurons in the outer layer of their brains. In cephalopods. another large white matter tract. in the brain between the brain stem and the cerebrum. Vertebrate nervous systems are distinguished by bilaterally symmetrical encephalization. However. neopallium). The optical lobes are behind each eye and process visual stimuli. and the tritocerebrum. increasing convolutions of the brain are characteristic of animals with more advanced brains. the metencephalon is the highest center in the brain. In modern species most closely related to the first vertebrates. increasing complexity in the cerebral cortex correlates with height on the phylogenetic and evolutionary tree. the fissures (sulci) and convolutions (gyri) give the brain a wrinkled appearance. The antennal lobes of flies and moths are quite complex. as they are anatomically separate and are joined to the brain by the optic stalks. and the craniates (vertebrates and hagfish). arachnids. The folding allows more grey matter to fit into a smaller volume. Primitive vertebrates such as fish. Arthropods have a central brain with three divisions and large optical lobes behind each eye for visual processing. The cerebellum also has hemispheres. the brain is protected by the bones of the skull. reptiles. In vertebrates. later becomes the spinal cord. the free encyclopedia Page 3 of 9 Three groups of animals have notably complex brains: the arthropods (insects. Vertebrates The telencephalon (cerebrum) is the largest region of the mammalian brain. the optical lobes. and so functionally are part of the brain. and the mechanosensory neuropils which receive information from touch receptors on the head and antennae.org/wiki/Brain 10/16/2007 . below) the cerebrum is the cerebellum. In non-mammalian vertebrates with no cerebrum. and others). the structural anatomy can differ.[2] The brain of arthropods and cephalopods arises from twin parallel nerve cords that extend through the body of the animal. and similar mollusks). In humans and several other animals. This cortical configuration is called the allocortex (or heterotypic cortex). and is what most people associate with the "brain". Invertebrates In insects. or bend. but in humans and other primates it is relatively small. which are similar to the mammalian olfactory bulb.

the free encyclopedia Page 4 of 9 Vertebrate brain regions (See related article at List of regions in the human brain) According to the hierarchy based on embryonic and evolutionary development. the most complex part of the cerebral cortex. Animation showing the human brain Humans have unique neural capacities. different types of action. highlighted and monitor the condition of the body are similar to those of even non-mammalian vertebrates. The human brain also has a massive number of synaptic connections allowing for a great deal of parallel processing. Typically neurons connect to at least a thousand other neurons. although only in mammals has the neocortex evolved to fulfill this kind of function).Wikipedia. Basic systems that alert the nervous system to stimulus. These do not form simple one-to-one electrical circuits like many man-made circuits. Diagram depicting the main subdivisions of the embryonic vertebrate brain.org/wiki/Brain 10/16/2007 . These regions will later differentiate into forebrain. including divisions such as: Limbic system Sensory systems Visual system Olfactory system Gustatory system Auditory system Somatosensory system Motor system Associative areas Humans The structure of the human brain differs from that of other animals in several important ways. Histology Neurons are the cells that generate action potentials and convey information to other cells. that sense events in the environment. Interconnected neurons form neural networks (or neural ensembles). Neurobiology The brain is composed of two broad classes of cells.wikipedia. neurons and glia. such as advanced cognitive skills.Brain .[6] These highly specialized circuits make up systems which are the basis of perception. both of which contain several different cell types which perform different functions. Human encephalization is especially pronounced in the neocortex. chordate brains are composed of the three regions that later develop into five total divisions: Rhombencephalon (hindbrain) Myelencephalon Metencephalon Mesencephalon (midbrain) Prosencephalon (forebrain) Diencephalon Telencephalon The brain can also be classified according to function. but much of their brain structure is similar to that of other with the lobes mammals. The proportion of the human brain that is devoted to the neocortex—especially to the prefrontal cortex—is larger than in all other mammals (indeed larger than in all animals. These differences allow for many abilities over and above those of other animals. The neural circuitry underlying human consciousness includes both the advanced neocortex and prototypical structures of the brainstem. however. and higher cognitive function. Neuron http://en. these constitute the essential class of brain cells. midbrain and hindbrain structures. These networks are similar to man-made electrical circuits in that they contain circuit elements (neurons) connected by biological wires (nerve fibers).

