Author of "The Impending Crisis of the South. CONSIDERED A3 THE INVOLUNTARY AND PREDESTINED SUPPLANTERS OF THE BLACK RACES. and few questions are ever discussed. THE NEGROES IN AMERICA. "A compassion for that which is not and caunot be useful or lovely. A COMPILATION. A RATIONAL REPUBLICAN. MDCCCLXVIU. BY HINTON ROWAN HELPER. SON." DAVID LIVINGSTONE. . LONDON: LOW. a dotard. " Among the negroes. by analyses. CAF^LETON S." onward the flambeau of civilization." WitfwooD RKADK. no science has been developed. the strictly white races that are bearing the Germanic families alone. AND NEGROES GENERALLY." GEOKOE BANCROFT. & CO. *' It has been proved by measurements.THE NEGROES IN NEGROLAND. is degrading and futile. I cannot struggle against these sacred facts of science." HALI-U WALDO EMERSON." "Nojoque." and other writings in behalf of a Free and White America. NEW YORK: p. THE SEVERAL RACES OF WHITE MEN. that the typical negro is something between a child. W. "Our country might " It is well have shrunk from assuming the guardianship of the negro. ALSO. and a beast. as displayed in JOSIAU CLARK NOIT. except those which have au intimate connection with the wants of the stomach. by microscopes.

by G. in the year 1808. CAKLETON. In the Clerk's W.Entered. Court for the Southern District of Office of the District New York. according to Act of Congress. .



. .. 70 CHAPTER CHAPTER Drunkenness and Debauchery in Negroland. Night Carousals.. Rain Doctors. as an Accomplishment.100 . . and Robbery in Negroland.89 94 CHAPTER Theft. 98 CHAPTER Revolting Voracity and Gluttony of the Negroes in Negroland. . as a Fine Art. .. and Other Doctors in Negroland. among the Africans. Lying.. . 25 CHAPTER Blood-thirstiness IV.... . 82 XIII. ... XI... and Human Sacrifices in Negroland.. . Wrangling. among the Africans.. XVII. .. Duplicity and Venality of the Negroes in Negroland.. Extortion. and Prostitution in Negroland. .. V. and Idolatry in Negroland. Begging... and Misery in Negroland.. . 97 CHAPTER XVI.. IX.15 . . .. Fetichism.CONTENTS... . CHAPTER .. . Lawlessness. CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER Heathenish Superstition and Witchcraft in Negroland. CHAPTER Cannibalism in Negroland I. Nakedness. VII.. .. Inhospitality to Strangers.. 80 CHAPTER CHAPTER XII.. III. .. 19 and Ornaments in Negroland. Priestcraft.... . CHAPTER XV.. XIV. Penury.29 37 CHAPTER Slavery and the Slave-trade in Negroland.. and Barbarity of the Negroes in Negroland. Human Butcheries.. . . . VI.. CHAPTER CHAPTER Human Skulls as Sacred Relics II... . . Shamelessness. . . and Noisy and Nonsensical Actions in Negroland. 15 57 VIII....75 79 X..

162 CHAPTER XXX. .. . and Irreconcilable Points of Difference.. Manners. and Holes (but no Houses) in Negroland.. and Probable Extinction of the Negro Race. Mumbo Jumbo in Negroland. CHAPTER XX. 105 Courtship.. Miscellaneous Peculiarities. Mulattoes . and Other Creatures of Preternatural Whiteness. Repulsive.VI CONTENTS. the Offspring of Crimes against Nature. 125 CHAPTER African Anecdotes. XXXII. . own Color by the Negroes in N egroland 102 CHAPTER XIX. Mental.. 117 Indolence and Improvidence of the Negroes. . American Writers on the Negro. . . 173 CHAPTER XXXI. . CHAPTER . between the Whites and the Blacks. Natural. . . CHAPTER 118 122 CHAPTER Timidity and Cowardice of the Negroes.. . Utter Failure and Inntility of all Missionary Enterprises in Negroland. Hovels. Habits... . XXII.. Albinos. 152 Huts. 223 XXXIII. XXVIII. Funeral and Burial Rites in Negroland. and Customs.249 . White Negroes. Increasing Pre-eminence and Predominance of the White Races. and Concubinage in Negroland. XXI. Gradual Decrease. . 134 CHAPTER XXVI. and Moral. XXIII. XXIV. 158 CHAPTER XXIX. of the Negroes in Negroland.. PAGE CHAPTER Dislike of their XVIII. 216 CHAPTER CHAPTER APPENDIX " I. Marriage. 130 CHAPTER XXIV.. 138 CHAPTER CHAPTER XXVII.... Physical.227 237 II ..

why does a man who never. why does a man of this sort find it impossible to yield his suffrage or commendation to the a party which. from first to last. in the East or in the West. in deploring and condemning the act of secession. when opposed by force of arms. raises his voice in opposition to the revolutionary and destructive measures of the party now dominant in our National Legis- With deep solemnity and truth. heartily endorsed and supported the administration of Abraham Lincoln. and not less so now than heretofore. then. and who has no ambition beyond the exact knowledge and per. why does a man of these antecedents. gave the least aid or comfort to the rebellion. with Pharisaical boastparty now in power. was always a Whig of the school of Clay and Webster who. by word nor by deed. at the very outset of his undertaking. until he became a Republican. did all he could to weaken and suppress it.INTRODUCTION. maintained itself. at the same time. ernment of the United States. whether in the North or in the South. he declares that he was always earnest and emphatic. who. unpretentious citizen. THE compiler of this volume deems it proper to protest here. formance of his duty . who. 7 . on the contrary. Why. a plain. but. against the un- just and ill-boding practice of indiscriminately stigmatizing as a traitor almost every man. and even enthusiastic. and re-established its authority from the Potomac to the Rio Grande. in justifying and defending the principles upon which the Govlature. in the exercise of his constitutional rights and honest convictions. and.

of themselves. can only be reasonably looked for in the ulti' and destruction of the Republic. plain. mate degradation. The party has. four millions of black people. and social equality of the white and black races . have here also. There are now in the United States of America sameness of noble purpose. They have no trait of character that is lovely or admirable. by the links of a common naWe tionality. nor prudent. or even the favorable . in no part of the world. have they. and by the cords of an inseparable destiny. like themselves. whose ancestors. of lessening at least some of the hope dangers of the shocking and wide-spread calamities thus alluded to. so flagrantly unnatural and wrong in itself. which form the exceptions to a general rule) to aspire to any other condition than that of base and beastlike slavery. In no age. (not will inevitably result in the forced political. since the termination of the war. civil. enterprising. viciously and unpar- donably abandoned the old landmarks of just and sacred and it is now advocating what means the fealty to race in bulk of a great and good white integer to a prostitution . ing. were never known (except in very rare instances. religious. These black people are. It is in the sincere thirty millions of white people. by nature. if carried out to its logical ends. by the affinities of a and discriminating public. and the direful sequence of that result. unfortunatelj' for us all. ever projected or advanced any public or private interest. The policy of the Radical the Republican) party. nor given expression to any thought or sentiment that could worthily elicit the praise. lays claim to the distinctive and exclusive patriotism of having saved the country from disruption ? is The reason broad.VIJI INTRODUCTION. They are not high-minded. that this compilation is offered to an intelligent division. small and bad black fraction. and even more than sufficient. who are (or ought to be) bound together by the ties of a kindred origin. of an exceedingly low and grovelling disposition.

thick Skull . small. the editors of a venal press. of our own volition. on account of color . physical. why should we forever degrade and disgrace both ourselves and our posterity by entering. any discrimination. /T mention. Nose . with an involuntary repugnance which we cannot control. there are numerous other defects. we behold the crime-stained blackness of the negro. then. snout-like Mouth . when compared with the white man. projecting. indeed. henceforth. While. and moral. also. and other peddlers of perverted knowledge. into more intimate relations with him ? bid that we should May God. at the same time. and with a wholesome antipathy which it would be both unnatural and unavailing in us to attempt to destroy. in the name of Heaven. which clearly mark him. in addition to the black and baneful color of the negro. crisp flat . take cognizance of . of the bet'er portion of mankind. in conscientious deference to truth. thick Lips . the members of a Radical Congress. that the negro does. therefore. once for all. Hair . as a very different and inferior creature. thereby covertly inculcating the gross error of inferring or supposing that color is the only differand that a very trivial difference ence between the whites and the blacks ! Now. mental. that. Seeing. in his restraining mercy. let us. why. let it be distinctly made known and acknowledged. belong to a lower and inferior order of beings. must there be any distinction. forever do this most foul and wicked thing ! Acting under the influence of that vile spirit of deception and chicanery which is always familiar with every false pretence. are now loudly proclaiming that nowhere in our country. . His His His His His His His low and compressed Forehead hard. backward-thrown Brain short.INTRODUCTION.

His calfless Legs His low. convey the delusive impression that there is no other difference than that of color. who ends of their are thus guilty of the crime of defeating the legitimate own knowledge. Now.X INTRODUCTION. His glut-shaped Feet . for mere selfish and partisan purposes. and the great principles of edge. What auspicious fact. His strange. . knowing better. Virtue. seem to be particularly interested to know This is an precisely what manner of man the negro is. the white people of the United States. . knowlLet them have this. and Apathetic Indifference to prises of Solid Merit. Truth. flat Heels . Eunuch-toned Voice The scantiness of Beard on his Face The Toughness and Unsensitiveness of his Skin The Thinness and Shrunkenness of his Thighs His curved Knees . . Right. far more than at any time hitherto. The general Angularity and Oddity of his Frame The Malodorous Exhalations from his Person His Puerility of Mind . and Honor will be maintained. . . . short Ankles His long. information. His His His His Inertia and Sleepy-headedness . all Propositions and Enter- other differences might be mentioned but the score and more of obvious and undeniable ones here enumerated ought to suffice for the utter confusion and shame of all those disingenuous politicians and others. the people require now is light. influenced by circumstances which are well understood. and Many . proverbial Dishonesty predisposition to fabricate Falsehoods . . . . Only let the masses of our people earnestly and fairly prosecute . who. would. It augurs favorably for the whole country.

mostly Europeans. who have seen the negro in Negroland. Bruce. Daniel Webster. who desire to deal intelligently and honestly with the political questions which are now agitating the public mind. are also portrayed the opinions of numerous American of the races of writers. finding and a finality against the negro. must be sweepingly abrogative of all the hasty and unsound decisions which have been so recently and so rashly pronounced by the corrupt arbiters to whom the Radical party owes its inexpressibly ignoble and pernicious existence. and they will. whose views of the negro. Moffat. judgment us. Baker. Speke. at no distant day. a thorough knowledge of the nature of the negro has become almost indispensable and. it cannot be otherwise than that the verdict which. To many worthy persons. Du Chaillu. erelong. Livingstone. Of these American writers. Burton. to the testimonies. may thus be looked for from the public. Barth. by the irresistible force of involuncome to pronounce an enlightened and just upon all of the more important questions which now affect the relations of the two heterogeneous races among In the very nature and fitness of things. Clapperton. Wilson. Lichtenstein. it is humbly hoped and believed that this . Attention is par- ticularly invited. Richardson. Valdez. Horace Mann. their inquiries XI and investigations in reference to the negro. understanding of all the points in controversy. herein quoted. and Barrow. Duncan. of rightful necessity.INTRODUCTION. Theodore Parker. Reade. and it is the words of such truly able and representative trusted that the reader will ponder well men as John Adams. Lander. and are equally essential to a proper men generally. those from the North are here more particularly referred to . tary conviction. Denham. of such observant and veracious African travellers as Mungo Park. compilation may prove highly serviceable. will be a conclusive a verdict which. . to all persons of this sort. Following the interesting and instructive statements of these disinterested white men. Caillie.

whether at a hotel. Abraham Lincoln. . would here offer his most hearty ac- knowledgments for much new and valuable information. and on the other kindred subjects. same . and also European. and others of scarcely less distinction. Among the ablest and best of the Southern men. while in the rused.XII INTRODUCTION. on any account. object to close relationship with negroes. he discusses the negro by emphatic and frequent desBy ignation. not wishing to fellow- ship with them in the same society. Jefferson. There are many points of general dissatisfaction and dispute. in a restaurant. on a steamer. from whose writings on the negro. and Josiah Clark Nott. will be noticed names of Thomas Jefferson. Thomas Hart Benton. Samuel George Morton. any and every white person who does table. "William Henry Seward. that white people. and in the most direct and positive manner. had no reference whatever to any race except that to which he himself belonged. or congregation not wishing to ride with them in the same omnibus. both North- ern and Southern. Now. extracts are here given. One of these is. not wishing to live with them in the same house . Let his sterling words of wisdom be most thoroughly and attentively peIt will be particularly observed that everything herein from him was written many years subsequently to the quoted time when he drafted the Declaration of Independence. and not wishing to mess with them at the car. or elsewhere. in the extracts herein given. or carriage . Henry Clay. the reader will perceive the names of many other eminent and unimpeachable writers. Montgomery Blair. at least. assembly. in all rational probability. Declaration of Independence Mr. be overlooked in the discussion of the subjects here presented. The fact should also be constantly borne in mind that. whose reason and honor have not been vitiated. cwhich should not. reference to the Index. No language of the compiler can do justice to the perfect portraiture which we have of the negro from the pen of the philosophic and profound Jefferson. to all of whom the compiler.

in behalf of lic It is to the great and lasting honor of the Repubslavery. absolutely ignorant and ination. nor even as a hint. Had slavery only been abolished by law many years ago. has he ever invented or manufactured even the minutest append- human age of any one of the distinctive elements or realities of progress. in flocks. nor a railroad-car. of our steamers or our vehicles. Neither in his own country nor elsewhere has the ever built a house or a theatre he has never erected negro a church nor a college he has never constructed a steamer different ? . a few months since. into the Cap2 . or any other place or places uncommon comfort and convenience. accordance with the just and pure is. of alone. the beasts. nor a railroad. to the whites and improvements about which the negro. be understood as an argument. he walked. How can the negro be a the fishes. not think and act in strict XIII promptings here indicated. in any capacity. Yet. when. nor. in reality. many distinct species of quite similar. by any means. and always has been. in herds. our schools or our colleges. fit tels. while sojourning Never will memory in the city of Washington. Even the lower animals. it be possible for the compiler to erase from his the feelings of weighty sadness and disgust which overcame him. and in shoals. a most unworthy and despicable representative of his race. set us daily . our houses or our hoour theatres or our churches. their proper uses. person to occupy. that slavery in the United States is abolished forever. our whole country would be infinitely better off to-day. except when under the special direction and control of superior intelligence. which owe their cre- and their perpetuity. places himself. . the birds. the South lost nothing that was worth the keeping. and the creatures of mere instinct. is.INTRODUCTION. which are apparently and hourly examples of the eminent propriety of each kind forming and maintaining separate communities of their own and so we always find them. one day. In losing her slaves. let this not.

. H. ASHEVILLE. It was the powerful and long-lingering momentum of the impressions received on that occasion. more than any other circumstance. leisurely passing into the galleries of the two houses of Congress. With merited emotions of He was and contempt for those narrow-minded white men. North. H. had already accumulated to an almost insufferable excess. and. The object of the compiler will have been well attained if the work aids materially in more fully convincing his countrymen. he wished himbitterness . Then it was that. self a Hercules.XIV itol. shocked. perplexed. therein and elsewhere. a horde of vile. he turned away to contemplate with calmness that motley and monstrous manifestation of national incongruity. uncouthly lounging and dozing upon the seats. that gave definite form and resolution to the purpose (although the idea had been previously entertained) of preparing this compilation. humiliated. those Augean stables of the black ordure and Radical filth which. beheld there. whose detestable folly and selfishness so great an through outrage against public propriety and decency had been perindeed. ugliness. which ought to be speedily terminated. negro supremacy. nant. and foul-scented negroes. East and "West. INTRODUCTION. as now tyrannically enforced at the point of the bayonet. are cruel and atrocious innovations. and disgrace. June 2. ignorant. that negro equality. it was not in his power petrated. R. in order that he might be able to clean. for the first time in his life. 1868. thoroughly and at once. South. NOBTH CAROLINA. and negro domination. and indigand could not sit down.

the blood yet reeking hot between their teeth. page 518. where the sale of slaves began a considerable time later. "The common food of the natives of Ansiko insomuch that their : To this savage whether as weary of their barbarity they are so naturalized. nor the son his father. But that which is most inhuman. prevailed all over Africa. is.. the one the eating of men. from all history. first established the buying and selling of men. is plain. On the western part." Ogilby's Africa. Vol. will proffer themselves freely to be killed and eaten. otherwise. unless they can sell them alive with greater advantage. as we said. CHAPTER " IT I. that some slaves. as we have seen in very early ages. and at last sell them to the butchers. or to show their love to their masters. devouring their flesh. that two abominable practices. 15 . the eating of after the discovery of America and the West Indies. as ours in Europe with beef or mutton all prisoners of war. The India trade. the other of sacrificing them to the devil. both of these Bruce's Africa. but take them by force. that the father scruples not to eat his son. nor one brother the other. towards the Atlantic Ocean." is men's flesh. or sacrificing them. I.THE NEGROES IN NEGROLAND. and beyond the ferocity of beasts. lives. markets are provided with that. they fatten them for slaughter. has so greatly decreased on the eastern side of the peninsula. since that time. page 393. slaves . that now we scarcely hear of an instance of either of these that can be properly vouched. CANNIBALISM IN NEGROLAND. horrid practices are general.

part of the body.16 CANNIBALISM IN NEGROLAND. and invariably ate The traders complained that they were bad associates. the ground carried the to . the dead and wounded were always eaten that the hearts were claimed by the head men and that. . during their residence among the Makkarikas. One of the slave girls attempted to escape." page 518. IV. said that whenever a person amongst [ihe Yamyams. as they insisted upon killing and eating the children which the party wished to secure as slaves their custom was to catch a child by its ankles. while the crowd were quarrelling for the disgusting prize. seizing the fat. they tore it from the wound in handfuls. large pot. " Bello. . and to dash its head against the bodies of the slain. and her proprietor immediately fired at her with his musket. . the complained of sickness Governor of Sackatoo. but possessing a peculiar taste for dogs and human flesh. the girl being still alive. The girl was remarkably fat. they . and from the wound a large lump of yellow fat exuded. even though only a slight headache. as they will not eat a person that has died by that the person falling sick is requested by some other and repaid when they had a sick relation that universally when they went to war. dies. Others killed her with a . " Many of Ibrahim's party had been frequent witnesses to acts of cannibalism. and boiling it in a . stomach and intestines thus killed. they are killed instantly. body by slinging over the shoulder. as a festival dish. No sooner had she fallen than the Makkarikas rushed upon her in a crowd." sickness . Vol. . they said it was better than any other. They accompanied the trading party in their razzias. where they divided it by quartering. and thus returned camp. for fear they should be lost by death. " Whosoever be the disease never so contagious. They described these cannibals as remarkably good people. and. and that the heart and breasts of a woman were the best Denham and QlappertorCs Africa. and she fell wounded the ball had strack her in the side. on asking them why they eat human flesh. yet they Ogilby's Africa* eat the flesh immediately. . family. they opened the abdomen. . page 262.. . extracted the and tying the two ankles to the neck.

as also a white sheep. . They fatten. . instead of that of oxen or of sheep. unless they think they shall get a good There are indeed many cannibals. a bullock occasion of the appointment of a chief to the supreme is sacrificed by de Samba Golambole. . just as we should go to market and carry thence a roast or a steak. mies whom they take in. together with various other victims." African Explorations by Eduardo Lopez. quoted by Huxley. . and splitting the body with their lances. battle." Valdez's Africa. and a white or fawn-colored pigeon. Vol. . slave mount " The next morning we moved off for the Fan village. price for them. and all cooked together. lance. the heads of whom are carried in triumph and exhibited to the populace. but a I passed on. in Man's Place in Nature. still incredulous. page solved all woman who doubt. but these eat their own blood relations.. The bodies are added to those of the other animals. slay. and devour their slaves also. the cannibal practices of I these people. and distributed as a savory dish to the chief and the other nobles. . page 55. since the others only eat their enemies. " On the command. page 331. Presently we passed She bore with her a piece of the thigh of a human body. but none such as these. 2* . and now had the opportunity to satisfy myself as to a matter I had cherished some doubt on before. used as knives. 103. cutting longitudiBaker's nally from between the legs along the spine to the neck. As we entered the town I perceived some bloody remains which looked to me to be human. namely. 17 and at once divided her by cutting off the head. accompanied by drums and other instruments. II.CANNIBALISM IN NEGROLAND." Du Chaillu's Equatorial Africa. page 201. But the principal sacrifice is that of one from each of the nations under the dominion of the parachief. " The butchers' shops of the Anziques are filled with human For they eat the eneflesh. I was satisfied but too soon." Great Basin of the Nile.

but seeming quite impossible to any one unwhich are told of them on the Gaacquainted with this people. that I am very glad to be able to avail myself of the concurrent testimony of a friend. and even the missionaries heard of it. page 120. who came down to the sea-shore once to see the sea. cut it up. or merely an exceptional freak. who. and I was informed that they constantly buy the dead of the Osheba begin. some Fans brought in a dead body. but retreated when I remained till me sick all over. boon. tribe. In authenticated. and which was now to be divided. and smoked the flesh. theirs.18 CANNIBALISM 11* NEGROLAND. . I confess I could not bear to stay for the cutting up of the body. These stories seem so incredible. which they had bought in a neighboring town. A party of Fans. It made the infernal scene was about to Afterward I could hear them from house growing noisy over the division. . Mr. This is a form of canmy of which I nibalism eating those who have died of sickness had never heard in any people so that I determined to inquire if it were indeed a general custom. only they practise their horrid custom unblushingly and in open day. the Rev. The circumstances made a great fuss among the Mpongwe. They spoke without embarrassment about the whole matter. Walker. page 120. who authorizes me to say that he vouches for the entire truth of the two stories above related. and have no shame about it. to whom I have mentioned this custom. " While I was talking to the king to-day. I could see that the man had died of some disease. conveyed it into the woods. and cooked it and ate it among them took another body. 1' Du Chaillu's Equatorial Af- . in return. and then retreated. which they carried away with them. though the facts were well authenticated by witnesses. Fans seem regular ghouls. but I never credited the stories till now." Du Chaillifs Equatorial Africa. and even the fact that these restpeople actually buy and eat the corpses of their neighbors fact. all was ready. the has excited so much ing as it does upon my statement alone evident disbelief among friends in the country. buy rica. both well "Until to-day I never could believe two stories. actually stole a freshly-buried body from the cemeand another party tery. of the Gaboon mission.

mixed up with offal. to be placed at his disposal. In fact. " CHAPTER HUMAN BUTCHERIES AND HUMAN " II. leg and arm bones. with a large scimitar. then strikes off his head. 19 "After visiting the house assigned me. he delivers it to one of his subjects. page 105. thrown at the sides of several houses. ceremony. whom he despatches in the same manner. that he may carry it to the other world and.HUMAN B UTCHERIES AND SACRIFICES IN NEGROLAND. laying hand upon the devoted head. with their his . if anything further occurs to him after he has performed this in succession. object contemplated in the national anniversary of that the king may water the graves of his ancestors with the blood of human victims. He selects for himself such as appear most beautiful and engaging. All the unmarried females the kingdom are esteemed the property of the soverthroughout eign." Du Chailla's Equatorial Africa. consist- THE main is. SACRIFICES IN NEGROLAND. of condemned criminals. utters a few magic words. he delivers it to another messenger. On going out next morning I saw a pile of ribs. which looked horrid enough to me. symptoms of cannibalism stare me in the face wherever I go. and skulls piled up at the back of my house. The captives are brought out arms pinioned. and retails the others at enormous prices to his . where I saw more dreadful signs of cannibalism in piles of human bones. and are brought to the annual customs." Du Chaillu's Equatorial Africa. and of many seized by lawless violence. page 106. Another great object of this periodical festival is the market for wives. while another from behind. These are numerous. Dahomey ing of prisoners taken in war. when shouts of applause ascend from the surrounding mulAt any time when the king has a message to convey to titude. I was taken through the town. one of his deceased relations. and a feticheer. severs it from the body.

20 HUMAN BUTCHERIES AND and nobles. even be she old and ugly. the number of three thousand. The king had lately sacrificed on the grave of his mother three thousand victims. nay. On these occasions. dreading every instant the murderous grasp which would consign him to death. The absurd on a . he must rest contented. the sacrifice was continued weekly for three months. it is with trembling steps that any one crosses his threshold . and. often rush out. No choice on this occasion is allowed to the In return for his twenty thousand cowries. The skulls and jawbones of enemies slain in battle form the favorite ornament of the palaces and temples. SACRIFICES IN NEGROLAND. it is said. . two thousand of whom were Fantee prisoners and at the death of the late sovereign. Murray's African " The is common practice of offering human sacrifices to appease evil spirits but in no place more frequent. They all reside in the palace. While the customs last. . if a further supply appears desirable. and drag him in for sacrifice. seize the first person they meet. he announces to his general that his house wants thatch. and equipped with drums." Discoveries. enclosed by a high wall. who serve him in various capaci- being partly trained to act as a body-guard. some. consisting each time of two hundred slaves. the caboceers and princes. page 199. bows and arrows. flags. or on a larger scale. when a war for that purpose is immediately understuck over with these horrid trophies . and. he rushes along with the utmost speed. page 204. when compelled to do so." Murray's African Discoveries. are practised scale still more tremendous than at Dahomey. taken. " At Coomassie the customs. therefore. or human sacrifices. The king's apartment is paved. and the walls and roof ties. The king usually keeps his wives up to chiefs purchaser. in order to court royal favor. while a few cany muskets. belief here entertained. and. a wife is handed out. have in mockery been presented with their own mothers. piety interested in promoting makes filial by this means the exal- tation of a departed parent. regularly regimented. that the world is rank of the deceased in the future decided by the train which he carries along with him. which consists merely of an immense assemblage of cane and mud tents.

clothing. " We find throughout all the country north of 20. I concluded that it was thrown over. as a vast number of concubines and slaves are the chief deceased's slaves are sacrificed. page 219. however. so it must also be in a future state. a number of servants are slaughtered with his company in the other world. page 631." Livingstone's Africa. world. as in the present world and that. . In the course of the day I saw groups of the natives dancing round this victim of superstitious cruelty. SACRIFICES IN NEGROLAND. as I walked out early in the morning. and human sacrifices are occasionally offered. I saw the mangled corpse of a poor female slave. not so much. as sacrifices to appease his wrath. who had been marks of beheaded during the night. and under circumstances of shocking and almost unparalleled cruelty. . though cruel and revolting in itself. and in the Bonny Large numbers of victims. and other things.HUMAN BUTCHERIES AND River. At the time of the death of a king. as to be his companions and attendants in another a practice. which." Wilson's Africa. nevertheless keeps up a lively impression of a future state of existence. are statedly sacrificed to the manes of the royal ancestors in both of the first-mentioned places. " When to him form a chief dies. and who seemed to be in the very . which I con- sider to be real negro. superiority among them here. "When an Ashantee of any distinction dies. several of the This horrible custom originates in some shadowy ideas of a future state of existence in which they imagine that those who have departed hence stand in need of food. and. a large number of his principal wives and favorite slaves are put to death. page 342. Accordingly. in order to hide it from my view. 21 than in the kingdoms of Ashantee and Dahomi. and certain parts of the bodies are used as charms. as this covering is unusual. lying in the public street." Livingstone's Africa. It was partially covered with a common mat. the custom of slaughtering victims to accompany the departed soul of a chief. with numerous frantic gestures. chiefly prisoners of war.

fifty.. page 28. up the strongest and most the very sound of which conveys a thrill of horror. healthy youth. on account of the death of a person of rank. and decorated with the jawbones and skulls of Africa. This rude instrument. . . executioners. He appeared to be about eighteen years of age a strong. and some in the suiTounding villages. several more human victims had been immolated during the day. I believe. " Amidst to harrow great ostentatious display." Freeman's Africa. in two days. and rolling the head in the dust. until they began to decompose and such is the callous state of mind in which the . That only one person was zenith of their happiness. the heads of those killed in the villages I learned that being brought into the town in baskets. in all probability. . . but could not ascertain the exact number.22 HUMAN BUTCHERIES AND SACRIFICES IN NEQROLAND. I saw what was calculated the royal painful feelings. page 24. and was told in the evening that about twenty-five human victims had been sacrificed. connected with which are most dreadful associations." Freeman's " To-day another human victim was sacrificed. resulted entirely from my presence in the town. in the cool of the evening. that fifteen more had suffered making These poor victims were a total of forty. immolated. human victims. was literally covered with dried clots of blood. and lying at a short distance from several large turkey-buzzards were feastit ing on the wounds. of human victims have been sacrificed by decapitation. and also the large death-drum. . " . The head was severed from the body. which is beaten at the moment when the fatal knife severs the head from the body. The most accurate account I could obtain was. As I was going out of the town. and perhaps thousands." Freeman's Africa. . . bearing the blood-stained stools on which hundreds. . . some in the town. have lived forty. years longer. or even sixty .. allowed to lie naked and exposed in the streets. I saw the poor creature lying on the ground. who might. Throughout the day I heard the horrid sound of the deathdrum. page 47.

with the exception of a small portion of the skin. and the trunk dragged close past him. like the numerous vultures. at one blow on the back of the neck. The officer steadying the criminal now lost his hold on account of the blood which rushed from the blood-vessels on all who were near. smoking amazing indifference. so fortunate. pages 53 and 54. fellow. the distortion of the features. The body afterwards rolled over several times. live. after twisting it several times round. ready to catch the blood from each individual." the putrefying Free- " The executioner. inflicting a dreadful gash. that SACRIFICES IN NEGROLAND. 23 about many were walking among their pipes. mediately devoured by wolves and vultures. which are here so . which was separated by passing the knife underneath. at the moment the blow was struck. palsied. and. remained all this time in suspense casting a partial glance on the head which was now close The next man. the second man was dreadfully mangled. now quite of the head. took hold of the head. . Unfortunately. the blood it still rush- The fourth culprit was not a fountain. spurted over this my face and clothes. for the poor fellow. giving it a horrid appearance. The executioner. The poor fellow struggled violently. During the latter part of this disgusting execution the head presented an awful spectacle. separated it from the still convulsed and struggling trunk. which he greedily devoured before it had escaped After decapitation the body one minute from the veins. poor . and is im. is immediately dragged off by the heels to a large pit at a considerable distance from the town and thrown therein. when the brain protruded. who. with his eyes partially shut and head drooping forward near to the ground.HUMAN BUTCHERIES AND people bodies. The most disgusting part of abominable and barbarous execution was that of an old. divided the head from the body of the first culprit. and the eyeballs completely upturned. stood with a small calabash in his hand. . to him. . The next caught him on the neck. illlooking wretch. with man's Africa. . his head not being separated till after three strokes. which was twice repeated. having raised his head. when the blood ing from like . the knife struck in a slanting direction and only made a large wound the next blow caught him on the back . The third stroke caught him across the shoulders.

prey. within sight of the square. with the idea of gaining his favor and condition. or from the fangs of some hungry alligator or shark which may chance to find the The circumstance of the hands and feet being just albody. I. but richly ornamented with beads and rings at eveiy joint of their oiled and glistening limbs. stood who were to be immolated at the opening of the fifty captives. they imagine. in the most depraved . Duncan's ravenous that they will almost take your victuals from you. of the natives suspended the middle. had been built of adobe. for we soon passed sufficiently near it to enable me by . who may be woi-n out and incapable of further service. and I was at a loss to conjecture what it was. naked to the waist." Lander's Travels in Africa. with rude but not unmarA short distance from the tial skill. about nine feet high. or unfit for the market and he is thus left to suffer death. . lowed to be immersed in the water is considered by these deluded people as necessary. either from the effects of the sun." Africa. appeared in the area before the king's palace.24 nVMAN BUTCHERIES AND SACRIFICES IN NEGROLAND. armed with blunt cutlasses. page 315. and they are thereby rendered an easier protection. . long in suspense. two hundred females of the Amazonian guard. to the native drum and flute. with the feet and hands just touching the water. a fort or inclosure. festival. dwells in the water. palace. Early in the morning. My curiosity was excited by I did not remain it. II. Within this barrier. pages 250 and 252. Vol. when the band of warriors keeping pace. which were to last five days. The object selected for this purpose is generally some unfortunate old slave. secured to stakes. . The natives of this place are pagans.. " On our way up the river Calabar my attention was attracted by something of a very extraordinary appearance hanging over the water from the branch of a tree. When the drill of the Amazons and the royal review began their manoeuvres. and surrounded by a pile of tall prickly briers. . '" The sixth of the month was announced as the beginning of the sacrificial rites. Very soon the sovereign made his appearance. to discover that it was the body of one They believe in a good spirit. and sacrifices such as that just mentioned are frequently made to him. Vol. who.

It was now the duty of this personage to begin the sacrifice with his royal hand. short. IN NEGRO- HUMAN SKULLS AS SACRED RELICS AND ORNAMENTS " HUMAN skulls were built in the walls of the palace. After parading these different vessels round the palace-yard. page 253. Vol. he took a glittering sword from her grasp. and in an instant the head of the first victim fell to the dust. till. for a considerable time. in front of sevof scalps. 1' Canofa Twenty Years of an African Slaver. one hundred of the women departed at a run. III. with shank-bones fixed perpendicularly to the outside of the pans. carrying large brass pans filled with skulls. were carried the on the heads of females. CHAPTER LAND. Fifty of these female demons. and offered their howling victims to the king. 25 were over. preceded by six women. Another pan. they leaped the walls. Calling the female whose The delay was impetuous daring had led her foremost across the thorns. number About ten yards 3 in front of the place where his majesty lay.HUMAN SKULLS AS SACRED RELICS AND ORNAMENTS. with torn limbs and bleeding faces.. they were placed on the ground. there was. the king's mother entered the court. lacerating their flesh in crossing the prickly impediment. I. . at a signal from the king. with a skull placed on the top or over mouth of each. similar to those on the former days. as also two other pots of an oval shape. about half the skull projecting beyond the surface of the walls. brandishing their weapons and yelling their war-cry. Presently. After a number of introductions. page 267. quickly returned." eral calabashes (previously placed there). covered with scarlet cloth. containing a Duncan's Africa. perfect silence in the ranks and throughout the vast multitudes of spectators. heedless of the thorny barricade.

and thus. page 245. II. . An old man who accompanied us spoke with evident gusto of the different cannibal feasts he had partaken of. the Juju-house " Permission to see the town was given. were placed on the ground. entrances of gateways and doorways. in the Annagoo country his name was Adaffo. Masses of human skulls hang from the walls. having a footstool of human skulls. and riveted together with iron. forming an equilateral At a little distance from the three-named skulls. by the female . and we paid a visit to a noisy crowd attempted to rush in after us but a vigorous application of the long sticks of the guards drove them back. three skulls triangle. the blood of their ancestors enters into your body. or ruler of a town. and numerous rows of skulls cover the roof of a sort of altar." Duncan's Africa. commanded by the female commander. and which is being cooked. and mentioned the parts of the human body which he considered the . at the Eight of Biafra. in a quiet way. a calabash was placed. as a present to the guest. that... In front of this altar sat the Juju-man. . I found a number of them ornaThese were brass. Vol. It appears that this part of the human body has always been a favorite ornament on the palace walls of Abomey. the heads of rival kings. sweetest.26 HUMAN SKULLS AS SACRED RELICS AND ORNAMENTS. When a guest is entertained of whom presents are expected. I. His town was taken. and even in the walls. little into the food ." Consul Charles Livingstone ." Duncan's Africa. " In the collection of skulls. about three feet apart. The idea is. containing several . Apadomey.regiments. skulls of distinguished men taken or killed in war. who were killed by the king's women or wives. . the host. The Okrika had eaten the victims whose skulls decorate the Jujuhouse. Amongst these was the richly ornamented skull of the mented with King of Nahpoo. Vol. Many of the skulls still retained the hair. goes from time to time into the fetich11 house and scrapes a puts it bone-powder from a favorite skull. page 276. . The pole of each standard was mounted with the skull of a caboceer. by consuming the scrapings of the skull. and he himself made prisoner.

bare. jus. In the eye-sockets of each a square piece of board is inserted. There are three priests whose business is to put prisoners to death. with the streets crossing each other at right angles. is a sort of sacred altar. It is not a pleasant subject of reflection. the east side to take care of the temple. and whatever is devoted to Thus the little animal called the Iguana it is sacred.HUMAN SKULLS AS SACKED RELICS AND ORNAMENTS. Outside the door is a post to which prisoners are tied. at one end. of about three thousand inhabitants their huts are built within mud walls. but I have no doubt been operated upon on previous journeys being now. and then an eye painted on it. . with an arched recess behind. are used for replacing any that may have become cracked or otherwise injured. page 200. At one end of the town there is a temple dedicated to the Juju. the sides and arch of which are formed of human skulls. and beads. you are naturally led to love them. It is higher than most of the other houses. near the mouth of the Niger. like our scarecrows in America. children's skulls. and beaten to death with clubs. and attend to the dressing of the JuBrittarCs Every-Day Life in Africa. and dressed up with clothes. which elsewhere is eaten . with a gourd for a head. which makes them eager for the skulls and jawbones of their enemies. " On a small island. and grant them what they wish." Du GJiaillu's Ashango-Land. At every corner there is a creature stuck up. and then their skulls." " It is revenge. walls. 27 becoming of one blood. however. with an arched doorway. and whitened emblems of mortality and revenge present a curious and startling spectacle. and and thrones. cresting and festooning the red clay walls floors. skull of his grandfather. after being dried and bleached. and floor being the skulls of adults. as much as desire to perpetuate the remembrance of victory. the people have some strange customs. shells. page is allowed to increase and run all over the island. a species of lizard. They have a large town. Inside the hut. This thing is called Juju. and told Mayolo I cared very little to eat of the scraped . that. is formed of . first painted red. and walking-sticks are everywhere lowerThese sad. I refused the food. ing with the hollow eyes of the dead. so that in a royal metropolis. aware of the custom.

and the " When a human head is desired to be preserved. he replied." American flag. page 159. but the son now among the few people.' was the answer. ' When I hear of their coming I shall hide the bones. I have seen some thousands preserved in this way in Dahomey. I. page 246. The old man who perpetrated this deed his son's huts. and I counted fifty-four human skulls hung on their points. ground.28 SUMAN SKULLS AS SACRED RELICS AND ORNAMENTS.. with a lot of rotten ivory They inhabited the whole of this side of the country. after putting them to death. Moyara's father took advantage of their reduced condition.' I told him that this probably would insure his own death if the Matebele came again. ' It is When ' fierceness to kill boys. 1 Yes . Footers Africa of Humassi." Duncan's Africa. evidently proud of these was assured by other . and. above the skull for the hand when walking. When looking at these skulls. they had no business here. These were Matebele. the capital of Ashantee. and the head held on the end of a stick in the smoke till it becomes quite hard and dry. the brains are extracted through the spinal connection. and pointed them out as such. Vol. page 56. unable to approach Sebituane on the island of Loyela. ruins of the town. had killed boys. with four or five wives and very At his hamlet a number of stakes are planted in the now lies in the middle of over his grave. " The father of Moyara was a powerful sits chief. who. and were probably the barrier to the extension of the Portuguese commerce in this direction. He assented I asked why his father readily. mounted their heads in the Bat oka fashion. One cannot help feeling thankful that the reign of such wretches is over. I remarked to Moyara that many of them were those of mere boys. ' To show his fierceness.. " Near the king were placed several large staffs or walkingwith a skull fixed on the upper end of each.' He was and I trophies of his father's ferocity." Vol. the stick pass- ing through the skull so as to leave about seven inches of the stick Duncan's Africa. had returned sick and famishing. sticks. II.

he ascertained when a stranger was about to leave. because cheapest they are tied by the legs. decapitation. and the corpse is sprinkled with the warm blood. where they remain . it 1' is . this to beast as well as to The people a physical delight in cruelty sight of suffering seems to bring them an enjoyment without which the world is tame. Vol. 29 Batoka that few strangers ever returned from a visit to this quarter. wooden pillars." Livingstone's Africa. you see dead or dying animals fastened in some agonizing position. chicken round his throat. he hangs a live till they fall in fragments. Hutchinsori's Western Africa. and if the fowls flap their wings. the different chiefs vywith each other as to which should mount the greatest numing ber of skulls in his village. page 569. CHAPTER BLOOD-THIRSTINESS IV. even the harmless tortoise cannot escape impalement. If a man be unwell. or lashed round the body to a stake or a tree. 3* . to the chief. The headless trunks are laid upon the body. page 283. and waylaid him at a distance from the town. Blood seems to be the favorite ornament for a man's face. and are allowed to die a lingering death .man. IN NEGRO- " THERE is apparently in man.BLOOD-THIRSTINESS OF THE NEGROES. If a man wished to curry favor with a Batoka chief. AND BARBARITY OF THE NEGROES LAND. In almost all the towns on the Oil Rivers. head downwards. Poultry is most common. expecting that its pain will abstract from Goats are lashed head downwards tightly to his sufferings. and when he brought his head back it was mounted as a trophy. as pattern-painting with some dark color like indigo is the proper decoration for a woman. II. At funerals numbers of goats and poultry are sacrificed for the benefit of the deceased. which they will do for some seconds after a good omen for the dead . .

until he had quite a heap of human heads. life. is tied ." Livingstones Africa. page 52. to be marched to the homes of their victors. when the parents and all the married women were slaughtered on the spot. but. The late Matiamvo sometimes indulged in the whim of running a muck in the town and beheading whomsoever he met. The youths and girls are loaded as beasts of burden with the spoils of the town. could quench their insatiable thirst for power. they are remarkably callous to the enormity of the crime of destroying human " It is .' or authorized place of execution. that they might be more easily hurried to the hill of ' the death. " page 341. the terrified inhabitants were driven in a mass to the outskirts. having been accustomed to bloodshed from infancy. Human sacrifices have been common everywhere. Footers Africa and is hard to make them feel that the shedding of human blood a great crime they must be conscious that it is wrong. with clubs in order to pi-event resistance. and he wanted to diminish them. which ing character consists rather in the amount of bloodshed gratifies the negro. saturated ." Livingstone's Africa. The mouths of the victims were gagged by knives run through their cheeks and captives among the southern tribes were beaten . or to take away their strength. Matiamvo explained this conduct by saying that his people were too many. are reserved for a still more terrible death dry grass. "Nothing less than the entire subjugation." American Flag. Thus when they conquered a town. not so easy to offer any probable reason for the eagerness Its appallto share in cruelty which glows in a negro's bosom.30 " It is BLOOD-THIRSTINESS OF THE NEGROES. fat. or destruction of the vanquished. with round their naked bodies and then set on fire. and their children. than in the studious prolongation of pain. There was no scruple at cruelty when it was convenient. Superstition probably excused or justified to him some of his worst practices. page 217. He had absolute power of life and death. their wives. Such as have dared to bo brave in the defence of their town.

on the 17th of December. the lions scent the slain and leave their lair. their lurking-places in broad day. the unfortunate brute. the helpless infants are left to perish either with hunger. and prevented from rising.. and drew away the omentum." Freeman's Africa. each accompanied by an executioner. If the town be in an isolated position. Two knives were forced through the cheeks of each criminal." Valdez's Africa. to prevent them cursing the king. he thrust his right arm up to the shoulder into the ox. One of the executioners was the lad who told me. that he had himself decapitated eighty persons. one on each side. The chief butcher then. it is said. and there decapitated by the Samba Golambole." Moffatfs Africa. This is done. or common executioner. ruptured one of the large arteries. in a street near the king's residence. cut open about a foot of the skin of the belly and lying on the ground.pageZ\. and revel in the carnage. warning to all II. The hyenas and jackals emerge from "We found the criminals seated on blocks of wood. and holding a carnival on human flesh. amidst the groans of agony and helpless struggles of fell . 31 . page 164. " The head and legs of the ox were then drawn together. with a large knife. and his family and relatives sold into capIf there be no purchasers for them. as a Vol. and the heads are piled up at the entrance to the capital. to the banks of the river.BLOOD-THIRSTINESS OF THE NEGROES. the bodies are then thrown into the river. " When any one of these chiefs or dies. while a cloud of vultures may be seen descending on the living and the dead. they are all conducted tivity. which was thrown . any person he is immediately decapitated. or to be devoured by beasts of prey. and it bellowing to the ground. The animal was now secured firmly. page 365. On such an event. of his death is not if made known for one who has learned the two months afterwards and fact of his death discloses the secret. gave a twist and a pull at the heart. We did not stop to gaze on the horrid spectacle. disclosers of state secrets. which deprived them of speech. the news .

page 132. adding roots. flung him into a mortar. Having concluded her harangue. that immense quantities It is clear enough as Tembandumba wished to found an empire of Amazons. seized with a savage enthu- siasm. and made the whole into an ointment. "On our march to the market-place we passed along part of space. in the forests of South America. and male prisoners. She flung this into a large earthen pot. on a fire. From their bodies an ointment should be made in the way which she would show. and that now she could subdue the universe. should be used for purposes of procreation. page 515. attached to the expedition on return from Ujiji. such we read of as existing among the Scythians. the walls of the palace.. loitered behind for some days. The female children should be reared and instructed in war. the Amazonian and cannibal queen of Congo. for fear lest she should become gratis another man's property. and in Central Africa. with the publication of other laws of minor importance.82 BLOOD-THIRSTINESS OF THE NEGROES. commanded that all male children. . and of this human ointment were made. massacred all their male children. Tembandumba. page 292. so that there might be no future lack of female warriors. II. before the convulsions of the victim Alexander's Africa. should be killed by their own mothers. which covers an immense The . and oils. had ceased. and in time she was sub. before being killed and eaten. because his slave girl was too footsore to walk. had Burton's Africa." Readers Savage Africa. But she had to conquer an instinct in order to carry out her views she fought against nature. leaves. with which she rubbed herself before them all. and pounded him to a pulp. this young woman seized her child which " was feeding at her breast. When tired of waiting he cut off her her head. telling them that this would render her invulnerable. all twins. ." " The guide. She not only enjoined the massacre of male children. cooked and eaten. Vol. dued. . and all infants whose upper teeth appeared before their lower ones. Immediately her subjects. she forbade the eating of woman's flesh.