It is important both chemically for metabolism and mechanically for shock-prevention. locomotion) can be controlled by the spinal cord alone. Structure of a typical neuron The space between neurons is filled with dendrites as well as unmyelinated segments of axons. cerebellum. the free encyclopedia Page 5 of 9 In addition to neurons. The CSF allows the brain to float. the auditory system. They create the insulating myelin. while grey matter contains mostly cell Nucleus soma. For example. Soma manage waste.Brain . The brain is bathed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The arachnoid and pia are physically connected and thus often considered as a single layer. Anatomically. The motor system controls voluntary muscle movement. identify potential mates. In addition. Cognitive priorities are constantly shifted by a variety of factors such as hunger.org/wiki/Brain 10/16/2007 . Most types of glia in the brain are present in the entire nervous system. the hormones that regulate hormone production throughout the body are produced in the brain by the structure called the pituitary gland. and cognitive processing performed by the brain determine the brain state. Cognitive processing in mammals occurs in the cerebral cortex but relies on midbrain and limbic functions as well. advanced processing involves progressively rostral (forward) regions of the brain. brains also react to hormones produced elsewhere in the body. find food. The mass and density of the brain are such that it will begin to collapse under its own weight if unsupported by the CSF. To control movement the brain has several parallel systems of muscle control. Sensory input is processed by the brain to recognize danger. and unmyelinated portions of axons and glia. and the basal ganglia. this area is referred to as the neuropil. Hormones. touch. Axon Termin Node of Ranvier Schwann cell Myelin sheath In mammals. the human brain weighs about 1-1. the brain is surrounded by connective tissues called the meninges. and clean up neurotransmitters. then to various parts of the olfactory system. Olfactory pathways are routed to the olfactory bulb. Among "younger" (in an evolutionary sense) vertebrates. Function Vertebrate brains receive signals through nerves arriving from the sensors of the organism. which then transfers the signals to and from the brain. the pia-arachnoid. provide structure to the neuronal network. Visual. Brains also produce a portion of the body's hormones that can influence organs and glands elsewhere in a body—conversely. Below the arachnoid is the subarachnoid space which contains cerebrospinal fluid.wikipedia. and perform more sophisticated functions. arachnoid mater. This three-layered covering is composed of (from the outside in) the dura mater. forming the blood-brain barrier which protects the brain from toxins that might enter through the blood. These signals are then processed throughout the central nervous system. Blood vessels enter the central nervous system through the perivascular space above the pia mater. many automatic acts (simple reflexes. The visual system. the brain contains glial cells in a roughly Dendrite 10:1 proportion to neurons. which circulates between layers of the meninges and through cavities in the brain called ventricles. http://en. A similarly extensive nerve network delivers signals from a brain to control important muscles throughout the body. Exceptions include the oligodendrocytes which myelinate neural axons (a role performed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system). and auditory sensory pathways of vertebrates are routed to specific nuclei of the thalamus and then to regions of the cerebral cortex that are specific to each sensory system. reactions are formulated based upon reflex and learned experiences. a system of membranes that separate the skull from the brain. The cells in the blood vessel walls are joined tightly.5 kg. incoming sensory information. easing the physical stress caused by the brain’s mass.Wikipedia. and the somatosensory system. White matter in the brain is myelinated neurons. Stimulus from any source can trigger a general arousal process that focuses cortical operations to processing of the new information. aided by the motor cortex. In mammals. The system eventually projects to the spinal cord and then out to the muscle effectors. dendrites. It is hypothesized that developed brains derive consciousness from the complex interactions between the numerous systems within the brain. a substance that protects the nervous system. the majority of afferent and efferent nerves (with the exception of the cranial nerves) are connected to the spinal cord. This focusing of cognition is known as attention. Glial cells ("glia" is Greek for “glue”) form a support system for neurons. and pia mater. Nuclei in the brain stem control many involuntary muscle functions such as heart rate and breathing. The myelin in the oligodendrocytes Axon insulates the axons of some neurons. Taste is routed through the brainstem and then to other portions of the gustatory system.