I found. not. For instance. All reckoning here is by the moon. . sandy clay. and together march upon the enemy. but one needs more force. The arms hung extended downwards. that the bodies had been in this position about two and a half moons. a man fixed in an upright position." in the Vol. The consequence is. as would seem most reasonable. Passing close to them the smell was intolerable. page 219. and on top of the walls. that side murders one of its men or women. On approaching nearer the market-place we beheld. hung by the feet from a thick pole. two tribes are anxious for a fight. strangely enough. with the exDuncan's Africa. but the heat of the sun had dried the skin so as to render it impenetrable to his efforts. human skulls were placed along their whole extent. 33 walls as well as houses are made of red. now in a state of decomposition." Du Cliaillufs Equatorial Africa. On L. page 74.BLOOD-THIRSTINESS OF THE NEGROES. but. But there are other means of securing allies. andKamrasi. by which a chief gains in power and friends. ception that the bodies had been mutilated. the opposite side of the market were two more human bodies same position as those I have just mentioned. the two villages join. according to African er's . A little further on we saw two more men. In effect. had turned nearly to the color of that of a white man. from exposure. but having no share in the quarrel. custom. at intervals of thirty feet. placed horizontally on two upright poles about twenty feet high. that this last village take its revenge on the murderer. "I have already spoken of the system of intermarriages. This weakling sends one of men secretly to kill a man or woman of some village living near. " Sali showed extreme folly in remaining behind. to gain a village to a certain side in a quarrel. and at a little distance a stranger would (from their shrivelled and contracted condition) suppose them to be large sheep or goats. on an elevated pole. apparently holding it with both hands. The vulture was industriously endeavoring to satisfy his appetite. the skin. that the murderits people give them to understand that this is done because another tribe has insulted them whereupon. with a basket on his head. upon inquiry. with a purpose of retaliation on somebody else.

when doubts were intimated of success. armed with the scene." Baker's Great Basin of the Nile.34 BLOOD-THIRSTINESS OF THE NEGROES. . It is said that the prophet intended the victim to be a youthful son of Amarar. a sortie was ordered. number of old women had been taken these could not hunt walk sufficiently fast to . of his . and the false prophet stoned to death. seeing a child of his own. but his party was repulsed. " A . two years old. In every case they were by being beaten on the back of the neck with a club. the wizard was consulted. and required him to name a The own son. severed at the wrists. was foreThe was The besiegers gave way and fled the town in the onset. rushed forth tumultuously. as being killed march they had accordingly all been cumbersome. and." Canofs Twenty Tears of an African Slaver. who had joined his mother's family. page 405. still warm and reeking with his infant's blood." Baker's Great Basin of the Nile. Amarar was on the point of attacking fortified town. immediately ordered him to be seized and cut to pieces . declared that the effort should be made as soon as the hands of Amarar were stained in the blood moment his soothsayer. suspicious of his complicity. mashed it to death. after suitable incantations. and the arms at the elbow-joints. The infuriate and starvsacrifice over. for the sally. re-provisioned the fortifications of the enemy demolished . when the mysterious oracle deAgain diction ! a strongly clared that the chief " could not conquer till he returned once more to " That night Amara committed the blackest his mother's womb ! of incests. page 406. snatched the infant from his mother's arms. and. and the soothsayer rewarded with a slave for his barbarous premost . page 333. when the oracle announced the decree. and was then distant but the impatient and superstitious savage. At another time. roused by the oracle and inflamed by the bloody Amarar. and tortured the hands being first by having his limbs cut off piecemeal. pestle. at hand. " Amarar called propitious oracle retired to his den. ing savages. in the general slave keep up with their victors during the return killed on the road. threw it into a rice mortar. with a pestle. he was accordingly tied to a stake. .

I heard the drums. improper entrance seemed to exasperate the infidel. with a bloody knife in his hand. Rum was brought . The large inclosure was crammed with a mob of savages. hissing was addressing the oil.BLOOD-THIRSTINESS OF THE NEGROES. "It was not long after 35 my instalment at Cape Mount. and burnt his towns . poured into the palaver-house to join the beastly rites. in less than fifteen minutes. while the lifeless babe was tossed in the of forty-five. who. with the usual confidence of a white man in Africa. upon landing at Toso. and soon every avenue to the square was crowded with exulting savages. Canofs " By degrees the warriors dropped in around their chieftain. The manner of my informant. Each of these devils was armed with a knife. all in perfect silence around the king. A my quarters. Then . slain his sons. with it trembling passion. whose naked limbs were smeared with chalk and ochre. who. and accord- ingly. For twenty years he had butchered his people. forth iu Abundance for the chiefs. page 432. sold his subjects. and bore in her hand some cannibal trophy. country affair caused me to visit the king . I searched his premises till I encountered him in the palaver-house. slowly approaching from a distance. and war-bells and." Twenty Years of an African Slaver. carcass. knelt on the corpse. The mangled palaver-house. air and caught as jt descended on the point of a spear. but. Jen-Ken's wife. but living captives were tumbled on a heap in the centre. I was told he was abroad. the slimy corpse of an infant ripped alive from its mother's womb. the savage enforced his assertion by a stab. satisfied me that the message was untrue . that I Some trifling accidentally witnessed the ferocity of the chief. perhaps. however. by a single limb. horns. and a foot on the dead body of a negro. charge. As her eyes met those of her husband. and digin ging it repeatedly with his knife. that was his bitterest and oldest foe. in an infuriate manner. calling me to his side. immediately in front of . the two fiends yelled forth a shout of mutual joy. Presently. a corpulent wench dragged along the ground. violated his and with each daughters. was the general rendezvous and scarcely a bushman appeared without the body of some maimed and bleeding victim. exclaimed. a procession of women. By his side stood a pot of ! which the heart of his enemy was frying My sudden and.

every mouth was tearing the delicate morsels with shouts of joy. ed my eyes to the spot. hole was quickly dug. lingering. the men applauded and encouraged. that would agonize but not There was a devilish spell in the tragic scene that fascinatslay. powder. and fill the air with human flesh. . in every instance. and blood. the stave planted.36 BLOOD-THIRSTINESS OF THE NEGROES. came the refreshment. my lot to . I cannot picture the hellish joy with which they passed from body . I have often seen the tiger pounce upon its prey. Yet. it did not require long to kindle a fire. so that the barbarians were defeated in their hellish scheme of burning her alive. with a yell. with linked hands. Th. wrenching off lips. and. which was quaffed by the brutes till they reeled off. satiate its appetite for blood and abandon the drained corpse. produce the requisite utensils. A slow. gathering the brains from each severed skull as a dainty dish for the approaching feast ! After the last victim yielded his life. and commenced the final sacrifice with the mockery of lascivious embraces. in a wild dance around the pile of victims. with instinctive thirst. digging out eyes. except that the bushmen packed in plaintain leaves whatever flesh was left from the orgy. denoting the combined satisfaction of revenge and the odor of In the midst of this appalling scene. tormenting mutilation was practised on the living. each female leaped on the body of a wounded prisoner. to body. but these African negresses were neither as decent nor as merciful as the beast of the wilderness. tearing the ears. before the various messes were half broiled. and slicing the flesh from the quivering bones . as well as on the dead and. I heard a fresh appetite cry of exultation. A very brutalities lasted. in the shape of rum. on which was impaled the living body of the conquered chieftain's ! wife. and fagots supplied but before a fire could be kindled. for I remember after this last attempt. Soon the ring was broken. as a pole was borne into the apartment. the wretched woman was dead. to be I do not know how long these little conveyed had been This was the firct time it behold the most savage development of African nature upder the stimulus of war.e butchery madu to their friends in the forest. As the women leaped and sang. the brutality of the women exceeded that of the men. Their malignant pleasure seemed to consist in the invention of tortures. while the queen of the harpies crept amid the butchery. and. In my wanderings in African forests.

even the most thoughtwould feel at least some slight emotion on being exiled from his native country. and being de- prived of their relatives . Canofa Twenty Years of an African CHAPTER V. that Africans. page 32.SLAVERY AND SLAVE-TRADE IN NEQROLAND. ''Every evening I observed 4 five or six women come to the . paralyzed. constitute. the other three-fourths are in a state of hopeless and hereditary who slavery." Slaver. that some of the latter are sold to purchase provisions for the rest of the family. it frequently happens. while love of country is seemingly as great a stranger to their breasts as social tenderness and domestic affection. as the parents have almost unlimited authority over their children." Lander's Travels in Africa." Mungo Park's 1st Journal.. "!T seems less barbarian. not more than one-fourth part of the inhabitants at large . page 208. when my Kroomen bore me to the conqueror's town. I suppose. SLAVERY AND THE SLAVE-TRADE IN NEGROLAND. quite natural that every one. page 216. and. But so far is this from being the case. "The reader must bear in mind that my observations apply chiefly to persons of free condition. in all parts of Africa. "Large families are very often exposed to absolute want. pages 384-386. and enslaved." Mungo Park's 1st Journal. and negotiated our redemption for the value of twenty slaves. II. Vol. betray the most perfect indifference on losing their liberty. dizzy. nor was I aroused till nightfall. generally speaking. I sank on the earth benumbed with stupor. 37 me sick.

. Young or old. page 116." Clappertori's Africa. and receive each of them a corn. his mother has sold him to me for forty days' provision for herself and the rest of her family. DenJiam & Clappertori's Africa. but. the women. and somewhat in the same manner as a volunteer seaman is examined by a surgeon on entering the navy he looks at the tongue." 134. of a deep copper color. Vol. are sold without distinction . .. "The slave-market is held in two long sheds. pointvest should be gathered in. ' ing to a fine child about five years of age . I inquired of the mansa whether he maintained those poor women from pure bounty. beautiful or ugly. Vol. in other respects. Slavery is here so common. cei'tain mansa's house. and endeavors to detect rupture by a forced cough. IV. IV. either to the ton's Africa. the other for females. . plump or withered. the buyer inspects them with the utmost attention. the owner or one of his trusty slaves sitting near them. were linked together in couples by iron rings around their legs yet they laughed.. or whether he expected a return when the harAs I ' Observe that boy. and girls of from twelve to eighteen years of age. that they always appeared much happier than their masters . I have bought another boy in the same manner. and seemed in ." Clapper- page 211. and carefully decked out for the exhibition ." Mun- go Park's Travels in Africa. "The whole state of slavery. Vol. population of Katunga may be considered in a king or his caboceers. one for males. page 36.' said he. but few of these were ironed. eyes. ted. and beautifully formed. where they are seated in rows. The males. and limbs. some of them from Nyfee.38 SLA VER T AND SLA VE-TRADE IN NEGROLAND. singing with the greatest glee all the time they are at work. IL. good condition. who were mostly young. or the mind of slaves is so constitu. " They had nearly a hundred slaves. quantity of knew how valuable this article was at this juncture. teeth. especially. and still further to the West. page . the greater part female.

and " Not even the appearance of affection exists between husband wife. severally assist in feeding the demand for slaves." "Crime. parental affection." for their offspring. " buy a slave to wait upon me. which he was known himself." Harrises Adventures in Africa. " The liability to fall into it is a condition of servitude is not so where there is a higher appreciation of personal liberty. page 314. Towns and villages are then obliterated from the face of the earth . and I prefer to His reply was.SLAVERY AND SLAVE-TRADE IN NEGROLAND. page 314. and the desolation. 39 three to one but. necessity arising from distress. inferior to brutes. of whatever age or sex. many offered to sell are. or between parents and children. nor does the same odium attach to the term slave as is attached to it among civilized men. hopeless captivity. and thousands upon thou- sands of the population. Vol. insolvency. and ransom I have as much freedom as I want. to me any of their sons They page 79. both as regards life and property. are hurried into Harris's Adventures in Africa. the law of every African state either tolerating or directly sanctioning the evil. and the sordid love of gain. the destitution. in point of Duncan's Africa. " Slaves in . " A slave in Gabun was once asked why he to ' money. a spirit of retaliation in petty disputes. Wilson's Africa. that are daily entailed by the unceasing bloody struggles betwixt state and state. page 272.. The African sees frightful in Africa as .' did not take the have accumulated. and the destruction created. the inhumanity of a harsh creditor. for which parents will even sell then- own children. although the Africa are in proportion to the freemen of about number of individuals reduced to a state of bondage by the operation of the above causes. when compared with the slavery. that or daughters as slaves. I. the whole combined are but as a single grain of dust in the balance. So little do they care speak the truth. is immense.

There can be no doubt that the most horrible topic connected with slavery is slave-hunting. 44 With the abolition of the slave-trade all along the northern and south-western coast of Africa. page 12. in which three Bonu horsemen were killed. page 156. for supplying the wants of domestic slavery. unfortunately. " The only ivory. but. he has but little cause for dissatisfaction. page 190. To our utmost in horror. . very little difference between the authority exercised over him by one whom he acknowledges as his master and the petty tyranny which is exercised by most African chiefs over their subjects and so long as he is worked moderately. " large number of slaves had been caught this day. a man will part with his parents. and when they fail. and not infrequently by his own choice places himself in this condition. slaves will cease to be brought down to the coast. and in this way a great deal of the mischief and misery necessarily resulting from this inhuman traffic will be cut off. and this is earned on. Vol. II. and treated kindly. I. and " In times of necessity. children.40 SLA VER T AND SLA VE-TRADE IN NEGROLAND. Vol. and there were certainly not less than five hundred.. Vol. and there who have more than a thousand export at present are slaves and slaves. he will sell himself without . page 369. the greater part of them being allowed from the body. in a far more extensive degree. not only for the purpose of supplying the foreign market." Wilson's Africa. forms only a small part of the evil. a leg having been severed Earth's Africa." Earth's Africa.. not less than one hundred and seventy full-grown men were mercilessly slaughtered in cold blood. " are Slavery exists on an immense scale in many 1 private individuals articles of Adamawa. altogether they were said to have taken one thousand. II. wives. But this. Earth's Africa.. after some skirmishing. and in the course of the evening." to bleed to death. a great many others were brought A .

and the tricks and impostures of the their successful enterprise. he traffics in slavery as it were merchandise makes purposely to capture neighbors. as a reward for and an encouragement for future infiThese harpies being very industrious in their vocation. who frequently bestow upon them a portion of the fine or damages imposed. a right to dispose of his nephews and nieces. and being ably seconded by the ungovernable passions of men living in a state of nature. contribute also their quota of slaves. Tyrant of his slaughtered with the most revolting torments. not even deserving human forbearance true it is. " The good qualities given to the negro by the bounty of nature. consign a numerous body of victims to bondage. to 4* . that the worst slavery is his lot. " One method of procuring slaves is by women who are main- tained for the express purpose of ensnaring the unsuspecting with their blandishments. Superstition. war and page children. decked out for exhibition the buyer scrutinizes them as nicely as a purchaser with us does a . and who carry on their infamous trade with the connivance of their husbands. anything unsound. one for males and another for females. delity. eyes." 197. for he is ! there exposed to the constant peril of becoming also a victim. even at home. horse. have served only to make him a slave." page 515. blood.SLAVERY AND SLAVE-TRADE IN NEGROLAND. " The busiest scene is the slave -market. 41 shame. numerous and expensive observances which these prescribed. and to brand him for ages with the epithet of outcast. inspecting the tongue. These poor creatures are seated in rows. composed of two long ranges of sheds. the marked unceasing proof of a curse. trodden down by every remorseless foot. as old as the And origin of society. The priests. and limbs. making them to ascertain if there cough and perform various movements. page 164. or fetichmen." be Murray's African Discoveries. and sell even his own wives . teeth. As has been observed among inany tribes the uncle has Burton's Africa. Smith's Natural History of the Human Species.

knowing any " On arrival at the desired locality. " The whole system of slave-holding by the Arabs in Africa. Even death. page 326. the unfor- tunate victims rush from their burning dwellings. ity. bewildered in the danger and confusion. how- more than domestic animals. and the men are shot down like pheasants in a battue. The time arrives.42 SLAVERY AND SLAVE-TRADE IX NEGROLAND. the slave-traders disembark and proceed into the interior until they arrive at the village of some negro chief. is exceedingly strange. or rather on the coast. quietly surrounding the village. they fire the grass huts in all directions. while its occupants are still sleeping." are easily disposed of. or " zareeba. are kidnapped and secured. while the wrists. Vol. . ever. Charmed with his new friends. The herds of cattle. The women and children are then fastened together. secured by a cross-piece lashed behind. page 26. not It happens. made of a forked pole. the former secured in an instrument called a sheba. while the women and children. Marching throughout the night." Cruickshank's Africa. are so superior to the Arab foreigners. becomes an active enslaver. and. I.. Panic-stricken. the power of whose weapons he acknowledges. that they are spellbound. as the prize of victory. both in individual physical strength and in numbers. that if they chose to rebel. they might send the Arabs flying out of the land. on account of the expensive obsequies which it is considered the chief point of honor to perform. which might be supposed calculated to terminate the family responsibility. to secure a blessing for the other. and are driven off with great rejoicing. for the slaves. the negro chief does not neglect the opportunity of seeking their alliance to attack a hostile neighbor. be observed with the view of avoiding or alleviating some calamoften oblige the applicant for priestly comfort to part with one half of his family. guided by their negro hosts. still within their kraal. the neck of the prisoner fitting into the fork. they bivouac within an hour's march of the unsuspecting village doomed to an attack about half an hour before break of day. or at Zanzibar." their strength Speke's Africa. with whom they establish an intimacy. and pour volleys of musketry through the flaming thatch.

tribes time.. he himself is not alone exposed to punishment. Should there be ivory in any of the huts not destroyed by the fire. extent. as the greatest treasure of the negroes. The trader's party dig up the floors of the hut to search for iron hoes. which I could easily which they had . but manifested enough account by the state of degradation to an indifference. the . When I passed them. encourage that detestable traffic. large gold ear-rings. Baker's Great " The Cassangas. few days after my arrival at Timbuctoo I fell in with a who was parading about the streets two women. granaries are overturned and wantonly destroyed. I. the Banhuns. but their master. "A They did not appear in the least mortified at being exhibited in for streets for sale. 43 brought together in advance of the body. These women were not young." Voided s Africa. negro." Basin of the Nile. whom I recollected to have been fellow-passengers with me on board the canoe. does their cupidity lead them. indeed. to give them the appearance of an age better suited to the market. They wore fine white handkerchiefs. and the hands are cut off the bodies of the slain. but his Avhole family is inat the same To such an volved in ruin along with him. punish all crimes by perpetual banishment. and. and thus form a living chain.SLAVERY AND SLAVE-TRADE IN NEGROLAND. the more easily to detach the copper and iron bracelets that are usually worn. that they outrage all the laws of justice and humanity. and all the other neighboring and nations. which are generally thus concealed. page 13. and smiled. page 293. Thus they reap a rich harvest themselves. they looked at me. This is the commencement of business. had dressed them well. it is appropriated a general plunder takes place. in which order they are marched to the head-quarters in company with the captured herds. Vol. In such cases they consider it more advantageous to dispose of their convicts by selling them to strangers than to bear the burthen of their support. The children are then fastened by their necks with a rope attached to the women. When any person comes under the lash of their sanguinary laws. and each had two or three necklaces of the same metal. are tied to the pole. the slave-trade.

As a national institution. rights of property in his children.4$ SLAVERY AND SLAVE-TRADE IN NEGROLAND. . so many slaves. " High prices are a great temptation to the cupidity of the Af- who. . . It would be a task of many pages. Five-sixths of the population are in Canot's Twenty Tears of the African Slaver. If a man is fined for an offence. and. place. page 63. in truth. been reduced and their total ignorance of the natural rights of mankind. often does not hesitate to sell these where other produce is lacking. or bar- wood.. that. in that precise Du Chaillu's Equatorial Africa. is when they are brought to consent. by custom. if I attempted to give a full account of the origin and causes of slavery in Africa. Perhaps he has no slaves but he has ivory or trade-goods. He finds that one of his children is not bright.lie's Africa. child. as much ivory or ebony. page 381. the unhappy chDd " sold off. Man. that it has no sense. chains. as the English say pound sterling. . he is mulcted in so many slaves." Du Chaillu's Equatorial Africa. and pays of these the value of interior is . or that it wants to bewitch the father. the commercial unit of value a slave. images linked with menial toils and absolute servitude. Vol. having. of a brutal trade." page 380. has become the coin of Africa. As we say dollar. so these Africans say slave. contracts to give so many slaves for her. that is to say. " No better illustration could be given of the way in which the slave system has ingrafted itself upon the life and policy of these tribes than this. from the sea-shore to the farthest point in the which I was able to reach. it seems to have existed always." . . and the oldest monuments bear their . and the legal tender . he If he is bargaining for a wife. buy so many slaves. page 126. or the amount in trade-goods which would. II." CaU. Africans have been bondsmen everywhere. rican. Then a consultation ensues with the relatives of the mother they are promised a share for they have rights also in the in the produce of the sale.

duce one. on the contrary. and instances are on record of many individuals. whose skin is exposed to the painful gnawing of these swarming insects.." Steadmari's Africa. is then summoned. The usual method of torture is by the application of heated stones to the tenderest parts of the outstretched body. a report is made to the chief. HEATHENISH SUPERSTITION AND WITCHCRAFT IN NEGROLAND.SUPERSTITION AND WITCHCRAFT IN NEGROLAND. the hands and feet being first made fast to four stakes at equal distances. pretending to charm from the sufferer some noxious reptile. being sent for upon emergencies of this nature. while myriads of ants are scattered over the agonized victim. gives some root or drug to his patient. called the matter. which ' 1 him. at the is same time. for the purpose of eliciting confession. operation of which they generally ascribe disease and the very infirmities of age being attributed to the same The doctor. /. Vol. ' ' ONE to the death. It can be no matter of surprise that innocent persons. page 37. accompanying the administration of it with a farcical expression of countenance. who have admitted the crime rather than to undergo the fiery ordeal. " Witchcraft is the races of Africa. another doctor. and a prominent and leading superstition among all may be regarded as one of the heaviest . 45 CHAPTER VI. and obtains an adequate remuneration if. secretly to pro- supposed to have been withdrawn from the person afflicted. and influence. who directs torture to be inflicted on . The guilt having been affixed. upon some unfortunate wretch. a mysterious assumption of manner. by which he alleges that the malady is occasioned. who professes to discover the party supposed to have bewitched him. should be induced to confess the agency of which they have been accused. the Igiaka is greatly commended for his skill. through a natural dread of its horrors. and contriving. If the patient should happen to recover. of the Africans' deep-rooted superstitions is witchcraft. the sickness should indiscoverer of bewitching crease. perfectly guiltless. after many absurd ceremonies. subjected to these terrible punishments.

. He may community . and desolate their farms or into a shark. in many lationship. and fill the land with want and distress. A great number of persons are reported ferent districts of Angola by the . page 223. and. insanity. In short. "The intercourse which the natives have had with white men does not seem to have much ameliorated their condition. By his magical arts he can keep back the showers. and keep the which he lives in a state of constant fear and perturbation into an elephant. page 222. even mothers have been accused of the unnatural deed of causing the death of their own offspring. are ascribed to its agency. and almost every evil incident to human life. no effectual shield against the suspicion of " it. Wilson's Africa. in fact. the ties of reand general benevolence of charThe priesthood. It may be a brother. and. Sickness. have unlimited scope for the indulgence of the most malicious feelings. are alike unavailing. A person endowed with this mysterious art is supposed to possess little less than omnipotence. and he need only wave his wand to call forth the pestilence from its lurkingThe sea is lashed into fury. or are unable to prevent their occurrence." Wilson's Africa. but over the wild beasts of the woods. acter. in a few extreme cases. The lightnings obey his commands. poverty.46 SUPERSTITION AND WITCHCRAFT IN NEGROLAND. consequently. there is nothing too hard for the cute his behests. know nothing The natives . Every death which occurs in the community is ascribed to and some one. and over all the elements transform himself into a tiger. over the sea and dry land. The priesthood go to work to find out the guilty person. He exercises unlimited control. in consequence of the universal belief in the superstition." of nature. it is exercised with unsparing severity. There is.. cases. curses which rests upon . Age. a father. is guilty of the wicked deed. official prominence. in . not only over the lives and destiny of his fellow-men. machinations of witchcraft. and devour all the fish in their rivers. and the storm rages to exeplace. to lose their lives annually in difcruel superstitions to which they are addicted and the Portuguese authorities either of them. witchcraft. a sister. that benighted land.

Hundreds perish thus every year in the valley of Cassange. is treated in the way. a brother-in-law of being the cause of his sickness while we were at Cassange. or dies. of a larger breed than by way of teaching hours. " When a person of influence is taken ill. which causes the death of the victim. She offered to take the ordeal. page 618. for the poison is very virulent. or who had acted in some way to excite suspicion. and if killed. is ascribed to several curious cases. In some tribes. but in some person who was at enmity with the deceased. in bound A order to assert her innocency and brave the test. person. I believe. "In is put to death. as well as their wish. when acgenerally cused of witchcraft.SUPERSTITION AND WITCHCRAFT IN NEGROLAND. as she had the idea that it would but prove her conscious innocence. the accuser reiterates his charge the dose is repeated. beats the ground with its tail. page 471. and perish unknown. and thus saved her life. and the person dies. my men carried a great ' number of any they had at home. not in the nature of the disease. A would have been ." it not to be guilty of crowing at unseasonable Livingstone 's Africa. Captain Neves refused his consent to her going. and. called Dua. that men would live alway. will often travel from distant districts. several tribes.' and was The men often carried them sitting on their guns. a child which is said to 'tlolo' (trangress) ' Tlolo. while lying . fowls. are 47 to secrecy by those who administer the ordeal. in the pen." Livingstone's Africa. . the owner would give it a beating. When a strong stomach rejects it. They come to a river on the Cassange. drink the infusion of a woman was accused by poisonous tree. This was very natural in them. A child who cut the upper front teeth before the under was always put to death among the Bakaa. same When I was coming through Londa. a case of twins renders one of them liable to death and an ox. It was the universal belief. which sacrificed. It is thought to be calling death to visit the tribe.' or transgression. the cause is eagerly sought after. which. it had been guilty of tlolo. one began to crow in a forest. as they did not believe in an overruling Providence. also among the Bakwains. If one crowed before midnight.

or. Hornemann lodged. The women were particularly fanciful in these matters. whose panacea is to besmear the mouth and the forehead of the patient with the ordure of the . Benderachmani sent a courier to Nyffee. The death of the poor excited but little sorrow and less surmise on the other hand. I have known instances where the domestics of a principal man have been murdered in cold blood.. and the latter remove sterility. their master's sickness. but men and women of all descriptions. in anticipation of the imaginable ills of life. " At the some remedy against impotency. Individuals versed in the black art are called Omundu-Onganga." Mojfafs Africa. Vol. page 292. from a superstitious dread of his holding intercourse with evil . different towns and villages through which we passed. resorted to us in full hope and confidence of our being able to ward them off. by the negro rabble. Nor was it the sick alone who sought advice. page 56. together with all Mr. just because it was suspected that they had something to do with . they brought to us all the sick to be cured. Hornemann's manuscripts. and are much sought after. and were frequently importunate to receive medicines that would preserve the affections of their gallants. had been burned in his own house.. a learned man of the country. and that death was entirely the result of witchcraft." Clappertori's Africa. III. "The Damaras have great faith in witchcraft. insure them husbands. Vol. Any person falling sick is immediately attended by one of these impostors. or of some casualty. what was highly criminal. " At my instance. that Jussuf Felatah. with whom Mr. effect the death of some favored rival. for which I offered him a reward of a hundred dollars but on my return from Sackatoo I found the messenger come back with the information. or medicine imparted by some malignant hand. spirits. .48 SUPERSTITION AND WITCHCRAFT IN NEGROLAND. IV. Hornemann's papers. or want of food. page 239. Many came for preventives against apprehended or barely possible calamities and." Clappertori's Africa. to endeavor to recover Mr. the former for to .

the person tied hands and feet to these posts. to preserve the affections of their lovers.SUPERSTITION AND WITCHCRAFT IN NEGROLAND. be bitten by inoculated into his body. They are believers in witchcraft to an unlimited extent. reptiles. during effervescence. which 49 to possess particularly healing virtues. to the patient to drink. cast into the bush. once accused of witchcraft. or any sort of clothing worn by such a person until it has become perfectly saturated with filth. and suspended over the fire. " To become a witch-doctor of any importance. a person is required to be instructed by one previously well versed in the mysHe must begin his lessons by swallowing teries of the black art. and drinking it " off for granted that the 36. thus being slowly burnt . a corner of this treasure is washed. and then red-hot coals are placed on different parts of the body." Anderssori's Africa. I once obtained the character of a wizard by mixing a seidlitz-powder. having called upon Mr. No one must pity a witch. The son of the Governor of Kano. and four posts sunk into the ground. sometimes they are left to die there at other times they are taken down before death. On emergencies. 5 . venomous A cap." is supposed Anderssorfs Africa. is burnt most cruelly. for the spectators took it water was boiling. they understand by the term is very difficult to say. and left to perish miserably.." Draysorfs Africa. and there left to eat into the : flesh. page 256. and the dirty water thus produced is given animal poison. or have poison a handkerchief. and even to destroy a hated rival. hyena. page 173. "On other portions of the coast their customs are more cruel about witchcraft than among the Greboes. page 344. In some places a slow fire is made. Sometimes they torture them a different fashion they are fastened down so that they cannot move. but what. at certain distances. is considered the most infallible cure for all kinds of diseases. . page "The ladies solicited amulets to restore their beauty. Any one." Brittari's Every-Day Life in Africa. etc. poisonous bites.

Another of these extra barbarous devices takes place when a chief by his calling in a magician commencing. other- prevent any evil approaching their dwellings. half full of water. that the English had the power of converting men into asses. 1 subscribed to the witches' caldron of Macbeth. if he ascertains a war is by inspecting the blood and bones of a fowl which he has flayed for that purpose. goats. stated it as the conviction of the whole city and 1m own. page 22. commenced at once. is considered a specific. These people were distinguished from others by witch-like chaplets of various dried roots worn upon the head some of them had dried lizards. whereon he lays a small child and a fowl side by side. but. still and then looks to see if his victims are when. Wool . of . frog. crocodiles' teeth. only inverted. " In times of tribulation. should they be dead. to step over his sacrifice and insure themselves victory. the war must be deferred. when placed on the back. having laid it lengthwise on a path. Lizard's leg and owlet's wing. cooks for a certain period of time." ray's African Discoveries. page 162. Adder's fork and blind worm's sting. or " To " The king was surrounded by sorcerers. added to their collection of charms. and likewise that by reading in his book he Murcould at any time commute a handful of earth into gold. page 21.bat and tongue of dog. and covers them over with a second large earthen vessel. projected. the magician. wishes to make war on when he sets fire below. and over its mouth a grating of sticks." Speke's Africa. They could havo . and monkeys. Clapperton." Speke's Africa. both men and women. over a fire. just like the first. and.50 SUPERSTITION AND WITCHCRAFT IN NEGROLAND. a squashed any other such absurdity. directs all the warriors. flays a young child. The doctor places a large earthen vessel. " Eye of newt and toe of frog. to keep the steam his neighbor. living or dead. wise. on proceeding to battle. lions claws and minute tortoiseshells. to discover a propitious time for in.

Kukiya was remarkable on account of a peculiar many remains of pagan rites still lingering in these countries. and as the : people had told him) that." Baker's Great Basin of the Nile.." Bartfts Africa. page 427. II. page 411. Like a hell-broth boil and bubble. Vol.. page 107. when I was quietly sitting in my house. as soon as a thunder-storm was gathering. one of the governor's servants. which testified to the village." Moore's Inland Parts of Africa. the people are all up firing at it and as I do not find that they ever had the good fortune to shoot any of them. and who used to call occasionally. as soon as I looked at the clouds with a certain air of command. and. creatures still continue in the opinion of their being witches." page 509. II. the poor .SUPERSTITION AND WITCHCRAFT IN NEGROLAND. placed one upon the other. 51 For a charm of powerful trouble. and was supposed to guarantee prolificness to the mares of the in " A tree charm. It consisted of two earthen pots. " On the 21st of June. which in the night make a very dismal noise. and are taken by the natives for witches. who was well disposed toward me. " Black magic is usually punished by the stake. and when the clouds appeared in the sky. In some parts . after some hesitation and a few introductory remarks. If one of these birds happens to come into a town at night. and filled with a peculiar substance. suddenly made his appearance with a very serious countenance. they passed by withEarth's Africa. him that they had repeatedly noticed that. " In this part of Africa are a sort of screech-owls. delivered a message from He wanted to know from the governor to the following effect me whether it was true (as was rumored in the town. out bringing a single drop of rain. Vol. I went out of my house and made the clouds withdraw for they had assured .

is safe from being burned at no one." Burton's Africa. Here and there. away. and like demeanor is serious as the occasion he is carefully his head is adorned with the diminutive antelope. a heap 01 two of ashes. The prospect cannot be contemplated without horror. they render their subjects' lives as precarious as they well can . no predict. and begins by exhorting the highest possible offertory. especially a day's notice. calamity. and the following is the usual programme when the oracle is to be The magician brings his implements in a bag of consulted : matting ." two upper incisors before the lower. with a few calcined and blackened human bones mixed with bits of half-consumed charcoal. the roadside shows. Held in the right hand. Burton's Africa. magician has many other implements of his craft. Divination by the gourd has already been described the . and the direction of the end points to the safe . at every few miles. and death " The dirty principal instrument of the magician's craft is one of the little gourds which he wears in a bunch round his waist. page 96. The kasanda is a system of folding triangles not unlike those upon which plaything soldiers are mounted.52 SUPERSTITION AND WITCHCRAFT IN NEGROLAND. or sold to the slave-merit will bring disease. under the impression that into the household. lest. which is placed upon a low stool. No pay. of the country." Burton's "With the aid of slavery and black magic. surrounded by four tails of the zebra or the buffalo lashed to sticks planted upright in the ground. in his parents' path. horns fastened by a thong of leather above the forehead. in old age. Some prophesy by the motion of berries swimming in a cup full of water. a smaller heap shows that some wretched child has shared their terrible fate. Africa. telling the tragedy that has been enacted there. he should follow page 92. it is thrown out. " The is child who cuts the either put to death. or is given chant. his greased. growing up. He sits a sultan upon a dwarf of stool in front of the querist. close to the larger circles where the father and mother have been burnt. page 94.

II." Valdez's Africa. and the claws of certain birds. they return and have recourse to their diviners. any one of their idols they whistle into the horn. . The shero is hollow. These customs are observed by the chiefs themselves as lawful and necessary. Vol. which have for a certain pei'iod been buried under their beds. a projection like a nozzle." Du Ckaillu's Equa- page 383..SUPERSTITION AND WITCHCRAFT IN NEGROLAND. ignite some gun- powder which has been thrown into it. extracted from fawns of a month old. Vol. and not unlike a pair of bellows. on setting out on a journey. page 330. by some accident. and throwing into the cavity the claws of certain birds. very superstitious. the all these heads of certain snakes. placed to float. they will take the horn of a stag. If.. II. They also preserve the powder of a certain kind of wood. with a dwarf handle. and in the circular centre a is This prestidigitation. page 330. or if even a stick falls across it. and man believes what his fancy. and then dance and sing. 53 probably the rudest appliance of a bit of wood about the size of a man's hand. and fill When they desire a favor from it with a particular kind of paste. being considered as antidotes against disease. him 5* as hurtful or beneficial. a stag or goat crosses their path. " Some of their practices are most ridiculous. Having anointed themselves with some preparation of aromatic herbs and roots. gives an evil omen if it tends toward the sides. and roots. most forci- bly presents to torial Africa. and fa vox-able if it veei*s toward the handle of the nozzle. taking a large horn. they consider that they may proceed on their journey without danger." little Burton's Africa. " The natives of Bihe are. some feathers." Voided s Africa. " every Superstition seems in these countries to have run wild. For instance. This is filled with water. Then. cover it with the skin of a monkey. they throw into it three smaller ones. and auspicious route. and a grain or fragment of wood. to interpret this formidable omen. page 509. in many particulars.

through his fears. and white. of the feathers of rare birds. and spotted all over with spots the size of a peach. of the skin and bones of serpents. " father and mother . Every greegree haa . . all is kept silent in the village. etc. He covers himself with fetiches and charms makes presents to the idol. in black. and the wives their husand really often becomes sick . In the dim moonlight he had a frightful appearance. He fancies himself sick. without speaking a word. which made me shudder at first.54 SUPERSTITION AND WITCHCRAFT IN NEGROLAND. page 141. " I noticed tion which is common in the village of Yoongoolapay a custom or superstito all the tribes I have visited. At least seventy-five per cent. the man his wife band. Chance turns their suspicions to some unlucky individual who is supposed to have a reason for a grudge." Africa. becomes infected by his fears. or supposed reason for which. of the deaths in all the tribes are murders for supposed sor- on whom cery. of the dried flesh and brains of animals. page 386. red. Gradually the village . On the first night when the new moon is visible. If the African is once possessed with the belief that he is bewitched. I have never been able to persuade any one to tell me. wait for a death. etc. He becomes suspicious of his dearest friends. and the rea- son. The father dreads his children the son his . but begin at once the work of butchering those public suspicion is fastened. of the ashes of certain kinds of wood.. " made Greegrees are generally worn about the neck or waist are of the skins of rare animals. and to Abainbou and Mbuirri and is full of wonderful and frightful dreams. his nature seems to change. but he only answered by pointing to the Du Chaillu's Equatorial moon. The people grow suspicious. nobody speaks but in an under-tone and in the course of the evening King Alapay came out of his house and danced along the street. I asked him body painted why he painted thus. Finally the excitement becomes too high to be restrained and often they do not even itself . the teetlr . his face and ." Du Chaillu's Equatorial Africa. By night he thinks himself surrounded with evil spirits. which all point to the fact that the village is full of wicked sorcerers. of the claws of birds. of crocodiles or leopards.

. . no bullet can hit him. the was brought white ' men sick. in answer to my question. I was met by the crowd returning. fearing lest it soberly . coming to the table and seeing only the meat. with an iron chain about his neck. he has fallen a victim. cutlass. nor even the pork. It is roondah for me. I asked why. every man armed with axe. for which reason the crocodile was roondah to that family. and others make the mother's breast abound in milk for her babe. and turning my step toward the river. If the charm fails. but was most welcome for a change. And then. another protects against sorcery . explained that the meat of the bos brachicheros was forbidden to his family. and bodies. his faith is none the less firm. One protects from sickness another makes the heart of the hunter or warrior brave another gives success to the lover . some cure sterility. They finished by splitting open his skull and scattering the brains in the water. The charmed leopard's skin. and when the carcass good fellow sent me an abundant supply of the best portions. all sprinkled with the blood of their In their frenzy they had tied the poor wizard to a log victim. or spear." Du Chaillu's Equatorial Africa. page 63. bull. I had a great piece boiled for dinner. and then deliberately hacked him into many pieces. when." page 385. and to this torial Africa.SUPERSTITION AND WITCHCRAFT IN NEGROLAND. near the river bank. and expected King Quengueza to eat as much as would make several hungry " One of the hunters had shot a wild in. Quengueza would never touch my salt beef. for then it is plain that some potent and wicked sorcerer has worked a too powerful counter. he refused to touch it. and these weapons and their own hands. is supposed to render that worthy spear-proof and. for the reason that many to a calf instead of a child. Judge of my surprise. and was an abomination to them. whom they denounced as a wizard. but the king replied veiy that he could show me a woman of another family whose grandmother had given birth to a crocodile. spell. knife. Du Chaillu's Equa- "Guessing the rascals had killed the poor old man. generations ago one of their women gave birth I laughed. The meat is tough.' he replied. worn about the warrior's middle. and arms. 55 a special power.