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also known as mad cow disease). caused by the blockage or rupturing of blood vessels in the brain. Methods of observation Electrophysiology Each method for observing activity in the brain has its advantages and drawbacks. belief. unfamiliar information. Infection of the meninges. cognition. can lead to meningitis. such as clinical depression.org/wiki/Brain 10/16/2007 . or through a combination of treatments. the free encyclopedia Page 6 of 9 fatigue. and frontotemporal dementia. Viral or bacterial causes have been reported in multiple sclerosis. Parkinson's disease. memory. The simplest dichotomy related to the processing of threats is the fight-or-flight response mediated by the amygdala and other limbic structures. leading to decrements in movement control. nutritional deficiencies. Malfunctions in the embryonic development of the brain can be caused by genetic factors. is another major cause of death from brain damage. In many cases. such as Alzheimer's disease. Head trauma caused. Other problems in the brain can be more accurately classified as diseases rather than injuries. MEG http://en. and are established causes of encephalopathy. Cognitive science seeks to unify neuroscience and psychology with other fields that concern themselves with the brain. death is defined as an absence of brain activity as measured by EEG. Currently only the symptoms of these diseases can be treated. is a leading cause of death in youth and middle age. and movement. typically. from a biological and computational perspective. by vehicle and industrial accidents.Wikipedia. for example. Psychology seeks to understand behavior and the brain. therapeutic effectiveness varies significantly among individuals. Pathology Clinically. Kuru is a similar prion-borne degenerative brain disease affecting humans. EEG By placing electrodes on the scalp one can record the summed electrical activity of the cortex in a technique known as electroencephalography (EEG). Tay-Sachs disease. more damage is caused by resultant edema than by the impact itself. Electrophysiology allows scientists to record the electrical activity of individual neurons or groups of neurons. Stroke. drug use. or threat. EEG measures the mass changes in electrical current from the cerebral cortex. These disorders may be treated by psychiatric therapy. Certain brain disorders are treated by brain neurosurgeons while others are treated by neurologists and psychiatrists.wikipedia. and Huntington's disease are caused by the gradual death of lobar degeneration causing individual neurons. Fragile X syndrome. sometimes causing major deficits in intelligence.Brain . and disease during a mother's pregnancy. pharmaceutical intervention. including the brain. Mental illnesses. A human brain showing frontotemporal motor neurone disease. such as computer science (artificial intelligence and similar fields) and philosophy. and Down syndrome are all linked to genetic and chromosomal errors. is deadly in cattle and humans and is linked to prions. Parkinson's disease. and encephalomyelitis. Injuries to the brain tend to affect large areas of the organ. Both are linked to the ingestion of neural tissue. bipolar disorder. Some infectious diseases affecting the brain are caused by viruses and bacteria. The terms neurology and psychiatry usually refer to medical applications of neuroscience and psychology respectively. Neurodegenerative diseases. memory. schizophrenia. Study of the brain Fields of study Neuroscience seeks to understand the nervous system. and posttraumatic stress disorder are brain diseases that impact personality and. and may explain the tendency in some species to avoid cannibalism. the membrane that covers the brain. other aspects of mental and somatic function. Many brain disorders are congenital. but can only detect changes over large areas of the brain with very little sub-cortical activity.

Roasted or fried goat brain is eaten in south India and some parts of north India. but can only provide indirect measurements of brain function and may not be practical in all animals.[7] The brain of animals also features in French cuisine such as in the dish tête de veau. Similarly. tongue. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to study the anatomy of a living creature and is widely used in both research and medicine. a neurological exam can be done to determine the location of any trauma. The changes in blood flow that occur in capillary beds in specific regions of the brain are thought to represent various neuronal activities (metabolism of synaptic reuptake).