56 SUPERSTITION AND WITCHCRAFT IN NEGROLAND. quite the largest in height and circumference I ever saw in Africa. It was a real monarch of "When we way from even this great forest. that scarce a man can be found to whom some article of food is not had been roondah. being so was highly venerated by the people. till the top reached far above all the surrounding trees. entirely branchless. who call it the oloumi. and I found. and give shape of the animal which is birth to mon- strosities in the of an awful disease. They will literally suffer the pangs of starvation rather ' than break through this prejudice and they firmly believe that if one of a family should eat of such forbidden food. I found that this tree to the height of at least Africa. twenty feet." Du Chaillu's Equatorial The morning before we set out. Its kind is not common even here. the women of . we accidentally stumbled across one of those acts of barbarism which chill the blood of a man. . page 308. and with features once mild and good. page 355. some hippopotamus. I noticed a little us an extraordinary tree. on inquiry afterward. though but slightly regarded by the negroes. which I wanted much for my collection of birds. For this reason great strips were torn off this tree what like high. and all from this same belief. Indeed they are all religiously in contact with the beef. and here a It was the corpse of a woman. but could not give much shade. I was hunting in the woods near the village. By dint of much exercivilized tion. scrupulous in this matter. It rose in one straight and majestic trunk. the same family would surely miscarry. some monkey. There at the top the branches were spread out some- an umbrella. stopped for breakfast next day. young ghastly sight met my eyes. where its home is said to be. Its bark are said to have certain healing properties. She had beeii evidently." Du roondah. some boa.' Some dare not taste crocodile. I " penetrated the jungle to the foot of the tree. and is also in request from a belief that if a man going off on a ti-ading expedition washes himself first all over in a decoction of its juices in water. or else die Chaillu's Equatorial Africa. and saw sitting on a tree at some distance a pair of beautiful green pigeons. he will be lucky and shrewd in making bargains. some Avild pig.

this priest the medicine-man or fetich-doctor. that no one dies a natural death. The ceremony of rainmaking is that of covering mounds with branches of trees and ornaments of fetich. and of walking round these. is all that is required. and had not to wait for the slower process of agonized starvation to which such victims are left. with his body straight and his feet in the air. he preserves his reputation by declaring that the patient has been bewitched. page 288. . This is a common mode of tormenting with these people. with great ease and rapidity. and obtains more money by discovering the sorcerer. which in Congo never vary more than a few days. muttering incantations. " He is consulted in cases of sickness and witchcraft. for this. AND IDOLATRY WHEN the Congo priest appears in public he walks on his hands. page 156. PRIESTCRAFT. There is still another priest. tured. PRIESTCRAFT. I could only hope the poor girl died of her wounds. He can walk in this manner. IN NEGROLAND. and torThe torture consisted in lacerations of the flesh all over the body. through constant practice. tied AND IDOLATRY. a knowledge of the seasons." Readers Savage Africa. CHAPTER FETICHISM. and is To the cunning of may easily be traced that superstition which I have described as prevalent in Equatorial Africa. serted. Will the reader think hard of me that I felt it in my heart to go back to the village and shoot every man who had a hand in this monstrous barbarity ? " Du Chaillu's Equatorial Africa. and as devilish Then the corpse was dein ingenuity as anything could well be. VII. and in the cuts red peppers had been rubbed. who officiates as rain-maker .FET1CHISM. 57 up here on some infernal accusation of witchcraft. If any one dies in spite of the medicines of the priest.

he pounds up some fetich substance. page 130. to a thousand different objects. and they deliver "There is one peculiar form. and make them the gods of his gross idolatry. naming. which deserves to be recorded. In view of a separation which will most probably prevent them from ever again worshipping the boossum. and to seek. aware of the necessity of making a deep impression upon such momentous occasions. remain stead. idol in Africa confines the idolater to no particular as he attributes his prosperity to the protecting care of his fetich. II. and mixes it with water into a drink. repair to the chief " boossum to make their offerings and sacrifice. he will. they repair to the priest. awe the minds of the sup- their oracles in such enigmatical lanas may be capable of a double interpretation. . while the latter cannot rest until he has found a relief from his troubles . and he worship. or sofoo. as fancy directs him. with their chiefs and head men. such as a drought. through the intercession of the priests. When any calamity is general." Cruickguage shantfs Africa. . fowl. The prosperous man is thei-efore confined in his worship to fewer idols and observances than the unfortunate. eggs. IL. to which they have made their - devotions hitherto. mutton.58 FETICHISMj PRIESTCRAFT. a mitigation and a release from their sufferings. pork. While partaking of this strange communion. " Idol worship worship of that particular fetich but when difficulties is beset with perplexities. perhaps. a dearth. and hence the multiplication of his idols and of his modes of fast to the arise. milk. he will range at will. The former has faith in the power of his idol. which the whole family swallow together. which the fetich worship of a family about to be separated takes. or want of success in war. Vol. These priests. calculated to plicants. or any- . as long as his prosperity continues. surround the whole of their proceedings with a fearful secrecy and mysterious solemnity. beef." CruickshanK's Africa. a pestilence. and having explained their wants. the whole population or their representatives. as in it we have no external representation of an idol. Vol. the priest declares to them that his boossum commands that none of this family shall ever after partake of such and such an article of food. page 132. AND IDOLATRY.

and even the little children are covered with these talismans. Mahommedanism has all not penetrated which I believe in witchcraft. think is more prevalent in the West than in the East. "Their fetiches consisted of fingers and tails of monkeys. sity of Vol. who are under the neces. and wood . and ashes of various beasts. feathers. fetiches. CruickshanJc'a Africa. of human or hair. old skulls of birds . They place especial value on charms which are supposed to have the Chief among these is to protect their owner in battle. causing Du Chaillu's Ashango-Land. .59 thing which he edict once may choose to mention at the time." IL. duly consecrated by the doctor or -greegree man of the tribe. The fetich pronounced against a particular article of food under such circumstances. shells. and hanging in value. . copper. "The Fans have a great reverence for charms and fetiches. "Their religion. ashes of various substances and I . copper chains. iron chain. and next to it small bag. is the same in all tribes. feathers of birds. and claws of other beasts. shells. this. This is worn over Besides the left shoulder. and the bowels contains various fragments of others. and so on and this abstinence from a particular species of food descends to the children. seeds of plants pieces of iron. page 128. observing a similar abstinence. no one of the family ever tastes it more and thus we find one who will not taste a bit of chicken. skin. They and all believe in the power of their idols. such as dried monkeys' tails." Du Chaillu's Equatorial Africa. which is suspended round the neck or to the side of the warrior. of clay. They page 428. an untold amount of slaughter. cannot tell what move. is down the right side. nails. claws. of which the links are an inch and a half long by power an an a inch wide. This bag is make of the skin of some rare animal. a turkey. if it may be called so. page 133. another an egg. in charms. teeth. bones. in evil and good spirits. From the great variety and plenty of ." into this vast jungle.

and low hut. I suppose these superstitious people. and to witness a great ceremony in the sacred house. and mixing the decoction with clay. I had remarked that the further I travelled toward the interior. AND IDOLATRY." 313. forty or fifty feet long. others had leaves twisted in the shape of horns behind their ears. they looked like a troop of devils assembled in the lower regions to celebrate some diabolical rite. and. and the more roughly they were sculptured. by the light of their toi'ches. the other white. Around their legs were bound white leaves from the heart of the palm-tree . " As we came away from Mouina's village. They all drink it. This ceremony is called muavi. the coarser these wooden idols were. and black colors. and ten feet broad. There they would be compelled to drink an infusion of a plant named goho. The rest of the Ashangos were also streaked and daubed with various colors. and in the middle of the breast a broad yellow sti-ipe. ranged in order on each side. and remain fasting till that person has made . and was painted in red. a witch-doctor. arrived. When I entered the hut it was full of Ashango people. who had been sent for. one side of the face red. dressed in clothes of vegetable fibre. each one holding up. Amongst them were conspicuous two priests. Fan to these objects on their persons. This idol was kept at the end of a long." Du Chaillu's Equatorial Africa. . as with lighted torches stuck in the ground before them. page palm-leaves in their hands. and all Mouina's wives went forth into the fields that morning fasting. " This evening I went to see the village idol (the patron saint it may be called). the circuit of the eye was also daubed with paint.' which is used as an ordeal. an infusion cf the plant. be a very page 93.' and is performed ' ' in this way : When a man suspects that any of his wives has bewitched him. and all had a bundle of Du Chaillu's Ashango-Land. white. he sends for the witch-doctor and all the wives go forth into the field. narrow. the idol was a monstrous and indecent representation of a female figure in wood. As with the Aviia and other tribes. These colors are made by boiling various kinds of wood. with their skins painted grotesquely in various colors. some wore feathers.60 FETICHISM) PRIESTCRAFT.

plastered over with soft clay. greater 503. On getting up to see what it was. Livingstone's " At different points in our course we came upon votive offerThese usually consisted of food and every to the Barimo. resembling an alligator. surrounded by gardens of maize and manioc. 6 . " I was disturbed this evening from my repose. while those whom it purges are pronounced guilty. if one were not told so. under the pale moonlight. common in Londa. and near each of these I observed. beating tune to her wild manoeuvres. number of idols they contain. however. a wife of one of the ser' vants. made of clay. with the head of an ox in it as an object of worship. page "We passed two small hamlets. The dreary uniformity of gloomy forests and open flats must have a depressing influence on the minds of the people. the Devil. It is called a lion. Those who vomit it are considered innocent. It is formed of grass.FETIGHISM." Livingstone's Africa. She threw herself upon the ground in all directions. and numbers of the bristles from the tail of an elephant are stuck in about the neck. and put to death by burning. 61 her hand to heaven in attestation of her innocency." Livingstone's Africa." Africa. coming from a group of our black servants. time. I found that one of our negresses. Her actions were. was performing Boree. Two cowrie-shells are inserted as eyes. by the most unearthly noises. and the Balonda pray and beat drums before it all night in cases of sickness. somewhat regulated by a man tapping upon a kettle with a piece of wood. page 304. on the dry sand. he would conclude it to be an alligator. though. AND IDOLATRY. if we may judge from the .' and working herself up into the belief that his Satanic majesty had possession of her. an ugly idol. and imitated the cries of various animals. for the first the figui'e of an animal. PRIESTCRAFT. After some delay. It stood in a shed. One afternoon we passed a small frame house. Some villages appear more superstitious than others. ings deserted village still contained the idols and little sheds with pots of medicine in them. page 666.

they sitting. to us they all appeared to be so. The whole of the women forming this strange procession might amount to be saw her. supported fetich god. as they were considered by the natives too poor a diet to offer to their deity. for not one of them seemed in their sober senses. I. passed through the town.. with her whole body. PRIESTCRAFT) AND IDOLATRY. Indeed. by whom she was preceded. some of which he might also be able to eat. and pressed their heads between not in the most decent her legs. . . believing herself now possessed. Vol. We were particularly enjoined to roast no yams under him. Vol. motions. who were squatting down on their hams. She then took each by the head and neck. ready to receive her. not to be mentioned. We were desired to roast our ually by bullock under him. II.62 FETICniSM. way. " At the back of our hut stands a hut. with large-spreading branches of trees in their hands. and her features shockingly distorted. The priestess was then believed to be possessed with a demon. " This day a long and gay procession. certain inelegant Richardson's Africa. she standing.. supporting the trembling hands and arms of their mistress. and was carried on the shoulders of one of the devotees. if he desired. that he might enjoy the savory smell of the smoking meat. nor was her agitation so great as that of the priestess. at the time we had just swallowed fetich water. and made over them. Her body was convulsed all over. walking and dancing alternately. in a small thatched by four wooden pillars. and carried along in the same manner as her mistress but she was by no means so uncouth a figure. which is watched contintwo boys and a woman. A younger woman was likewise borne on the shoulders of a friend. and capable of performing her work." Lander's Travels in Africa. The priestess. so indescribably fantastic were their actions. formed by the female followers of the ancient religion of the country." page 286. she went forward to half a dozen of our servants. while she stared wildly and vacantly on the troop of enthusiasts and other objects which surrounded her. who was assisted by two female companions. page 163. and so unseemly did they deport themselves.

page 318. made of stained . a class of beings certainly in the most savage condition of nature that it is possible to imagine. PRIESTCRAFT. presented one of the most extraordinary and grotesque spectacles that the human mind can conceive. or sacred . so that they . besides dressing after a fashion of their own but these fellows outdo them by far. but they go about the town with a human skull fastened over their face. ble." Lander's Travels in Africa. grass and. skull of a still II. Vol. a bullock's tail protrudes through the dress and hangs down to the ground. shrill voices. and is supposed to possess the virtue of preventing the evil spirit from entering the chiefs residence.FETICniSM. " Immediately opposite to the first square. and to this music they They were arranged in couples. and. Chief of fell ill in the autumn of 1858. which forms the entrance to the chief's residence. Their motions were regulated at times by the sound of drums and fifes. pi-ofusely decorated with human skulls and bones. L. 63 tween ninety and a hundred. stands a small tree. which I had not sufficient opportunity to inquire into. but which are quite enough to enslave the minds of the people. can see tlu-ough the eye-holes this is surmounted by a pair of bullock's horns their body is covered with net. I could not learn . with the branches of trees shaking in the air. . his re- . Near the tree stands the house which is inhabited by fetich priests. This tree is considered by the people as fetich. dog or monkey used. . ren. Whether it may be with the idea of personifying the evil spirit they are so afraid of. and make themselves the most hideous and disgusting objects possible. "Becoming obese by age and good living. joined their wild. dering them altogether the most uncouth-looking beings imaginaSometimes a cocked-hat is substituted for the horns. Vol. the Unyannvezi. AND IDOLATRY. and." Lander's Travels in Africa. Thus equipped they are ready to perform the mysteries of their profession. page 322. to complete the whole and give them an appearance as ridiculous behind as they are hideous before. which renders their appeai'ance. The fetich priests of Brass town chalked themselves from head to foot. if more grotesque. and the possible. as usual. Fundikira.

and singles out the person upon whom she alights. for the magician must surely die. mother the tail shows that the criminal is the wife. and the injured shanks or feet the other slaves. and stars in certain positions. throws her up into the air above the heads of the crowd. The consequence of certain and immediate death the mode is chosen . were suspected of compassing his end by black magic. enemies with sickness. For women they practise a peculiarly horrible kind of impalement. In these regions the death of one man causes many. Confession is extorted by tying the thumb backward till it touches the wrist. he broke the neck of a fowl. after similarly dosing a second hen. wood. They have priests. are looked good." ." upon as servants of the evil being. in one recovers or dies. the backbone convicts the mother and grandand kinsmen . 300. 11 At Whydah I found the natives addicted to a very grovelling . household eighteen souls.64 lations FTICHISM. AND IDOLATRY. " The Shangalla have but one language. or rather diviners but it would seem that these fectly . A star passing near the horns of the moon denotes the coming of an 'enemy. The priest was summoned to apply the usual ordeal. who. serpents. splitting it into two If blackness or blemish appear lengths. they are collected together by the priest. inspected the interior. the moon. Hav. even at a distance. and. and of a very guttural pronunciation. scores will precede him to the Burton's Africa. Vol. others are beheaded or clubbed a common way is to bind the cranium between two stiff pieces of by the priest. the thighs the concubines. about the wings. . rather than of the They prophesy bad events. These atrocities continue until the chief at the commencement of his attack. had been destroyed should his illness be protracted. male and female. which I never could so perunderstand as to give any account of them. it denotes the treachery of children. PRIESTCRAFT. planets. Some are speared. and think they can afflict their Sruce's Travels. ing fixed upon the class of the criminals. which are gradually tightened by cords till the brain bursts out from the sutures. relations. page grave. They worship various trees. After administering a mys- tic drug. or by some equally barbarous mode of condemnation is question.

and addressing to it earnest supplica. brought. he poured into it the articles which he had be among you. in 1694. but our king likes him. " A musket among those tribes is an Murray 's African Discoveries.' Then digging a hole over the grave. he gave them with good-will. for he is a good man but our king does not want to lose him. The death of one of these crawling deities is considered a calamity in the household. the chief of the English factory. was dangerously ill with fever. He then marched to the white man's burial-ground with a provision of brandy. and a third against the disasters of war. " The purposes for which fetiches are used are almost without number. and not his will to Passing on to the grave of Wyburn. you wish it is to have Smith let among you him go to . oil." page 127. and grief for the reptile becomes as great as for a departed parent. whom I dwelt. he sent his fetichman to aid in the recovery. and made a loud oration to those that slept there ' : O you dead white people. It was their belief that the good as well as In the home of the man the evil spirit existed in living iguanas." Footers Africa and the American Flag.' : ! . the founder of the factory." Years of an African Slaver.FETICHISM. another against drought. 65 species of idolatry. speaking to it in whispers. The priest went to the sick man. and you can't have him yet. several of these large lizards were constantly fed and cherished as gods . he addressed him ' You. Canofs Twenty "When the King of Whydah. The factor died notwithstanding. One guards against sickness. ural dread object of almost supernatindividuals have been seen kneeling down before it. One is used to draw 6* . and solemnly announced that he came to save him. and told him that if he needed these things. tions. captain of all the whites who are here Smith's sickness is a piece of your work. nor was any one allowed to interfere with with their freedom. page 266. AND IDOLATRY. page 58. You want his company. heard that Smith. or to harm them even when they grew insufferably offensive. but he must not expect to get Smith. PRIESTCRAFT. and rice.

He steps forth from the boat under a canopy of fetiches. fishermen's net. " And not only are these fetiches regarded as having power to . and especially those lives and takes care of them. in defiance of the fetiches he has set up to protect it. and fish in their waters. . good crops. to make fruitful seasons. the shores of Africa. with courage. representing the heads of animals or human beings. after planting his feet upon fetiches to protect their prise by enemies. he is known to be suffering the consequence of his own rashness. but as own the elements of mischief among . . and there is scarcely a single evil incident to human life which may not be overcome by this means the only condition annexed is that the right kind of fetich be employed. They are set up on their farms. tied around their fruit-trees. where the high-priest Most of these. a larger number are kept under rude shanties at the entrances of their villages but the most important and sacred are kept in a house in the centre of the village. at the entrances of their villages. down and rivers with fishes.66 FETICniSM. makes him invulnerable in war. and around the neck of cuilty for his safety. If a man trespasses upon the property of his neighbor. and are fastened to the necks of their sheep and goats to prevent them from being stolen. and from surThey have others to procure rain. and to cause abundance of game in their woods. and a third fills the sea and makes them willing to be taken in the Insanity is cured by fetiches. rain. PRIESTCRAFT. If he overtaken by a formidable malady or lingering sickness afterward. or forty years. One of the first things which salutes the eyes of a stranger. pestilence. . Some of these are suspended along the highways. and almost always with a formidable pair of horns. at every junction of two or more roads at the crossing-place of every stream at the base of every large rock or overgrown forest-tree at the gate of every village over the door of every house. thirty. women is . even should it be after the lapse of twenty. is the symbols of this religion. the sterility of removed. another secures AND IDOLATRY. not only as a se- a guaranty that he does not carry the people he finds them suspended along every path he walks. They have also national Some are intended to preserve spires a man towns from fire. he is to suffer the penalty or his temerity at is some time or confidently expected other. or paralyzes the energy of an adversary. every human being whom he meets. . others to destroy it. . One inlife. are of the most uncouth forms.

then rush into the streets. until some one announces the departure of the spirits through some gate of the town." ' Wilson's Africa. and these various animals have long their own since been regarded with superstitious veneration. and are worshipped. bodily lacerations. when they are pursued several miles into the woods. that that particular fetich had no special virtues. however. At a given signal. to drive away the evil spirits from their towns. but they are equally omnipotent to shield White men are frequently challenged invulnerability. New page 217. and warned not to come back. " On some parts of the Gold Coast the crocodile is sacred a certain class of snakes. 67 themselves from violence. but because they are regarded as the or dwelling-places of spirits. page 218. and the shark at Bonny. when the people turn out en masse (generally at night) with clubs and torches. like so many frantic maniacs. thought of the indwelling spirit. and the town is once more cheered by an abundance of food. feats of supernatural strength. PRIESTCRAFT. not on . with their torches and clubs. After this the people breathe easier. men.FETICHISM. account. furious ravings. the whole community start up. and other things of a similar character. the kind. Like every other object of temples. perhaps. or it would have defended itself. and scream at the top of their voices. " On the Gold Coast there are stated occasions. Frantic gestures. sleep more quietly. Demoniacal possessions are common." Wilson's Africa. commence a most hideous howling. and the feats performed by those who are supposed to be under such influence are certainly not unlike those described in the Testament. * page 212. destroyed in this way (and this is a very common occurrence). have better health. protect or punish to test their AND IDOLATRY. convulsions. gnashing of teeth." is . foaming at the mouth. the only admission is. on the Slave Coast. while little Wilson's Africa. beat the air. in the course of time the thing signified is forgotten in the representative. beat about in every nook and corner of their dwellings. may be witnessed in most of the cases which are supposed to be under diabolical influences. are all regarded as sacred. by shooting at them and if they are .

nearly were dressed while he made his orations. one of the strangest anomalies in the religious history of mankind. a woman will take off some of her beads and offer them as a present or sacrifice. ' the almost universal worship of serpents. about fifteen inches long." . which seemed to be worn as a necklace around his legs were tied bunches of fetich and he held in his hand an immense Someknife. he set out. and let there be nobody in the world but you and me. PRIESTCRAFT.68 FETICH1SM. times he danced with many frantic gestures and at other times stood gazing around him with every indication of a vacant mind. . is not confined to any particular species of serpent. " In the afternoon. . page 279. I walked forward. AND IDOLATRY. These are additional facts which serve to illustrate the doctrine of They are regarded as representing." Freeman's Africa. I see in your eyes my former chief. and danced to the sound of several drums which were played by females. . A woman was seen one day worshipping a small serpent. and are from five to You can almost always see them crawling . Africa. Anxious to keep him in sight. in some way. Ah. all the principal persons in the town in their gayest attire . and overheard praying to it the unique and selfish prayer. While I was at a distance looking at him. chief objects of worship in cottonwood-tree. past a small shed. are of the boa species. their and hence. let me have plenty. The appearance of the fetichman was very much like that of a clown his face was daubed with white clay he had a large iron chain hanging around his neck. and ran to a distance of about a hundred yards. and saw him standing with a musket at his shoulder. to see and hear the fetichman. Give rain to my garden. page 26. Freeman's taking aim at a turkey-buzzard on a tree hard by. There is Whydah are snakes and a large a snake-house which I used to go often The snakes fifteen feet in length. which would have concealed him from me. in token of ven- " Worship is but ' eration. .' . departed ancestors serpent. a large group of them was collected under the fetich-tree. and two and half broad. extended generally to all.' On meeting a serpent in the road. " The to see. one has been heard addressing a and saying.

followed by the mob. but is now in ruins. page 174. morning. for this was the road to a fetich-house and the fetichman had stuck up those sticks as a warning not to attempt to " We two sticks. and he will be sent for to come and take them West's Afriaway. not to comprehend their palaver. But very few can ever avail themselves of this water cure. upon looking in the room adjoining mine. PRIESTCRAFT. I pretended. in most places I have yet Vol. 1859. however. and houses are built . Such is the superstition. . watching. visited in the interior. It is a great dodge with the fetichman. but vorite resort of the snakes." can Correspondence of the Boston Post. for a native. with a small piece of white cotton rag on the top of each. expecting to see me drop down dead. and is a faI never found one in my room. but they stood trembling. The penalty for killing one is for a white person the price of sixty slaves. them they fall 69 When the natives see down and They are perfectly harmless. and walked on till I was some distance past when I looked round. " The snake is also a fetich or idol here .FETICHISM. It is not at all unfrequent to find them on the mat alongside of you kiss the earth. for which he gets a few strings of cowries." Duncan's Africa. till we came one on each side of the path. passed along a narrow path some distance. The poor fellow has the privilege of getting out if he can. to proceed any further. and then the house is set on fire. as I have often seen the natives take them up and carry them back to the fetich-house. I found one almost seven feet long. and running for in the in what was once an English the lagoon. and if he reaches the water he is at last induced to follow me. one morning. The boys declared that it would be at the peril of my life if I proceeded any further in that direction. if he knows that you are peculiarly averse to this kind of god. they we. AND IDOLATRY. infatuation of the people all along the West Coast. as the huts are without doors. /. about the streets. to bring them near your house and put -them down. I had my lodging fort.. he is shut up in a bamboo house. knowing they will enter. in fact. stuck up. a distance of two miles. After many assurances of the absurdity of such the spot. and ordered them to come on. and.

expires in convulsions. I. root. as jackals' livers. and every kind of tuber. where they are placed on the top of the . baboons' and lions' hearts. conscious that civility is useful everywhere. The rain-doctor selects a particular bulbous root. and circular. yet. in several parts of the accommodation of snakes. paid to these reptiles over the body with the reptile. It is disgusting to witness the homage the natives. These houses are about seven feet high in the walls. When one of them is picked by up by any one. and plant to be found in the country. The snakes are of the boa-constrictor tribe. Although you disbelieve their efficacy in charming the clouds to pour out their refreshing treasures. The inference is obvious. finding it irksome to sit and wait until God gives them rain from heaven.. about eight feet diameter. the internal parts of different animals. Vol. and hairy calculi from the bowels of cows. in five minutes afterward." Livingstone's Africa. for the town where they are regularly fed. page 126. which. and begging to be rubbed wall. others will prostrate themselves as it is carried past.70 RAIN-DOCTORS AND OTHER DOCTORS." Duncan's Africa. with conical roof. page 24. rain follows in a day or two. . throwing dust on their heads. Part of the same bulb is converted into smoke. bulb. pounds it. and are considered quite harmless. when found by any of the natives. such as charcoal made of burned bats. inspissated renal deposit of the mountain cony. although I have my doubts upon it. They generally leave this house at intervals and. under the thatch. entertain the more comfortable idea that they can help themselves by a variety of preparations. and ascends toward the sky . serpents' skins and vertebrae. are taken up and immediately conveyed back to the fetich-house. CHAPTER VIII. " THE natives. RAIN-DOCTORS AND OTHER DOCTORS IN NEGROLAND. and administers a cold infusion to a sheep. you kindly state that you think they are mistaken as to their power.

page 64. II. Lemne was residing here. on another occasion. that a horse died at the village." Vol. and the burden of which is the power and praises of the rain-maker but the fields of young corn become parched and withered. they al- ascribe their want of success to the presence of some mysotherwise terious agency. which whom I am acquainted. This act became a matter of great and it was decided in some . occasion incurring the censure of a whole tribe. Africa. Mr. IL. 71 which the rain-makers propitiate the clouds are practised is by collecting a few leaves of each individual variety of tree in the forest. to remove his house. consultation.RAIN-DOCTORS AND OTHER DOCTORS. " It occurred some time ago. at a time when rain was much wanted. "When ways the rain-makers fail to fulfil their promises. Mr. while the Rev. Vol. with . page 63. these all the rafters from the roof of having been pointed out by the rain-maker as obstructing the success of his incantations. in which all join. and the remainder of the day is spent in dances. in consequence of which. and kept up till midnight. Gumming s 1 Africa.. being accompanied with songs having a long-continued chorus. posed to reach and propitiate the clouds. The one most commonly . while a sheep is killed by pricking it in the heart with a long sewing-needle.their nostrums. infallible which has destroyed the effect of . while the rain-maker is employed in pei'forming a variety of absurd inThe steam arising from the simmering leaves is supcantations. in the summer season. who firmly believed me to have frightened the rain from their dominions by exposing a quantity of ivory at noon-day and. they produce it only as the sun goes down. at which time it is brought for the trader's I remember on one inspection. which are joined in by all the tribe. carefully wrapped in a kaross. Lemne very properly had the carcass of the animal evils arising dragged away to a great distance. One of the anti-rain-making articles is ivory. which they allow to simmer in large pots over a slow fire. its to avoid the from putrefaction in so hot a climate. the chief of a ceitain tribe commanded a missionary. is believed to have great influence in driving away rain." Cumming's in "The modes various.

it is conclusive proof of his qualification to be a doctor. way that this dragging to a distance the remains of the dead horse prevented the rain coming and the chief above named actually sent men. About his neck hung a necklace of grass. on each side of the mouth were two round red spots. . and keeping up his spirits with the constant excitement of dancing and singing within his hut. page 269. which held a box against his breast. " The Km candidate for medical honors is not subject to a formal examination by a board of trustees. His head is then shorn. Another red The face was painted white. who. but is required to evince his proficiency in a different way. His eyelids were painted red. " When all ready for the trial. Vol. The head of a chicken is secretly deposited in one of a number of earthen jars provided required to go and point'out the one in he does this promptly. and stripe passed round his head. The docbadge of office is a monkey's skin. divided his forehead in two parts. to drag it again to the village. at no great distance from Mr. and contains spirits. and the hair is carefully folded up. page 267. ! " They are subject to a variety of diseases which baffle the skill of their medical advisers. and also a cord. who looked literally like the devil. " Freeman's Africa. with leathern cords. is and he which it is secreted. there it was and left to decay placed. have recourse to smearing the patient with cow-dung. I went down to look at the Ouganga doctor. and of which he is quite as proud as his white brother is of his sheep-skin diploma. and a red stripe. If for his tor's good behavior and faithful discharge of duty. and is the occasion of unbounded exultation on the part of his friends. and is sometimes pawned as a security for the occasion. page 134. This little box is sacred. Lemne's house." Wilson's Africa. I. I never saw a more ghastly object. and kept as an indispensable means of success. in such cases..72 RAIN-DOCTORS AND OTHER DOCTORS. which he carries in the form of a roll wherever he goes. and ." Steedmari's Africa. He had on a high head-dress of black feathers. from the nose upward.

dressing. at last who. "A face Half his body was painted red and the other half white his was daubed with streaks of black^ white." Du ChaiHiCs Equatorial Africa. In the village. A . and the doctor had commenced his O divinations. which he shook frequently during his incantations. decked out in the most fantastic man-* ner. I stood near him. as also several skins. to be the refuge of many spirits. and had charms attached to them.' speaking. The this course. the doctor declared that he could not find any 'witch-man. and mummery have the same object in view. their incantations for quite a while. he wore a string of little bells around his body. All the people . I arrived at the place. a witness once again of which was different from that of the ' Commi people seen formerly by me.' but that an evil spirit dwelt in the village. all the painting. page 282. During the whole operation.RAIN-DOCTORS AND OTHER DOCTORS. celebrated doctor had been sent for from a distance. and red and. and appeared in the morning. 73 number of strips of leopard and other skins crossed his breast and were exposed about his person and all these were charmed. A 7 . of the village gathered about this couple. the old cheat looked in the glass to see the result. after continuing came to the climax. . in order to impress on the people a due sense of his supernatural powers of divination . On this stood a looking-glass. after all the names were called. namely. snake-bones. to strike awe black earthenware vessel filled into the minds of the people. when gloomy ceremony. As each name was called. before which stood another box containing charms. Jombuai was told to call over the names of persons if iu order that the doctor might ascertain any one of those named did the sorcery. beside which lay a buffalo-horn containing some black powder. From each shoulder down to and one hand was painted quite his hands was a white stripe white. At last. of . he wore around his neck a great quantity of fetiches. Near by stood a fellow beating a board with two sticks. in addiHe had a little basket of tion. and many of the people would die if they continued there. 4 \He sat on a box or stool. as related in Adventures in The doctor counterfeited his voice when Equatorial Africa. and said. to which little bells were attached. To complete this horrible array. which seemed to trouble him greatly. villagers were assembled.

beginning at the foot and gradually ascending to the head. Finally. I knew the old chief had been regularly attended by a female doctor. and so the operations ended. she chewed a of some kind of roots and seeds." ango-Land. with water. made contortions with his body. shook his head. having well quantity charged her mouth with saliva. Having continued this wholesome friction for some time.74 RAIN-DOCTORS AND OTHER DOCTORS. and surrounded by charmed ochre and fetiches. then repeated the mummeries over again. she took a bunch of a particular kind of grass. At length. Before him was extended the skin of a wild animal. seated on his stool. and often wondered what she did to him. . spat upon him in different places. submitting to all that was done with the utmost gravity and patience. lighting it. The woman was engaged in what rubbing his body all over with her hands. page 173. in a low voice. she took a piece of alumbi chalk and made with it a broad stripe along the middle of his chest and down each arm. when the torch remained too long. one morning I happened to go into his house when she was administering her cures. and. This done. which he waved over it. looked intently and mysteriously into the water. touched with the flame the body of her patient in various places." lu's Ashango-Land. then looked into a lighted torch. served the purpose of the looking-glass used by the coast tribes. The doctor. and. and remained an interesting spectator to watch her operations. trying to look as ugly as he could. Mayolo was seated on a mat. but aiming her heaviest shots at the pails most affected. I must relate I saw afterwards in the course of Mayolo's illness. which had been gathered when in bloom and was now dry. words which I could not understand. and concluded by pronouncing that the persons who were bewitching the village were people belonging to the place. When the flame was extinguished. the woman applied the burnt part of the torch to her Du Chaillu's Ashpatient's body. page 169. I could perceive that Mayolo smarted with the pain of the burns. Du Cliail- " Whilst I am on the subject of native doctoring. muttering all the while.

" in Africa. 75 CHAPTER IX. go entirely naked . all black as a coal. " The Shangalla of both sexes. II. I. their bodies rubbed with ashes. SSAMELESSNESS^ AND PROSTITUTION. in woods and solitudes. any punishment annexed to the transgression. having a high peak. till long past the age of puberty. They are something superlative in the way of savages. fellows are the most unearthly-looking devils I ever saw. page 307. page 42." Vol. and in constant conversation and habits with each other. participating in the frolic with all their hearts. A three-cornered rush or straw hat. SUAMELESSNESS. while single. but without a brim. was a circle of naked savage women. the married men. who were performing the oddest antics imaginable and still nearer stood a wild-looking group of their male companions. the men as naked as they came into the world . and their hair stained red by a plaster of ashes and cow's urine. It is curious to observe among these wild savages the consummate vanity displayed in their that of the men . was Lander's Travels the only article of dress worn by these men. and married women the same. the body being entirely nude. NAKEDNESS. Young men and young women. CLOSE to the place where we stood.. and without Bruce's Africa. The unmarried women are also entirely naked the married have a fringe made of grass around their loins. " The natives came down to the boats. . have a very slender covering about their waist. being simplified by the sole covering of the head. is These there no other expression for them. are totally uncovered.. Vol. page 558. indeed. resting on their tall spears and *' . AND PROSTITUTION IN NEGKOLAND. free from constraint. " There is little difficulty in describing the toilet of the natives." Baker's Great Basin of the Nile.NAKEDNESS.

he evidently considered himself above such weak superstition. and give them up to their wild warriors. violated erty. I. Most young women are frequently and forcibly before marriage .76 XAXEDSESS) SHAMELESSNESSj ASD PEOSTITUT/oy. and so elaborate is the coiffure that hairdressing is reduced to a science. large-bodied old man if he did not would be better to adopt a little covering. I told him that.* it They have even lost the tradition of think I asked a fine. shall we put on. that to perfect the coiffure of a man requires Baker $ Great Login of ike a period of from eight to ten years. the property of his neighbor . I should have my with a pitying family with me.. with ' wholesale and periodical rape. on my return. Vol.** we having no clothing? It was con-^ when I told them that. and unchanging fa for dressing the hair .*' Alexander'* Africa.* constitutes a very black feature in their character. fig-leaf. is its great incontinence. a good joke they must put on a bunch of grass. and laughed with surprise at my thinking him at all indecent. European ladies would be startled at the fact. This I do not dunk has been noticed before in any account of the Kaffirs and. " There is no difference between the sexes during their early . '* Among the worst characteristics of Kaffir society. they a number of young women. : . What sidered else. but They walk about without the smallest sense of shame.*1 Nile. He looked leer. Every tribe has a distinct head-dresses. Adultery also The folis frequent among them . lowing I know to be a fact A Kaffir coveted a handsome cow. page 590. page 42. or one with a musical voice. page 397. and the injured husband secured the object of his seize . " The women the the men go * in puris naturalibns. clothe themselves better than the Balonda. desires. and no one must come near us in that state. he ordered his wife to throw herself in his neighbor's way the guilty pah: were detected . and the fine is merely a cow. if they had nothing Livingstone'* Africa. and widows are considered public prop- When the chiefs wish to carry any particular point.

77 sense of shame or modesty seems altogether unknown rears. morning a Vey aml in Africa will frequently bathe in public." much given to intrigue. The remainder of the daylight is passed either in gossip or a second siesta. which he basks till moontide. In fact die slaves of a household. till.. furnish a third meal. True to his nature. and Equatorial Africa* an unknown D* duuU*s " Some of their customs are so obscene that even the record of them would be inadmissible here.' Canoft Ttctxty Tears of am. form the 1 entire working class of Africa. African Slaver. to swallow his rice. bnshman rises in the where back to his mat. . page 430. and before . and stretch his wearied limbs before a blazing fire 'to refresh him for the toils of the succeeding day. Dress must have been the invention of some clever woman to ensnare the passions of men. and offer themselves as wive?. they supposed ' 7* . at sundown. Vol. knowing me to be a stranger with no wife. nothing so moral and so repulsive as nakedness.11 Talda* Africa. "The women chastity is in all the tribes are virtue. his other wives wash his body." Readet Savage Africa.SBAHELESSNESSi AST) PROSTITUTION. without the slightest shame. Young men erroneously suppose that there is something voluptuous in the excessive dishabille of is " Women an equatorial girL On the contrary. page 163. strangers. They replied that their object was to obtain a dram of rum. nor is it unusual to find ten or a dozen of both genders huddled promiscuously beneath a roof whose walls an A not more than fifteen feet square. page 424. when another wife serves him a second meal. or disregarded . and desired my servants to ask them what they wanted. together with its females. and is invariably placed in the sunshine. saying that every great man had a number of wives. " This freedom of the women I did not much relish. . XT. and.

Even those among the men whose behavior was least vile and revolting did not cease urging us to engage with the women." . While describing his reception at the court of the chief. page 390. firmed by Belal. an account which was rather conbefore the eyes of his people. Ogilby^s Africa. could scarcely be taken as a joke. II. at all times chew and eat such herbs and barks of trees as are the greatest incentives to heighten their desires to almost hourly congresses. and if continually troubled with a furor uterinus. wanted a few. AND PROSTITUTION. I. I. page 216... . Vol. but their ability answers not their desire however. he said. their too frequent actions and their dealing with variety of women draw upon them no small inconveniences. His majesty. Vol. of whom he had two hundred. Earth's Africa. a very jovial old fellow. that of course I 172.78 NAKEDNESS. was in a certain degree subject to Bornu but it seemed rather an ironical assertion that this prince would be pleased with the arrival of the expedition. also stated that this little prince was not jealous of the favors bestowed by his female partners who was upon his guests." page 408. gave them up to them. but. on the contrary. Some of the particularly in the hinder regions. Nor do the women fall short of the men in their unchastity. It women were immensely fat. the scout 'The chief jnst mentioned . who failed not to present themselves soon after4 The women what is wards. Belal." "The people in general are very libidinous. the rulers of indulged in a lively description of the customs prevalent among these people. brethren or husbands." Duncan's Africa. SHAMELESSNESS. page of Inasamet not only made the first advances. but. wholly giving themselves up to venereal exercises.. they were offered even by the men.. who had been his host several times. used to indulge in amorous intercourse with his female slaves. that he himself voluntarily Earth's Africa. their worse. Vol.

as long as the wine is obtainable. . palm-wine . DRUNKENNESS AND DEBAUCHERY IN NEGROLAND. " The king's usual way of living is to sleep all day. ' I am came inaudible. they are a merry people. I had not been in his place long before he ordered another calabash full of palm-wine. page 260. will sit and drink till daylight. 79 CHAPTER X. and if he has any strong liquors. he will sit and drink for five or six days together. and wild uproar. was drunk when I arrived. together with dancing. Happily the palm-wine season lasts only a few months in the year. Like most drunken people they become quarrelsome and being a lively and excitable race. for. Indeed. is the chief amusement. which last all night. . " THE large quantity of palm-trees in and around the village furnishes the inhabitants of Mokaba with a ready supply of their favorite drink. . limited drinking " The king. and then eat. many frays occur. he was bullying and boasting in a loud tone of voice. I often saw them climb the trees in early morning. Their holidays are very frequent. Un. times. and goes to sleep again till midnight then he rises and eats. and go to sleep again.DRUNKENNESS AND DEBAUCHERY. ' ! ! page 41. he too tipsy to stand on his legs nevertheless. as I have said before. and not eat one morsel of anything in all . and take deep draughts from the calabashes suspended there. The voice soon bea big king I am a big king and he fell asleep." Du Chailtarn-tamming. This finished him up for the clay he fell back into the arms of his loving wives. and make a regular practice of getting drunk every day. received in their merrymaking scrimmages. and drank off about a gallon of it. When he is well stocked with liquor. or the marks of one or more wounds. till toward sunset then he gets up to drink. it was the height of the drunken season when I was at Mokaba. as usual. I saw very few men who had not scars." Du CliailliCs Ashango-Land. ejaculating many was . lu's Asliango-Land.

brandy that It is to that insatiable thirst of his after his subjects' freedom and families are in so precarious a situation . NIGHT CAROUSALS. who used to come several times in a day. painted and bedizened in the highest style of Wawa fashion. while they simultaneously lift one leg. daytime. and returns in the night. priest. stamp heavily twice with ment in dances . for he very often goes with some of his troops by a town in the it. I prayed tears.. with clubs or small battle-axes in their hands. and layman. and never drank anyShe always departed in a flood of Africa. I never was in a place in my life where drunkenness was so lets widow Zuma Governor. page 129. thing stronger than water. and inarches them to the place where he sells Moore's Inland Parts of Africa. ladies. and even some of the I was pestered for three or four days by the governor's daughter. like the rest of the people of the town." "The Even the virtue of chastity I do not believe to exist in Wawa. and each roaring at the loudest pitch of his voice. but always half tipsy.80 that time. Neither is sobriety held as a virtue. AND NOISY AND NONSENSICAL ACTIONS IN NEGROLAND. CHAPTER XI. He then ties their arms behind them. The dance consists of the men standing nearly naked in a circle. out her female slaves for hire. I could only get rid of her by telling her that general. IN NEGEOLAND. and sets fire to three parts of and sets guards at the fourth to seize the people as they run out from the fire. ETC. page 87. and looked Clappertori's at the stars all night. them into slavery. WIGHT CAROUSALS. " THE people usually show their joy and work off their excite- and songs. drink to excess.

as a means of letting off the excessive excitement of the brain . was heard one more dismal than the rest.. twisted their bodies into all manner jumped into the air. the continual stamping makes a cloud of dust ascend. were even and inquisitive than the "Wagogo. "On the spot were the people assembled. this is the in common. noisy. ETC. with every instrument capable of making a noise which could be procured in the whole town. in every direction . fro. A 'notable passion of wonder' appeared in them. They had formed themselves into a large treble circle. and scrutinized from every point of view by them. and all this time the roaring is kept up with the utmost possible vigor. They tossed and flung their heads about. and continued running round with amazing velocity. The arms and head are often thrown about. If the same were witnessed in the asylum it would be nothing out of the way. more troublesome. running to and this. . . and groaning with all their might. crying. stamped with their feet on the and flourished their hands above their heads. and quite ap- propriate even. . " The villagers. which produced a harsh and discordant sound some were employed in beating old drums others again were blowing on bullock's horns and. No scene ground. . in the romance of Robinson Crusoe was so wild and savage as Little boys and girls were outside the ring. shouting.NIGHT CAROUSALS." the perspiration stream off their bodies with the exerLivingstone's Africa. it. proceeding from an iron of contortions. . and they leave a deep ring in the lunatic ground where they stood. . IN NEGROLAND. they thrust foilh their necks like hissing geese to vaiy the prospect. . in the short intervals between the rapid succession of all these fiend-like noises. . . but here gray-headed men joined in the perform- ance with as for much zest as others whose youth might be an excuse making tion. page 359. We felt like baited bears we were mobbed in a moment." Burton's Africa. also. page 245. 81 then lift only movement the other and give one stamp with that. The inquisitive wretches stood on and tiptoe they squatted on their hams they bent sideways especially in the remoter districts. and clashing empty calabashes against each other groups of men were blowing on trumpets.

accompanied by the clinking of chains. he would imagine himself to be among a legion of demons. rica. BEGGING. " The curiosity of these people. Instead of treating him like a guest. and horrifying was. were to be placed of a sudden in the midst of these people. The name of hospitality. but the morrow will find him thoroughly comforted. page 490. CHAPTER XII." Africa. He will. we L. the answer is that he can find en- camping-ground outside. If a European. everytube. AND ROB- INHOSPITALITY TO STBANGEHS.82 INHOSPITALITY TO STRANGERS. except for interested motives. a stranger to Africa. the appearance of the dancing Lander's Travels in group. EXTORTION. thing that could increase the uproar was put in requisition on this memorable occasion nor did it cease till midnight. To a stranger entering a village the worst hut is is ' assigned. holding a revel over a fallen spirit. page 366. which the Arab Bedouin would hold to be a point of pride. " GRATITUDE with the African favor. first unknown to him. so peculiarly unearthly. BERY IX NEGROLAND. indeed. Vol. lament for a night ." . witnessed so extraordinary a scene as this. wild. and the clamor which they made. ETC. Never have . What will you give me ? is his question. perhaps. his host compels him to pay and prepay every article otherwise he might starve in the midst of Burton's Afplenty. if he complain. of honor. the death of a parent or a child. and. and the little ceremony with . is not even a sense of prospective He looks upon a benefit as the weakness of his benefactor and his own strength consequently he will not recognize even the hand that feeds him.

couth figures. and so on be}'ond the bounds of Burtorfs Africa. and cries that resemble the howls of beasts more than. list " The Wagogo are importunate beggars. They will come for miles to sow gape-seed. running at a gymnastic pace. who specify then? long of wants without stint or shame their principal demand is tobacco.INHOSPITALITY TO STRANGERS. hosts of idlers. He will refuse a mouthful of water out of his abundance to a man dying of thirst ." "To travellers. less civil than to merhe expects to gain something. complaining loudly against the occupant and.' If the tent-fly be closed. ETC. they will peer and ' peep from below. which they gratify it. and the boys fend. the African chants. while the girls and women hoe the fields. utterly unsympathizing. the flqp^s. at . he will find it like disturbing a swarm of bees." Burton's Africa. spending their days in unbroken revelry and drunkenness. except with grease. Somal.' sight a stranger without stretching out the The men are idle and debauched. he is ever in the dilemma of maltreating or being maltreated. page 496. possibility. any effort of human ' articulation. total most troublesome. and herds. of course. is. it is vain to offer a price for even the necessaries of life it would certainly be re fused. On the road if further pi-evented. page 491. he would starve . who never ' hand for bori.' half clothed. . " The traveller cannot practise pity . page 88. page 215. or attempt to dislodge them. especially women. will follow the . boys. because more is wanted. It is a truly offensive spectacle. they may proceed to violence. A apathy is the only remedy if the victim lose his temper. which does not grow in the land and they resemble the ." -=. these uncaravan for hours. with pendent bosoms shaking in the air. he will not stretch out a hand to save Burton's another's goods. ." . from whom Africa. and girls.Burton's Africa . 83 at times. stranger must be stared are. . Were he to deal civilly and liberally with this people. though worth thousands of dollars.

' a trexel being a pound of tea or coffee. and coat. and Sokoto being the most troublesome beggars in the Earth's Africa. and they never make a present without expecting to receive three times as rnucb. violent. and revengeful barbarians no Muyamwezi dares to travel alone through their territories. all classes are most pertinaWhatsoever is seen is surely demanded." Burton's Africa. wickedness which I regret to state I found very prevalent in Southern Africa. III.. II. . guns. Knowing If this the gallantry of our nation. scissors. " In proportion as the traveller advances into the interior." Cumming's Africa. J. page 128. or rather less human. and other lakist tribes. generally commencing by soliciting for ' trexels. beads. small parties are ever in danger of destruction. ETC. page 498. carrying it away during a 299. in return. page 137. knives. The people are in general faithless and very covetous.. successively fancying your hat." Harris's Adventures in Africa. and finds the people less . and dollars. as I the inhabitants of by begging parties. Vol. mirrors. The Wavinza. cloth. They are extortionate. they affirm this to be a present for a wife or daughter." extremely anxious to get away from this place." Valdez's Africa.. M From the highest to the lowest. much resemble one another. the Wajiji. The love of acquiring property stifles every sense of shame and no compunction is felt in asking for the cloak from off the back. They are also great beggars.84 INHOSPITALITY TO STRANGERS. they continue their importunities. Vol. Vol. " page 208. page " a They are a people remarkable for their disregard for truth. . "I was was sorely pestered Wuruo world. neckcloth. pitiless storm. is granted. whom they represent as being poorly. he humane. or in cious beggars.

and was doubtless an impostor. ETC. if you wish to understand the people or their customs. In other countries it has been said you ought to travel alone on foot. a box of caps. he de- it as a proof of friendship. Highland costume. cut into lengths of about four inches. "Nothing seems to us so incommensurable with the trouble. and double Fletcher rifle were asked for in their turn all of which I refused to give him. therefore I presented him with a pound-canister of powder." Baker's Great Basin of the Nile. but that he was a mere beggar. his necessary baggage calls for a small company of followers. the latter figure being carefully whereas I had only given ten. He cannot avoid arousing the cupidity of every tribe with which he comes in contact. I had heard that Kamrasi was a great king. lying coward. and the success of my expedition depends upon him. he wished to know why I ' did not give him the same number as he had received from Speke.' This miserable. What's the use of the ammunition. and explained that Speke had given that number of presents. page 313. your rifle ? and that he had a rifle of Speke's. that if I refused I could not be his friend. He ' replied.1NHOSP1TAL1TY TO STRANGERS. In its savage equatorial districts no European can travel alone . the and being much struck with my king commenced begging. and a few bullets. grasping. or en grand seigneur. ." page 386. telling him that I should not return to visit him. "True to his natural instincts. compass. My watch. exemplified by ten pieces of straw . He must and yet he must depend upon their good-will for his chance . trade and he must defend his goods. and danger of African travel as the small success which usually rewards the explorer of this impenetrable continent. as I did not believe he was the real Kamrasi. saying. Baker's Great Basin of the Nile. "I retired to 85 my hut in disgust. I rose to depart. These he laid carefully in a row. Disgusted with his importu' He nity. if you won't give me I explained that I had already given him a gun. This afternoon a messenger arrived from the king with twenty-four small pieces of straw. manded appeared much annoyed. fatigue. is nevertheless a king. In Africa either method is impossible to any purpose.

they can no longer ask. " When make firm resolution of never repaying they ies. they begin to borrow. intrigues. they hold it a deadly offence not to receive .86 INHOSP1TAL1TT TO STRANGERS. begging. he is at once associated with any misfortune which has happened to them. were mother and daughter. " . two of whom. and of unceasing. and only one solitary cry for tobacco was . a present. by whom they but this feeling made a to in have more a thing of Murray's Afri- Tjopopa would spend whole days at our camp in the most aband apathy. what is worst of all. or following close upon his departure. Infinitely more strange to them than they can be to him. with the and. either shortly before !his arrival. Only by the rarest good fortune can he hope to escape from some con- How can it be otherwise ? He carries tingency which will rob him not only of all he possesses. private request that the presents intended should not be seen by the people at large." Murray's African Discover- page 69. teasing us with begging for everything he saw. he had a perfect mania for tobacco. is wealth greater than that in Aladdin's cave. I have since ascertained that solute idleness . becomes the object of constant efforts at extortion. 1867. tunate. Burchell's first entrance. He was supposed to have no less than twenty wives. . if simple about with him what. at least double the value in return." can Discoveries. if not of his life. but also of most of the tangible results of his labors. ETC. . page 222. the South Africans are most ceaseless and imporAt Mr. of delicacy or decorum soon gave way. of seeing any other. when. during He his stay with them. I found to my astonishment. Like all Damaras. and considered no degradation too deep provided he could obtain a few inches of narcotic weed. they observed a certain degree of ceremony. in the eyes of the savages by whom he is surrounded." Westminster Review. They seemed pride in what they procured by solicitation than greater value if received as a spontaneous gift. " In heard for Mattivi himself him would soon be all begged away.

ETC. a third needles.INHOSPITALITY TO STRANGERS. We were now allowed to proceed. presented it to me. a fifth salt or pepper. but defrauding them by many subtle and sly inventions. this " It often came about that our house was like a shop where there are customers in abundance. . in one day. began a long preamble in favor of the whites. of which the I " was about to take me to yellow buttons seemed particularly to catch his fancy and he concluded by entreating me to present him with it. not only exacting from them beyond reason. Finally the rooster was captured. Immediately a dozen or more boys were in chase of an unfortunate rooster . One wanted a hatchet. so that soon nearly all the children of the town were engaged in the 521. You may be ter. with a low bow. and often after a very cunning fashion. but he must come four or giving me to understand he wanted something. He next proceeded to an eulogium on my blue coat. as it were. page 108. my leave. all begging. assuring me. when I had to of his fowl. to wantonness and toward strangers they are churlish and uncivil. extolling their immense wealth and good dispositions." Ogilby's Africa. if the chief did not you are acquainted with the African characfail to pay me a visit soon after. page 175. that sure." by no means an unusual practice amongst Anderssori's Africa." Krapfs Africa. sometimes had fifteen or twenty applicants. . a fourth a we dollar. when the King of Bondou. a sixth physic . " Both men and women give themselves wholly up. another a garment. who now came forward and. . and then retired out of sight. five times. and taken to the chief. page 135. "The chief now said something to his boys. every boy or girl who came up was pressed into service. desiring stop awhile. make him a return present of four or five times the value Nor was this sufficient." Scotfs Day Dawn in Africa. except that in our case they were customers who wished to have everything for nothing. and so. it is 87 demoralized nation.

and laid it at his Mungo Park's Travels in Africa. some of them went away with my . upon a metal button off and put it in his my pocket. and this was probably the reason he did not wish to keep it. they stripped me quite naked. which they did with the most scrupulous exactness. in the depth of the rainy season. can.88 INHOSPITALITY TO STRANGERS. I saw myself in the midst of a vast wilderness. or allow me something to shelter me from the sun. seizing "Another drew which remained upon waistcoat. with great earnestness. and men still more savage. Even my half boots (though the sole of one of them was tied on to my foot with a broken bridle-rein) were minutely inspected. and examine every part of my apparel. leave me . as it was lying on the ground. cocked his musket. and swore that he would lay me dead on the spot if I presumed to put a hand upon it." when made to a stranger. But observing that I had one waistcoat under another. to return my pocket-compass but when I pointed it out to them. as they went away. own little dominions. thinking I was about to take it up. they insisted that I should cast them both off. page 44. comes only a way of obtaining by gentle he pleases. I was five hundred miles from the nearest European settlement. and I thought that the easier they were permitted to rob me of everything. cut it them. as it was It is . horse. They returned me the worst of the two shirts and a pair of trousers. naked and alone. I very quietly took off my coat. if means what he against feet. Their intentions were now obvious. and inform every one who saw it of my great The request of an African prince. and. and at last. nothing appeared but danger and difficulty. ETC. for ray consolation all that he would wear it on public occasions. therefore. allowed them to search my pockets without resistance. Whichever way I turned. to make sure work. After this. the only good one in my possession. one of them threw back my hat. After they were gone. While they were examining the plunder. I. and the remainder stood considering whether they should quite naked. particularly short of a command. in his liberality toward him. under the loss of it. my interest to offend him by a refusal. surrounded by savage animals. I begged his knife. and. I sat for some time looking around me with amazement and terror. obtain by force and. one of them. in the crown of which I kept my memorandums. the less I had to fear.

and brother. as the many rancorous fratricidal wars that have prevailed between kindred clans. . . and man trembles at the sight of his fellow-man. cursing and using terms of which an inferior ingenuity. I considered my fate and that I had no alternative but to lie down and crowded my spirits Mungo Park's Travels in Africa. Retaliation and vengeance are. perish. causes not want of will. they never do business without a Revenge is a ruling passion. For centuries this continent has seen thousands of her unfortunate children dragged in chains over its deserts and across the ocean. to ignore all the charities of father. Grumbling and dissatisfied. principle. grievance.WRANGLING. and the opposing interests of numberless petty states. tyranny. page 21. Superstition. in fact. and began to fail me. without rising to order. son. prove. CHAPTER " AFRICA from the XIII. howling and screaming. earliest theatre of crime and of wrong . maintain a constant and destructive warfare in this sufferto ing portion of the earth. their great agents of " moral control. . LAWLESSNESS. All these circumstances 89 I confess that as certain. anarchy. PENURY. After a rapid plunge into excitement. Their squab- bling and clamor pass description they are never happy except when in dispute. Judged by the test of death. 8* . ages has been the most conspicuous where social life has lost the traces of primitive simplicity. LAWLESSNESS. page 113. even for a generation. . WRANGLING. or refinement where fraud and violence are formed into national systems." Murray's African Discoveries. spend their lives in foreign and distant bondage. the brawlers alternately advance and recede. pointing the finger insult of threat. who seems . AND MISERY IN NEGROLAND. PENURY. the East African is a hard-hearted man." at once on my recollection. ETC.

" Burton's page 492. He then proclaims that he has done this because a man has run away with his wife. and creep when you want them to hasten. who has lost his wife by elopement." and unprepossessing look and seem to spend wild-cats. a man has always a vested right in his sister's children. if his heart would break. . walks out with his gun and shoots the first man whom he meets. PENURY. they reject to little civilities. " The children have life in all the frowning of their parents. " Property among them is insecure . thievish. LAWLESSNESS. and when he dies his brothers and relations carefully plunder his widow and orphans. not who has simply complied with a usage of against the husband. slaves. always Maebrair's grumbling. and ready to desert at a moment's notice. page 97. After abusing each other to their full. guides. are as bad as bad can be cowardly. There appears Bur- ton's Africa.90 WRANGLING. . they kill a man belonging to the next village his friends retaliate on their unsuspecting neighbors and so rolls on this ball of destruction till the whole country is on the alert. They stop when they please. " The Bushman." to Africa. and villagers. As the gay Lothario is out of their reach. and getting drunk whenever they can. biting and clawing like family affection in this undemonstrative race. . The clansmen of the murdered man are enraged. model vituperation. be little disputes. full go slow. The gates of all the villages are . both parties usualty burst into a loud laugh or a burst of sobs. hurry on when you wish them idle." Burton's Africa. ETC. them. of every kind of trick and deception. a man will cover his face to fall far short of the Asiatic's with his hands and cry as Africa. page 323. Your own hired people are insubordinate. carriers. page 352. quarrelsome. escorts. After a cuff. but because the duty of the avenger is now cast upon society. " All the natives.

Vol. and general concord is restored. Do they meet a large flock of springboks. IL. it and as they are ." BartVs Africa. and the inhabitants of one town cannot safely trust themselves to those of a neighboring place without fear of being sold as slaves. " With the acquisition of lost the little sense of right their liberty the people of Pundi soon and wrong which they once had and. and fall immediately into the hands of their no less merciless enemies.. "On to fire it attacking a place. page 50. is all the custom of the country instantly composed of straw huts only. page 548. The unfortunate inhab- itants fly quickly from the destructive element. the whole is shortly devoured by the flames. although six or eight are sufficient to last them several days . Readers Savage Africa. where so many different nationalities border close together. or at least of being despoiled of the little they have. and some luckless clan can gain no opportunity of washing out their wrong in somebody's else blood.WRANGLING) LAWLESSNESS. 91 closed and barricaded. they eat as much as they can. but the rest of the eggs are destroyed. and the children lashed together. page 120. page 217. and circumstances do not permit their continuing on the spot till all " Everything that comes priate they find there is consumed. ETC. . II. Clapperton's Africa. the rest are left to die." Lichtensteiri's Africa. which they cannot approon the spot to their own use. I. that it may not be of advantage to others. and rot on the ground. who surround the place women and ham and the men are quickly massacred. and made slaves. the greatest insecurity reigns. The summons a council. The husband has no longer anything to do with the matter. "In the whole district of Taganama. Vol. they wound as many as possible. If they discover an ostrich's nest. Vol. and puts forward his claim against the man who has run away with the wife.. . PENURY. is destroyed. in their way." Den. The chief chief of that clan then of the culprit's clan offers pecuniary compensation.

and similar acts of rapacity and violence are consummated by them every day. they seem contented. Vol.92 WRANGLING. " ' Thought would destroy their paradise. ETC." Lander's Travels in Africa. and turbulent spirit. quoted in they are able to crawl about in the field. they threw off all manner of restraint. LAWLESSNESS. I. so that their country is dreaded and shunned by every one acquainted with their character and habits. refusing to depart till some peace-offering be made to him. having no leader for whom they cared. in the same breath. As long as they have food to eat. and full of life. page 335. if they grieve at all.' " Lander's Travels in Africa. moment sorrow . In general their children cease to be the objects of a mother's care as soon as Kicherer. from robbing each other. " On our return we saw a child. is but for a . else. and. happy. page 49. outrageous. and health to enjoy their frivolous pastimes. . and waylaying every unprotected stranger or traveller that had occasion to pass through their country. and." Moffat's Africa. and no law which they obeyed. II. upon their own misfortunes or the calamities the life of their neighbors. and desperate conduct prevail among the natives of Pundi to the present time. the inhabitants of Layaba appear to bestow scarcely a moment's reflection either on public misery or individual distress. their spirits regain their elasticity and cheerfulness they may well be said to drink of the waters of Lethe whenever they please. to the " There are instances of parents throwing their tender offspring hungry lion. page 40. The same unruly. Nature has moulded their minds to enjoy they lead their grief.. about eight years old. standing . "Like the natives of Yarriba. cornes over them and vanishes . They think of little ning's flash . Vol. who stands roaring before their cavern. PENURY. they turned to plundering the property of their neighbors. like the light- they weep.

certain that the sight of this little girl in the streets of Lontook would have excited pity in the hearts of thousands.WRANGLING. Not only have they to fear their enemies among neighboring tribes. and that that the father and want of food had brought it into that state." Campbell's Africa. ETC. Her clothing consisted of a piece of dressed hide. the attacks of life is especially liable. when she returned. nor children present seemed by their countenances to express the least sympathy or feeling for this forsaken. When some meat was given to the child. she devoured it with the voracity of a tiger. We when the women told us. the child inquired respecting its disease . in the it 93 middle of the street weeping. but their whole lives are saddened and embittered by the fears of evil spirits. " I thanked God that I was not a native African. searching for food. They . laughing. page 102. . Most but wretchedly thin the children are mere skeletons. These poor people lead dreadful and dreary lives." Baiter's Great Basin of the Nile. that he had gone away with another woman. LAWLESSNESS. where she might find her. said. page 266. I am don we might take the child with us if we pleased. was well enough. as well as the various accidents to which a savage tion. and was hunting in the south that the mother was gone to the westward. " The chiefs daughter was the best-looking seen girl that I have the blacks. etc. all other parts being exposed. being almost a skeleton. attracted our attention. and. bringing small bundles of of the wood are to exchange for a few handfuls of corn. women. about a foot wide. starving child. desiring the people to inform its mother. that We the child to our wagons. All the girls of this country wear merely a circlet of little iron jingling ornaments around their waists. They came in numbers. and the entire tribe appears thoroughly starved.. such as starva- wild beasts. tall. mother were poor. Neither the men. and other kindred superstitions under which they labor." Itfs Du Chail- Equatorial Africa. witchcraft. slung among across her shoulders. page 48. men . PENURY. she was about sixteen.

II. and arms give them a peculiar gnat-like appearance. They are the most pitiable set of savages that can be so emaciated. and their long." Mungo Park's 2d page 201. "We found the people Journal. they look as though they had been planed off. " The most prominent defect in their character was that insurmountable propensity. " SHOW me a black man. trusting entirely to the productions of nature for their subsistence . and I will show you a thief. The people of the Kytch tribe are mere apes. ble are the natives of this tribe. thin imagined legs . that they have no visible posteriors . or is killed. as we should for rabbits. At night they crouch close to the fires. the only dry spots being the white ant-hills. which the reader must have observed to . in such places the natives herd like wild animals. At this season the country is a vast swamp. and when reduced to powder they are boiled to a kind of porridge nothing is left even for a fly to feed upon. Nik. . CHAPTER XIV." Hutch- inson's Western Africa. lying in the smoke to escape the clouds of mosquitoes. they will spend hours in digging out field-mice from their burrows. that they devour both skins and bones of all dead animals . Vol. when an animal either dies a natural death. thieves to a man. So misera- .94 " THEFT AS A FINE ART AMONG THE AFRICANS. page 49. page 280." Baker's Great Basin of the . simply rubbing themselves with wood ashes to keep out the cold. THEFT AS A FINE ART AMONQ THE AFRICANS. the bones are pounded between stones...

. page 447. ' ! ! us " ! Derihain's Africa. my house." Mungo Park's 1st Journal. they actually took the meat out of the pot. he caught . and nearly all attempted to steal something out. forks from our plates. even to the pockets of my trousers and more inquisitive ladies I never saw in any country they begged for everywhen found thing. Falsehood. and exclaimed. Why. Once.. theft is a prevailing vice with the Bechuanas and. . how sharp he is Only think Why. The Africans . prevail in all classes of them. " The Africans are all of them thieves. I have known them to abstract the tools with which we have been working nay. indeed. " The . I am confident that the wealthiest and the most exalted amongst them would not hesitate to steal the shirt off one's back. . they only laughed heart ily. page 24. ladies of the principal persons of the country visited me. I have never yet had a negro servant (and. ' The markable. Vol." " From the king to the slave. clapped their hands together. as it was boiling on the fire. . They have no sense of honor in that respect. Their pilfering habits know no bounds and they carry on the game with much dexterity. to steal 95 from me the property of which I was possessed. substituting a stone. like Headers petty larceny. from what I have seen of them." Savage Africa. . Vol. tell a lie more readily than they tell the truth. article. II. could he effect it without being compromised. . is not recognized among them as a fault. When grouped about our camp fires. page 193. the very knives and .THEFT AS A FINE ART AMONG THE AFRICANS. whether he was pagan or Christian. I have had a great many) who did not rob me of some trifling . everything. page 444. They will place their feet over any small article lying on the ground. III. and the official thievish propensities of the people of Logon are very refirst intimation which I received of it was an caution given to me to beware of the slaves of BarfKs Africa. They examined accompanied by one or more female slaves.

but come again the next day as usual to trade. than with a singular slight it from one to another. and depravity of every descripan extraordinary extent. " Another innate quality they have is to steal anything they can lay their hands upon. power.96 THEFT AS A FINE ART AMONG THE AFRICANS. they must be careful of themselves." page 486. and among themselves then make boast thereof.." " at unable to cany it a more convenient is here unlimited. they never avoid the ship. and. the more I. page 141. page 452. barbarous. and unnatural. of hand ihey convey to which no sooner done. small filching for being come to the trading ships they are not at rest till they have taken away something." Ogilby's Africa." Duncan's Africa. the more am I convinced. . they return to fetch Anderssori's Africa. it if away at the time. The longer I reside here. they all leap instantly overboard for fear of a beating. page 372. nails. in some places. that great and rich merchants do sometimes practise . as an ingenious piece of subtlety and so generally runs this vicious humor through the whole race of blacks. The more they are taught. or lead . especially from foreigners. as past doubt of other punishment. page 415. accomplished rogues they become. Vol. but not much among themselves as toward strangers. for. so "The men naturally incline to cheating and thieving. but if they chance be trapped. being cannibals. . though it be but . to whom they Ogilby's Africa. and " The people of the Grain Coast are very envious of all strangers. they eat whomsoever they can get into their . however. but if caught. it burying in the sand with their toes . period. then. that the most predominant pas- Polygamy tion to sion of the African is theft. steal from them whatever they can lay their hands on so that it behooves all dealers to have a circumspect eye over their goods ^ and." Ogilby's Africa. are also bloody. and soundly bastinadoed.

and to be detected in a lie is not the it only causes a laugh. My precocious little pilferer would.." statements. keeping his eyes on me. whom some writers love to describe. thought I. seated . have no teaching to prevent him from becoming an accomplished thief as Du Chattlti's he grew older. for no one complains but he who has been ! robbed. . truth is smallest disgrace not in them. 97 I witnessed to-day a striking instance of the inborn cunning people had spread out on mats. in front of ray hut. page 375. page 190. is a bright example of the unsophistilittle came out self but the rascal. CHAPTER XV. about four years old.LYING AS ' AN ACCOMPLISHMENT IN My AFRICA. therefore. *' THE 184. LYING AS AN ACCOMPLISHMENT AMONG THE AFRICANS. cated children of nature. to the disadvantage of the corrupted children of civilization Thieving. and dexterously concealed the nuts ho had in his hand under the joints of his legs and in the folds of his abdominal skin then looked up to me with an air of perfect innocence. and believing himself unnoticed. Vol." Ashango-Land. a quantity of ground-nuts which we had and deceit of the native African. This. bought. in these savage countries. Travels in Africa. I suddenly himon a piece of wood. slyly regaling himself with them. when I observed from the inside of the hut a little urchin. Lying is thought an enviable accomplishment among all the . as quick as thought. page " Almost every African is guilty of gross exaggeration in his Lander's and too many of them are confirmed liars. is not considered an offence against the community." Clappertori's Africa. I. .

However. which Speke's Africa. they are a ti'eacherous. CHAPTER XVI. but here below it is at present pretty well worn out. Soon after he bought it. which being j ." Du ChailMs Equapage 437. subtle. he went up in a sloop on a trading voyage to Nackway. and false people. DUPLICITY AND VENALITY OF THE NEGROES. of. and took his goods ashore to trade with. only showing Ogilby^s Africa. Not above twelve years ago. he repents his bargain. " Lying being more familiar to their constitution than truth- saying. to if it repealed) that whatever was a custom in this country (and not yet entirely commodity a man sells in the morning." "They little if . who had the honor of being at the head of the company's him again. was served at this very town of Nackway. on . these negroes torial Africa. they are forever concocting dodges with the view. It happened that one morning a man brought a cow to sell to him. which he bought for an iron barr. of successfully cheating people. "!T seems he may. I shall here give an account how a gentleman. affairs here. where he got a hut built. they glory in. but they can see any advantage in it in brief. DUPLICITY AND VENALITY OP THE NEGROES IN NEGROLAND. break them esteem any promises made to foreigners.98 tribes." page 28. he cut the cow's tail off. and a more thorough and unhesitating liar than one of is not to be found anywhere. go and have the things returned his paying back the money any time before the setting of the sun the same day and this custom is still in force very high up the river. page 452. perjured. friendship to those they have most need.

' How can that be ? says he my cow had a tail on when I ' ' . The governor. The outlines of law are faintly traced upon his heart.' says the fellow. in order to extort money from the governor. unknown murder. and. when I had paid ' 1 . he resolved to a handle of it. and endeavored to prove that after but it was all to no lie had paid for the cow she belonged to him purpose. the cow's tail. Accordingly.DUPLICITY AND VENALITY OF THE NEGROES. though his cranium rises high in the region of firmness. 99 earned to the ears of the fellow that sold the cow. He has no benevolence. . and was not willing to sell his cow. according to the more extended sense of the word. for every one present gave it against him (expecting to come in for a snack of the money). It is very true. durst have the assurance to cut off my cow's tail without my leave you ? I hundred barrs. His only fear. is in him represented by a vague and vary- ing custom. as he intended. The governor told him it was. The authoritative standard of morality. and had nothing to make him a present of. he came to the port of Nackway.' quoth the govbrought her to you this morning. . and so he was obliged to go to his store and pay the fellow three hundred barrs for only docking value the cow and her tail at three . in a seeming good-humor. Accordingly. and so desired he might have it returned to him. to him. as he was going the next day to marry one of his daughters to a young man for whom he had a great regard. and return it to the pei'son who brought it. after committing a treacherous is that of being haunted by the angry ghost of the dead . with a plausible story. at which the fellow seemed surprised.' The governor you was very much out of humor. and a great number of make people with him. that. his futility prevents his being firm. the cow was produced. he therefore had thought better of it. fixed by a revelation." Moore's Inland Parts of Africa. about noon the same day. page 122. . ernor ' when I bought her. not dreaming of the plot. and told the governor that that was not his cow. derived traditionally from his ancestors he follows The accusing conscience is in their track for old sake's sake. and that sum shall pay me before you stir from this place. immediately ordered one of his servants to bring the cow. ' ' for her. I cut the tail off. the East African is markedly deficient. but little veneration (the negro race is ever irreverent). she had a tail but. " In morality.' How.

from the monarch to the slave. " and grasshoppers not excepted. " The queen has slandered and defamed the character of her In more civilized or rather more polished countries. . he robs as one doing a good deed. the moments not devoted to intoxication. it acquires the consistency of wax. as well as innoxious serpents they roast and eat. or reservoirs of poison. . page 343.. Yet this despicable vice of slander is universal in Africa the people all speak ill of each Lander's Travels in Africa.100 VORACITY AND GLUTTONY OF THE NEGROES. . and carefully extract the bags. After simmering for some time on a slow fire. among the reasonable part of mankind. mysembryanthemums. fangs of the upper jaw. CHAPTER XVII. They mingle it with the milky juice of the euphorbia. constitute their fruits of the field while almost every kind of living creature is eagerly devoured. page 496. The poisonous. They cut off the head of the former. or with that of a poisonous bulb. . Ixias. and he begs as if it were his His depravity is of the grossest intrigue fills up all calling. other. REVOLTING VORACITY AND GLUTTONY OF THE NEGROES DC NEGROLAND. gum of acacias. /." Burton's Africa. some of which are extremely unwholesome. the core of aloes. and several other plants and berries. HUNGER compels them to feed on everything edible." . which communicate with the lizards. wild garlic. locusts. brother to us most shamefully. a mutual interchange of benevolent intentions produces a reciprocand we would hope that the present of yams ity of kind feeling from her brother would excite the queen's more generous and affectionate sentiments for him. which they dissect. Vol.

page 166. When they kill a sheep. Gins or snares are seen on both sides of the path.. " Every animal is entrapped and eaten. pulled the first inside. heart. and their diet principally consists of dry fish. the booty cannot be withheld. Africa." Africa. Vol. afford food for any amount of fowls or swine but the latter are seldom met . Vol. they catch in the chase. As everything is common property. page 50. II. I.." CailliJs that a . or waiting for an invitation to partake of it. I once saw a clever mischievous Kaffir lad. but at a pinch they can easily go three days without food. with the stews which they make they also eat snakes. " The He caught two vultures by the legs as they were tearing away at the carcass. if applied to cultivation. to capture his mate. swimming in palm oil." " The Bagos are great eaters. comes without any ceremony. which renders it so disgusting European could not touch it. named April. lizards.VORACITY AND OLUTTONT OF THE NEGROES. page 306. from any one who requires it. page 490. since concealed as much as possible from the others . Thence the incredible voracity with which they immediately devour whatever Licktensteiri's Africa. and monkeys. with. with which they cover the points of their arrows. or a part of it at least. hide inside an elephant we had shot that day. " When a horde has taken anything it is in the chase. for miles together. or all by plunder. The time and labor required to dig up moles and mice from their burrows would. every ten or fifteen yards. 1 ' Baldwins 9* . they mix the skin and entrails. unwashed. who- ever learns that there is something to be eaten. 101 Moffafs page 47. and shoved him forward into the vacant space where the Masaras had taken out the elephant's and then proceeded Africa." Livingstone's Africa. Kaffirs eat like ogres.

and then quarrelled for the entrails. " Katema. tribes consider that beauty and fairlong for children of light color so much. The meal being finished they never fail to wipe their hands on their bodies. before masticating it. cutting a large mouthful of it with a knife close to the lips." they Livingstone's Africa. although when at leisure they " Hosts by whom we were away the carcasses of the do not object to its being cooked. and " THE whole of the colored women . asked if I could not make a dress for him like the one I wore. in hopes of producing that effect. page 204. so that he might appear as a white man when any stranger visited him. which that of the Makoloto ladies closely resembles. tion of the sexes." Livingstone's Africa. game we attended quickly cleared slew. CHAPTER DISLIKE OF THEIR XVIII. of whom now add their regrets at the want of chilare all excessively fond. which they do with a loud sputter and noise. the ruler of the village. The women generally escape the fever. I hope the reader has understood that these barbarians generally devour the meat raw. they dren. To my eye the dark color is much more agreeable than the tawny hue of the half-caste. page 517. and then being generally gorged they flesh lay themselves Africa. They usually seize a piece of by the teeth.102 DISLIKE OF THEIR of savages OWN COLOR BY THE NEGROES. down to repose." Harris's Expedition into Southern page 160. OWN COLOR BY THE NEGROES IN NEGROLAND. that they sometimes chew the bark of a certain tree. but they are less fruitful than formerly and to their complaint of being undervalued on account of the disproporness are associated. .

Africa. where we sat. with solemn gait ." Clappertori's Zuma. 1' Wilson's Africa. IV. One class above the last obtains the privilege of wearing shoes from the chief by paying for it another. husband had been dead these ten years that she had only one son. and the carriers. who are generally head men of several villages. as ' blacks. that she loved white men. page 343.' The men of all these classes trust to their wives for food. Vol. speak of themselves as white men. then marching slowly. with a train-bearer behind him. in the exercise of mechanical skill. withered face. as the highest. the soldiers or militia. the advantage being that they are not afterward liable to be made carriers. "The whole crammed with court. people. proud that a white man should dance with him. and there we performed an African dance. crowded. and spend most of their time in drinking page 445. in energy of character. 103 " The people under Bango are divided into a number of classes. and in the practice of all the useful acts of life. feels that. the lowest freemen. for the privilege of serving. though quite black. and of others who may not wear shoes. widow of Wava. They are also pay divided into gentlemen and little gentlemen. page 199. Houston and myself. to sketch off the old black caboceer. page 222. the owner of a thousand slaves.." Livingstone's Africa. sailing majestically around in his damask robe. in scope of understanding.DISLIKE OF THEIR OWN COLOR BY THE NEGROES. Vol. The tout ensemble would doubtless have formed an excellent subject for a caricaturist. except a space in front. Houston . twining our hands in his. then to Mr. which was large. was filled. to the great delight of the surrounding multitude. There are his councillors.." Clapperton's Africa. first to myself. one in each hand . the palm-toddy. into which his highness led Mr. IV. then whisking round on one foot .. and we regretted the absence of Captain Pearce. . and he was darker than herself. a rich told " me that her . he is hopelessly distanced by the " The negro white man. and. and would go to Boussa with me. and every now and then turning up his old. .

as if dishonored. page 216. and. page 259. who had wrought wondrous mir- They denounce as impious the doctrine that God could have woman. whom they call Nale. and they consider all familiarity with a white . The women of course do as they are men. all " The Foulahs evidently consider the negro natives as then* when talking themselves among the white inferiors. there a wife. carnal conversation with a ple." Readers Savage Africa. and our manifest superiority in the arts of civilized life. and whom they speak of as a great prophet. but have a prophecy of their own :that some day they shall be all subdued by a white peoacles. page 23. "The Kaffirs believe that white men can do anything. At Gaboon." Mungo Park's Travels in Africa." Burton's Africa. 'Fato fing into. is expected to patronize their wives and daughters and they feel hurt. sister. feng. would sometimes appear pensive. Observing the improved state of our manufactures. " The women are well disposed toward strangers of fair complexion. apparently with the permission of their husbands. but do not pay him divine honors. the son of Malek. "The European stranger. The custom is very prevalent along this coast. perhaps it reaches the . they have some traditions respecting Jesus Christ." Mungo Park's 1st Journal. and exblack claim. acme ." 1 " men are good for nothing. bid by the man will in one breath offer the choice between his and daughter." Baldwins Africa. by his refusing to gratify them. page 266. " The Allah . negro Mohammedans worship God under the name of they acknowledge Mohammed as a prophet. Hai-fa. page 354. of different nations.104 DISLIKE OF THEIR OWN COLOR BY THE NEGROES. travelling in their country. the intelligent negro merchant. with an involuntary sigh. always rank people.

AND CONCUBINAGE. how sorry soever their outward appearance may be. however. in all respects more excellent than themselves. It is not a little . are certainly considered. not only by Falatahs. his position in society. for I am a white man ' ' ! ! . White men. but by the native blacks. that a horse was my father ? Look at these Christians for as they are. and therefore I am of opinion that they are of the same blood as ourselves. Western Africa. who are masters and ownsingular. MARRIAGE.. was page the color of charcoal. his reputation. At Yaoorie we recollect having overheard a conversation between two men. ." Hutchinsori's " ' I . COURTSHIP.COURTSHIP. Lander's Travels in Africa. The consequence is. too. Vol. a large number of wives. " THE highest aspiration to which an African ever rises is to have His happiness. thou pitiful son of a black ant dost thou presume to say fellow. I The speaker was a negro. know the white men. They have no other purpose and ers. for I also am a white man." 79. rather in life than to administer to the wants gratify the passions of their lords. ' ! skin II. said the prince. 105 II. CHAPTER XIX. as a superior order of beings. they are good have reason to speak well of them. his influence. and his say. man page a high 24. honor. that the so-called wives are little better than slaves. though these people are either of a swarthy complexion or black as soot and this passion to be considered fair is often carried to a most ridiculous height. than husbands. men in fact I . I am and such were my ancestors answer me not. AND CONCUBINAGE IN NEGROLAND..' It is in this manner that Falatahs endeavor to claim relationship with Europeans. Vol. who were quarrelling in the What!' exclaimed one of them to his very height of passion. MARRIAGE. all depend upon this.

when she is but a child. in the great majority of cases. in fulfilment of these matrimonial arrangeWilson's Africa. the whole of which would scarcely exceed twenty dollars. which pass out of their hands without much delay in payment for a wife for some other member of the family. "The wife is always purchased. and indeed the only one about which whether the applicant is able to pay be likely to do so without giving much trouble. his position in society. MARRIAGE. AND CONCUBINAGE. much negotiation. or circumstances in life. and as this is done. ments. Her consent of dried fish. is The price of a wife is xisually three cows. A woman would infinitely prefer to be one of a dozen wives of a respectable man. The main question there is to be settled." Wilson's Africa. page 112. who are the real owners of the child. are never consulted in this most important affair of her whole life. a goat or a sheep. That such a state of feeling should exist in the mind of a heathen woman is not surprising. . The goat and the smaller articles go to the mother's family. this degrading instituits continuance as the men themselves. as a matter of course." page 113. be won by small presents. are seldom taken into the account. and will The character of the man. When this is accomto plished the way is prepared for opening negotiations with the father and his family. almost every day. his family connections. the dowry. than to be the sole representative of a man who had not force of character to raise himself above the one-woman level. that she would greatly prefer the wider margin of licentious indulgence that she would enjoy as one of a dozen wives. and the cows belong to the family of the father. such is the tion revolting to her better feelings. degradation of her moral character. her wishes. Bullocks may be seen passing from village to village. than the closer inspection to which she would be subjected as the only wife of her household.106 COURTSHIP. On the contrary. and a few articles of crockery ware or brass rods. are quite as much interested in . plates or a few leaves of tobacco. upon the burden of whom mainly rests. is The first overture must be made to the mother. She has never seen any other state of society nor has she had any moral or intellectual training that would render such a position that the females. such as beads.

while he partakes of his repast alone. to a still extent. " The present King of Dahomey has appropriated no less than three thousand women to his own use." . page 182. as evidence that they have not used poison in the preparation of his food. at a given themselves. gather around him with their little wooden bowls to receive at his hands a portion of the superabundant supWilson's Africa. If it is necessary for him to watch his wives. then retire to their respective houses.COURTSHIP. page 202. and generally those of the wives who respective dishes have provided his food. ity not placed on a footing of social equalposition is a menial one. concert it different women of his household. Her him. each one taking up a small portion of their The among and eating it in his presence. they in turn are not less jealous of any superabundant attentions that he might confer upon any one of their own number. and prolong his life as much as possible. MARRIAGE. Indeed it would be regarded as a degradation on the part of the husband. is a powerful motive to induce them to take the best care of him. bring each their quota of food. It is well known that many of the wives of the king must be sacrificed at the death of their lord. but never deters any from freely entering into this honored relationship. AND CONCUBINAGE." Wilson's Africa. She never takes a seat at the social board with is " The Ashantee wife with her husband. no doubt. and she seldom aspires to anything higher than merely to gratify the passions of her husband. and. 107 "When a man has a large number of wives he can of course bestow but a moderate portion of his time upon any one of them. page 144. The number belonging to his head wai'riors depends upon their bravery. His smaller children. and this. but no one is allowed to have a number large enough to suggest most remotely any idea of rivalry Avith the king. ply that has been set before him. The chief business of his life is to adjust these petty jealousies. the quarrels and strifes which are hourly springing greater up among the children of the different branches of the same house- domestic hold." Wilson's Africa. and set before their lord.

AND CONCUBINAGE. who warn the people to get out of the way.108 " like COURTSHIP. . Vol. It is then always a boy. MARRIAGE. the boy will be a warrior. III. I followed with the king's if I would take his daughter The old woman went out. generous. in conseuntil the procession has passed. and. it is carried to an extravagant length. and fortunate. father be a soldier. Polygamy is a favorite institution with the Ashantees. Yes. Chief of Eiama.. naturally enough. if they have not had sufficient time to do this. everything of the kind. " Yano. The men especially. bold. . together .' . page 182. they must fall flat on the ground and hide their faces To see one of the king's wives. In Ashantee the law . be ludicrous beyond all description. or nothing. quence of the unexpected approach of the royal cortege." superstitious in having their beds covered with the skins of particular animals when their husbands visit them and never fail to predict the fate and fortune of a child in consequence of these arrangements. it Whether requires him to come up to this mai-k is not known. He puts his foot on the necks of all the world. even accidentally. yet exceptions to this rule sometimes occur. or such messengers as he may send. is a capital offence and the scene of confusion which occasionally takes place in the public market. and avoid the unpardonable offence of seeing the king's wives. and is alike brave. and head man. . but are always preceded by a company of boys." A Denliam and Clappertoii's Africa. A panther or a Should the leopai'd's skin is sure to produce a boy. page 180. asked I said for a wife. must get out of the way. the only limit known to the multiplication of them in a country where both can be had for money. is said to Wilson's Africa. is a man's ability to purchase. " Married women are extremely lion's skin is said to prevent child-bearing aland bloody. I went to the house of the . A man's importance in society is rated according to the number of his wives and slaves and. me . and even these must communicate with them through their bamboo walls. no matter what their rank. and. limits the king to three thousand three hundred and thirty-three. No permitted to see the wives of the king except female relatives. Some one is times they go forth in a body through the streets. and a chief. and a wonderful one.

MARRIAGE. they would reach from Katunga to Jannah. Perhaps it would be little " So couple..COURTSHIP. page 215. I asked her if she would live in my house. . Vol. Being told only one. as did all his people.. for the odd delusion under which she has been laboring so 10 . the Chief of Katunga said. Clapperton's Africa.. she said.. " The king pitied. as she had the best house. page 204. We could satisfy the old man easily enough. 'What does he Assulah has do. " Of wives. tenderness or sociability exists between a married if they should happen to be slaves. but his wife's hypochondriacal complaint we conceived too dangerous to be meddled with by unprofessional hands. he did not exactly know how many. she is much to be solicited effects of fire.. Vol. which consists of several coozies separate from those of the father. page 212. " Assulah. Poor woman. he seemed much astonished. whatever way I wished. IV.' " Clappertori's Africa. IV. AND CONCUBINAGE. but he was sure that. four-fifths of the whole popu- Lander's Travels in Africa. though they eat and sleep in the same hut. to preserve his house and cause him to become rich while one of his elderly wives made a doleful complaint of having been likely to become a mother for the last thirty years. particularly . or I should come and live with her. hand to hand. Vol. page 377. the Chief of Chaki. 'when one of his wives has a child? two thousand. and laughed greatly. inquired how many wives an Englishman had. speaking within compass to say that lation in this country are slaves. they seek a separate livelihood. Vol. I would come and live with her. spread I sat down and the lady coming in and kneeling down. I said. that they have nothing in common and. very well." I. he himself had plenty." Clappertori's Africa. IV. ." . from the a charm of us to-day.' said he. and I was shown into a very clean one a mat was . and begged piteously for medicine to promote and assist her accouchement. 109 daughter.

' She feels the insult so keenly that it is not uncommon for her to rush away and commit suicide. where any one may wish to deride another. rica. their own daughters. "The chief recreations of the natives of When band altogether if they have daughters only.110 COURTSHIP. by telling her that her distemper was very common. little esteem that opportuby husbands to some of his less favorite wives. A wife is very seldom purchased when more than twenty years old but generally when five or six years younger. and. should nothing transpire in her favor in the mean time. page 193. Angola are marriages a young woman is about to be married she is placed in a hut alone." Lander's Travels in Africa. so that life itself has become a burden to her. she burst into tears of joy. Vol. and not at all dangerous and promising that on our return this way. They often leave a husand funerals. So and so has no children. we would endeavor to remove the cause of her comThis comforted the aged matron exceedingly. page 446.. the height of good fortune is to bear sons. /. L. AND CONCUBINAGE. Vol. fulness of her heart. dropped on her knees to express her acknowledgment. so that very old men have frequently ten or a dozen wives much younger than. as almost everywhere in the south. long a time has given her considerable uneasiness." Living' stone's Africa. In their dances. in the accompanying song a line is introduced. The common price of a wife here and at Cape Coast is sixteen dollars. and pressed us to accept of a couple of goora-nuts. in the plaint. . and many incantations are employed in order to secure good fortune and fruitfulness." Duncan's Af- " Female virtue is held in so nities of infidelity are often afforded . and never will get any. page 79. Here. All that we could do for her was to soothe her mind. for the purpose of extorting money and getting rid of her. and . and anointed with various unguents. MARRIAGE. "In Maopongo it was a prevailing practice that before marriage the two parties should live together for some time.