[8] The Anyang tribe of Cameroon practiced a tradition in which a new tribal chief would consume the brain of a hunted gorilla while another senior member of the tribe would eat the heart. Similar delicacies from around the world include Mexican tacos de sesos made with cattle brain as well as squirrel brain in the US South. Blood Oxygen Level Dependent changes. Current research has also focused on recreating the neural structure of the brain with the aim of producing human-like cognition and artificial intelligence. the full meal includes the brain.org/wiki/Brain 10/16/2007 .Wikipedia. lesion. This form of brain is often fried with scrambled eggs to produce the famous "Eggs n' Brains". Behavioral Behavioral tests can measure symptoms of disease and mental performance. although admittedly not as good as fMRI. Creating algorithms to mimic a biological brain is very difficult because the brain is not a static arrangement of circuits. Goat brain prior to being cooked Consuming the brain and other nerve tissue of animals is not without risks. More recent work in both neuroscience and artificial intelligence models the brain using the mathematical tools of chaos theory and dynamical systems. or spinal cord. Brain as food Like most other internal organs. is able to monitor glucose and oxygen metabolism as well as neurotransmitter activity in different areas within the brain which can be correlated to the level of activity in that region. Anatomical Autopsy analysis of the brain allows for the study of anatomy and protein expression patterns. In humans however. For example. a positron emission tomography (PET). nor can it be distinguished whether this activity is inhibitory or excitatory. The main advantage over fMRI is a direct relationship between neural activation and measurement. fMRI and PET Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures changes in blood flow in the brain. the free encyclopedia Page 7 of 9 Apart from measuring the electric field around the skull it is possible to measure the magnetic field directly in a technique known as magnetoencephalography (MEG). or head of calf. fMRI is a noninvasive.wikipedia. Some artificial intelligence research seeks to replicate brain function—although not necessarily brain mechanisms—but as yet has been met with limited success. indirect method for measuring neural activity that is based on BOLD. The first problem is that the makeup of the brain is http://en. A scan of the brain using fMRI Other matters Computer scientists have produced simulated neural networks loosely based on the structure of neuron connections in the brain. or tumor within the brain. Although it might consist only of the outer meat of the skull and jaw. brain stem.[9] Indonesian cuisine specialty in Minangkabau cuisine also served beef brain in a gravy coconut milk named gulai otak (beef brain curry). the brain can serve as nourishment. This technique has the same temporal resolution as EEG but much better spatial resolution. but a network of vastly interconnected neurons that are constantly changing their connectivity and sensitivity.Brain . and glands. but is only possible after the human or animal is dead. in the Southern United States canned pork brain in gravy can be purchased for consumption as food. but the activity of neurons is not directly measured.

This belief was passed on down the ages and became the basis for the English expression 'learn by heart.' formed from the Latin 're. ^ Weird Foods: Mammal. John H. things had to be memorized. Weird-Food. McGraw Hill Higher Education. L.com.[10] As an example.[15] The demands of the brain limit its size in many species. German language: (A new theory: A LIVE-scan of the episodic memory. New York: McGraw-Hill. New York: McGraw-Hill. 9.[14] It is also well known in the hunting community that the brain of wild animals should not be consumed. a 140 g can of "pork brains in milk gravy".. A. 4th ed. ^ a b c d e Butler. The stored experiences are then judged by the topical intellect. ISBN 0-8385-7701-6. and 25% of total body glucose utilization. ^ Dorfman.' 'heart. Tenth Edition.[13] Some archaeological evidence suggests that the mourning rituals of European Neanderthals also involved the consumption of the brain. and J. J. New York: Facts on File. L. ^ Hendrickson.org/wiki/Brain 10/16/2007 . Carneiro (2003). New York magazine. a single serving.. ISBN 0-8385-7701-6. Principles of Neural Science. (1999). Schwartz JH. 4th ed. und Nahtod-Erlebnissen.Brain . Lange Medical Books McGraw-Hill. J. Molossid bats and the Vespertilionid Nyctalus spp. Déjà-vu-. Sons..' which means exactly the same as 'learn by heart. Kinseher Richard. 20% of total body oxygen consumption. Human Physiology: The Mechanisms of Body Function. 5. can be observed during near-death-experiences. New York. 3. (Statistic from page 161) 7. have brains that have been reduced from the ancestral form to invest in wing-size for the sake of manoeuverability. When writing wasn't a simple act.Wikipedia.' which is used by Chaucer (1374) and must have been proverbial long before that. 