" The Bushmen use no form in their marriages. MARRIAGE. before they formed the final engagement. page 439. . The missionaries seem to have been most diligent it. she may go whither she will. A young man courts the object of his affection . to follow him. on being referred to. not ask the consent of her parents. refused to incur responsibility. AND CONCUBINAGE. Vol. of which they might afterward repent. when he gives her permission. the stronger man will sometimes take away the wife of the weaker. teazes her in the night time to take him to be her husband.' Father Benedict succeeded with no less than six hundred. and will sometimes pull her out of the hut while asleep. page 48. Ill make trial of each other's tempers and inclinations. he must be without the great medium of moral refinement. and expose themselves to the reproaches of their daughters. of reducing strayed souls to matrimony. . when he gives them a He need present of a bow and arrows. Every difference is decided by the right of the strongest. and without property. The young ladies were always the most anxious to have the full benefit of this experimental process. 01* a skin sack. even the family tie is not sanctioned by any law or regulation. but he found it such laborious work that he fell sick and died in in the task. and the mothers." Murray^s African Discoveries. and associate with any other man. calling upon them at once either to marry or to separate. by urging them to an abridgment of the trial." Campbell's Africa. and no one has any power or distinction above the rest. " As the Bosjesman lives without a home. To this system of probation the people were most obstinately attached. as they call ' ' ' consequence. II." Liclitenstein's Africa. and teaze her till he obtains her consent. nay. The wife is not indissolubly united to her husband but. bers of one family only. and the missionaries in vain denounced it. but at marriage he makes a feast for them.COURTSHIP. . the A horde commonly consists of the different memsocial union. whether she will or not. and compel her. or even tell them. page 55.

maiden. the laws are very severe. When all objects of jealousy are thus removed by the Cata-Dofo. . on a former occasion. who is the chief agent in carrying out the orders of the Muata. page ' A man pays goods or slaves for his wife. page 48. Any man debauching his neighbor's wife has to give a slave to the injured husband.. Deaths by accident are not more excusable than wilful murder. and every kind of moral . MARRIAGE. if only by accident. II. or running away.. page 253. "I have. in my remarks upon the languages of these savages. to punish robbery. Vol. is condemned to have away her ears and nose cut off. II. as a thing worthy of notice. and. "When the Muata Cazembe falls in love with a female. AND CONCUBINAGE. "The palavers were numerous and difficult to settle. and all their property confiscated. feeling among them. observed. who. he must have his ears and nose cut off. satisfaction must be given.112 COURTSHIP. indeed. and regards her. harem is thus always the and." Valdai's Africa. or high commissioner of the seraglio. that the occasion is often laid hold of as a pretext for the jealous to wreak their vengeance on the unsuspecting vicsignal for a number of deaths tims of their hatred. The introduction of a new wife into the . Vol." Du Chaillu's Ashango-Land. either from personal observation or from a report of her attractions. wives. to so great an excess is this carried. . where she is compelled to discover all the objects of her former amours. if he cannot pay this fine. Any wife refusing to remain with her husband.. by order of the Muata. and wife they are all expressed by one word alone. . They have no laws 74. the new object of his passion is sent to join the other ladies of the seraglio. They related either to runaway wives (a fertile source of ill-will and When a man is killed here. that they seem to have no idea of the distinction of girl. As regards runblood-shed) or to homicides. he causes her to be conveyed to his gauda. I leave every reader to draw from this single circumstance his own inference with regard to the nature of love. are immediately put to death." Licktensteiri's Africa.

do you think I paid my slaves for } ou for The wives are more harshly treated than the slaves. or sister. now leap with joy at the royal offering. page to such sudden importance among the naneighboring chiefs and kings sent me daily messages of friendship.COURTSHIP. that the " had now grown tion as well as trade. Still I was in a difficult position. MARRIAGE." Africa. at length. and is a barbarous weapon. who absolutely thrust their daughters on me. even after long and tedious wooing but that I was surrounded by a mob of kings. for the vilest uses. This is the common custom when the negroes wish to pay respect to their guests and they cannot understand why white men should decline what they consider a . " With usual African hospitality. Young girls are married to old men for political effect." Du Chaillu's Equatorial Africa. and hard. as we understand it. seems unknown to the Africans. the worthy husband 7 crying out. page 382. AND CONCUBINAGE. One of these lords. my kingly friend offered me a wife on my arrival at his place. This is laid on with no light hand. Rascal. as a piece of merchandise. The dren in arms idea of love. as stiff. and it is enforced without mercy. On the sea-shore a man will hire you his mother. Du Chaillu's Equatorial page 75. and the women are never averse if they can only obtain the wages of prostitution. and. I confess I had the bad taste not to the . more generous and insinuating than the rest. wife. insisted upon becoming father-in-law." Du Chaillu's Equatorial Africa. their persons. course. hinted several times his anxiety for a closer connection in affecI tives. A whip is made of the hide of the hippopotamus or manut u. as no graver offence can be given a chief than to reject his 10* . " Obedience is the wife's first duty. mere matter of 71. I had always heard that it was something to receive my hand of a princess. 113 even chiltherefore. and heavy as iron. nothing? a stroke of the whip often leaves a lifelong mark and I saw very few women in my travels who had not some such marks on ' ' . with trifling gifts that I readily accepted.

and very fat. that I should marry her daughter. This process is called 50. The old lady told me she would get the skin and bone adorned with fat by the time I came on another visit. this black charmer may be now waiting in disaputtering disjointed remarks to me. for all I know. high-born natives. who had very much the appearance of a picked Cochin-China fowl. It is so serious an insult to refuse a wife. ' 1 " taking off the witch. MARRIAGE. he would receive no excuse. page 227. . that. Drayson's Africa. and. poisoned. During the whole time that the old lady was at work she was and at length proposed. I requested to know which of the damsels then present was the proposed bride. I concealed my laughter.114 child. in the most shameless and barefaced manner. con- . " 11 pointed plumpness. Indeed. and as soon as etiquette permits. pass it over to a friend or rela- As the offer was made to me personally by the king. page 110. he insisted that a regular life of matrimony was the best cordial for an impaired constitution. I found the utmost difficulty in escaping. Twenty Years of an African Slaver. always expected to provide a separate house even this precaution cannot prevent the and strife which are continually occurring among the quarrels The wives are never treated as different wives and children. Scoffs Day Dawn in Africa. They husbands but after they have prepared their food. he tion. I could not entertain the subject. If I urged the feebleness of my health and tardy convalescence." Canofs laughed incredulously. in order to avoid quarrels or war. When I declined on account of the damsel's youth. page 1 A man must marry because it is necessary to his comfort. AND CONCUBINAGE. but . to show that it has not been is " The husband for each of his wives. and told the old lady that when this lassie became taller. and was shown a young lady about twelve years old. accept the tender boon. they are required in their presence to taste it. I might then think more seriously of her proposition but as at present I had not six cows (the required price) handy. COURTSHIP. are not allowed to sit down to a meal with their equals.

I could not get rid of her until I gave her the first pill that came to hand from my medicine- . but they are mere ser- vants.COURTSHIP. as he could family is the source of wealth the girls produce the cows. or. there is no expense. Everything is practical. " Women are so far appreciated as they are valuable animals. They grind the corn." the Nile. to the flocks as in the patriarchal times. which is ruled by what she would fetch the slave-market. sequently the father AND CONCUBINAGE. page 148. cook the food. the feeling is not understood. be ten cows thus a . but that she was sure I possessed some charm that would raise her to the standard of his other wives. . 115 demands woman becomes a marketable commodity." Burton's Africa. and she belongs to the buyer. in . could carry a heavy jar of water. and as such are valuable. The poor woman in great distress. . had was and complained that Katchiba was very cruel to her because she had been unable to make an addition to his family. All being perfectly naked (I mean the girls and the boys) . would man. cloths. strong. he claims her value. The husband may sell his wife. The simple rule of proportion will suggest that if one daughter is worth ten cows. rich in cattle. nor does it exist in the shape in which we understand it. therefore a large bliss. Polygamy is unlimited. MARRIAGE. and brass. ranking with his other live-stock. page 493. and the chiefs pride themselves upon the number of their wives. and the children act as herdsmen .wire . would be rich in domestic who command a multiplicity of wives. without a particle of romance. gather firewood. fetch the water. ten daughters must be worth a hundred. young wife. It is no disgrace for an unmarried woman to become the mother of a family. cement the floors. The price of a good-looking. There is no such thing as love in those countries. bracelets as the suitor can afford he thus virtually sells her. and propagate the race . and she came to me to apply for medicine to correct some evil influence that lowered her in her husband's estimation. varying from twelve to three hundred. Her for her as many cows. Baker's Great Basin of " One of Katchiba's wives had no children. if she be taken from him by another man. and the boys milk them.

the negress is not a woman. and these Headers Savage Africa. The negress has beauty. She is forced to give the names of her lovers (for it seems that all the married women have lovers). as he offers him a seat in his house and at his table." Readers Savage Africa. which might create a furore in our demi-monde. slavery. the tender sigh. nor feed that hunger of love which must sometimes gnaw the heart of a refined and cultivated man. " Negro women can gratify the desire of a libertine. page 286. . which is the light within the crystal lamp." Baker's Great she went 216. the timid blush ? Where is the intellect. But where is the coy glance. And she is gentle. page 240. and with this AND CONCUBINAGE. page 218. are also executed. the genius within the clay? No. they are compelled to go on the town on the death of their husband. But the husband who uses his wife. away Basin of the Nile. page " When a man becomes too old to pay sufficient attention to his numerous young wives. Women never marry twice . and death. no. page 50. . is " When the King of Congo takes a fresh concubine. MARRIAGE. argues a want of refinement only." Beaded Savage Africa. contented." Baker's Great Basin of the Nile. and loving in her own poor way. and faithful. and to pay all their earaings to their brothers. her husband put to death." It is curious that the Equatorial savages of Africa should have a remarkable antipathy to widows. as is done all over Africa. and for which fools might fling their fortunes to the dogs. COURTSHIP. she is a parody of woman she is a pretty toy.116 chest. " . that is all. beauty in spite of her black skin. ^ That a husband should offer one of his wives to a visitor. an affectionate brute. . practises a vice which seldom occurs among civilized nations. to decoy young men to ruin. but they can never inspire a passion of the soul. the eldest son takes the place of his father and becomes his substitute.

. Whenever the men have any dispute with the women. CHAPTER XX. an trees. kill. page 425. Whoever is in the coat. . . who are so ignorant (or at least are obliged to pretend to be so) as to take it for a wild man and indeed no one but he who knows it would take it to be a man. This is a thing invented by the men to keep their wives in awe. and when the person wears it. MUMBO JUMBO " IN NEGEOLAND. In other parts. always in favor of the men. which among the was visited by a Mumbo Mandingoes a kind of a cun- ning mystery. It is dressed in a long coat made of the bark of with a tuft of fine straw on the top of it. When the women hear it coming. ON the 6th of idol. May. This price they hope to regain by the sale of the children which she will bear. and which but few of the natives can manage. . he will send for them all to come and sit down. this Mumbo Jumbo is sent for to determine it which is. they run away and hide themselves but if you are acquainted with the person who has the coat on. it is about eight or nine feet high. that if they marry they must pay a high price for their wife. that no one is allowed to come armed into its presence. I may say. 117 " In many parts of Africa. This has given rise to a supposition that they prefer a wife who has earned a little experience in dissipation. especially in the malarious localities. The real reason is. can order the others to do what he pleases. where women are so frequently sterile. no one cares te marry a girl till she has produced a child.MUMBO JUMBO IN NEGROLAND. I Jumbo." Readers Savage Africa. or make prisoner but it must be observed. no marriage can be ratified till a jury of matrons have pronounced a verdict of purity on the bride and of capability on the husband. . is at night. either fight. It never comes abrbad but in the night time. which makes it have the better effect. by reason of the dismal noise it makes.

tiger away by a guilty conscience. no doubt.118 FUNERAL AND BURIAL RITES. page 76. When invoked by an injured husband." ton's Africa. amidst the shouts and laughter of the multitude. . salutes Inland Parts of Africa. " Among the Mandingoes. . he appears about the outskirts of the village at dusk. and. or subject themselves to the suspicion of having been kept midnight. page 116-122. I believe. The performance is kept up until when Mumbo suddenly springs with the agility of the upon the offender. she always brings him water to drink. of Wil- raising themselves above the suspicion of such infidelity. he ventures to the town hall. horns blowing. After supper. is a strong. if a married woman is suspected of being unfaithful to her husband. which he uses on proper occasions with most unsparing severity. The cause was a funeral dance. . he will send the people for them. Mumbo Jumbo. so frightful to the whole race of African matrons. with the view. / FUNERAL AND BURIAL RITES " DRUMS were IN NEGROLAND. where he commences his antics. the aid of Mumbo Jumbo is put in requisition. This. and then whip them. and every grown person. the wife him on her knees at his return. beating. as he pleases to order them and if any refuse to come. and people were seen running in one direction. and chastises her most soundly." Moore's . is the effect of. in which the other women join more heartily than anybody else. When a man has been a day or two from home. and bearing a rod in his hand. must be present. disguised in dry plantain leaves. CHAPTER XXI. and I joined the crowd. in the same posture. and sing or dance. and commences all sorts of pantomimes. athletic man. and soon found myself in the midst of the enall . what I before mentioned. This mysterious personage. male or female.

This was explained by an extraordinary custom most rigidly observed by the Latookas." Baker's Great Basin of the Nile. ' had noticed. 119 The dancers were most grotesquely got up. Every dancer wore an antelope's horn suspended round the neck. during the march from Latome. and holding a bow in the right hand. The women kept outside the line. generally broken others lay strewn here and there. but should he die a natural death. that the town was announced by heaps of human remains." Baker's Great Basin of the Nile.' brandishing their lances and iron-headed maces.FVNERAL AND BURIAL tertainment. in this the corpse. dancing backwards. page 142. following the leader who headed them. but more generally three. which he blew occasionally in the height of his excitement. in a little court-yard that surrounds each I vicinity of every . RITES. Some of these were in earthenware pots. and a leather tied round the waist covered a large iron bell. clothed with skin and hide. chiefs of Unyamwezi generally are interred by a large assemblage of their subjects with cruel rites. A deep pit is sunk. These instruments produced a sound partaking of the braying of a donkey and the screech of an owl. of the dance by jerking their posteriors in the most absurd manner. which was strapped upon the loins of each dancer This they rung to the time like a woman's old-fashioned bustle. is placed sitting. upon a dwarfstool. " dwelling. and screaming a wild and most inharmonious chant. . stupid step. with a kind of vault or recess projecting from it. female " The . while sometimes one. while a heap in the centre showed that some form had originally been observed in their disposition. page 165. Bones and skulls formed a Golgotha within a quarter of a mile of every village. and is devoured by the vultures and hyenas . dancing a slow. Crowds of men rushed round and round in a sort of galop infernel. with a pot of pombe. he or she is buried in a shallow grave within a few feet of his own door. About a dozen huge ostrich feathers adorned their helmets either leopard or the black and white monkey skins were suspended from their shoulders. and keeping tolerably in line five or six deep. Should a man be killed in battle the body is allowed to remain where it fell.

FUNERAL AND BURIAL RITES. one on each side and the third in front. The first are generally interred very deep in the dung of their own cattle accumulated in the kraals or places where they are pent up at nights . some struck pieces of iron together. Her companions sang Fantee this funeral. women having first appeared and formed one advanced into the midst. rushed madly ten or a dozen yards up the street. With each man are interred alive a male and a female sjave. sitting in a shallow pit. men beat drums with their fingers in the background. so that the fore-finger can project above the ground. " The Kaffirs differ very materially from all the neighboring nations in their manner of disposing of the dead. The common people are exposed to be devoured . A " The great headmen of Wadoc are buried almost naked. I. who seemed to be under the excitement of liquor. Vol." Burtorfs Africa.. wherewith to cut fuel for his lord in the cold death. supports his head in her lap. the " At a circle. with her head and hands inclined toward the ground. having a child tied on her back. three others clashed hands calabashes surrounded with a loose net-work of beads and meanwhile. and legs. the former holding a billhook. page 98. then wheeled round and returned. Next half a dozen wild-looking men appeared. twisting violently their shoulders. Funeral rites are bestowed only on the bodies of their chiefs. 296. gongs . tion of pombe upon the heaped-up earth concludes the ceremony. and dry sticks. but retaining their bead-ornaments. and the bodies of infants are most commonly deposited in the ant-hills that have been excavated by the ant-eaters. and of their children. and the latter." Burton's Africa. They roared out songs . page 188. are buried alive to copious libapreserve their lord from the horrors of solitude. and loudly joined in the chorus." Alexander's Africa.120 slaves. and their waistin their . arms. who is seated upon a little stool. stopping and circling on their hams. page. whilst musicians beat drums cloths trailing in the dust. and went wriggling about on her

at least. that all slaves. page " On our way home. RITES. but throw the corpse into the morass or nearest pool of water. and destructive animal. The . and thrown into the water which runs round the town." farrow's Africa.. cating the wrath of departed souls. bodies of slaves are dragged out of town. A a wotf to be sacred. " out Every one is buried under the floor of his own house. he never endeavors to destroy it the consequence of which is. . . page 55. about twelve years of age. . 11 if they are . I saw the corpse of a young slave. with- monument or memorial. and it is ever after abandoned. and are consequently taken. " A death had occurred in a village about a mile off. they have a view enough of their own utter helplessness and hopelessThey fancy themselves completely in the power of the disembodied spirits. Vol." Freeman's Africa.FUNERAL AND BURIAL by wolves. are considered not worth the trouble of a decent burial. Vol. In Kano they do not even take the trouble to convey them beyond the walls. and carried by two men.. of which I had hitherto been ignorant . where they are eaten by the thousands of fishes which the river contains. in consideration of this piece of service holds the life of . and left a prey to vultures and wild beasts." Clappertori's Africa. 121 into As these animals drag them away immediately no danger of o their dens. Hence they are constantly deprecheerless ness. This led to the disclosure of a fact. page 135. the relations of the deceased are in beinoo shocked or disgusted with the sight of the mangled carcass. I. except a few favored ones. believing that. and among the commonalty the house continues occupied as usual but among the great there is more refinement. There is nothWhen the ing more heartrending than their death-wails. IV. natives turn their eyes to the future world. namely. and the people were busy beating drums and firing guns. and look upon the prospect of following them as the greatest of misfortunes. that the country swarms with this voracious 174. slung to a pole. Kaffir.

" Duncan's Africa. CHAPTER XXII. If a man is urged to do anything like a tenth part of a day's work. One English laborer.122 INDOLENCE AND IMPROVIDENCE. . but he has no idea that a service quickly executed has double value. . asked of a negro. page 233. the towns on the coast abound with thieves and vaga- . . which may be averted by charms. I am writing from actual observation. . " Even the If a service is qualities indispensable for a good servant. he commonly shows great readiness to undertake it." Livingstone's Africa. appeased. page 40. on an average. L. bonds. they have always plenty to eat. who will not work.. . being stimulated with the hope of reward. This is a very serious grievance. he will go away. having had for three months a number of hired men under my charge. without great difficulty. Vol. and have no idea of attention and punctuality. there is no other cause of death but witchcraft. nature. and therefore indisposed to labor. " THE natives are so lazy that at times the merchants cannot. get men to load or unload their ships. page 477.." Livingstone's Africa. the very rocks are illiterate. They perform their tasks carelessly. " One never expects to find a grave nor a stone of remembrance set up in Africa. free negroes labor merely to acquire the means of Negroes are indolent by gratifying their animal enjoyment. He returns two . and often exposes our merchants to great difficulties as well as loss. and steal sufficient to maintain him for some time consequently. INDOLENCE AND IMPROVIDENCE OF THE NEGBOES. does more work than any twelve Africans and the provision of the latter being so cheap (one penny per day is sufficient for their support).

Upon this point his natural character exhibits itself most determinedly. They have no love for truth. page 27. he resists any attempt at coercion . honor. The negro . page quite enough to have peror how." Speke's Africa. During two days. nor does he show the slightest feeling of gratitude to the hand that broke the rivets of his fetters. he considers that a matter is 15. His narrow mind cannot embrace that feeling of pure still is. forty negroes. he is far too great a man to work. although extremely powerful. horrible system of slavery. and to usurp a dignity with absurd pretensions. and is quite surprised at being found fault with for his slowness. thoroughly misunderstood. or it perhaps performed some other work." Burmeister' s Black Man. must be an important person. thinks l formed the service as to when of no moment. for whom I invoked and the neighboring chiefs. and as a sequence to his self-conceit. for which reason. and he conducts himself accordingly. therefore. they will not work unless compelled to do so. stopped at an inn.INDOLENCE AND IMPROVIDENCE. " My next effort the aid of Fana-Foro was to procure laborers. and he only regards the anti-slavery movement as a proof of his own importance. he imagines that the whole world is at issue concerning the black man. whom I hired for their food and a. and However severely we may condemn the philanthropy that first prompted England to declare herself against slavery. in as 123 many hours as he should have taken minutes." Basin of the Nile. visited a friend. his first impulse is to he lately served. The negro. " Laziness is inherent in these people. He will make no secret of his having in the mean time taken a stroll. that must inevitably insure the Baker's Great disgust and abhorrence of the white community. "The negro has been. page 197. In his limited horizon he is himself the important object. per diem of . Accordingly. being the important question. the results of emancipation have proved that the negro does not appreciate the blessings of freedom. claim an equality with those whom being free. or honesty.



direction but the con. twenty cents, wrote faithfully under slant task of felling trees, digging roots, and cleaving ground was so unusual for savages, that the entire gang, with the excep-



tion of a dozen, took their

pay in rum and tobacco, and quitted me.

A couple of

days more devoted to such endurance drove off the

remaining twelve, so that on the

fifth day of my philanthropic enterprise I was left in my solitary hut with a single attendant. I had, alas ! undertaken a task altogether unsuited to people whose

idea of earthly happiness and duty is divided between palm oil, concubinage, and sunshine. I found it idle to remonstrate with
tained very nearly the
the king about the indolence of his subjects. Fana-Toro entersame opinion as his slaves. He declared

and perhaps very sensibly that white men were fools to work from sunrise to sunset every day of their lives nor could he comprehend how negroes were expected to follow their example;



was not



fashion of Africa;


and, least of



his majesty conceive how a man possessed of so much merchandise and property, would voluntarily undergo the toils I was pre-

paring for the future. . . . For a while I tried the effect of higher wages but an increase of rum, tobacco, and coin, could not string the nerves or cord the muscles of Africa. Four men's



was not equivalent to one day's work in Europe or America. was both natural and self-evident: why should he work for pay when he could live without it ? " Canofs
negro's philosophy

Twenty Tears of an African Slaver, page 417.


writer in the


Southern Planter and Fanner ' states that

in Charlotte county, Virginia, thus tested the comparative results of white and black labor. He furnished thirteen negroes with mules and implements and provisions to raise a crop,

a gentleman

and at the same time furnished an outfit to two white men. The negroes raised ninety-four barrels of corn, seven stacks of oats, and five thousand pounds of tobacco. The two white men, with a little negro girl to cook for them, raised one hundred and twelve and a half ban-els of corn, ten stacks of oats, and eight thousand pounds tobacco. The negroes returned the mules in a poor, emaciated The condition. The white men turned theirs over fat and sleek. negroes worked four mules, the whites two. The gentleman
referred to will, this year,

work white men


To show




the improvidence of the negroes, he said the cart and mules were at their service to haul wood yet they preferred to burn rails."

Raleigh (N.


Register, Jan. 17, 1868.


Civilization hitherto has

made very

tardy progress in these

African wilds

the black inhabitants of which are so indisposed to labor, and so wedded to their nomadic habits, that it is difficult to get them to settle down to industrious habits, either as agriculturists or as artisans

to say nothing of the colonist being obliged

to be at all times prepared to oppose their predatory incursions." Valdez's Africa, Vol. IL, page 109.

" The great national vice of the Africans is their indolence, have no athletic sports. They wonder at the white man who They walks to a"nd fro from the mere love of walking." Readers
Savage Africa, page 448.

" I saw a man


with palsy

in his head.


applied to


for a remedy, but I could only self every day in warm water,

recommend him

to bathe

will never be

himdone; for

these people are too indolent to perform any labor of this kind, even if it be to save their lives." Richardson's Africa, Vol. II.,






" IN their warfare, cunning has a most important part. They laugh at the courage of the white man, who faces his enemy, and delight most in ambushes and sudden surprises. If one has a quarrel with another, he lies in wait for him, shoots him as he is



passing by the way, and immediately retreats. Then, of course, the dead man's friends take up his quarrel then ensue other ambushes and murders frequently a dozen villages are involved in the palaver, and the killing and robbing goes on for months and

even years, each party acting as occasion offers." Equatorial Africa, page 195.



the Fans and Osheba

of Africa with the exception of are not overstocked with courage. They applaud tricks that are inhumanly cruel and cowardly, and seem To surprise to be quite incapable of open hand-to-hand fight.
this part

" The warriors of

man, woman, or child in sleep, and kill them then bush in the woods for a single man, and kill him by a

to lie in


single spear-

thrust before he can defend himself; to waylay a woman goingto the spring for water, and kill her or to attack on the river a ca-

these are the noe much smaller and weaker than the attackers, warlike feats I have heard most praised, and seen oftenest done
in this part of Africa."


Chaittu's Equatorial Africa,

page 131.

" In war, they show no bravery, although on the hunt they are certainly brave enough. They despise boldness and admire cunning prefer to gain by treachery, if possible have no mercy or consideration for the enemy's women and children and are cruel



to those

who full

in their



Chaillu's Equatorial Africa^

page 379.

" Besides cowardice, their a dispoprincipal fault is thieving, which they never fail to evince and nothing comes amiss to them, from wholesale robbery to petty prigging. Like the true coward, too, they are bullies when they meet those more timid

than themselves."

Hutchinsorfs Africa, Vol. II.,




During the war, which has continued these four months, the on the part of the Yaoorie has been about a half-dozen men killed, and the slaughter on the part of the rebels, it is said, has been no less. This sanguinary contest is a specimen of their war-





never be any great danger of depopulation from foreign wars or domestic broils. . The ' great war,' for which there was said to have been such mighty preparations in Nouffie, and which caused so much consternation in this city an evening or two ago, has terminated in the capture of a herd of
fare, so that there will
. .


King of Wowow's bullocks near the walls of

his town."-

Lander's Travels in Africa, Vol. I., pages 273, 275.

behind the door of the hut, I

" About two o'clock, as I was lying asleep upon a bullock's hide was awakened by the screams of women, and a general clamor and confusion among the inhab;

At first I suspected that the Bambawans had actually entown but observing my boy upon the top of one of the He informed hits, I called to him to know what was the matter. ne that the Moors were come a second time to steal the cattle, aid that they were now close to the town. I mounted the roof of ;he hut, and observed a large herd of bullocks coming toward the town, followed by five Moors on horseback, who drove the cattle forward with their muskets. When they had reached the wells, which are close to the town, the Moors selected from the herd sixteen of the finest beasts, and drove them off at a gallop. During this transaction the town people, to the number of five hundred, stood collected close to the walls of the town and when the Moors drove the cattle away, though they passed within pistol-shot of them, the inhabitants scarcely made a show of resistance. I saw only four muskets fired, which, being loaded with gunpowder of the negroes' own manufacture, did no execution."
t;red the


Park's 1st Journal, page 85.

" In an attempt to storm or subdue Cooniah, the capital of the Ghoober, the number of fighting men brought before the town could not, I think, have been less than fifty or sixty thousand, horse and foot, of which the foot amounted to more than nine-tenths. For the depth of more than two hundred yards, all round the walls, was a dense circle of men and
rebellious province of


The horse kept out of the reach of bow-shot, while the went up, as they felt courage or inclination, and kept up a struggling lire with about thirty muskets and the shooting of ar-


. .


These fellows, whenever they fired their pieces, ran All of them were slaves; not a single Felatah had a musket. The enemy kept up a sure and slow fight, seldom throwing away their arrows, until they saw an opportunity of letting fly with effect. Now and then a single horseman would gallop up to the ditch, and brandish his spear, taking care to cover himself with his large leathern shield, and return as fast as h3

out of bow-shot to load.

went, generally calling out lustily, when he got among his owi ' ' You people of Godado, why dont party, Shields to the wall To which some voices would call out you hasten to the wall ? ' The cry o' Oh you have a good large shield to cover you was constantly heard from the several chiefc Shields to the wall







to their troops; but they disregarded the call, and neither chiefi At the conclusion oi nor vassals moved from the spot.


which nothing was concluded, the whole army set off" in the greatest confusion, men and quadrupeds tumbling over each other, and upsetting everything that fell in their


battle, in


Clappertoii's Africa, Vol. IV.,

page 242.

" These unfortunate people seldom think of defending


habitations, but rather give them up, and by that means gain time Denham and Clappertoris Africa, Vol. II., page 121. to escape."

"It is only self-interest that makes the African brave. I have seen a small cow, trotting up with tail erect, break aline of one Burton's hundred and fifty men carrying goods not their own."

page 242.

" It



confidently stated by the missionaries that the King of raised the incredibly large army of nine hundred thousand They say very little, however, for the bravery or dis-

cipline of this immense army, when they add that the main division of it was entirely routed by four hundred Portuguese musketeers."

Wilson's Africa,

page 322.


whites will put to flight a thousand Congoans."

Ogilbifs Africa,

page 533.

kees to right make them fight down gone dead. I get officer hands. they them in the manual of arms. They told own me . on the 30th of July. Vol. is a large man. . August 13. " I 129 fortunately enabled to buy two camels instead of sumpwhich give great trouble on the road during the dry season. 1864. noise of the guns in their eral of them. and prepared everything for my journey but the people in these countries are all cowards. ' . nearly one half of the line squatted and dropped down. so skeered. resistance. Green. I. Fire. and a most arrant coward. I also conversed with sevthey never expected it of the Yanthat they could not fight ' Me drap . and loading and firing practised blank cartridge and when the command. He cringes and begs to every person who approaches him.TIMIDITY AND COWARDICE OF THE NEGROES. . Virginia." Of the negroes at Harper's Ferry. especially if not properly attended to. and who were afterward captured and punished. but begged for mercy. and a short time before leaving During the exercises. .. page 503." was ttr oxen. Michigan Correspondence of a to the National Intelligencer. . I was unBartl^s Africa. Thus : " The blacks made no . the negro. 1862. able to find a good servant. the general newspaper accounts of that time concur in representing them all (so very unlike their fearless but misguided Anglo-American leaders) as the complete victims of cowardice and trepidation. How the negro troops behaved on the occasion of the attempt to blow up Petersburg." . They ran with all the swiftness that their fears could excite. frightened at the I witnessed their drill exercise it " was truly amusing. Fort Royal. may be seen by reference to the following Federal account from the regular army correspondent of a New York newspaper : . and as I was to go alone without a caravan. and especially of those negroes who were more immediately concerned with John Brown n his Harper's Ferry raid.' was given. with a very bad countenance and expression.

that is. and pistol." Du. rely upon them even for a moment. a terror-stricken. and a battle ensued. so that the at literally tooth and nail. and. In vain their officers endeavored to rally them with all the persuasion of tongue. their white officers are beyond reproach. . " So long as the negro can laugh. to surprise a friend or if a rag be thrown away. or remark. Whatever discredit attaches to the negroes themselves. he jjares the joke goes. fought with the fury of devils. AFRICAN ANECDOTES. stripping themselves enThe challenger having thus denuded herself.130 AFRICAN ANECDOTES. Dog wit. charged them in turn. I went myself and sep- arated the two furies. page 187. when the rebels. Women's fights in this country always begin by their throwing off their dengui. enemy showed pluck and answered the challenge by promptly two elegant figures immediately went they fought like cats. to the rear of our white troops. disordered mass of fugitives. doing the same it. page 330. Highly conceited of their personal appearance. having repulsed their charge. for that could possibly be uttered. " The enraged wife rushed out to seek her supposed rival. the tide of battle turned." CHAPTER XXIV. exasperated at sight of the negroes." little against whom Du Chaillu's Equatorial^Africa. reinforcements coming to their aid. will set them giggling. Any toy will amuse them. they are forever cutting their hair in different fashions. ChaiUiCs Ashango-Land. and then they ran. they will all in turn fight for it to " No one can silly any . sabre. The colored troops gave way and broke in confusion. Mayolo being asleep in his house. her tirely naked. and no one seemingly ready to interfere. and between the rounds reviled each other in language the most filthy . " The rebels.

ordered the virgins to right. then and yawn. for once giving way laughing did not end there. but were all dumb. sidle up to the pole of a hut. my men chuckled in sudden gusts.AFRICAN ANECDOTES. when returned again. and. peacocking about with it before their admiring comrades. even on interpreters account. made me burst into a roar of laughter. each holding a small square of calico for a fig-leaf. all smeared and shining with grease. then on their loins or spears. Seeing this done in such a quiet. laughs and yawns again. and marched them Speke^s Africa. mild way before all my men. whilst the happy fathers floundered. yauzigging on the ground." off. saying it is time to go." Speke's Africa. the we sat in the shade together. marched in a line before us. Getting tired. catching the infection from me. and gradually. the same way as he came. and we all laughed together. which amused the king immensely. I took out women my my my sketch-book and drew Lubuga. the pet. the . who dared not lift their heads to see it. page 29. walks off in. Then twenty naked virgins. while even the women. in bursts of loud laughter. when he drums with his hands on the top of a box until summoned to know what he has at heart. who measured three feet all but an inch. as he recognized her cockscomb. he will enter giggling. " Should one happen to have anything specially to communicate to his master in camp. and the king. dame rose from the squatting mass. 131 bind on their heads. about. stretch down to the " Proceeding to another court. kept bursting. laughed as well but the for the pages. still more naked A negro dwarf. as a fresh addition to the harem. page 29. when he delivers himself in a peculiar manner." Speke's Africa. reverses. the daughters of Wakungu. Then a sedate old responded. commence scratching his back with it. because dared not for their lives say anything. delighted to find their darlings appreciated by the king. slip ground on his stern. holding their mouths for fear of detection. to the king's women. showing their page 357. to nature.

the unlucky quadruped reappeared at my quarters. and . I at once resolved to bestow the long-eared convenience on Prince Freeman. keeper of Princess Miram's keys. sell that person any more. but it is all to no purpose. grinned. 44 They if that they are very superstitious in some things. 44 Their supreme happiness consists in having an abundance of meat. and richly dressed in Soudan tobes. . shook his large head. for any consideration. A great fire covered with pots full of meat. that it might do well enough for . proof of his mistress' partiality. slobbered copiously from his extensive mouth. one of which is. ' ' 4 ! . wonderful so they must be better than this dog of mine for I have given him eight of my handsomest and youngest slaves. with a message from the prince. she said.' The wretch. a French captain. Miram inquired whether we had such little fellows in my country and when I answered in the affirmative. How ugly the fire looks without a pot Moffafs Afri' 4 ' ! ca. before a week ' ' . ' 4 Ah." Moore's Inland Parts of Africa. I would give a hundred bullocks and twenty slaves to the woman who would bear this wretch a child. Yes that we had instances of their being fathers to 1 thought she replied tall and proper men. sat before her with the insignia of oflice on his shoulder. 44 During my absence. who was more grave and thoughtful than his companions. who was one of our most attentive friends.' " adding. which he brought from the Cape de Verds. was over. had left a donkey. page 35. page 306. . they will not. at this flattering Denkani's Africa. what was the finest sight he could desire. gieb what are they good for ? Do they ever have children ? ' I answered. because they say that boiling the milk makes the cows dry. Asking a man." page 3. III. This little person afforded us a subject of conversation and much laughter.' Oh. not only as a type. ! .. and an ugly wretch he was. for my especial delectation.132 AFRICAN ANECDOTES. he instantly replied. Vol. but a testimonial yet. know anybody boils the sweet milk which they buy of them.

is considered to be a mass nightly to the sea. as to the motion of the heavenly bodies. addressing to it some unintelligible words. and then comes up again in the east. if not of every honest women throughout his jurisdiction. betimes. approached close to me. I was busy preparing some skins of amongst snakes. One fellow. bounds away. more inquisitive and imper- tinent than the rest. formation and rotary profound." till I got rid of its serenades " The women. man's ship. with their hands tightly clasped across their stomachs as if in fear of bursting. sinks under the wave." ca. which descends by the chief of a white tallow. goes round Anderssorfs Afribelow. page 364. but its infernal voice was enough to cause the miscarriage of an entire harem. held it up before the multitude. liberty. page 257. page 375. sions. The superstition spread like wildfire. give their tongues free Ogilby^s Africa. 12 . many casting themselves at full length on the ground. seizing one of the reptiles by the tail. which they keep there till all their household work is done but then putting it out. 133 a bachelor like me. which were now thronging my tent to inconvenience. giving the rest a kick. The women were up in arms against the beast and I had no rest . in order not to accustom themselves to much talking or scolding." Anderssorfs Africa. page 345. the mirth became so outrageous as to throw the party into convulsions. a little water in their mouths. are unquesof the people of this where cuts it is laid hold of of fat.AFRICAN ANECDOTES. and. and. take every morning." "When birds and the chief arrived. . Indeed. who it away a portion of and. "The ideas of a Namaqua. by despatching it to Monrovia. The sun. which caused no small amount of jesting his followers. if not very tionably very original. the whole assembly burst out into a deafening roar of laughter. whilst their greasy cheeks became furrowed with tears trickling down in streams. by some benighted land. where the dames and damsels were not afraid of donkeys of any dimenCanofs Twenty Tears of an African Slaver.

Twenty or thirty of these disgusting. had worked with much zeal for many years. to promote my journey to Uniamesi. as the latter show signs of affection to those who are kind to them . who have left their bones in this horrid land. chief of the establishment. t mission of St.Wessiri." " The are. ' . their indifference toward (they all that is spiritual. with Isaiah. ' profitable in nothing. ash-smeared. in which he would say. Krapf'a Africa. the mission.African heathen. too. UTTER FAILURE AND INUTILITY OF ALL MISSIONARY ENTERPRISES IN NEGROLAND. Croix. with great feeling. ings of gratitude. 1 "From this time forward the king began to develop his treacherous character. station. it. . a superlative degree the desire. as state of the East. and in vain. promising. followed upon extortion.134 FAILURE OF MISSIONARY ENTERPRISES. that the mission was absolutely useless among such savages that he . Extortion. but in return they will more they receive the more they do nothing. in the hope of presents. page 507. or to any progress in mere 1 human affairs Rebrnann rightly says. . CHAPTER XXV. while all the while he had resolved to prevent his magician. armed with clubs of hard wood brought to a point. while the natives. were lying idly about the . either to God or to the world ) may easily beget in the heart of a missionary a mood of disappointment. acknowledged. but that the natives were utterly impracticable. are utterly obtuse to all feelHe described the people as lying and deceit. while not one convert has been Bakers Great made from the Basin of the NUe page 53. Herr Morlang. Near by are the graves of several members of . ful to oil the contrary. " THE Austrian mission-station of St. . stark-naked brutes. Croix consists of about twenty grass huts on a patch of dry ground close to the river. They were far below the brutes. The church is a small hut. but neatly arranged. I have labored in vain I have spent my strength for " nought.

followed suit. No result followed his labors. page 260. author of Savage Africa. as the missionaries ' " result of his observation in Equatorial Africa. with which object I had made the journey whereas I was now deprived of my property. and that every Christian negro Mr. they were. and the good design of my loss of . proceeded to the Gold Coast in 1751. and when. one of whom. confirmed this testimony. Reade. the prairie tribes of . Wessiri replied that I wept because of the my goods when I rejoined that I was not weeping on that account. of fourteen years' Gaboon experience. and asked the cause. but in Western India. I was obliged to part with piece after piece of the calico which I had reserved for my further journey." CruickshanK's Africa. if possible. Winwood Reade. The most important and interesting portion of the last number of the 'Journal of the Anthropological Society of London' is the discussion before the Anthropological Society on the efforts of a discussion inaugurated by Mr. giving the result of his observations. A clergyman of the Church of England. worse. the Rev. and brought home " a few natives for education.. even when directed by men eminently So far from professing Christians among negroes being better than the heathen. I. It is even said that. He remained chaplain at the Castle for four years. he had recourse to fetich practices. Vol. ' ' Christian negress was a was a prostitute. but because the things had been given me by good people at home.FAILURE OF MISSIONARY ENTERPRISES. I saw the stock of goods which I had intended for Uniamesi gradually melting away. Captain Burton. Thomas Thompson. friends was defeated " Krapfs Eastern Africa. in a very forcible thief.' said Mr.' speech. 135 speaking and acting in the king's name. and was afterward chaplain at Cape Coast for the long space of fifty years. among savages. at the approach of death. . The king observed them. ' In plain words. Walker. that missionary efforts were total failures. page 183. Philip Quacoe. by order of the king. who wished to send the Book of Life to all Africans. I could not suppress rny tears. not merely in Africa. was educated at Oxford. with the view of attempting the introduction of the Christian religion.' who stated. ' I found that every qualified for the task.

" New York Tribune. but soon found the duced. who despised the monks on account of their chastity. and tropical Africa generally. and there exhibited themselves during the whole day. he The following is characteristic said. I was informed that a to get 'A VERY DEAR PERSON TO us.000. The ladies of the court. with the rest of the missionaries in Central Africa. Catholic missionaries threatened the natives with hell they refused to adopt the marriage system of the Christians. and he was prepared for an attack of insanity. suffering the loss of their entire property. July 16. Phillips. it had pro- ' They dread a superhuman power. which flowed before the garden innovations were the hood is of the missionaries. whose bowie-knife handy. this ill-fated establishment had spent a sum of 12. The natives replied that they were quite content to go where their fathers had gone before them. of Abeokuta. page 442. determined to take advantage of this pious weakness.136 FAILURE OF MISSIONARY 'ENTERPRISES.' added the husband. and lasting five years. missionaiy efforts. and what were the results? In 1857. when calling at the missionary station of Rabbai Mpia. near Mombas. often in very indecent attitudes. was peculiar looks caused me 1865. February 11. he is our first and only convert. being failures all. have been expelled from the country. : Years ago acquainted. But the firmest opponents of these fire if "The women . 1868. Phillips is at Lagos in a destitute condition." evil doubled by this proof of the effect which Rtadds Savage Africa. as their place of bathing. and. America. as every one knows. The afflicted fathers laid their distress before the king. a priestonly powerful when supported on female pillars. with an amount of simplicity which might provoke a smile but for the ' melancholy thought that it breeds." London Dispatch. Accordingly they chose a rivulet. " Mr.' or Mombas mission I am personally With the last African a very dear person to us . caused by the death of all Christianity by his relations. Mr.' ' Yes. and they fear and worship . my wild-looking negro.

\ " Soon an aged woman. The effect he describes as most auspicious every successive blow opened her eyes more and more .'" Footers Africa and the missionary. it 137 as being a measureless source of evil. "A missionary at Maopongo having met one of the queens." Murray's African Discoveries. The inconceivableness generally found among these barof such motives to action has often been found a strong obstacle to the influence of the Christian They can worship nothing good. The fact in their case seems to be. who had charge of the town. was very sticking. asked her why she did not regularly attend the '" chapel. that good in will. page 89. The change in this old woman. page 55. She had seemed to be one of the most unpromising characters in the town of Nyaro. she replied. and the first time the missionary. or good in call this devil-worship. which is the meaning of the Portuguese word from which originated the term 'fetich. American Flag. page 54. It is scarcely correct to of contrast. "lam numerous not to be understood as intimating that any of the tribes are anxious for instruction they are not the in. to the truth. joined the little praying-circle. they do not desire 12* . as she at length declared herself wholly unable to resist such affecting arguments in favor of the Catholic doctrine. quiring spirits we read of in other countries . to whom the missionary had often spoken of the glorious gospel. equivalent to what we term incantations. Me go to church. are ideas foreign to their minds. determined to use sharper remedies. Selfishness cannot be more intense. than barians. and. Yuwa. and finding her mind inaccessible to all his instructions. for this is title a action. seizing a whip. They have mysterious words or mutterings. because they have no expectation of good from anything powerful. began to apply it to her majesty's person.FAILURE OF MISSIONARY ENTERPRISES. and you no pay me ' ! Scotfs Day Dawn in Africa. presuming that there has been a choice of the evil in preference to the good. nor more exclusive of all kindness and generosity or it is charitable aifection.

Though a people may be taught the arts and sciences known by more gifted nations. ' "All missionaries praise the African for his strict observance of He would have three hundred and sixty-five Sabbaths in the year. White man. because they fits. the gospel. rolling from . Vol. if possible." Burton's Wanderings in West Africa.'" Boweifs Central Africa. CHAPTER XXVI. the Sabbath. AND CUSTOMS OF THE NEGROES IN NEGROLAND. 1 " In the negroes own country the efforts of the missionaries for hundreds of years have had no effect the missionary goes away and the people relapse into barbarism. ETC. MISCELLANEOUS PECULIARITIES. Du Chaittu's Ashango-Land. it was very common for some of them to reply by laying their hands on their stomachs. I am hungry. I. they must inevitably relapse in the course of time into their former state. HABITS. MANNERS..138 MISCELLANEOUS PECULIARITIES. " THEIR mode of salutation is quite singular. page 544. whose only object in life was sensual gratification. page 436. page 266. " The town swarmed with thieves and drunkards. and. Nowhere else had I met with so many impudent and shameless beggars. and saying." . page 101." know nothing about either it or its bene- Livingstones Africa. HABITS. When a missionary attempted to preach to a crowd in the streets or market. They throw themselves on their backs on the ground. unless they have the power of progression in themselves. and he would as scrupulously observe them all.

' for cementing our It is accomplished thus The hands of the parties are friendship. friends or relations. and on the right cheeks and foreheads. this performance a painful sense of their extreme degrada- Livingstone's Africa. ETC. they know not what. come perpetual 525. ' Stop stop I ' ! but they. slap the outside of their thighs as expressions of thankfulness and welcome. A son. only tumbled about more furiously. The pleasures of animal life are ever present to their minds as the supreme good. and I never could get reconciled to it. blood is taken off from these points in both parties by means of a stalk of grass. The prejudices in favor of these practices are very deeply rooted in the native mind. and they are supposed to bepits of the A small quantity of ." Livingstone's Africa. The men being imparted to dation. The blood from one person is put into a pot of beer. is the slave-market supplied. I called out. page 590. and slapped their thighs with don't want that ' ! greater vigor. ' : joined (in this case Pitsane and Sambanza were the parties engaged) . and that of the second into another each then drinks the other's blood. and have half-developed ideas and traditions of something or other. and he often sells his nephews to pay his debts." Livingstone's Africa. and of Kolimbota's evil doings." my mind totally unclothed. imagining I was dissatisfied. *' Sambanza gave us a detailed account of the political affairs of the country. uttering the words.' This method of salutation was to me very disagreeable. HABITS. small incisions are made on the clasped hands. Among the Bangalas of the Cassange valley the chief is chosen from three chiefs brother inherits in preference to his families in rotation. of a sister belong to her brother. Kina bomba. By this and other unnatural The sons customs. " page 477. Even at Loanda they retire out of the city in . on the stomach of each. and next morning performed the ceremony called Kasendi. more than by war.MISCELLANEOUS PECULIARITIES. page " The chieftainship is elective from certain families. 139 side to side. They fear all manner of phantoms.

. the Batoka reply that their object is to be like oxen. This is done by both sexes and though the under teeth. Their laugh is hideous. Whether is this is the true reason or not. so universal that a person who has and occasionally. ' Some of the Makololo give a more facetious at the great teeth ! . with twenty or thirty charms round his neck. The custom his teeth is considered ugly. Numbers of charms are employed to avert the evils with which they feel themselves to be encompassed. is one of dread. He seems to act upon the principle of Proclus. Their religion. fess to the deed. and disobedience to his mandates was usually punished with severity but. The disrespect which Europeans pay to the objects of their fear is to their minds only an evidence of great folly. yet they are so attached to it than even Sebituane was unable to eradi- He issued orders that none of the children under him should be subjected to the custom by their parents. the children would appear in the streets without their incisors. grow long and somewhat bent lip to out. the disparaging remark would be 4 Look respecting boys or girls who still retained their teeth. but it noticeable that the veneration for oxen which prevails in many tribes should here be associated with hatred to the zebra. order to perform their heathenish rites without the cognizance of the authorities. When questioned respecting the origin of this appearance. thinks herself accomplished until she has got rid of the upper incisors. notwithstanding this. and that here that is same age ceremony unknown. old. it is difficult to say . and those who retain their teeth they consider to resemble zebras. living . in his prayer to all the gods and goddesses among so many he surely must have the right one. and thereby cause the under no young woman protrude in a most unsightly way. page 471. when the Batoka borrowed made my looking-glass. being relieved from the . and no one would concate the practice. if such it may be called. HABITS. Occasionally you meet a man." Livingstone's Africa. ETC. that circumcision is that this operation is performed at the is in other tribes . more cautious or more timid than the rest. attrition of the upper. This custom gives all the Batoka an uncouth. " All the Batoka tribes follow the curious custom of knocking out the upper front teeth at the age of puberty.140 MISCELLANEOUS PECULIARITIES. as among the Bakwains .

in revenge. knocked out their own. When the mother perishes in childbirth. the parents claim a certain sum from the man that killed their daughter. HABITS. But more than that." Livingstone's Africa.MISCELLANEOUS PECULIARITIES. Seated outside the village. hooting offensive jests and exposed to the and mocking with and gestures. ETC. page 571. birth occasions. " I have and they go together to Kobshi. Vol. they set their birds a-fighting. If the child die." BzrtK's Africa. and in some tribes the mother does a kind of penance. page 93. 216. page 580. . I. and on returning to his village he finds his hut in flames. and it is always in a fluid state. an animal is killed for a general feast.' Twins. : 141 explanation of the custom they say that the wife of a chief having in a quarrel bitten her husband's hand. as among the Ibos of West Africa. here called wapacha." BarMs Africa. and beads of different shapes round her Burtoris Africa. and all the men in the tribe followed his example but this does not explain why they afterward . the master of the defeated cock is punished by the divinity whose anger he has thus provoked. page . he. head. or exposed in the jungle.. shaved Wazaramo and babe To guard against this calamity. Vol." shall not be number of talismans bits of 12* . each of them takes a cock which he thinks the best for fighting. II. When two are litigating about a matter. derision of people who surround her. are usually tion of " There are no ceremonies on women among ' sold. Having arrived at the holy rock. and he whose cock prevails in the combat is also the winner in the point of litigation. " All over Bornu no butter is prepared except with the dirty and disgusting addition of some cow's urine. already noticed some peculiar customs of the Marghi but I must say a few words about their curious ordeal on the holy granite rock of Kobshi. ordered her front teeth to be knocked out. the other tribes are in the habit of vowing that the till manhood. and no purificathese people. she is smeared with fat and flour. and the mother wears a wood tied with a thong of snake's skin round her neck.

is Murray's African Discoverproclaimed victor with loud cheers. came. about six inches of the ends flying behind. engage in another very odd species of contest. chum the blood with milk. The most favorite is wrestling. they cause particular parts to strike together with the most violent collision. which the chiefs do not practise in person. near Burton's Afnca. attended by all his train. a slave never breaks a thing without an instinctive laugh of pleasure . During fires in the town of Zanzibar. Death or maiming. Ah they exclaim. the blacks have been seen adding fuel. page 493. the African severs one of the jugulars of a bullock and fastens upon it like a leech. is " When meat not attainable and good water is scarce. and singing and dancing. Chief of Kiama. HABITS. and. taking the same pride in their prowess and victory. while the other lies stretched. but train their slaves to exhibit in it as our jockeys do game-cocks. " In the absence of all page 145. This custom is common in Karagvvah and the other northern kingdoms. ETC. The ladies. "After the heat of the day was over. The most extraordinary persons in it were himself and the bearers of his spears. and a string . which. even of rank." page 463 " All the thoughts of the negroids are connected with this life. wild with delight." ies. were six naked young girls. from fifteen to seventeen years of age. and almost with fury. The only thing they wore was a fillet of white cloth round the forehead. Moinbasah. at the price of a goat. is no unfrequent result of these encounters. he does not value that of another. when she who maintains her equilibrium. and some tribes." Burton's Africa. however careful he may be of his own life.142 MISCELLANEOUS PECULIARITIES. their destructiveness is prominent . it is bad to die to leave off eating and As in the negro race gendrinking. Placing themselves back to back. refined pleasures. various rude sports are pursued with eagerness. On such occasions they are shot even of a down by the Arabs like dogs. as before. relative. like the Wamjika. however. Yano. never to wear a fine cloth ' ' ' ! ! ' ! erally.

came off with a double allowance. " The Bomonese have twenty cuts or lines on each side of the which are drawn from the corners of the mouth toward the angles of the lower jaw and the cheek-bone and it is quite dis. As it was. A man with an galloping and making his horse immense bundle of spears re- mained behind at a little distance. HABITS. My servant. III. cover themselves with dust. without much strife and squabbling." Clappertori's Africa." Clappertori's Africa. One man not. side of his house. 143 in their right hands they carried three Their light form. having first practised the ceremony. ETC. apparently to serve as a magazine for the girls to be supplied from when their master had expended those they carried in their hands. in order to be perfect. page 242. after the repast on the ground was finished. the omen would have been unfortunate.MISCELLANEOUS PECULIARITIES. Had the pot been broken. Vol. the governor was highly elated. Vol. graciously ordered the poor to be called in to lick beard. got up to receive the Goora nuts presented to me by the governor's orders . the honey running out on the floor. " At that moment one of their lucky omens took place. which he carefully cleaned into his hand fora bonne bouche. when he was curvet and bound. but without breaking it. tressing to witness the torture the poor little children undergo who . happening to have a long ." Clappei-tori's Africa. IV. page 214. The chiefs who come to pay their court. and in rising he overturned a pot of honey which had also been given to us. who had assisted in bringing the presents. and then fall flat on their bellies. of beads round their waists . IV. and the ease with which they appeared to fly over the ground. and up the honey. equally rejoiced at the lucky omen and. made them appear something more than mortal as they flew along- light speai's each.. quickly despatched the honey. " The ceremony of prostration before the king is required from all. page 208. the vivacity of their eyes.. however. face.. Vol. upon their knees. They immediately made their appeai'ance.

however. Except an occasional plunge in a river. he must wear till it gradually rots and falls off. they sit down to eat meat in company. " Before page 265. Vol. It is very common among the Hottentots to catch a serpent. Vol." Denham and Clappertoii'a Africa. The entrails of the animal which was killed at the commencement of the ceremony. ETC. squeeze out the poison from under his teeth.. III." rica. and consequently their bodies are covered with verinin. the Kaffirs are very careful to immerse their hands in fresh cow-dnng. kill an animal. II. They have also one cut on the forehead in the on each arm. and drink it. are thus marked. wiping them on the grass. which. They are. six breast." Campbett^s Africa.144 MISCELLANEOUS PECULIARITIES. they never wash ithemselves. page 175. and yesterday he did the Germans the honor of slaughtering lice in theirs. If you pick a louse off a man's slave. enduring not only the heat. six on each leg and thigh.. just above the hips. a grand piece of etiquette in this country. but the attacks o flies. They and they imagine it presay it only makes them a little giddy serves them afterwards from receiving any injury from the sting . according to custom. you must deliver it up instantly to him to be murIt is dered. being dried and pounded into a powder. when their sons are declared men." Steedmari's Africa. page 401. as his undoubted right and privilege. never approaching their husbands except on their knees.. " of that reptile. four on each and nine on each side.own lice. Vol. millions of centre. the most humble of females. and tie its fat on his head and round his neck. they erect a shade. " His Highness vouchsafed this day to sleep in my tent. Richardson's Af- page 89. are now mixed wtih " As to be . They likewise cut several strokes on his breast with a sharp instrument. I. for the people of Namacqua. which is considered the perfection of cleanliness. that every man has the privilege of murdering his . HABITS.

forming line in front of me. and rubbed their arms over with dirt as high as the shoulders. "The . muttering a dark spell all the while. they believe that her childbirth would be unfortu. page 200. Without passing through this ordeal. Vol. either of regard or affection.." Duncan's Africa. 145 to be a water.. and neck. Vol. " His prime minister and four others next in rank. pelting her with and neighbors set upon her. mud and covering her During this operation they abuse her vehemently. to keep away bad luck and evil spirits. the two most sagacious of all the animal creation. that she is with child. He who does not submit to this ceremony eats only with spised. ankles. She returns unmolested to her house and the fetichwoman binds charms of strings and parrots' feathers about her wrists. They completely prostrated themselves at full length. A curious custom." women. 13 . they will suffer a horse to stand for days. page 220. HABITS. to the sea. where they remained till they had completely covered themselves with dust. rubbing both sides of their faces on the ground and kissing it. I. Africans pay no attention either to domestic or wild ani- mals even the dog or horse. prevails among them. who were conducting me to his majesty's presence. page 430. II. nate. in no case do they exhibit any feeling.. ETC. They then raised themselves on their knees." Duncan's Africa. Vol. excite in them no interest whatever. In fact. her friends " and drive her with dust. in reference to a As soon as it becomes generally apparent girl after conception. and is de- Campbell's Africa. I. and conclude the ceremony by tumbling her over among the waves. desired me to halt till they paid their compliment to his majesty. and he is then declared man ki the presence of the whole kraal.MISCELLANEOUS PECULIARITIES. originating in the superstitious belief of the people of the Gold Coast. with which he is rubbed all over. tied up without food or water. page 90. If not driven to it." CruickshanK's Africa. to merit even a comparison with any of the lower animals. being also selfish in the extreme.

They give birth to children without uttering a complaint. page 258. the cow will . Vol. utterly disobedient and of parental authority. "Much neglect seems to prevail at the time of the birth of male children. I. . I never they were perfect illustrahorns. their children. for the most part. unless he washes his hands with such water before milking. being dressed in either leopard or white monkey skins. and one would almost believe that they " The . and antelopes' horns fitted upon their heads." furnished by King Kamrasi the accompany us Nile. page 49. ETC. respecting the separation of the umbilical cord. and all. when they can no longer bear rub red pepper in their eyes. Baker's Great Basin of women continue to perform the severest labors until the very last moment of their time." Baker's Great Basin of the Nile. made of the bushy ends of cows' tails " sewed together.146 MISCELLANEOUS PECULIARITIES. page 321." Scotfs Day Dawn in Africa. HABITS.. may be seen with protruding navels as large as a duck's egg. and even mixing some with the milk he declares that. ment inflicted is upon to with them. with cows' tails strapped on behind. " The Obbo natives are similar to the Bari in some of their I have had great difficulty in breaking my cow-keeper of habits. tails. nothing better could be expected. As they are taught in their infancy to steal and lie. page 80. "Very reckless earliest little and the children systematic control is exercised by either parent . ex! cepting the hoofs they were our escort to the lake. and to indulge in other gross One most cruel punishvices. The entire crowd were most grotesquely gotten up. . are. his disgusting custom of washing the milk-bowl with cow's urine. while their chins were ornamented with false beards. Many boys." Duncan's Africa. and even men. saw a more unearthly tions of set of creatures my to childish ideas of devils. Altogether. lose her milk.

Vol. who were exceedingly dirty. their usual occupations. who had in their lower lip little pieces of wood of the circumference of a pen-holder pointed at one end and stuck into the flesh. submitted to this operation. with the use of which they are once. and they laughed heartily at my astonishment. this curious ." Caillie's Africa. of taste. The women allowed me to see that ornament was brought through to the inner part of the lip. who acquainted. page 351. aftei . or a thin slip of wood.. who bathe the wound several times a day with an indigenous caustic. HABITS. Vol. I observed that this singular and inconvenient ornament contributed to their uncleanliness. who. some of the customs practised on women. and oil several patients at dered for some time unable to work. I was quite amazed that coquetry could induce them to disfigure themselves in this manner yet it is the general custom . could keep its place. I was equally at a loss to conceive how this bit of wood. stuck into the under I could scarcely persuade myself that this was a mere matter lip. I." " The women of Bambara. until it becomes large enough to admit a piece of wood of the size of a half-crown piece. The excision which females should undergo are marriageable. L. fifteen " The male Mandingoes are circumcised between the age of and twenty. ETC. and eveiy time use a larger bit of wood. 2. I asked one of them to remove the piece of wood from her lip but she told me that if she did so the saliva would run through the hole. page 351. which gradually widens the hole. me the fashion of the country. In Guinea. I saw young girls eight or ten years of age. of this country. and questioned my guide upon the subject he assured all . for on the following day they resume Caillie's Africa.MISCELLANEOUS PECULIARITIES. women.. which was merely stuck through that it was the lip. Vol. page 374. have a bit of calabash. is often delayed until they are promI even saw a married woman. In short. after having It is when they ised in marriage. They renew it frequently. 147 are delivered without pain. a child." Caillie's Africa. always performed by are thereby renIn this state they are taken care of by their mothers.

lord. at the entrance of a miserable straw hut. HABITS.." Lichstenteiri' 8 Africa. therefore. Vol. The greasy swarthiness of her skin.. " Their dances are mere stoppings and turnings. Vol. that she may give undivided attention to her offspring and. " On our walk to the house. presented altogether a most disgusting spectacle." page 218. we first saw a woman of the Bosjesman race.148 MISCELLANEOUS PECULIARITIES. l I. near a fire of fresh brushwood. as well as the savage wildness of her looks. they scarcely make it hot through. particularly of the females. who accompanied her cidedly the ugliest woman I ever saw. The incisive Bosjesmans are commonly half worn away. the husband Valdez's Africa. and chew it vei-y little. and was occupied in skinning a lean hare. of the old selves in a fatiguing manner with their arms. which exhaled a terrible smoke and vapor. and various distortions and gestures. If they dress it. supplies himself with another partner. II. are is The mother . their confinement. and who was deand very old. page is 344. was called . Vol. page 56. They drink out of the rivers and streamlets. 1' She took hare. even when the bank is very steep. lying down flat on their bellies. and bite it with their teeth the moment it is taken out of the ashes. I." Valdez's Africa. Vol. separated from her husband for a period of three years. to avoid falling into the water. " The queen. most barbarous and inhuman. in the mean time.. so that they are obliged to support themteeth. and have one general flat edge. her clothing of animal hides. She sat more than half-naked. notice of us than now and then to cast a shy leer toLicMenstein' s Africa. " They generally eat their flesh raw. and had ocular conviction of the truth of all we had previously heard respecting the uncommon ugliness of these people. page 48. ETC. //. and the uncouth manner in which she handled the no further ward us. in which there nothing graceful.. accompanied by the clapping of hands.

them which the men only cut down the trees and women are then forced to bear on their backs through the forests and jungle down to the riverbanks." Du Chaillu's Equatorial Africa. gather firewood. and the louder and more energetically the horrid drum is beaten. from long exposure. iron being a precious She wore two enormous iron anklets. women. as it is now by many split Shekiani villages. These had so weighed down the lobes of her ears that I could h'ave put my little finger easily into the holes through which the rings were run. and the more disgustingly indecent the contortions of the Equatorial Africa. page 591. fresh of the Hottentots wear. as the loads have to be carried often six or seven miles or more. ETC. as they have but rude paths. though they be laden 13* . her only article of dress being a strip of the Fan cloth. the into billets. where the bar-wood trade is carried on. drawn two or three times. page 236. who raise the crops. Ogilby^s Africa. and had in her ears a pair of copper earmetal with the Fans. page 104. Mashumba. HABITS.MISCELLANEOUS PECULIARITIES. as ornaments. the wilder are the jumps of the male African." Du Chaillu's "Many beasts. page 197. one through another. 149 She was nearly naked. and the like about their legs. that they cannot forbear upon the hearing of any instrument. . had become rough and knotty. the guts of and stinking." "The women are so addicted to dancing. and about four inches wide. bear all kinds of burdens. Her entire body was tattooed in the most fanciful manner her skin. and very heavy. He loses over himself at sound. and beasts of burden are unknown in all this part of Africa. "It is curious what a stirring effect the all control sound of the tarn-tam its has on the African. " The men take care to put all the hardest work on their wives. and. rings two inches in diameter." Du Chaillu's Equatorial Africa. dyed red. This is the most severe toil imaginable. about their necks.

They are utter strangers to cleanliness. When compelled to sally forth for prey. " The king of Congo eats and drinks in secrecy. it is killed and an instance is recorded of the king's son having accidentally seen his father drinking palm wine. and then making a roof of reeds. as they never wash their bodies. it is. lie close together like pigs in a sty. and of his being executed on the spot. page 97. they are dexterous at destroying the various beasts which abound in the country. to perish in the desert. page 286. Eeade's Savage Africa. they are not unfrequently abandoned by their own children. . and I have seen a small circles of stakes fastened in the ground. mingled with ochre. " When the aged become too weak to provide for themselves. page 466. They will continue several days together without food rather than be at the pains of procuring it. If a dog enhouse while he is at meals. " its When a mother dies. within which were still lying the bones of a parent bleached in the sun. but suffer the dirt to accumulate. whose infant is not able to shift for it- self. who had been thus abandoned. buried alive with the corpse of mother. with a meal of victuals and a cruse of water." Moffafs Africa. They delight to besmear their bodies with the fat of animals. Here they lazy. ETC. They are total strangers to domestic happiness.150 MISCELLANEOUS PECULIARITIES^ HABITS. and they can run almost as well as a horse. with one child in the belly. and another at the back. page 48. Their huts are formed by digging a hole in the earth about three feet deep. where they commonly carry them. without any ceremony." Ogilby's Africa. and sometimes with grinie. so that it " will hang a considerable length from their elbows." Moffafs Africa. They are extremely so that nothing will rouse them to action but excessive hunger. and are a burden to those whom they brought forth and reared to manhood." ters the . which is however insufficient to keep off the rains.

In like manner no one is allowed to drink in the king's presence without turning their backs to him. "The women of making large holes Pongo disfigure their faces veiy much by in their ears. but conjugal affection is little known. 'My husband likes it. There is one of his houses in which alone he can eat. Others might be present when the king drank. or the wives of a husband. " The person of the King of Loango is sacred. at the earnest request of its father." Wilson's Africa. and received the laconic answer. Weights are attached to make the hole large enough to pass the finger through. which in general loses by severe usage. especially in connection with his eating and drinking. but was then put to death. and who awoke and accidentally saw the king eating. "The King of Dahorni is one of the most absolute tyrants in .'" Wilson's Africa. Proyait mentions the fact dog was immediately put to death for looking up into his master's face while eating. The doors are then carefully closed and bolted. page 49. Another is mentioned of a child that was accidentally left in the banqueting-room of the king by his father." Kicherer. I inquired of one of them once why she did it. the defeated party wreaks his or her vengeance on the ehild of the conqueror. and any person that should see the king in the would be put to death. a crier proclaims it. They take no great care of their children. and never correct them. page 309. When the covered dishes which contain his food are car- ried into the eating-house. quoted in Moffafs Africa. and everybody gets out of the way as quick as possible. and through the cartilaginous parts of the nose. ETC.MISCELLANEOUS PECULIARITIES. but whether for ornament or fragrance is not known. when they almost kill them In a quarrel between father and mother. subjected to some very singular rules. sevei-al its life. but they were bound to conceal their faces. HABITS. and its blood sprinkled upon the act of eating that a favorite king's fetich. except in a fit of rage. page 288. and another where alone he can drink. in consequence. It was spared five or six days. 151 The men have several wives. Pieces of fat meat are fre- quently worn in these holes. and he is.

own sub- the world jects. HOVELS. and covering their faces and heads with earth. HOVELS. the merriest of the merry. that imperious master. while their momentary hap- .they will run in pursuit of the ani- mal which has received the fatal arrow. themselves at full length on the ground. which is done on some extraordinary any man that has the misfortune or the temerity to cast his eyes If the king drinks in public. . lie huddled in a heap. and afterward shout and cheer at the very top of their voices. CHAPTER XXVII. sleeps. No even his favorite chiefs. and. his person is concealed by having a curtain held up before him. during which time the people prostrate themselves. they will form a hollow in a central position. I have seen them. covering it partially with reeds or grass. "IT is impossible to look at some of their domiciles without the inquiry involuntarily rising in the mind. It is astonishing to what a distance. and bring the branches together over the head. on the successful return of a hunting party." Wilson's Africa. HUTS. on a little trich's nest. Where bushes grass. his wife. But hun- ger. they do nothing but gorge dance and sing. page 202. AND HOLES IN NEGROLAND. they form a hollow under the edge of a rock. and they are often to be found in fissures and cav*w of the mountains. Are these the abodes of human beings ? In a bushy country. being regarded as a demi-god by his his actions are never questioned. they have abundance of meat. proaches him. soon drives him to the chase. in a hollow spot not larger than an osare scarce. exhibiting bursts of enthusiastic joy .152 HUTS. till their stock is exhausted. drinks. It is a grave offence to suppose that the king eats. occasions. and person ever apwithout prostrating upon him in the act is put to death. His meals are always taken to a secret place. AND HOLES (BUT NO HOUSES) IN NEGROLAND. and probably a child or two. When and sleep. Here the man. or performs any of the ordinaiy functions of nature.

page 48. not having the advantage of shady trees." Gumming 's Africa. produced on 153 piuess. They do not appear to have the least affection for their offspring : a parent will sell his child for the merest trifle in the world. page 141. HOVELS." Lander's Travels in Africa." " Their sheep. and extreme nastiness have already been alluded to and the odor emitted from the dirty streets is offensive and almost insup. and lashed down across one another overhead so as to form a framework. on which they spread large mats formed of reeds. II. contrasted with their real condition. and poultry eat and sleep in the same hut with them. " Their houses somewhat resemble a beehive or sisting of ant-hill. and with so regard to comfort and a free circulation of air.. my mind the deepest sorrow. "It is a curious fact that the circular form of hut is the only style of architecture adopted among all the tribes of Central Africa . /. The diameter of these dome-shaped huts varies from ten to fifteen feet. is excessive and distressing. and are very effectual in resisting both sun and rain. Vol. . : In the construction of their dwelling-houses the Mandingoes . that there is scarcely a foot-path in the town wide enough for more than one to walk on at a time and. Vol.. AND HOLES IN NEGROLAND. no tribe has ever yet sufficiently advanced to construct a Baker's Great Basin of the Nile.HUTS. little so close to each other. "These huts are erected the heat of the filth. page 45. Its uncleanness. with no chicken." more remorse or repugnance than he would a Lander's Africa. town portable. and that." Moffafs Africa. although these differ more or less in the form of the roof. and a most intolerable stench is exhaled from all their dwellings. page 348. page 127. window. These mats are also used instead of cloth. goats. con- boughs of trees stuck into the ground in a circular form.

as zards. a few wooden bowls and calabashes. contenting themselves with small and in- commodious hovels. the circular hut described by every traveller in the interior. cow-house. upon which is spread a mat or bullock's the hovel of the slave. feet from the ground. styled if kinds of refuse are thrown indiscriminately through to allow pasture-ground for the many turkey-buz' by Swainson. conform to the general practice of the African nations on this pait of the continent. A and one or two low Journal. of dirt and all the town. stools. A hide. through the passages intended for streets. page " Beyond the line of maritime land the dwelling-house assumes the normal African form. AND SOLES IN NEGROLAND. and thatched with grass. " ' out in As I walk its most original simplicity in Old Kalabar. answers the purpose of a bed. Livingstone appears to judge rightly . H07ELS. some earthen pots for dressing their food.' is carried ." Mungo Park's 1st Houses are jotted down without any regard to the evenness or regularity of the ground on which they are erected." 90." Hutchinson's Western Africa. about four feet high. The higgledy-piggledy order of architecture prevails throughout and the axiom of Bacon that a house was meant to live in. there may be an ascent or a descent of a dozen or score of feet and in wet weather it is impossible to escape a foot-bath in some of the many ruts to be met with as one goes along. In a pathway between two houses opposite each other. I have to scramble over eminences and down declivities in the best way I can.154 also HUTS. or perhaps side by side. water-jar. Heaps . forms alike the palace of the king and Their household furniture is equally simhurdle of canes placed upon upright stakes. lish "Their buildings generally resemble the humbler sort of EngBurton's Africa. and have a perpetual carnival in browsing upon the festering offal. Dr. upon which is placed a conical roof. or an Anglo-Indian bungalow. A circular mud wall. compose the rest. the scavengers of nature. composed of the bamboo cane. page 116. page 31. about two ple.' that congregate upon them.

page 231. there is not throughout native Africa a seat to sit upon. and limited in the greatest degree. 155 circularity is the result of a 1 barbarous deficiency in invent- iveness. The material of the very best habitations are merely stakes of wood plastered with earth. some being simple cones.' Burton's Africa. with doors little higher than an English pigsty. probably. " . page 253. knife. page 97. For a table there is at best a wooden board. nor spoon the fingers being supposed fully adequate to the performance of every function. "The inner side of the roof is polished to a shiny black with smoke. he is at the height of his pomp. built in a conical form like beehives. whereon is neither plate. exist in Africa a stone house. without some foreign interposition. There does not. and sooty lines depend from it like . The people squat on the ground in circles. negro-stalactites." Murray^s African Discoveries. and others like our old straw beehives. page 233. others like European haystacks. and resembling the first rude shelter which man framed against the elements. which winds its way slowly through the door." Burton's Africa.HUTS. HOVELS. Except the state chairs or thrones of the great monarchs. Smoke and grease are the African's coat and small clothes they contribbute so much to his health and comfort that he is by no means anxious to get rid of them. " The settlements of the Wak'hutu are composed of a few straggling hovels of the humblest description." Burton's Africa." Murray's African Discoveries. and eaves so low that a man can- not enter them except on all-fours. page 251. . or one which rises two stories from the ground. In shape they differ. and if the chief can place beneath him the skin of a lion or leopard. fork. ascended only on very solemn occasions. that its AND HOLES IN NEGROLAND. " All the accommodations of life throughout this continent are simple.

five or six latter were small. and they seemed to behold us with astonishment. " The palaver-house is an open shed. you are obliged to crawl on all-fours.158 HUTS. . sleep. " structed. The doors run up to the eaves. The residence of each family is composed of several huts surrounded by quick hedges." Campbell's Africa. Caillies Africa. HOVELS. planted at random and without taste. . as in all the negro villages in this country. mixed with . which answers the purpose of a public-house. page 105. and dirty. page 316. . The inhabitants were so covered with dirt. AND HOLES IN NEGROLAND. The streets are extremely narrow. ill-conand extremely filthy the door is so low that to enter . street " The village was a new one. with the open part exposed to the weather. with slanting roofs." Du Chaillifs Equatorial Africa. hung up to the rafters. and keep their store of provisions. In these houses they cook. page 24. They were made of bark. which might easily be done. or town-hall." I. and there were no windows. Vol. Throughout the whole country the huts are small. and four or five in height. on which were built the houses. Their dwellings were so low as to be hardly visible among the bushes till quite close to them. which must be extremely inconvenient in the rainy season. wide. all sorts of Both men and women are very unfilth being thrown into them. and they rub a great quantity of butter upon their heads. that it appeared probable none of them had had any part of their bodies washed since they were born. chief of which is the smoked game and smoked human flesh. spots of very red paint. cleanly. unless they are able to turn the inclosed side to the storm. . eat. and the roofs were of a kind of matting made of the leaves of a palm-tree. " Their appearance indicated wretchedness in the extreme. They were the shape of the half of a hen's egg. being only eight or ten feet long. club-room. Sometimes this inclosure is formed merely of posts and rails. and consisted mostly of a single about eight hundred yards long. or a kind of palisade of straw. winding. The about four feet high. to these people .

against an enemy. He is fond of taking up his abode for the night in caverns among the mountains. tion may.HUTS. or gets into the midst of a bush. as it projects beyond the walls. however. far tion by night. be found to this general rule. it is lifted on to the circular all-fours. A bush that has served many times in this way as the retreat of a Bosjesman. and which at last becomes so delightful to him. or against wild beasts. the shade is the best to be found in the country. to smoke and gossip. 14 . like wall. palavers. When all prepared except the thatch. and reaches within four feet of the ground. that he had rather buckle the girdle of emptiness round him. the rim resting on a circle of poles. when he has for several days together had as much as his almost incredible voracity can possibly eat. " The best sort of Makololo huts consist of three circular walls. bound firmly together with circular bands. or clefts in the rocks in the plain he makes himself a hole in the ground. The roof is formed of reeds or straight sticks. or at least a fit of indolence. page 225. . has perfectly the appearance of an immense when he has . and receive strangers. bending the boughs around him. . hold public trials or Du Chaillu's Ashango-Land. 157 they meet there daily. and the points of whose bent boughs are beginning to grow again upwards. which will continue even for weeks. and sewed with the same material as the lashings and. but are close and deficient in ventila." Livingstone's Africa. they are made to serve as a shelter against the weather. . eaten till he is perfectly gorged that is to say. " The Bosjesman has no settled residence his whole life is passed in wandering from place to place it even rarely happens One excepthat he passes two nights together on the same spot. in shape a Chinaman's hat. The roof is thatched with fine grass. each similar to that in a dog-house and it is necessary to bend down the body to get in. even when on . or catching insects. These huts are very cool in the hottest day." page 264. HOVELS) AND HOLES IN NEGROLAND. which are lashed with the strong inner bark of the mimosa-tree. where. between each of which the third wall is built. Such a revelry is followed by a sleep. with small holes as doors. than submit to such an exertion as going to the chase. and that is.

on the coast and in the interior but before I account for it. page 47. that all air is entirely kept from them. Wherever he settles. "The holes in the ground above mentioned. from this retreat. very cold nights they heap up twigs and earth on the windward side of the whole but against rain they have no other shelter than the sheepskin. abundance of which grows on the other side of the Great River. hay. or at an enemy. " I HAVE been struck with the steady decrease of the population. round like a ball. . are often to be found." Lichtensteiri's Africa. and wool may be seen. II. CHAPTER XXVIII. a shrub or bush Bosjesman. which sometimes serve these people as beds. who is accused as being the cause of it. In manage .. GRADUAL DECREASE AND PROBABLE EXTINCTION OF THE NEGRO RACE.158 PROBABLE EXTINCTION OF THE NEGRO RACE. let me raise my voice in defence of the white man. I admit that such is the case but the decrease of the pop. of a longish-round form. Vol. forming the bottom of the nest. many sorts of the pliant tarconanthus. . la this state bird's nest." steMs Africa. An additional reason for giving it being derived from their often Licldenshooting at game. not more than five or six feet wide. are only a few inches deep. consequently. page 46. perhaps two grown persons and several children each is wrapped in a single sheepskin. a bush-man. . to pack together in so small a space. It is the custom which has given rise to the name by which the savages in question are now known. and if they have been recently inhabited. in which they contrive to roll themselves up in such a manner. . leaves. in African Dutch.. and even when they are to serve for a whole famIt is incredible how they ily. Bosje signifying. the aborigines are said to disappear. II. even during the short time I have been in Africa. Vol.

Land. the slave-trade. and this decrease took place before the terrible plague that desolated the land had made its appearance. I. and in despite of . in the first instance. barrenness of women. page 225. within the colony. The women of the inthat the it shall we assume negro race has run will disappear. Clans in the life-time of old men have entirely disappeared in Du Chaillu's Ashangoothers. It has generally been observed that wherever Europeans have colonized." Barrow's Africa. . The lands of the native tribes become gradually encroached on . only a few individuals remain. death the latter taking children. page 435." Asliango-Land. States of " The name of Hottentot will soon be forgotten. tilation 159 the had already taken place before the white man came . and witchcraft. " It is impossible to conceal one's fears for the ultimate existence of most of the colored races in South Africa I mean those. white whom and but could not stop it. The negroes themselves acknowledge the decrease. man his fiery water. page 93. The negro does not seem to diminish only in the region I have visited but in . travellers. the least civilized have always dwindled away. every other part of Africa. Populous tribes I saw for a second time. hood of places where the emigrant Boers have lately settled.. polygamy. Vol. or remembered only as that of a deceased person of little note. and that in due course of time it races of mankind have done before him ? The Southern in America were. and at length totally disappeared. and who had seen no white man noticed it. have noticed a decrease of population. plagues. "The causes : decrease of the African population is owing to several among away more lives than any slave-trade ever did. . I believe." . Their numbers of late years have been rapidly on the decline. .PROBABLE EXTINCTION OF THE NEGRO RACE. and those in the neighbor. have decreased. as its many course. the only country Du Chailltfs which the negro is known to have increased. terior are prolific. who after the lapse of a few years have returned a second time in the same country.


and animosities, wars and


retaliations arise




tive tribes are driven back, lose their property, their lands, their



back on other

more or

less resistance,

tribes, where they encounter become weaker and weaker, and the


advances, and absorbs the whole."

Freeman's Mis-

sionary Travels in Africa, page 68.

present, it appears to me that the prospects of the colored races of South Africa, taken on the broadest scale, are such as Christian philanthropy may weep over. I see no prospect of their

" At

struggle may not only save many of the souls of men, but help to defer the evil day of anniBut annihilation is hilation as to many of the aboriginal tribes.

preservation for any very lengthened period. last for a considerable time. Missionary effort



advancing and nothing can arrest it without an entire system of government, wherever British subjects come in contact with the native tribes." Freeman's Missionary


in the

Travels in Africa, page 261.

" In our own day a disintegrating process


ever spreading

among the nations of Eastern Africa, and the East Africans themselves avow that things went better with them in their fathers'

that greater kings


chiefs existed then than

now, and

that a

new element must be


among them.

The deAfrica,

scendants of


have outlived themselves."


page 393.

How the negro has lived so many ages without advancing, seems marvellous, when all the countries surrounding Africa are so forward in comparison and judging from the progressive state of the world, one is led to suppose that the African must soon either step out from his darkness, or be superseded by a being superior to himself. Could a government be formed for them like ours in India, they would be saved but, without it, I fear there is very little chance for at present the African neither can help himself, nor will he be helped by others, because his
; ;





in such

a constant state of turmoil he has too




anxiety on hand looking out for his food to think of anything else. He works his wife, sells his his fathers ever did, so does he. children, enslaves all he can lay hands upon, and, unless when


fighting for the property of others, contents himself with drinking, singing, and dancing like a baboon, to drive dull care away."
Speke's Africa, page 24.

Secretary of the Board of Education of Freedmen, Department of the Gulf, formerly under Chaplain of one of the New Hampshire Regiments,

Eev. E.

M. Wheelock,

date of


Orleans, Feb. 8, 1865, wrote to William Lloyd

Garrison as follows


scores of plantations, labor

was wholly suspended; and

the laborers in hundreds, with their wives and little ones, had gathered around the forts and soldiers' camps. There they eai-ned

a precarious living by such uncertain and intermitted employas they might find the men as servants, hostlers, camp their wives as cooks, washerwomen, followers, and hangers-on, etc. cold, fever, and small pox were carrying off the Hunger, children at a fearful rate of mortality. The morals of the men were being undermined by idleness and evil example, and the modesty of the women debauched by contact with all that is



bebasing in military life. From month to month their numbers and it really seemed as though the Southern visibly decreased Negro, like the Indian, the Caffre, the Carib, and the Australian, would become extinct before the rude shock of the war, and the The slave in Louisiana had coiTosive venom of our vices. become free, de facto, and in a qualified sense but, alas his freedom only meant the power to become idle, to become im;



moral, to sicken and to die."





" So great a difference of opinion has ever existed upon the
intrinsic value of the negro, that the

it is

very perplexity of the quesa proof that he is altogether a distinct variety. So long as generally considered that the negro and the white man are to

be governed by the same laws and guided by the same management, so long will the former remain a thorn in the side of every community to which he may unhappily belong. When the horse and the ass shall be found to match in double harness, the white man and the African black will pull together under the same regime. It is the grand error of equalizing that which is unequal that has lowered the negro character, and made the black man a
Baker's Great Basin of the Nile, page 195.

" The obtuseness of the savages was such, that I never could make them understand the existence of any good principle force that could obtain all, the their one idea was power, strong hand that could wrest from the weak. In disgust I fre;

quently noted the feelings of the



my journal,



1863, I wish the black sympathizers in England could 10th April. see Africa's inmost heart as I do much of their sympathy would

orandum from which


copy as

illustrative of the time.



nature viewed in


crude state as pictured

amongst African savages is quite on a level with that of the brute, and not to be compared with the noble character of the dog. There is neither gratitude, pity, love, ncfr self-denial no


and more minute elucidation of the physical, mental, and moral which exist between white people and negroes, see the remaining portions of this work, especially the next succeeding chapter, entitled "American Writers on the Negro." The testimonies given in the present chapter are almost exclusively those of intelligent white travellers, who have seen (and who, as careful and correct observers, have always seen only with indignation and disgust) the
For a





idea of duty
; ;


no religion but covetousness, ingratitude, selfishand cruelty. All are thieves, idle, envious, and ready to Baker's Great plunder and enslave their weaker neighbors.'"
Basin of
the Nile,



" In childhood

I believe the

negro to be

in advance, in intellec-

tual quickness, of the white child of a similar age, but the


does not expand it promises fruit, but does not ripen and the negro mind has grown in body, but has not advanced in intellect.

The puppy of three months old is superior in intellect to a child of the same age, but the mind of the child expands, Avhile that of the dog has arrived at its limit. The chicken of the common fowl has sufficient power and instinct to run in search of food the moment that it leaves the egg, while the young of the eagle lies
helpless in its nest the course of time.

but the young eagle outstrips the chicken in The earth presents a wonderful example of

human race, the animal and vegetable People, beasts, and plants belonging to distinct classThe existence of es, exhibit special qualities and peculiarities. many hundred varieties of dogs cannot interfere with the fact that
variety in all classes of the


they belong to one genus,

the greyhound, pug, bloodhound,

pointer, poodle, mastiff, and terrier, are all as entirely different in their peculiar instincts as are the varieties of the human race.


different fruits and flowers continue the example, the wild grapes of the forest are grapes, but, although they belong to the same class, they are distinct from the luscious Muscatel and the

wild dog-rose of the hedge, although of the same class, is inferior to the moss-rose of the garden. From fruits and flowers we may
turn to insect

and watch the


teeming with varieties of the



the thousands of butterflies and beetles, the
class varying in instincts


members of each

and peculiarities. Fishthat es, and even shell-fish, all exhibit the same arrangement every group is divided into varieties, all differing from each other, and each distinguished by some peculiar excellence or defect." Baker's Oreat Basin of the Nile, page 195.

" The negro is a being who invents nothing, originates nothing, improves nothing; who can only cook, nurse, and fiddle; who



has neither energy nor industry, save in rare cases, that prove the

he is the self-constituted thrall that delights in subjection and in imitation of, the superior races. The Aboriginal Amer;

known to slave ; the African, since he landed in Virginia, in 1620, has chosen nothing else has never, until Burtoris Wanderings in West egged on, dreamed of being free."
ican has never been
Africa, Vol. I., page 175.

"Eastern and Central intertropical Africa also lacks antiquait has few traditions, no annals, and no ruins, the hoary remnants of past splendor so dear to the traveller and to the reader of travels. It contains not a single useful or ornamental work; a canal or a dam is, and has ever Burton's been, beyond the narrow bounds of its civilization."
rian and historic interest




" The African's wonderful loquacity and volubility of tongue have produced no tales, poetry, nor display of eloquence though, like most barbarians, somewhat sententious, he will content him;

self with squabbling with his companions, or with repeating some meaningless word in every different tone of voice during the

weary length of a

day's march."