'To record' reminds us again of this ancient belief in the heart as the seat of the mind. which require more advanced neural structures and do not pursue their prey.. 8. D. ISBN 0-07-121565-4. Inconspicuous Consumption: Mulling Brains. Jessell TM (2000).C.) Sala. (2000). Although the brain represents only 2% of the body weight. Sherman. 1170% of our recommended daily intake. the most noticeable internal organ.' 'again.C.'” 2. Ann B. ISBN 0-07-118088-5. ^ Kandel. it receives 15% of the cardiac output. Kelly. ^ Junqueira.' and 'cor. Diet and Autism.. Retrieved on 14 October 2005. Wiley & Sons. Jessell TM (2000).1 calories per minute. Retrieved on 14 October 2005. 6. ^ Kandel. Nutritional Summary: Notes Taken From a Recent Autism Society Meeting. Mind myths: Exploring popular assumptions about the mind and brain. Second Edition. was the seat of intelligence and memory as well as emotion. while this value can be as high as 12 calories per minute during crossword puzzle-solving. New York: McGraw-Hill. Sergio Della. References 1. J. contains 3500 milligrams of cholesterol. 2006. Carneiro. Schwartz JH. ^ Meder. BoD.. This contrasts with fruit bats. ^ a b c d Martin. Principles of Neural Science. Basic Histology: Text and Atlas.[16] PET Image of the human brain showing energy consumption Further reading Neuroscience Portal Junqueira. The Anatomical Record 261: 111–125. due to the risk of chronic wasting disease. ER. “The ancient Greeks believed that the heart.Gemeinsame Ursache von Intuition. ISBN 3-8334-51963. The Facts on File Encyclopedia of Word and Phrase Origins. The energy consumption for the brain to simply survive is 0. "Chordate Evolution and the Origin of Craniates: An Old Brain in a New Head". ISBN 0-07-138183-X. Gorillas in African Culture and Medicine. the free encyclopedia Page 8 of 9 60% fat due to the myelin (which itself is 70% fat) insulating the axons of neurons and glia. editor. Paul. Basic Histology: Text and Atlas. Brain energy consumption The neurons of the brain require a lot of energy. [11] Brain consumption can also result in contracting fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies such as Variant CreutzfeldtJakob disease and other prion diseases in humans and mad cow disease in cattle. 10. Schutzengel-. Robert (April 2000). 4. ER. ISBN 0-471-98303-9. Retrieved on 14 http://en. Luciano (2001). Angela. Gorilla Journal. Vander.wikipedia.[12] Another prion disease called kuru has been traced to a funerary ritual among the Fore people of Papua New Guinea in which those close to the dead would eat the brain of the deceased to create a sense of immortality. (1996). 10th ed. Retrieved on 14 October 2005. ^ Lukas. Neuroanatomy: Text and Atlas. Geborgen in Liebe und Licht . thus we have the word 'record.

^ Pork Brains in Milk Gravy.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.org. ^ Collinge." Biol. McLean CA. effects and coping strategies neuroscience wiki BrainMaps. "Prion diseases of humans and animals: their causes and molecular basis". Masters CL (2001). (2005) "Bigger is not always better: when brains get smaller. ^ Calderone. Doidge. and kuru: a review of these less common human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies".I. K. ^ Collins. Mental Workout: Do you use more energy when you're thinking really hard?. a U. ISBN 1-58243-162-0.N. Lett. 11. (July 2006). 1(3): 283-6. Viking Adult. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 8 (5). 15 October 2007. the free encyclopedia Page 9 of 9 October 2005. (See Copyrights for details.Brain . ^ Connell. Melissa A. 13.. PMID 11283320. Retrieved on 200706-03. John (2001). Norman (2007-03-15).org/wiki/Brain 10/16/2007 . Annual Review of Neuroscience 24: 519–50. Retrieved on 14 October 2005. http://en.S. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity. 12.org/wiki/Brain" Categories: Brain | Central nervous system | Neuroanatomy | Organs This page was last modified 22:54. 14.R. Fact sheets on brain injury .N.A. "Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome. Inc. PMID 11535002. 16.fatal familial insomnia. (2001). Evan S.wikipedia. The Brain That Changes Itself: Stories of Personal Triumph from the Frontiers of Brain Science. All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License..A. 15. ^ Safi. interactive high-resolution digital brain atlas based on scanned images of serial sections of both primate and non-primate brains Scientific American Magazine (September 2003 Issue) Ultimate Self-Improvement Brain Research and Information Network B. Seid & D. Dechmann. External links How Your Brain Works at HowStuffWorks Brain Tutorial Comparative Mammalian Brain Collection Brain Research News from ScienceDaily BrainInfo for Neuroanatomy Neuroscience for kids Everything you wanted to know about the brain — Provided by New Scientist.K.wikipedia.causes. M.Wikipedia. The Aztec Treasure House. S. Counterpoint Press. Retrieved from "http://en.

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