Burton's Africa, page 497.

tunists, the



a low ebb.



and no mean

people betray their incapacity for improvement by remaining contented with the simplest and the most monotonous combinations of sounds. As in everything else, so in this art,
is wanting. A higher development would have produced other results yet it is impossible not to remark the delight which they take in harmony. The fisherman will accompany his paddle, the porter his trudge, and the housewife her task of shelling grain, with a song; and for long hours at night the peasants will sit in a ring repeating, with a zest that never flags, the same few notes, and the same unmeaning line." Burtori*

creative talent



page 468.



Devotedly fond of music, the negro's love of tune has invented nothing but whistling and the whistle his instruments are all borrowed from the coast people. He delights in singing, yet he has no metrical songs he contents himself with improvising a
; ;

few notes without sense or rhyme, and repeats them till they nauseate. When mourning, the love of music assumes
. . .

women weeping or sobbing, especially after chastisement, will break into a protracted threne or dirge, every period of which concludes with its own particular groan or wail. After venting a little natural distress in a natural sound, the long,
a peculiar form;
loud improvisation, in the highest falsetto key, continues as before."

Burton's Africa, page 497.

" The sebaceous odor of the skin among all these races is overpowering, and is emitted with the greatest effect during and after Burton's Africa, page excitement, whether of mind or body."

" Up to the age of fourteen, the black children advance as fast as the white, but after that age, unless there be an admixture of white blood, it becomes, in most instances, extremely difficult to

cany them forward."
States, Vol. I.,

Sir Charles LyelVs Second Visit to the United



" A certain skill in mechanics, without the genius of invention a great fluency of language, without energy in ideas a correct in a word, ear for music, without a capacity for composition, a display of imitative faculties, with an utter barrenness of






your negro

at the

very best. Even these

are rare, almost exceptional, cases; and to show such trained animals as fair samples of the negro is to make an exhibition of


lies. One might almost as well assert, after the sights which one sees at a country fair, that all pigs are learned that the hare plays on a drum in its native state and that it is the nature of piebald horses to rotate in a circle to the sound of a brass
; ;


Readers Savage Africa, page 33.

by analysis. it would. I cannot struggle against these sacred facts of science. these very prolific. Forbearance these negroes ascribe to fear. interest. but. . at ten or eleven years old. and mercy to personal . the mother carries it in the same cloth upon her back. Vol. that the typical negro is something between a child. II. this part being of such a length as. page 327. and forth children with the utmost ease. The women of this part of Africa are certainly singularly . with which they are infested. by microscopes. and a beast. page 559. and gives it suck with the breast. upon bearing a child or two. Her common manner of suckling her children is by carrying them upon her back. if war waged against savages. which she throws over her shoulder.\ 166 " It DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WHITES AND BLACKS. they wrap it up in a soft cloth made of the bark of trees. and never rest or confine themselves after delivery. or it is useless. sees her breast fall immediately down to near her knees. when it has gathered strength. a dotard." Readers Savage Africa. it must be a massacre. naked. be the cause of less misery and bloodshed afterward. to Shangalla go all "The They bring reach almost to their knees. Vol." Readers Savage Africa. or begin child-bearing before they are ten so that the time of child-bearing is but twelve years. After a few days. page 553. is be blamed by ignorant persons when I say that.. as are their bodies from our bodies. washing themselves and the child with cold water. in some. and the serpents may not devour it. and giving the "A They rarely are mothers after twenty-two. and hang it upon a branch..." Brace's Travels. Cruel as this maxim may appear. has been proved by measurements. if followed out. they have several wives. It must be reshall "I membered that the minds of savages are as differently constituted from our minds. page 399. II." Brace's Travels. as our beggars do... infant the breast over her shoulders. Shangalla woman. that the large ants.

. page 89. and contempt of danger. II." Richardson's Africa. make choice of her whose perDeriham's son most projected beyond that of her companions.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WHITES AND BLACKS. Oral communication forms the only channel by which thought can be transmitted from one country and one age to another. I found his majesty sitting upon a bullock's hide. Vol.. turn their faces from him. ." " Mungo Park's First Journal. and none of those public qualities that claim respect or command admiraThe love of country is not strong enough in their bosoms tion. for the Afi'icans are sensible of the smallest variation in the temperature of the air. . " There is aboriginal tribes of Africa. not a tincture of letters or of writing among all the There is not a hieroglyphic or a symbol. and looking at them behind. page 305. page 41. the experience of ages. in the vicinity of the hips. which distinguish the North American tribes ." Murray's African Discoveries. page 233. that I have known a man. about to make a purchase of one out of three. regardless of the charms of feature. nothing corresponding to the painted stories of Mexico. or the knotted quipos of Peru. noble sentiments. warming himself before a large fire . pends on the magnitude of those attractions for which their southern sisters are so celebrated. The lessons of time.. very few of those amiable private virtues which would win our affection. 167 So much degifted with the Hottentot protuberance. All goes on according to a certain routine established forages past. and frequently complain of cold when a European is oppressed with heat. I. do not exist for the nations of this vast continent. . " They seem to have no social tenderness. " Neither is in the Desert nor in the kingdoms of Central Africa there any march of civilization. Vol. to incite them to defend it against the irregular incursions of a despicable foe and of the active energy." Africa.

" Draysoris . The Bushmen. lid of this organ. and concave visage. prominent chin. are amongst the ugliest of all huThe flat nose. is rounded into upper the lower on the side next the nose." Barrow's Africa. /.. and these not frequently. /. and their backs hollow. Africa. as there are few words but can be understood without the click. Regardless of the past as reckless of the future. he is obliged to light a fire. which was sufficiently remarkable. and other savages. These curious little men use a great deal of action during their conversation and it is said that if a Bushman wishes to talk during a dark night.. the men had adopted a custom. indeed. and I have heard that a Bushman is not considered to speak his language elegantly until age has deprived him of all his teeth.168 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WHITES AND BLACKS. partake much of the apish character. Their bellies are uncommonly protuberant. so that the point of union between the upper and lower eyelid is not ascertainable. and forms not an angle. and Kaffirs have each several clicks. tends not to diminish. Hottentots. very many are used. to enable the listeners to see his action. Vol." Lander's Travels in Africa. . page 234. as if nature had stationed them there. or ticles to the " The when pursued by an enemy. where they seemed to remain as firmly fixed. page 176 " Clicking is a peculiarity of several South African languages.( As a means of increasing their speed beings. and the remark- . Vol. as in that of the Chinese. but a circular sweep. page 58. in the chase. . the present alone influences their actions. and thereby fully to comprehend his meaning. of pushing the tesupper part of the root of the penis. always in motion. which The their keen eye. high cheek-bones. . In the Bushmen's language. as is the case in the eye of a European. The Natal Kaffirs use but three. man Bosjesmans.^ " The great curvature of the spine inwards. In this respect they approach nearer to the nature of the brute than pei'haps any other people on the face of the globe. no traces are to be found among this slothful people. and as conveniently placed.

no less in words than in sounds they understand each other more by their gestures . which resembles the self-filterity. himself. line of beauty to which degrees of approximation are admissible. The projection of the posterior part. make a Bosjesman woman. and the prevailing croaking in the throat and it is extremely poor. page 237. 169 tot race ably extended posteriors." No Lichtensteiri's Africa. hanging breasts. are characteristic of the whole Hottenbut. every step being accompanied with a in quivering and tremulous motion.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WHITES AND BLACKS. or deludmeasure of intellectual grade. surprised. S be considered as one expression of the one subject." Barrow's Africa. it exhibited the most ridiculous appearance imaginable. in the eyes of a European. So trifling is the intercourse among them. from the frequent clacking of the teeth. when the woman walked. page 117. in some of the small Bosjesmans. from the breast to the knee. the hordes keep at a distance from each other. they are carried If the letter to such an extravagant degree as to excite laughter. and. Bosjesman has a name peculiar to page 49. "The loose." Lichtensteiri's Africa. that the names of even the most common objects are as various as the number of hordes... I. long. This protuberance consisted entirely of fat. and disproportionate thickness of the hinder parts. I fear that African minds will take only a very moderate rank in the scale of humanThe task of self-civilization. " For the most part. tion of the body. Vol. . than by their speaking. a real object of horror. as if two masses of jelly had been attached behind her. Vol. . some of the women of A secthis nation are entitled to the first rank in point of form.. ing of water. forms really the shape of the above letter. which a man is amused. II. since the smaller the number the easier is a supply of food procured. measured five inches and a half from the line touching the spine. I. is " a fair 15 . has done but little for Ethiopia in the ages that have passed simultaneously over her people and the progressive races If the ease with ed. Their language is disagreeably sonorous. Vol.

his enterprise. or retained a civilization taught them by contact with more refined nations. nor argument. prejudices which neither refinement. " When two Namaquas are talking together. his virtues what they may. nor educamark the people of color. page of other lands. IV. or indeed to correct or I. Vol. whether bond or free. nor religion itself. framed a grammatical language nor made the least step in science or . Duncan's Africa." 231. The African in this country belongs by birth to the very lowest station in society and from that station he can never . the feelings. improve the page 199. They have scarcely formed great political states.' the other ejaculates. a very large rhinoceros rushed suddenly upon me.' Very fat. ' ' " tional or charitable feeling. " In every part of the United States. As I walked along the river." Africa. page 118. 1' any other exertion of the mind calculated natural passions. can subdue. so soon as that contact has ceased. They have at no time art. if a man begin his recital by saying.' echoes the auditor.' He was very Rushed suddenly upon me.. even For if he should know as much of the matter as his informant.. typical woolly-haired races have never invented a reasoned or reasonable theological system. tion. Unfortunately the people are altogether deficient of any raMusic is scarcely known. and every other class in the community. the listener repeats the last words of the speaker. ' Anderssori'f fat. all the prejudices of society. " The comprehended what they have learned . and so forth. and one is relat- ing a story. discovered an alphabet. ' instance. nor commenced a self-evolving civ- .170 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WHITES AND SLACKS. there is a broad nnd impassable line of demarcation between every man who has one drop of African blood in his veins. CanoCs Twenty Tears of an African Slaver. rise. Vol. be his talents. as the subjects of a degradation inevitable and incurable." African Repository. The habits. page 259.

." Burmeister' s Black Man." Livingstone's Africa. reminded me of the harsh shrieking cries of the apes. drawn-out ' hie ' they constantly emit as a mark of joyful surprise. soft sound. but few of them are judicious. entirely free from variations. I attempted to begin a conversation with him." cies. The key is commonly in moll. has neither invention nor judgment. The voice is a sort of shrieking falsetto. but they are limited He the learning of what has been previously known. is not wholly without talents. 171 Spe- Hamilton Smith's Natural History of the 196. and thus in mental qualities we are disposed to see a certain analogy with the apes. ily. page 689. 14. page 12. in order to discover his intellectual and spiritual characterhaving studied his istics." Burmeister^s Black Man. and each verse of the song terminates in a longprotracted. Human page " The negro to imitation. Africans may be consid- ered docile. Dull and high. when I met with a negro with a physithat pleased me. The shrill. and served to confirm me in my opinion that the negro cares only for those things which belong to the very lowest grades of the Burmeister's Black Man. ognomy " On several occasions. and even his laughter has more the sound of whistling than laughing. ilization. " The tune the negroes sing is very simple.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WHITES AND BLACKS. He tries to raise his voice to the highest possible pitch. however. uni- versally satisfied me of his deficiencies in this respect. The result. and is constantly repeated in the same key. after body. seldom in dur." human fam- " There is not a single bookseller's shop in either Eastern or Western Africa. l page 16. in the singing of which alone can we observe anything like freedom and variety of expression. deep tones are disagreeable to the negro. whose page imitative powers are proverbial.

to work the king's planwere specimens of no less than eleven different tribes. page 548. page 42." . . held under my tongue. and few questions are ever discussed. " Among the tations. with prominent abdomen. It stood at 108 in the shade by day. the blood of a European is of a higher temperature than that of an African. page 138. no science has been developed. If my experiments were correct. placed upon a deal box in the sun. "Among the negroes. at 98. men." Livingstone's Africa. rose to 138. slaves living at Aniambie. ever of ancient civilization. Ashango-Land. showing that he had once attained a tolerably high state of civilization . will have been able to gather an idea of the general character and disposition of the I have made rethis part of Africa." . and 96 at sunset. searches to ascertain if his race had formerly left remains. except those which have an intimate connection with the wants of the stomach. The bulb. and projecting muzzles they were more like animals than Du Chaillu'a Ashango-Land. heavy bodies. from the Anthropoid apes in their shape and features.172 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WHITES AND BLACKS. Some old slaves from the far interior seemed very little removed lean legs. " The thermometer. negro of my researches have proved vain I have found no vestige whatOther travellers in different parts of Du Chaillu'a Africa have not been more successful than I have. as he now stands. . retreating forehead." Livingstone's Africa. page 435. " The reader who has followed me through the volume of my former exploration and the present book. stood at 100 under that of the natives.

Jefferson really did say and write. as a fellow-peer. and ought to be. THOMAS JEFFERSON. 1866. held in sincere reverence Radicals because of his agency in basing the Declaration of Independence on the broad. and a those brother ! afforded The by the : latest New York notable instance of this fallacy is "Tribune. if we will but fairly scrutinize. comprehensive." of April 14. eternal principle of Equal Human Rights. plored his countrymen to avert. the very condition of national disgrace and ruin which has at last so nearly overtaken us." Now. was the first American who. Yet such are tlie vagaries of certain sophists that the opinions of the renowned author of the Declaration of Independence are sometimes appealed to in support of the false positions of who favor the recognition of the negro.AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. with the vision of an impassioned prophet. Mr. Jefferson is. As to the fundamental base of our by all political system. at the same time. and weigh well. AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. im. which are now so strenuously advocated by the " Tribune " and other 15* . what Mr. in these words " Mr. Jefferson is and ought to be the highest authority. indeed. during the long period of the half century immediately subsequent to the date of the Declaration of Independence. we will find that he had. wrote learnedly and truthfully about him and who. having acquired a thorough knowledge of the inferior and baneful nature of the negro. the fame of whose great intellect and commanding abilities seems to increase with the growth of time. no sympathy whatever with the erroneous and unnatural views touching the negro. by a system of emancipation and deportation. 173 CHAPTER XXX. upon terms of perfect equality. at intervals. a cousin-german.

and less so of cold than . and is as real as if its seat and cause were better known to us. objections. and hair. For full proof of without any specific reference or this. TEN THOUSAND RECOLLECTIONS. which gives them a very strong and disagreeable odor. figure. about the negro. or from that of some other secretion. and more by the glands of the skin. WILL DIVIDE US INTO PARTIES. BY THE BLACKS. To these . . that immovable veil of black which covers the emotions of the other race? .. And is this difference of no importance ? Is it not itself.. which are physical and moral. let us. in the following pages. may be added others. which are political. preferable to that eternal monotony. They have less hair on the face and body. They secrete less by the kidneys. Jefferson did pointedly and specifically write oracular exponents of the Radical faith. the Declaration of Independence was written in 1776. . Whether the black of the negro resides in the reticular the skin and scarf-skin. July 4. the expressions of every passion by greater or less suffusions of color in the one.. which reigns in the countenances. July "DEEP-ROOTED PREJUDICES ENTERTAINED BY THE WHITES. AND PRODUCE CONVULSIONS. The circumstance of superior beauty is thought worthy of attention in the propagation of our horses. OP THE INJURIES THEY HAVE SUSTAINED NEW PROVOCATIONS THE REAL DISTINCTIONS WHICH NATURE HAS MADE AND MANY OTHER CIRCUMSTANCES. membrane between the foundation of a greater or less share of beauty in the two races ? Are not the fine mixtures of red and white. The first difference which strikes us is that of color.174 AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. why not in that of man ? Besides those of color. 1826 : document. there are other physical distinctions proving a difference of race. allusion to the negro. dogs. WHICH WILL PROBABLY NEVER END BUT IN THE EXTERMINATION OP THE ONE OR THE OTHER RACE. and other domestic animals . 1776. and the date of the death of its illustrious author. between the date of that ever-memorable 4. see something of what Mr. or in the scarf-skin whether it proceeds from the color of the blood. the color of the bile. remembering that. This greater degree of transpiration renders them more tolerant of heat. the difference is fixed in nature.

griefs are transient. as I think one could scarcely be found capable of tracing and comprehending the investigations of Euclid and that in imagination ties of memory. .. 1801. and who does not reflect. Nov. . An animal whose body is at rest. be colonized. with them. 175 They are more ardent after their female but love seems with them to be more an eager desire. IV. " You have asked my opinion on the proposition of Mrs. and anomalous. Having long ago made up my mind on this subject. . Notes on Virginia." Works. Comparing them by their faculit appears to me that in equal to the whites in reason much inferior. . page 421. the whites. European sovereigns of those islands leave to send thither the persons under consideration. an establishment to which the people of color of these States might. In general. abstracted from their diversions and doubtful whether Heaven has given to us in unemployed in labor. Whether we could obtain from the . written in 1782.AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. ble than the former propositions. Inhabited already by a people of their own race and color climates congenial with their natural constitution in. . Vol. Monroe. reason. they are dull. it Those numberless afflictions. page 380. life which render mercy or in wrath. and imagination." Jefferson's Works.. sulated from the other descriptions of men nature seems to have formed these islands to become the receptacle of the blacks transplanted into this hemisphere. memory they are . 24. Africa would and undoubted resort. under the auspices of different governments. I have no hesitation in saying that I always thought it the . Mifflin. . I cannot say but I think it more proba. on the coast of Africa. are less felt. . their existence appears to pai'ticipate more of sensation than reTo this must be ascribed their disposition to sleep when flection. . must be disposed to sleep. from time to time. because of their being already . and sooner forgotten. than a Their tender. tasteless. delicate mixture of sentiment and sensation. Vol.if all others more desirable Jefferson's should fail. " The West Indies offer a more probable and practicable retreat for the negroes. inhabited offer a last more or less by the same race. of course. VIII. . Letter to Gov. to take measures for procuring.

"The . and deportation at a proper age. without any intimation of a plan existing for a future and general emancipation. 1811. inform on the subject of slaves was a mere digest of the laws respecting them. 1817. But it was found that the public mind would not yet bear the proposition nor will it bear it even at this day. John Lynch. therefore. The sacrifice must fall on the States alone which hold them and the difficult question will be how to lessen this so as to reconcile our fellow-citizens to it. The principles of the amendment. establish them elsewhere in freedom and safety. of establishment on the coast of Africa. Personally I am ready and desirous to make any sacrifice which shall ensure their gradual but complete retirement from the State.176 AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. I leave it. It was thought better that this should be kept back. they might be the means of transplanting them among the inhabitants of Africa. the freedom of all born after a certain day. and the patronage of our nation until the emigrants shall be able to protect ' themselves. of Avhich I once had sanguine hopes. equally desirable and welcome to us as to them. No symptoms . and would thus carry back to the country of their origin the seeds of civilization. and attempted only by way of amendment. Vol. Thomas Humphreys." Jefferson's Works. V. page 563. But I have not perceived the growth of this disposition in the rising generation. . and not at all without hope that the day will come. were agreed on that is to say. Yet the bill .. But the bare proposition of purchase by the United States generally would excite infinite indignation in all the States north of Maryland. Vol. whenever the bill should be brought on. at the same time. VII. January 21. most desirable measure which could be adopted for gradually drawing off this part of our population most advantageously for themselves as well as for us. me that it will take place in my day. page 57. and effectually. The subordinate details might be easily arranged. Letter to Dr. to time. which might render their sojournment and sufferings here a blessing in the end to that country.. Going from a country possessing all the useful arts. February 8. Letter to I concur entirely in your leading principles of gradual emancipation." Jefferson's Works. however.

and establish them. And who : . page 48. have not distant follow. pari passu. peaceably. free.AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. there are two rational objects to be distinctly kept in view. as . Sparks. I have read with great considI learn eration. are ob- . filled up by free white laborers. CA. EQUALLY FREE." accomplishment. and in such slow degree. and independent people. which may introduce among the aborigines the arts of cultivated life. than I had before known. . But I leave it with this admonition. we may make to them some retribution for the long course of injuries we have been committing on their population. to which you invite my attention. coming home to our physical and moral characters. . February 4. By doing this." Jefferson's Works. like those of Solomon.NNOT LIVE IN THE SAME GOVERNMENT. It is indeed a fine one. written in 1821. and their place be. First the establishment of a colony on the coast of Africa. of the degree of success and promise of that colony. In the disposition of this unfortunate people. " The proverbs of Theognis. ? could estimate its blessed effects I leave this to those who will live to see their den to my doing. in some country and climate friendly I do not go into all the to human life and happiness. details of the burdens and benefits of this operation. Nature. " The article on the African colonization of the people of color. is to provide an asylum to which we can. too. as a separate. 1824. Autobiography. page 332. to our happiness and safety. VII.. and the most interesting to us. as that the evil will wear off insensibly. send the whole of that population from among us. from it more.. and will do much good. The second object. and the blessings of civilization and science. or worse will NOTHING is MORE CERTAINLY WRITTEN IN THE BOOK OF FATE THAN THAT THESE PEOPLE ARE TO BE FREE NOR IS IT LESS CERTAIN THAT THE TWO RACES. Vol.. It is still in our power to direct the process of emancipation and deportation. I. and to enjoy a beatitude forbidage. by degrees.. drawn indelible lines of distinction between them. . under our patronage and protection. habit. Vol. opinion. to rise and be Letter to Jared Jefferson's Works. day is 177 when it must bear and adopt it.

Correspondence with Jefferson. 15. in that rediversity in the races of men . "It is only as immortal beings that all mankind can. with respect to the great I do not know how far. Correspondence with Jefferson. and as a sharp reprover and censurer of the sordid. which I nevertheless entertain. or Transubstantiation. The golden rule.178 serrations on AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. that no art or policy can ever plane them down to a common level. than the subtle labors of Helvetius and Rousseau." John Adams. but of moral. and gen- erations. not of rights. " I have never read reasoning more absurd. while I adore. in his constitution of human nature. Surely no authority can be more expressly in point to prove the existence of inequalities. sophistry more gross. ' Do as you would be done by. as a self-evident truth. in any sense. human nature." John Adams." . ordinary facts. 1843. 1813.' is all the equality that can be supported or de- fended by reason. intellectual. or reconciled to Correspondence with Jefferson. and civil society. all it is men precisely the same as if the affirmation had been that are born with immortal souls. Nov. descendants. mercenary practice of disgracing birth by preferring gold to it. " I would not dwell with any particular emphasis upon the sentiment." John Adams. Letter to citizens of Bangor. I may not comprehend. be said to be born equal . to demonstrate the natural equality of mankind." John Quincy Adams. with I quote him as a witness of the difference in the races of men as in the moral reflections on the fact that there is as much breeds of sheep. in proof of the Athanasian creed. "Inequalities of mind and body are so established by God Al- mighty. Maine. I might not encroach on those mysteries of Providenca Daniel Webster which. life. and when the Declaration of Independence affirms. that all men are born equal. July 4. common sense. spect. and physical inequalities in families.

. whilst it would not unite the same animating motives. expense to accomplish that object. Reward. involving consequences which go to the destruction of one or the other." Henry Clay. 1827." " Of the utility of a total separation of the two incongruous portions of our population (supposing it to be practicable) none have The mode of accomplishing that desirable object has alone divided public opinion. instead of what it always has Wilconcern for the welfare of the white man. however. Speech in the House of Bepresentatives. I have expressed no opinion of the mode of I have nothing extinguishment or melioration. Speech at Detroit. and to that we must look. I will say. Vol. because I do not deem myself so com- petent as other gentlemen to take any lead on this subject. though to propose. . " How natural has it been to assume that the motive of those who have protested against the extension of slavery was an unnatural sympathy with the negro.AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. But there is a wisdom above human. Colonization in Hayti for a time had its partisans. the American Colonization ever doubted." page 364. and the wisdom of Virginia balked at it then. This was seen fifty years ago. September 4.'' really been liam H. V. Without throwing any impediments in the way of executing that scheme. " In 179 my it and as its now observations upon slavery as it existed in this country. for the trans- portation of the colored people to any colony or any place in the world. exists. " It is a question of races. In the mean time do not extend Thomas Hart Benton. 186Q. Society has steadily adhered to its own. It seems to be above human reason now. that if any gentleman from the South shall propose a scheme to be carried on by this government upon a large scale. . The Haytien project has passed away. I should be quite disposed to incur almost any degree of Webster's Works. Colonization beyond the Stony Mountains has sometimes been proposed but it would be attended with an expense and difficulties far surpassing the African project. the evil.

stand by the law of the State which forbids the marrying of white people with negroes. vineyard. and which it is un. We You and we are a different race." Debates with Douglas in Illinois. . in favor of making voters or jurors of negroes. September 4. I am not in favor of Debates with Douglas. to the very last. profitable to cultivate at the cost of the desolation of the native William H. Abraham Lincoln. Abraham " Why should not the people of your race be colonized ? Why should they not leave this country ? This is. . Seward. negro citizenship. that there races. 1859. Twice.. in addition to this. like the Indians. have between us a broader difference than exists between . is a physical difference between the black and white I believe will forever forbid the which gether on terms of social and political equality. two races living toAbraham Lin- "I will. I need not discuss but this physical difference is a great disadvantage to us both. expressly. unnecessarily transplanted into our fields." Lincoln. Ohio. Speech at Columbus. " I have said that I do not understand the Declaration of Inde- pendence to mean that all men are created equal in all respects. nor of qualifying them to hold office." Illinois. 1858.180 AMERICAN WR1TEES ON THE NEGRO. many . and once favor of negro suffrage. almost any other two races.. 1860. . nor to intermarry with whites and I will say further." Speech at Detroit. . the first question for consideration. Whether it is right or wrong. many once substantially. . incapable of asand that it is a pitiful exotic unwisely and similation. perhaps. 1858.. I did not at any time say I was in other respects. I declared against it.. September. and never have been. as I think your race suffers greatly. in " I am not. " The great fact is now fully realized that the African race here is a foreign and feeble element. coln. perhaps not in Certainly the negro is not our equal in color.

live in . 181 of them by living with us. I suppose. we suffer on each side. it shows a reason why we should be separated. that you have nothing to do with the idea of going to a foreign country. for your race other. Go where you are treated the best. Your race are suffering. The inflicted aspiration of man is to enjoy equality with the best when free but on this broad continent not a single man of your race is made the equal of ours. even if they could are not as much inclined to go out of the country as those who. basis. You are still cut off from many of the advantages which are enjoyed by the other race. It is a fact about which we all think and feel alike. Nevertheless. See our present condition. in my opinion. while ours suffer from your pi'esence. the war could not have had an It is better for us both. there could not men engaged on either side be a war. I cannot alter it . the greatest wrong - on any people. In a word. I know that there are free better their condition. therefore. and the ban is still upon you. I believe in its general evil effects upon the white race. Perhaps you have long been free. none knowing how far their frenzy may extend and then consider what we know to be the truth. being slaves. are freemen. the remainder of your lives. to be separated. perhaps more comfortably than you could Hence you may come to the conclusion in any foreign country. You. Our white men are cut-^ ting each other's throats. among us. if I would. you are yet far removed from being placed on an equality with the white race. or all your lives. although many do not care for you one way or the and the colored race as a existence. or elsewhere in the United States. I repeat. If this is admitted. The country is engaged in war. I do not propose to discuss this. men among you who. of colonization is. that the free colored man cannot see that way You may believe you can his comfort would be advanced by it. could obtain their freedom on I suppose one of the principal difficulties in the this condition. 16 . here. but to present it as a fact with which we have to deal. But you ought to do something to help For the those who are not so fortunate as yourselves. This (I speak in no unkind sense) is an extremely selfish view of the case. We look to our conditions owing to the existence of this continent. .AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. Washington. But even when you cease to be slaves. . without the institution of slavery. But . the races on I need not recount to you the effects upon white men growing out of the institution of slavery.

keeping the Union and the public peace perits " All the early petually in danger. Jefferson. In the and claims kindred with the great God who made him ! American revolutionary war. 1862. were the advoMadison. an election would be a mockery in a community wherein there . sake of your race you should sacrifice something of your present comfort. and in doing something for the children of his neighbors. and seeking power in the government through distractions ? The author of the Declaration of Independence and his associates declared equal rights impracticable in society constituted of masses of different races. The patriots of the North concurred in the design. and other inferior races. working the negro question to accomplish schemes of selfish ambition. Jackson. patriots of the South Washington. yet he was a happy man. if it is attempted to conIt is obvious that fer such rights on them in the United States. Address to a Deputation of Negroes. It is difficult to miserable while he feels that he is worthy of himself. Monroe. sacrifices were made by men engaged in it. It is a cheering thought throughout life." Stephen A. like Calhoun. the most profound writer of the Old World on American institutions. having none of his own. and. but they were cheered by the future. June. and others cates of emancipation and colonization. Indians. after his method. because he was engaged in benefiting his race. Lincoln in Illinois. birth and descent. for the their posterity forever and I am in men of European favor of confining citizenship to white men. Debates with I believe this benefit of white " men and . making a balance of power party of a phalanx of deluded fanatics.182 AMERICAN WRITERS ON TBS NEGRO." Abraham Lincoln. Clay. De Tocqueville. instead of conferring it upon negroes. government was made by white men. predicts the extermination of the blacks. General Washington himself endured greater physical hardships than if he had remained a British subject. that something can be done to ameliorate the condition of those who have make a man been subject to the hard usages of the world. for the purpose of being as grand in that respect as tho white people. Is the faction now opposing it patriotic or philanthropic ? Are they not rather. 1858. Douglas.

June 17.. N. 183 could be no other than black and white parties. not by the grievances of the class claiming property in slaves. is chiefly to it. adopted by the president. matured through so many years of intrigue by men versed in public affairs. intended to effectuate the design of our fathers to establish popular government. In siuh communities. Jefferson. as I have already said. though potent spread ruin widely through the land. and only differ in looking to The result of this antagonism. on the plan of Jefferson and Lincoln. Lincoln involved emancipation. and especially The Phillips to desolate the homes of his deluded followers. make victims of the negroes. as Calhoun has of their masters. They concur in pressing here the antagonism of races. as the leader of the -enfranchised blacks. as the leader of the Slave Power. H. in turn. I believe. who concur in opposing the policy of Mr. "The problem before relations of masses of us two is the practical one of dealing with the different races in the same community. would be the same if schemes and you would scarcely have much preference between being governed by Jeff. But neither can succeed. Emancipation alone to the laboring would not remove It was by proclaiming the armies of rebellion. Even the Calhoun scheme. still is to ment. and that democracy This is is impossible. this jealousy The of race which whites. be contented to set up for themselves. it is. He may. equality of the negroes with them fill who . different races to give them power. so far as popular government is concerned. not less obvious to the Phillips school than it is to the Calhoun school. and will be a failure from the start. Montgomery Blair. in some neighboring and congenial clime. and attended with a temporary either could succeed in their . therefore. and will. In considering the means of securing the peace of the country hereafter. and Wendell Phillips. scheme is the dream of visionaries wholly unskilled in governsuccess. that the election of Mr. They are not ambitious of ruling white men. but by the jealousy of caste awakened by the secessionists in the non-slaveholders. Davis. a failure as a governing contrivance. calamities now upon us have been brought about. be considered.AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. Speech at Concord. But I think not. reason and experience show that one or the other race must be the dominant race." 1863.

that all in fact. Y. by the friends of universal negro suffrage. that Nor is this wisdom. or to a region similar to that from which We it aration of races was brought by violence. and. if another law of have but to restore the nature. N. no answer can be given. may stifle the voice A own bosom." Montgomery Blair. jealousy was stimujealousy the fruit of mere ignorance and bad passion. They have borne all the responsibilities and discharged all the duties of freemen to take among freemen and it is a very different thing away from a freeman a privilege long exercised by him . not living in a community where diverse races are brought in contact in masses. i and. revolts at hybridism. March 6. j ! a | No answer to this : | vote. like all popular instincts. It is. half-civilized Africans just released from Three generations back many of them were cannibals slavery. the Declaration himself declared to be indispensable to give practical effect. is obeyed. by his ancestors. why ignoignorant foreigner rant negro vote ? Thus to compare the civilized European. from what one never before enjoyed upon ignorant. "White men have for centuries been accustomed to vote. except this " The is allowed to not let the it. go so far as to extend social intercourse to individuals of the subject race. On the contrary. natural law. it belongs to all races. as some suppose. equally obvious. But few even of of nature in his to a mistaken such persons would pursue their theories so far as amalgamation and other legitimate consequences of their logic. 1863. accus- .. it is to confer \ | The only and savages of the lowest type of human kind civilization they have is that which they have received during To confer this great privilege upon the their slavery in America.184 AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE N3GRO. ' it theorist. But to confer it now upon their ignorant hordes can only degrade the ballot and the republican institutions which rest upon view has ever been given. to make it operative and such a sepwas the condition which the immortal author of . the instinct of self-preservation which Nor does this instinct militate against the men are created equal. more enlightened negroes might tend to elevate the mass in the end. and. 'their lated to the fighting point. Letter read at the Cooper Institute. or confined to the white people of the South. proceeds from the highest and consequently amalgamation. from a determination to live up view of the doctrine. subject race to the same.

after five years' residence. " In the name of constitutional liberty . no uprisings. upon the results of Christian civilization. is an atrocious libel upon ourselves. . I ical policy of the 16* . of whose loyalty you boast. first. Is it true? Were the loyal. in the name of our great ancestors who laid the foundations of this government to secure the liberty for themselves and for us in the name of all who . for thousands of years this negro domination over the whites of the South ? What reason can you give ? The answer is. in whole States even. prove by the testimony of two citizens a good moral character and that he is well disposed towards the government and institutions of the United before he responsibilities of a freedman. did all they were capable of to aid the rebellion. because the negroes were loyal and the whites disLet us examine this bold assertion. they built their fortifications groes to aid the Union cause. At the bar of the American people. tomed to free labor. where all the able-bodied white men were conscripted into the rebel army. and upon that Caucasian race which . January 23. 185 to all and self-government. . They fed their armies . no effort of any kind anywhere outside the lines of our armies on the part of the ne? . the great mass of negroes. who withal. Why press Who does that at least three-fourths of all the negroes in those States during the whole war did all in their power to sustain 1 remember the rebel cause they dug their trenches they fed their women and children. 1868. decrepit old men and boys. in the presence of high Heaven and before the civilized world. . generations and that race to which to the we belong and which has given do arraign and impeach the radpresent Congress of high crimes and misdemeanors. as a crime against the laws of nature which God the Almighty has stamped world all its civilization. There were no insurrections. upon our ancestors. in States.AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. who are ready to struggle and if need be to die rather than allow it to be overthrown in the name of the coming . and allowed to vote in most of the States. has ruled the world. to compare him with the poor degraded mass of Afri- cans. I impeach it. and. plantation slaves just set free. James R." Speech in the Senate. love that liberty. In whole districts. negroes loyal during the rebellion? not Recall the facts. the duties and is must appear open court. to self-support. under the control of women. Doo- little.

. inferior. with the highest type of the human race in the home of the latter in the temperate zone. Second I impeach it as a : crime against civilization. because it would by force wrench the civilized white race in ten government out of the hands of the : States of this Union. which neither resources will bear nor our liabilities long survive. because it annuls the pardons constitutionally granted to hundreds it of thousands of the most intelligent white men of the South. Men may theorize on the condi- two races living together." Senator Loolittle. because in express terms it annuls all civil government. but the thing is impossible . and exotic race from the Caucasian. Third I impeach it as a crime against the constitution. I know it is said that the objection which is felt on the part of the white population of this country to living side by side in social and civil equality with the negro race is all a mere prejudice of caste. to place it in the hands of the half-civilized African. and places them under an absolute military despotism. Conn. Fourth I impeach because it tramples : as a crime against the constitution and against national faith. because it attempts to force a politiand social and unnatural equality betweeen the African and between an alien. I impeach it as a crime against the existence of ten States of the Union and the liberties of eight millions of people. upon the races of mankind. down the rights of the States to fix for thema right without selves the qualifications of their own voters." Doolittle. tion of the . palpable violation of the constitution. the instincts of both parties are against it.186 AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. tending to produce a war of races. disfranchises them. of Wisconsin. Seventh I impeach it as an utter aban- donment of the purpose for which the war was prosecuted. our nature. which a State ceases to be republican at all. Sixth I impeach it as a crime against humanity. cal the tropics. It is " But its an instinct of foundations are laid deeper than mere prejudice. Speech at Hartford. a result which cannot be prevented except by a : large standing army. . 1868. to the utter destruction those liberties : of one or both. by which alone Fifth : may be secured. March 11. and in open. of the James idea upon which we fought and mastered a rebellion.

if persisted in. must be the inevitable result of the Radical policy. . ! my your votes friends. and to make it a balance of power that. If you would guard against negro suffrage. worse than the South American Republics. if you would guard against political equality with the negro. ratified by other States. control the whole country. nine times out of ten. Jan. It is impossible that the race to which we belong can submit to negro domination it is impossible that so inferior a race as the negro can compete equality . But before that happens. you must not be satisfied with sending its opponents to the Legislature of your own State. the idea of political between the black and white races seems to me the greatFor more than four thousand years the history of this world est. what distress Worse than Mexico. that the question of negro suffrage was not settled by last October. and in all that time there is not one recorded annal of a civilized negro government. for when the northern man sees the mother and children escaping from the . what anarchy. 1868. " Of all 187 the delusions I have ever known. of the of the negro. but it is equally true that what you refuse to permit here you are asked to impose upon others. much less the politics. there is not one instance of political equality between the two races that has not proved injurious to both and yet it is proposed to confer upon an inferior race the dominion over one-third of the republic. a Radical Congress may impose upon you in spite of your condemnation. There can be but one end to this scheme. what untold evils may The extermination await us. It is true that you voted it down in Ohio. you need not think they will be with the negro in this horrible contest now imminent. for that reason. what confusion.AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. with the white country. Senator Thur- " Whatever may have been the sympathies of the North on the question of freedom from slavery. has been written. what impoverishment. if it be much longer prosecuted. man in the business. if that policy prevails. but you must keep its advocates out of the halls of Congress. impose upon you by an amendment to the Constitution of the United States. Speech at Mansfield. 21. It is equally true that what you have solemnly condemned. though rejected by Ohio. or his expulsion from this country. of Ohio. would." man. And here let me caution you. will be the condition of a large portion of this country.

as if they came from the tomb. I can tell you that with all the political and party ambition you . 1868. Gentlemen may moralize in solemn tones. and its architects will be crushed beneath its ruins. and seeks to establish negro You have taken the robes of politStates in the Union. . burning home that has sheltered and protected them when he hears the screams of beauty and innocence in the flight from pursuing lust. . but is composed of many blocks. There is not a point that was carried by them. ' stead the people will uphold thirty-seven stately and beautiful columns. . if ever he venerated a mother. There was not a battle in the war that was won by the negroes. who will vindicate and defend their own honor against this ' effort to appropriate the glory of the white boys to the negroes. What is And I can tell you that all over this land. Whatever may have been the sympathies of the North for the negro in the claim made on his behalf for civil rights. ' ." A.188 AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. Thomas I lay down the propositions that the white and black races thrive best apart . Hendricks. It will In its fall. . . about the gallantry and distinguished services of the negroes in the war. You cannot do it. and you have put them upon the shoulders of negroes. pure and white as Parian marble. Its foundation is the hard flint-stone of military rule. there are the soldiers that have returned home. and upon that foundation rests the block from Africa. in every neighborhood. upon which shall rest forever the grand structure of the American Union. or loved a sister or wife. have. ical power off the shoulders of white men. My colthe column of congressional league has spoken of a column. brought from the quarries of Austria. his heart and hand will be for the pale-faced woman and child of his own race.' I think he is right. that a commingling of these races is a detri- " . right will stand. and has said that it is not hewn of a single reconstruction. Speech in the Senate. and it is thence earned to its topmost point with fragments of our broken institutions. just and generous men will turn with horror from the congressional policy that places the white race under the power and government of the negroes. February. stone. with all the party power you have. That column will not stand. you have not power to take the garlands from the brows of the white soldiers and put them on the heads of the negroes.

"Judge Douglass was right when he maintained that these commonwealths were for white men. That will not be denied. and power to exclude Africans from the States north . asking nothing. been only nominal. is an absurdity to say that two races. course. Less than sixty years ago. as a matter of . the black man must not seat himself beside the white even in death and at the cemetery the line of distinction is drawn. 189 it does not elevate the black. Cox. The negro. . Aside from the question of policy. has been freed under every variety of circumstances but his freedom has. the Supreme ! people. with a difference of color indelible. ples. that was settled. of unequal can succeed in the same society when placed in competicapacity. . dition . Prejudice stronger than all princi- though not always stronger than lust. Hitherto the same prohibition has existed in Illinois The right . there is an admitted right in each State to make or unmake its citizenship to declare who is and who is not entitled thereto.AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. has imperatively separated the whites from the blacks. by what reason can a State deprive the black race of the right of suffrage. There is no such example in history of the success of two tion. political privileges. able to take care of It wanting nothing. . the church. Ohio had thousands of an Indian population. civil order and government that . or the hospital. all assessment of taxes. as a dangerous element. Indeed. all punishments. Equality is a con- which is self-protective. and yet not have power to forbid such black race. S. shows that stable. and Indiana. If so. Eight Tears in Congress. denies to the negro the right of emigrating to or having citizenship in that State." S. . especially in Hispano-America. even the matter of life and death. of different origin. presses the white are impossible with such a population. and othern western States. . and white. separate races under such circumstances. like may be fixed by State Court have decided that the State has the exclusive right so to do. and it onl} dethat the history of this continent. in most cases. 250. In the school-house. on which depend all laws. ment to both . She has now so dissimilar as black but thirty red men in her borders. just submitted to the that of suffrage. from mingling with its population The Constitution of Illinois. "When Minnesota came here for admisBut my colleague seems to admit that sion. pages 249. itself. . laws. all protection.

I assert that it is impolitic. . " The Caucasian. The Caucasian lives to be sixty-six years and four months old the Mongol to be fifty-three years old and the Esquimaux to be forty-one years old. pages 243. five The Caucasian feet and between four and five inches high." 8. the Mongolian type. Eight Tears in Congress. 8. degrading. being compatible with our system of State sovereignty and federal supremacy. 244. . the . These average differences ought to be conclusive that they cannot and do not belong to the same type. The skeleton is unlike in the whole in weight and measurement. The feet and hands. the arms and legs. the Mongol one hundred and thirty-two pounds. the House of Representatives. dangerous. The hand of the negro is one-twelfth longer and one-tenth broader than the hand of the white man his foot is one-eighth longer and one-ninth broader than the white man's his forearm is one-tenth shorter and the same is true of the bones from the knee to the ankle. and unlike in every bone of it. as far as I can learn. to which the Chinese belong. Speech in . These last-stated measurements are given upon the authority of Sir Charles Lyell. type weighs one hundred and fifty-six pounds the Esquimaux ninety-seven pounds.190 AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. . July of our people 10. . The life-insurance companies of Europe and America all predicate their policies upon the fact that white men and women live to be sixty-six years and four months old on an average. British The statistics of the and French armies are full of evidence going to show and to prove that in height and weight no two races of men have yet been found alike." William Mungen. Cox. and unjust to the white men of Ohio and of the North to allow such immigration. one bone in the skeleton of the white man which does not differ both in weight and measurement from its fellow-bone which may belong to any other type of man. or white man is five feet and between nine and ten inches high the Esquimaux four feet and seven inches high. This average is based upon observations on . the duration of moi-e than six million lives. . and these unvarying dissimilarities must be produced by causes which are not accidental. There has not yet been found. 1867 "Some who pretend to see in the Indian. are unlike in measurement.

the Esquimaux. I have already. how there could have been ' amalgamations I cannot imagine. that if those statesmen. will perish certainly. of that portion of it especially which once bore ' and I deservedly the name of The United States of America ' . There are two other subjects or sciences which bear important testimony relative to the origin of types of the human races . . in other words.' claim that all the wide and impassable differences which are found between the races or types of men have been produced by accidental causes.' upon Avhich must depend their whole argument in favor ' of equality and fraternity. that there was. white. with all experience and science and history in shaping a policy to prevent amalgamation. The . July 10. a man and a brother. social and political equality of the different races. I have said that this men is a question of the utmost importance to the statesof America. by these foolish and suicidal William projects. . Amalgamation. just what ethnol' ogists claim unity of races. in the sense in which they use it. I do not profess to un- " . these Utopian schemes of equality of races. by climate. for the present at least. fail to be guided by say now. and by amalgamations. I allude to embryology and cranioscopy.' For as soon as they admit that the . and especially at the present time to the statesmen of our country. those gentlemen who are moulding and shaping the policy and laws and regulations for our government. but one race at first. to posterity. 1867. and have only to say that if it be true. miscegenation. red. and especially the African. as held by my Radical friends.AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. but in fact it upsets the Radical theory of the ' races are of different origins they can no longer claim that all races are equal. the candor possible. any more than they can claim that the horse and the ass are equal. and brown. yellow. black. For it is true in history and true in science that nations which allow their national stock to be adulterated." Mungen. sufficiently answered the climatic part of this proposition. and perish forever. ' 191 Chinaman.' that he is the offspring of Adam. Miscegenation on which the arguis a subject of vast importance to society. Speech in the House of Representatives. that the negro is a man and a brother. as it were. our nation will be suffocated. principle ment rests is identical. which tolerate amalgamation with other national types. implies a plurality of races.

They are half-civilized or half-barbarthe governments they found are always despotic . derstand either of these subjects or sciences thoroughly but tho professors of embryology assert. the declaration of these learned gentlemen. Japan. the African and the Chinese. and are different from the laws enacted by any other type of people. I have discussed this question of races. The races of men whose brain measures from seventy-four to eighty-four cubic inches are the races of less are . and it further declares that there are as plainly different kinds of men. Cranioscopy declares that the in other words. . the Indian and the African. are embraced and included between sixty-eight and eighty-four The nationalities whose brain measures ninety-four cubic inches or upward are the only nationalities who are progressive and enlightened. adminis. .. cubic inches of brain. tant discovery which cranioscopy has made relates to the position which each type holds in the scale of civilization. a different creation . the Chinaman and the Esquimaux. then. and perhaps the most importotally.. that the law of life which operates to organize man in his earliest moment. who are capable of cultivating the physical sciences to practical results. The people of China. The law which operates to organize and the being organized are different from the first and different But quite the most curious. having different kinds of humanities in the world as there are different kinds of beasts that the horse and the ox are not more certainly different creations than the white man and the Indian. because it lies at the foundation of our social and political structure. It is found that men whose brain measures sixty-four cubic inches or always barbarous and heathen people that they have not intellectual power sufficient to frame a government nor to enact laws in other words. that the spermatozoa and the cell formation are entirely different in each type of the human race . I repeat. and whose governments are made for the benefit of the people. the laws . in short the greater portion of the types of man. and that in this department of her work. different types have each a different organization. All history shows that a free government. India. nature displays infinite variety. . .192 AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. ous the unprogressive people. and they are unanimous in the assertion. that under a powerful microscope the fact that the different types of men are absolutely different creations is no longer an open question. to make for themselves any form of government better than heathenism makes. as in every other. they enact are always peculiar.

as well as American authority but this is not the place nor the hour for metaphysical or psychological disfrontal lobes of the white . the shape of the lips and cheeks are very different. is only 1371 42. and English. man show Every feature of the white man and negro differs. the hypothenuses of which are turned outcussion. amounts in the negro to 70. born in Africa. whilst the septum of the nose forms a perpendicular line common to the two triangles. men. wards. and if this it would have no other result than a comWilliam Mungen.75 17 . coercion should succeed. The apish chin of the negro differs very essentially from that of the white man. July 10. The convolutions of the brain are different. ment fined to the lowest races of cranial capacity is different. so that their edges meet as at projecting angles. The negro's face projects like a muzzle. while that of a negro. or the figure of a horizontal eight united in the middle by the nasal sep- tum. inside and outside. is impossible. The The nostrils of a Caucasian form two nearly rectangular triangles. 193 tered according to law. The form and size of the mouth. The attempt to blend the races by the coercion of statutory enactments and military violence will be instinctively repelled by the white dominant race. but it is in the whole anatomical structure of the head. the nostrils present only a transverse aperture. The weight of the white man's brain is greater than that of the negro. Speech degradation and a common ruin. Camper. The anterior and a far better mental development. and the place occupied in relation to cranial capacity and cerebral weight corresponds with the degree of intellectual capacity and civilization. All these assertions are maintainable by high German. On taking a similar view of the negro. unless the people who create the laws and accept them for their government are endowed with those qualities of mind and character which have never been exhibited by the negro race. French." in the House of Representatives. mon " The difference is not only in the hair. 1867. among them the negro. Their The volume of an American of English head is in cubic centimetres 1572 95. nose is different. and the teeth are obliquely inserted.AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. The developof the jaw (prognathism) is in direct relation or proportion the prognathous being conto the intellectual capacity of a people. The facial angle of the distinguished writer.

194 degrees. a Phidias. The femoral bones. and. of a projecting heel. a Demosthenes. cushion in the inner cavity. has the pure-blooded negro unassisted by the white man. or an asteroid ? What negro ever constructed a palatial edifice like this in which we are assembled. may be as bright and as intelligent as .' I cite these facts to show that it is not the skin alone that parts the white from the negro race. is in flat. and. hence. uses his skull. these Corinthian columns.' The leg. The negro's hand is larger. a Virgil. sir. the negro carries his burden on his head. a satellite. tell me where." in the James Brooks. or pigment therein. That history is all a blank. or discovered a star. it may sink to 65. like a ram in a fight. ' All the characters of his hand ' (says Carl Voght) ' decidedly approach that of the Simian hand.' says Burmeister. The negro's thicker than the white man's. his fingers long and thin. so that the knees are more The pelvis is organiapart from each other than in the white. a Praxiteles. the Gercally different. or the pulley? What negro has invented a telegraph. the calves of the leg. flabby everything ugly.' Voght. Speech House of Representatives.' ' The foot of the negro. the cervical muscles more powerful. or a Milton. whilst in the Caucasian it is rarely below 80. ' man physiologist. if you please. thumb-balls scarcely prominent. 18. Caesar. blank. oh. or a Shakespeare? Where has it produced any great architect like Michael Angelo ? Where any great poet. or. the wheel. or epidermis. not the der- ' mis. blank. where any heroic soldier like Alexander. 1867. The middle part of the foot does not touch the ground. skull is AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. or Napoleon ? Where any wonderful mechanic ? What negro of pure blood ever started a steam-engine. a screw. exhibited any of the triumphs of genius ? Where have we found that race producing a Homer. a thick. with wide-spreading toes. The negro can never rise above a certain range of intelligence. December "Where. The children of the negro. a lever. up to ten or fifteen years of age. The negro's shoulder differs from the white man's. palms flat. a Socrates. these frescoed walls ? Negro history makes no mark in the great world's progress. sir. the posterior hand. as well as from the white man's. seem curved outwards. or a spinning-jenny. and frequently a few degrees higher. all differ the fibula. calls it the foot of the gorilla.

" I need not cross the Atlantic to show the fatal step you are taking by this Reconstruction Bill in going into this copartnership with negroes. and landed upon the rock of Plymouth or upon the flats of Jamestown. and slowly crept up the Mohawk. now read more like the romances of a Froissart than. 195 They acquire knowledge as rapidly but after that early age the negro youth does not advance as does the white youth. Peruvian. than these Hidalgos of Spain. While the white man is increasing in knowledge till the day of his death. the true records of history. under Cortez and Pizarro. " Our Anglo-Saxon fathers started later from the shores of England. and semi-barbarian civilization fell before the . Ontario. Their heroic deeds. ventured at last on what was then deemed gigantic heroism. of mere imitation. Speech in the House the arts. They drove Montezuma from the halls of his Aztec ancestoi's and. stealthily wound over the passes of the Alleghanies. What did they do ? They ran all along the Gulf of Mexico. classic names of old Spain upon the now golden mountains and vine-covered valleys of the State of California. and Peru. and Chili. in terror of the tomahawk. their Christian loyalty. They climbed the snow-clad and planted their banner on every hill and every valley of Mexico. and Huron. coasting all the Northern Pacific. New Grenada and Chili. 1867. Mexican. and halted for years and The cavaliers of years upon Lakes Erie. and looked down at last . I repeat. imprinted the holy. mighty prowess of their arms. and Teuton in the North. as they are. who. the negro reaches before the age of maturity a point beyond which he cannot well advance in anything save in James Brooks. of Representatives. God never made a nobler race of men than the old Hidalgos of Spain. Cordilleras. Jamestown threaded their way up the River James." December 18. in a little caraval of forty tons. of the then unknown America. and the Spanish-Latin race in the South. God never made a nobler i'ace.AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. from Florida on the north to Cape Horn on the southern verge of South America. their lofty chivalry. and. Our continent has been settled by two classes of Anglo-Saxon. Celt. under Columbus. trembling over his rock for a while. The Puritan himself. Peru. started on the trackless Atlantic in search men. . They settled Mexico and Venezuela. He crossed the Connecticut and the Hudson. white children.

flag of oar country. Nevada. by the dangers they evoke. What. has dwindled into nothing. and spread for hundreds of miles on the Pacific Ocean. and the thoughts and the time of government. Utah. crossed la belle riviere. sir. has leaped over Lake Erie. They have thrown the administration of the law throughout the South into lynch-law . 18. Negroes. happened then ? What has produced this difference between us and the lofty Hidalgo ? Why are they and fame of Castile continent. while the pure blood of the Anglo-Saxons. fatally sir. from Florida on the north to fallen. But all this time these heroic Hidalgos of Spain were spreading the name and Arragon throughout the whole American Cape Horn on the south. and Montana. Speech in the House of Representatives. revelled in a tempting admixture of blood. tremble on the throne ? one regiment of our Anglo-Saxon. They have produced sectional animosity and strife where peace and good-will should reign. The pure blood. carrying not only there. " Our four millions of negro slaves absorb the public mind. stinct of ours and honor. abhorring all such association and amalgamation with the negro or the Indian. the azure blood. so exalted among all the nations who made our ancestors. indulged in social and governmental copartnership with Aztecs. these of the earth. triumphant. the Celts. from the Arctic to the Antarctic. the Mississippi. in the days of Queen Eliza- was it that in the Mexican war beth. men of the Armada. The Latin. again and again put whole regiments of these once noble Hidalgos of Spain Why to flight at Chapultepec. with astonishment and affright upon la belle riviere of Ohio. but everywhere. rolled over the Rocky Mountains. of the old Hidalgos of Spain. the Spanish race. you why. dishonored and degraded. the Teutons. Indians." trasting the glory James Brooks.196 AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. lost and drained. and from Cape Horn to California. the glorious and ever conthat emblem of a pure race. 1867. Teutonic blood. Dec. crowded the mountain passes of Colorado. the Garita. Celtic. while our Anglo-Saxon race stood shivering upon the Ohio and Lake Erie without the courage to advance further. the prowess of that race with the degradation of the race of these once noble Hidalgos of Spain. one and all. freed and elsewhere ? I will tell from that in- which abhors all hybrid amalgamation. the great Father of Waters.

They must be sentinelled and watched. Black men can neither originate. Barbarism is barbarism. and a country inhabited by barbarians cannot be civilized. control our politics . most intellectual. page 30. to protect society from horrors worse than war. unless he leaves his independence. would be more fearful than the enemy. They have destroyed all industry but their own. whether in Africa or America. page 33. literature. and more glorious. ciety There is no place not a slave. science. he is made an for him in northern so. prizes 17* . 197 T committees. They inspire terror daring peace. nominally slaves. they are really the masters of our destiny. richer. By means of their weakness they they conquer us by abject submission they overwhelm us by mere prolific growth they have manacled our hands and feet with fetters of gold. and just in that proportion. and made the South dependent. more powerful. and. " Surely no argument is necessary to prove that a nation must be happier. respectability. . nor comprehend civilization. page 10. no aspiration nor hopes to stimulate him none of the of life. upon foreign supplies for every article which human ingenuity has invented for the comfort and accommodation of man. which we call civilization. in case of invasion. the negro in the North is outcast and a pai-iah. than where any portion of the people are degraded by nature. and the arts. too. where the whole people are of the strongest. and incapable of progress or civilization." Fisher's Laics of Race." Fisher's Laws of Race." Fisher's Laws of Race. and most moral race of mankind. and have forbidden an} northern man to go there. is it weak and liable to overthrow from dangers within and without. power. . wealth.AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. and. maintain. and freedom of thought and speech behind him. "White men alone possess the intellectual and moral energy which creates that development of free government. Just in proportion to the number of its barbarians is it wanting in the elements of civilization. industry. are held out to him. " Though . wiser.

198 AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. and elevate He is governed and his desires. but they are far beyond the negro's wildest dreams. wholly by the white race. from the exchange. judge. and are menial and degrading. or capitalists in the North. that is to feeling of caste and race. from the court-house. which contain the instruments and weapons by which freemen defend their rights. into those pursuits which the Saxon. and alleys of towns. and the immutable. rail-cars. There is no legal obstacle but land. a place apart. but by his own incapacto nerve his efforts protected in all his rights may not lay a finger on one of those three wonderful boxes. are stronger than any the legislature or political power whatever. and the cartridge-box. and are preserved through countless ages without change. It drives him into the cellars. the ballot-box. race is legislator. could not by possibility exist. without his He is excluded from office. and steamboats. negro these spheres of activity as widely as to the white man. into hovels in the country and it does all this without spirit of caste drives the The hotels. but unconsciously. from every intellectual calling or pursuit. participation. He has no civil to protect himself. does This not only excluded from all political and civil place and power. because beyond his talents. or juryman not exist. A negro governor. obey- ing this instinctive impulse. These laws are divine. which yield the least profit. or visionary dreamers . without concert or design. He is not a land-owner. in them. without unkindness or cruelty. . avoids if into labors which require the least strength of mind or he can. not by legal enactment. authors. eternal laws by which the races of men are kept apart. negro out of churches. dens. and he ity. machinery. or rather they are too steep and difficult for him to climb. or assigns to him. . magistrate. a manufacturer. in the whole Noith. which he can neither comprehend nor resist. theatres. . simply because it cannot help doing it. which can make. laws. He is thus pushed down by a superior moral and intellectual force. from the hustings. body. There are no black attorneys-at-law. and by opinion by the by divine laws. the jury-box. physiThe law opens to the cians. say. a mei-chant. and ships are things he cannot manage. and even the Celt. but the avenues to social rank and respectability are closed against him . by which They are for the white race only. They execute themselves in spite of party combinations or fanatical legislatures. or philanthropic enthusiasts.

and his general actions. does he not squirm under the pains of boils. colics. sores. sprains. and a booby brain. does he not feel the fatal exacerbations of rankling wounds. or ailments. dropsy. The wretched race to which he belongs exhibits. nor rheumatism. nor blind. about 199 Fisher's human perfectibility and the rights of man. hump-backed. indeed. nor shoulder-shotten. burns. or bruises ? If he be not the child of contusions. is he not (to say the least) If he be not spindle-shanked. nor tongued-tied. he be not an exception to the generality of his race. wen-marked. Seldom. blains. stuttering speech like littleness . cock-heeled. By close attention and ex- and amination. An odious by an intolerable stench. is he not the man of scalds. is he to be seen except as a preordained embodiment of uncouth grotesqueness. and a woolly head. or flat-footed? maimed. "The night-born ogre stands before us. tumors. malformation. indeed. a thick skull. if.AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. his broad. we may also discover in the sable individual before us. Admit that he be not warp-jawed. maffle-tongued. we observe his low. or ulcers? If he be no complainer over the cramps of coughs. is he not feverish with inflammations. accurate description of him calls into requisition a larger num- ber of uncomplimentary terms than are necessary to be used in describing any other creature out of Tophet and it is truly astonishing how many of the terms so peculiarly appropriate to him are compound works of obloquy and detraction. more cases of lusus than any other. " Strikingly apparent is it that the negro is a fellow of many natural defects and deformities. numerous other prominent defects and deficiencies. his stammering. among its several members. or fungosities? If he be not afflicted with itch. pleurisy. is he not skue-sighted. pages 21-23. festerings. knock-kneed. or scabs? an endurer of the aches of pneumonia. nor bow-legged. is he not stiffIf he be not slabjointed. depressed nose . evidencing monkeyimbecility of mind. blear-eyed. receding forehead. or hollow-bellied? sided. nor disloIf he be not cations. nor constipation. an apish aspect. nor blisters. or diarrhoea ? If he be . halt. doth he not decline and droop under the discomforts of dizziness. Not only is he cursed with a black complexion. . he is also rendered natures." Laws of Race. or blobber-lipped? If he be not wry-necked.

frail in morals. or to weep with innocent sadness and there does not appear the cognomen of a single negro! love in " Weak sique. and forever will be. whether they have caused nations to tremble with fear and suspense. or paralysis? If he experience no inconvenience from gum-rash. of second-hand clothing but seldom does he wear any article of apparel more than two or three weeks before the outer edges of the same become ragged then unsightly holes and shreds and upon . are plain and positive. nor moon-madness. commerce. and awkwardness of gait are also notable characteristics of the negro. . To deeds of true valor and patriotism he played has always proved recreant. Within the classic precincts of art. all the records of the past. to laugh with satisfaction and delight. " Shabbiness and drollery of dress. or the mulli-grubs? If he be free from idiocy. is no sufferer from hemorrhoids. Faultless garments. insanity. torpid and apathetic in phywherever he goes. nothing that ennobles mankind has any negro ever distinguished To wink For none of the higher walks of life has he' ever disan aptitude. Over none of the wide domains of agriculture. intumescence. in inseparable connection with abjectness and disgrace. In it or to blink it. and science. nor he not a victim of goitre. names the long catalogue of the great names of the world which.200 AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. let no unworthy attempt be made." Helper's Nojoque. himself. such glaring marks of inferiority as are no less indelible and conspicuous than the base blackness of his skin. Upon this point. has any one of his race ever won honorable mention. nor manufactures. cholera-morbus. or syncope. mind. doth he not wince under the pangs of the hipgout. . literature. and well-shaped hats and shoes are things that are never found Once or twice a year he buys (or begs) a suit his person. to quiver with awe and admiration. utterly unknown. spasms. or wherever he is seen. to gainsay it. he is. exfoliation. In all the prognostications of the future. or convulsions ? " Helper's Nojoque. all the evidences of the present. to overlook the ponderous significance of this fact. page 300. carries upon himself. is he not subject to fits. erysipelas. the tape-worm. the negro. pages 68-69.

subject which has occupied my attention for a great while. To the neglect of a large and meritorious class of our own race. one for the discussion of which. It may. . these On the contrary. within the corporate any city or town. as a general rule. . The negro can do none of is. ments as will demonstrate the propriety of removing them all into the country (if far and forever beyond the limits of the United States. as I hope and believe I shall. dull. namely. frequently tested. capital or talent. His capacities have been fully and and have always been found sadly deficient.AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. their hands may be rewarded any situation. he indeed. I shall regard it as evidence complete that these lines have been judiciously penned. " With few exceptions. the negro can command neither the one nor the other. to gain an honorable livelihood. slipshod tatterdemalion is as contented and mirthful as a merrj making monkey. If their minds can accomplish nothing in the domains of science. or limits of If they cannot invent labor-saving machines. never be allowed to live in under any circumstances. duplicates of such as have already been invented. therefore. 201 and yet the slovenly and patches follow in quick succession. they can make and with advantage things. to others. so much the better). hotels. I think. in presenting such a combination of facts and argu- and towns. page 70. Of these two indispensable requisites. good-for-nothing sort of man. he should. susceptible of a high standard of improvement. stores. be safely assumed that. positively that he is not. and to add something to the general stock of human achievements." " Helper's Nojoque. cities Now a and is a I allude to the presence of so many negroes in our places where not one of them should ever be permitted to reside at all and if I shall succeed. and never has been. and banks. by building factories. a very inferior. warehouses. Past experience proves stupid. all sane white persons have sufficient tact to render themselves useful in some manner or other. the present suitable time. no person ought to be admitted as a resident of any city. they can always fill situations in such establishments with profit to themselves in the fields of art. unless he can readily command one of two things. If they cannot enrich and embellish their country. it is believed. come I to a subject of somewhat novel importance.


experiments in favor of the worthless

we have made numerous

earnestly endeavored, time and again, to infuse into the brain of the benighted black a ray of intellectual light, to

We have

teach him trades and professions, and to prepare him for the discharge of higher duties than the common drudgeries of every-day life. Thus far, however, all our efforts in his behalf have proved
abortive and so will they continue to prove, so long as he rea negro. Further mains what he always has been, and still is, attempts, on our part, to elevate him to a rank equal to that held by the white man, would certainly betray in us an extraordinary and unpardonable degree of folly and obtuseness. Ne;




groes are, in truth, so far inferior to white people, that, for many reasons consequent on that inferiority, the two races should never inhabit the same community, city, nor state. The good which
accrues to the black from the privileges of social contact with the white is more than counterpoised by the evils which invariably overtake the latter when brought into any manner of regular fellowship with the former.

" Whatever determination

may be come

to with regard to a

whether it be desettlement or disposition of the negroes, cided to colonize them in Africa, in Mexico, in Central America,

South America, or in one or more of the West India Islands, or elsewhere beyond our present limits or whether they be permitit is to be ted to remain (a while longer) in the United States,

sincerely hoped that there may be no important division of opinion as to the expediency of soon removing them all from the cities

and towns. A city is not, by any means, a suitable place for them. They are positively unfit for the performance of in-door duties. Sunshine is both congenial and essential to their natures and they ought not to be employed or retained in situations that could be so much more advantageously filled by white people. One good white person will, as a general rule, do from two to five times as much as a negro, and will, in addition, always do it with a great deal more care, cleanliness, and thoroughness. A negro or a negress, in or about a white man's house, no matter where, or in what capacity, is a thing monstrously improper and inde;


the negroes into the country, our agricultural laborers, and consethe quantity of our staple products cotton, corn, wheat, quently,


By removing



would receive a large addition of



would be greatly increased. Crowds sugar, rice, and tobacco of enterprising white people would flock to our cities and towns,

the vacancies occasioned by the egress of the negroes, and give afresh and powerful impetus to commerce and manufactures. The tides of both domestic and foreign immigration, which have been moving westward for so long a period, would also soon be-

gin to flow southward, and everywhere throughout the whole length and breadth of our land new avenues to various branches of profitable industry would be opened.

" Let


not be forgotten, however, that this proposition does

not contemplate any permanent settlement of the negroes, even in the agricultural districts of our country. Only a temporary accommodation of the case is here held in view. Perhaps the best

we could do just now, would be to take immediate and complete possession of Mexico (we shall acquire the whole of North America, from Bearing's Strait to the Isthmus of Darien, by and every one of them by), and at once push the negroes to say the least, south of the Rio Grande. On no part, on no part of the territory of the United States, as at present organized, should any but the pure white races ever find a permanent
thing that

Now comes the last, not the least, reason why I advocate the removal of the negroes from the cities and towns. I believe that the yellow fever (which is only another name for the African those terrible scourges fever), and other epidemic diseases, which have so signally retarded the growth of Southern seaports, have, to a very great degree, been induced by the peculiarly obnoxious filth engendered by the black population. Who has ever heard of the yellow fever prevailing to an alarming extent in any city or state inhabited almost exclusively by white people?
how frequently, does it rage in such despicable, communities, as .Norfolk, Charleston, Savannah, negro-cursed Mobile, and New Orleans " Only from the base colored races is it, as a rule, that we are


overwhelmed and prostrated by wide-spread contagions and epi-

Even the cattle-plague, the murrain among the sheep, and other fatal distempers to which our domestic animals are subject, have almost invariably had their origin in the countries which are inhabited by the blacks and the browns, who are themselves but the rickety-framed and leprous remnants pf those



unworthy races of men, who have been irrevocably doomed to It is, indeed, fully and firmly believed that destruction.


the only way to get rid of yellow fever is to get rid of the negroes ; and the best way to get rid of the negroes is now the particular question which, of all other questions, should most earnestly en-

gage the undivided

attention of the

American people."


Nojoque, pages 62-68.

the negro in Africa, in the year 1620, fastening anew both himself and his posterity the condition of perpetual upon bondage, allowed himself, as a guaranty of his passive and prodigious dastardy, to be brought in chains all the way across the it was then that, for the first time, was reached the Atlantic,



uttermost depth of



That the negro had,


has, always been a slave, in his own country or elsewhere, according to the habitat or journeyings of his master, is well


was only when, as the cringing tool of the meaner men, he came to America, that his obsequiousness and pusillanimity began to assume monstrous proportions. Of all the miscreants and outcasts who have ever brought irreparable

sort of white

disgrace upon mankind, the slave is at once the most despicable and the most infamous. To be a slave of the white man, yet, if
possible, to be a slave

exempt from the necessity of labor, has not less so now always been the ruling ambition of the negro, than it was four thousand years ago, and not less so then than it is now." Helper's Nojoque, page 193.

" The negroes, like the poodles and the pointers, will always be the dependents and the parasites of white men, just so long as white men, unnaturally submitting to a wrongful relation, are disposed to tolerate the black men's infamously base and beggarly


Certain it is that we owe it to ourselves and to get rid of the negroes soon but if they ought to be able are to be retained much longer in the United States (which may God, in his great mercy, forbid !) we may as well build immediately, for their relief and correction, in alternate adaptation, a row of hospitals and prisons, all the way from the Atlantic to the Pacific and, up.on the same plan, a range or series of alms.






to the

houses and penitentiaries the entire distance from Lake Superior Gulf of Mexico

"All the devil-begotten imps of darkness, whether black or brown, whether negroes or Indians, whether Mongols or mulattoes, should at once be dismissed, and that forever, from the care, from the sight, and even from the thoughts, of the heavenborn whites. Wherever seen, or wherever existing, the black and bi-colored races are the very personifications of bastardy and beggary. In America, these races are the most unwieldy occasioners of dishonor and weakness they are the ill-favored and unwelcome

instruments of disservice


they are the ghastly types of effeteness

and retrogression."

Helper's Nojogue, pages 209-211.

When, under the auspices of monarchical institutions when, pander to the cupidity of crowned heads when, to supply the vicious necessities of courtiers and sycophants, a pack of shirtless and shiftless negroes were brought from the coast of Africa and a pack of black and beggarly barbarians, planted in America, so bestial and so base as to prefer life to liberty, they, like all other foreign felons and outlaws, should at once have been re;




turned to the places whence they came or, to say the least, they should have been compelled to depart, with the greatest possible despatch, from the land which they had so foully desecrated by

their odious

and infamous presence.

mankind, it ought to be an axiom of peculiar and universal acceptation, that he who values life above liberty is unworthy to have his existence prolonged beyond the hour when to-morrow's sun shall set. This right and truthful proposition, practically established, would leave the whole earth Helper's absolutely negroless ere the lapse of two supper-times."
In the
political organizations of

Nojoque, page 214.


Under the euphemism of Removal,' the American government has already expelled, and rightly expelled, from time to time, more than one hundred thousand Indians from the States of the Atlantic


slope, to the wild lands

west of the Mississippi,

these expulsions

by the government having been independently of the less systematic but (in the aggregate) much larger expulsions ly unorganized





communities of the white people themselves.
ollected, that all the Indians

should also be rec-

thus expelled or removed,' were people of indigenous origin, autochthones, by whom the whole of America had, from time immemorial, prior to the days of Columbus, been held in fee-simple.

Now, if we may rightfully expel the

homes and possessions which they have enjoyed from a period of time so distant in the far past that it is absolutely untraceable, what may we not do with the alien and accursed negroes, who, base-minded and barbarous, and bound hand and foot with the fetters of slavery, were brought hither from the coast of Africa? " Helper * Nojoque, page 220.
aboriginal owners of America from the old

" The negro should never, under any circumstances whatever, be permitted to reside in greater proximity to white people than the distance which separates Cuba from the United States if the distance could be lengthened to the extent of one thousand miles, so much the better; if, in point of duration, rather than in point of space, the distance could be lengthened from now to the end of time (supposing such an end possible), better still. " On the premises of no respectable white person ; in the mansion of no honorable private citizen ; in no lawfully convened public assembly in no rationally moral or religious society in no decently kept hotel in no restaurant worthy of the patronage of white people in no reputably established store nor shop, in no place whatever, where any occupant or visitor is of Caucasian should the loathsome presence of any negro or negress blood, ever be tolerated." Helpers Nqjoqut, page 219.
; ; ; ; ;

' To live in juxtaposition with the negro, or to tolerate his presence even in the vicinity of white men, is, to say the least, a a proceeding which, most shameful and disgraceful proceeding, if persisted in, will, sooner or later, bring down upon all those who are guilty of it, the overwhelming vengeance of Heaven. By cringing and fawning like a cudgel-deserving dog, by passively yielding and submitting like a dumb brute, by mimicking and begging like a poll-parrot, the negro has but too generally

upon white men

succeeding in foisting himself, as a parasitical slave or servant, and has thus, upon all occasions, afforded ineon;

literature. Not by any spirit of commendable enterwas he induced to immigrate hither. emigrate back to Africa. no tact for the successful manoeuvring of armies . more odious than the guilt of incest. or to the islands of the ocean. 207 testable proofs of the fact that he is. commerce. but rather by the demerits of both himself and his master. to Central America. he came as a slave. no no wine." Helper's Nojoque. encouragement of morality. . to South America. " It was by no merit nor suggestion of his own. nor art . equally with his master. and shoeless. no gold. It was not for the purpose of bettering his condition sought not an asylum from the oppressions of rank and arbitrary power. "His coming to the New World was neither voluntary nor honorable. and shirtless in brief. Bringing with himself nothing but his own black and bastard body. for submission to slavery is a crime even more heinous than the crime of murder. for the right direction of navies . he was utterly resourceless. He he pusillanimously yielded to the most abject and disgraceful vassalage. " He washatless. no article of virtu (nor principle of virtue). in life. and coatless. nor manufactures no ability for the salutary management of civil affairs . . nor precious stones. no silver. no oil. a sheer accomplice in the crime of slavery. " With himself he brought no knowledge of agriculture.AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. no acquaintanceship with science. nor any other thing whatever. he came . naked and filthy. that the negro was brought to America. and ever has been. He brought with himself no household property. denuded and begrimed. In unresistingly allowing himself to be forced from his family and from his country. more abominable than the sin of devil-worship. He came as the basest of criminals. and trouserless. no aptitude . page 284. his passage across the Atlantic he paid no money. to Mexico. without even the promise or the prospect of ever being permitted to return. He came under comand under compulsion he must (in the event of the failure of gentler adominitions on our part) be prevailed upon to prise pulsion . no skill in the analysis of theories no sentiment stimulative of noble actions no soul for the . and in passively submitting to be taken in chains he knew not whither. " For corn.

for the baboon and the orang-outang to testify in courts and of equity ! should ever be recognized as a citizen of the United nor be allowed to participate in any of the rights or privileges of citizenship. the baser of the two. will be the sooner exter. we are advised to This is the incorrigible recognize as an equal and as a brother and grovelling ignoramus upon whom it is proposed to confer at once the privilege of voting. free. AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. nor lot. the right of universal suffrage This is the loathsome and most execrable wretch (rank-smelling and hideous arch-criminal that he is). that the of compound felony between himself and his master. his ancestors.208 like . it was a sort only in a state of the most abject and criminal servitude. only that the black biped. a brute he was a brute then he had always been a brute . minated. free " No man from the gyves and chains of slavery. be an act of gross folly on our part. for these and other was not of his own choosing. States. busy themselves in the ridiculous irrationality of framing codes for allowing the gorilla and the chimpanzee to attend common schools. . with equal propriety. negro came hither from Africa. it It was not at his own option. who did not come hither honorably and of who did not immigrate to these shores. might. how to vote intelligently. this heathenish and skunk-scented idiot ? No Why not ? Because he does not know. he will ever cease to be a brute. to extend to the negro the privi! ! " Yet ! lege of doing what the omnipotent God of nature has obviously. sufficient reasons. and for all time. he is a brute now and there is no more reason for believing that. no part. " Shall we confer the elective franchise on this base-born and illbred blackamoor. Therefore. " Those of our half-witted and demagogical legislators who waste time in attempting to prove the equality of the negro. It would therefore. he or his own accord. who has been mentioned as one fit to have a voice in the enactment of laws for the government of the American people. and in the drafting of absurd laws for his recognition in good faith as a citizen of the United States. . this is the fatuous and filthy fellow whom. to say the least. the negro should have no voice. than there is for supposing that the hound will ever cease to be a dog. and cannot know. by certain degraded and very contemptible white persons. denied him the power to do.

" For its my own part. I can find no satisfactory ex- planation of the diverse phenomena that characterize physical man. that the without reservation. page 409. May. if I could believe that the human race had origin in incest. I should think . " I maintain. during which period I have always approached this subject with diffidence and caution . ' male and female created he them ' . twenty years of observation and reflection. 18* Types of Mankind. in 209 any of the public affairs or private concerns of America.AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. and after weighing the difficulties that beset it " After on every side. have put it into rhyme : " QUESTION. and. Whence came that curse we call primeval From Adam's children breeding in and in. pages 215-217. Letter to Mr." sin? Samuel George Morton." Samuel George Morton.that I had at once got the clue Two lines of catechism to all ungodliness." Samuel George Morton. page 305. after investigating for myself the remarkable diversities of opinion to which it has given rise. opinions." Helper's Nojoque. ANSWER. excepting in the doctrine of an original plurality of races. the epoch of creation was that undefined period of time spoken of in the first chapter of Genesis. wherein it is related that God formed man. . that these views are consistent with the facts of the case. would explain more I than all the theological discussions since the Christian era. the following among other human race has not sprung from one pair. but from a plurality of centres. that it with analogical evidence. that the deluge affected but a small part of the then existing inhabitants of the earth . as well as local was a merely phenomenon . that these were created ab initio in those parts of the world best adapted to their physical nature that . 1846. finally. Gliddon. Types of Mankind.

mean has been taken by the Caucasian races because of the very great preponderance of Hindoo.210 AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO." Samud George Morton. in their present disbe ascribed to subsequent changes. by observing. page 75. down to their specialization as nations. and Fellahs of the other group. an assump- which there is no evidence whatever. over those of the Germanic. Agassiz. Pelasgic. tion for established in the beginning of the creation. Egyptian. run inevitably into the Lamarkian development theory. nor their distribution determined by a general plan. and Fellah skulls. all " There are only two alternatives before us at present Either mankind originated from a common stock.' though its premises are all who would shrink from the conclusions which they necessarily lead. which is contrary to the modern results of science. Types of mankind. and Celtic families. Such a comparison. Nor could any just collective comparison be instituted between the Caucasian and negro groups in such a table as we have presented. that no collectively. must acknowledge that the diversity among animals We is a fact determined by the will of the Ci'eator. shall conclude these "I remarks on this part of the inquiry. so well known in this country through the work entitled ' Vestiges of Creation . and : tribution. would probably reduce the Caucasian average about eighty-seven cubic inches. the mean of the two races. Types of Mankind. " The consequences of the first alternative. generally adopted by those to . and which leads at once to the admission that the diversity among animate is not an original one. and their ical distribution part of the general plan which unites . are distinct primordial forms of the type of man. geographall organ- ized beings into one great organic conception whence it follows that what are called human races. " 2d. were to it practicable." Prof. "1st. or. unless the small-brained people of the latter division were proportionate in number to the Hindoos. Egyptians. page 321. are to the different races with their peculiarities. and the negro to seventyperhaps even to seventy-five and thus confirmeight at most. atively establish the difference of at least nine cubic inches between .

quoted in another chapter. we cannot divest our minds of mel- ancholy forebodings." ' Josiali Clark Nott. something beyond bare hypothesis. it would seem that the negroes in Africa must remain substantially in that same benighted state wherein Nature has placed them.AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. Types of Mankind. " The negro has never taken one step towards mental development. and then have stultified his act by stamping incest as a crime ? I do not believe that true religion ever intended to teach a common origin for the human race. from Genesis to Revelation. he has never in short. 211 " Do not the instincts of our nature. to teach us how these deficient inches could be artificially added." Josiah Clark Nott. . Cain knew his wife. for at least five thousand years. page 408. and the laws of God. after Adam's sons and daughters. accoi'ding to Egyptian monuments. as we understand it. it is with regret that. and foresight. that primal starting-point in mental cultivation. He has never invented an alphabet. Types of Mankind. which is limited to the existing generation and therefore the present generation are in the same con. instruction except that which is verbal and imitated.' whom he found in a foreign land. and although corruption and sin were not wanting among the patriarchs. and. cry aloud against incest? Does not the father shrink with horror from the idea of marrying his own child. Dr. has had no comprehended even the simplest numerals. has proved that the negro races possess about nine cubic inches less of brain than the Teuton. wisdom. Morton. " Much as the success of the infant colony at Liberia is to be desired by every true philanthropist. a brother marrying his sister. while wishing well to the negroes. all over the civilized world. which the child copies from the parents. unless there were really some facts in history. page 189. when he had no sister to marry. should have been driven to the necessity of propagating the human family from a single pair. the social laws of man. and in which they have stood. or from seeing the bed of his daughter polluted by her brother ? Do not children themselves shudder at the thought? And can it be credited that a God of infinite power. yet nowhere in Scripture do we see.

Not one of the countless millions that have lived upon the earth was ever kept from marrying a second time by a sentiment or a memory. is more rapidly developed in the negro child. Such a thing never happened with a negro. faithful to a memory forever and . and because it has become a habit. The while the negro remains stationary." groes and Negro Slavery. page 219. perhaps. negro of forty or fifty has more experience or knowledge. perhaps. are more energetic but when they reach twelve and fifteen. they diverge the reflective faculties in the white are now called into action. "White husbands and wives. They live with each other to extreme old age. perhaps but the grand purposes of frequently. . as observed. .212 AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. because they imitate the superior race. mind. life. those faculties more immediately connected with sensation. there is little or nothing more. when one dies in early remain unmarried. the real Caucasian character now opens. and perhaps memory. page 218." . which so bind and blend together the white husband and wife. when its utmost limits were reached. or of those blessed memories of joy and suffering. in essential respects. perception. With their limited moral endowment such a thing is an absolute moral impossibility. still often more bound them together in their youth remain bright and untarnished in age and to the borders of the grave. the affections that . page 242. is always that of a the intelligence. "It may be confidently asserted that no community can be . Negroes and Negro Slavery. and often render them quite as necessary to each other's Van Eyrie's Nehappiness as in the flush and vigor of youth. dition that their progenitors occupied thousands of years ago. a perpetual child. nature accomplished. "The negro child. the mental forces fairly evolved. of early hopes and chastened sorrow. as the white man of that age has a more extended knowlthe edge than the man of twenty-five but the intellectual calibre in the former case is no greater than it actual mental capacity was at fifteen."Van Eyrie's Negroes and Negro Slavery.

you depreciate white men. as it rican. in battle. that opposition to slavery and a liking of the negro. but had no intention of fightfelt that They nature. and even most British. negro is a sufficient Why is it that the guaranty against the suicidal step. If these people mingle progeny is debased and fallen from the white status if you hold them in slavery. . 213 found. if you set There is them free. in statesmanship. or else that its professed anti-slavery motive was a mere pretence. condition. white men. The acknowledged inferiority of the . with some surprise. must go together. St. they are hurtful to the progress and prosperity *of the community. and employment which would otherwise belong to you injure the community . I tell No supposition could be more erroneous. Glover. must have as its result the elevation of the negro to the political and social level of the dominant race. and that consequently a war which was accepted rather than that the point of the exclusion of slavery from free territory should be yielded. that if you legislate to give the Africans place. or relation affecting the good of society in which the negro is not inferior to the white man. a human that wickedness." you invidiously stigma- Samuel T. state. In labor. "We have noticed. appears to me. what we regard as a strange confusion of thought in England. in citizenship. 1860. July 26. in regard to the feeling here about slavery and about the negro. position.AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGEQ. . the . as an original proposition. their blood with the white race. and which was prosecuted in a great measure versa for the extinction of slavery where it had been already established. they are not desirable for citizens. writers upon the subject. Louis. ing for the negro. negro should be preferred to the white man in the occupation of our territory? There is no place. and vice . in knowledge. . for every man whose place is filled by a negro. sin against here were glad to fight you frankly that the mass of the people against slavery. but they purge the republic of had no particular sympathy with. It seems to be taken for granted by most European. in that degree. . the white man prevails over the AfIf you introduce these people into a new community. no disguising the fact. who. or at least a special good-will to him. slavery to was a great crime. tize their race. are prepared to commit their industrial and economical relations into the hands of Africans. though They wished . in council.

Letter to the Lon. who was not a professed journalist or politician. and all the terrors of college this man went to the South on discipline were laughed to scorn.214 AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. so that when the under-graduates were unruly or had a for pure love. they would give up at once to Dr. but. when his colleagues could do nothing. and wide sympathies. that the Lord had been pleased to dispense his ' ! ' ' . who had been a proand who is one of those gentle. firm. You in Europe seemed to be thinking about the individual negroes we. thought little or nothing of the individual negroes. and was placed in authority.' with an earnestness which a whimsical smile could not conceal oh. These negroes are doubtless here by a dispensation of Providence. most of them much compassion for. The slightest danger of an insurrection real victim of slavery is the Avhite man. the race against whom the wrong was committed." Richard Grant White. and particularly young men. wise men. who can control men. in the mass. in the system. a tour of observation. and had by his writings done as much as any one person in the countiy. Whatever little good there is while most of the evil has Parian's Gen. page 99. don Spectator. ' I come back hating slavery more than ever. Letter to the " There has never been the of the slaves. but much of the barbarous institution of slavery. over a considerable reclaimed district by one of our most eminent generals. was concerned. Butler in New Orleans. to bring about the state of public feeling that provoked secession. 1865. What a curse to have that And not long ago. the black man has had fallen to the white man's share. as far as slavery last " In the year of the war. a clergyman fessor in the college where I studied. 1865. I met him on his return home. one of the editors of people on our hands one of the leading anti-slavery papers in the country." . but loathing the negro with an unutterable loathing. For years before the war he had been one of our strongest anti-slavery men. and one which advocates giving suffrage to the freed slaves. by mere personal influence. negroes somewhere else London Spectator. '" ! Richard Grant White. said to me. and had not talked with him three minutes before he said to me. . grievance. with large souls.

. seemingly endowed with a deathless a race which crushed old Rome. 215 in wealth. and it has failed even to populate it." Weston's Progress of Slavery. and has failed at all points and in every particular. the white races now in the United States." Weston's Progress of Slavery. nists. or to define precisely the regions occupy. " The experiment of Africanizing America has had a long trial." Parke Godwin. it is it will easy to see that the negro in North America must be pressed into narrow bounds. British enterprise. that we can begin to see that the mission of the negro here is nearly completed. which is reduced now to a single isl- and. oppressed the world. and the accessions to it by immigration are so vast. will number more than one hundred millions. While it is impossible to predict exactly the march of this great multitude. page 158. better order of events. " The population in America of European extraction has grown so large. when Rome spring and vitality. the Anglo-Saxon. because it is here only that his numbers are increasing the African race in South America and in the West . The policy of Africanization ought now to be given up but whether given up or not. it was not expected to bring civilization and the arts to the New World. commanding the citadel as well as the all outposts of civilization. Indies being either stationary or declining. " The United States are young. They come of a race. Political Essays. and their descendants. page 115. it must soon yield to a new and . Of course. tion. fresh. and vigorous. In fifty years. and menaced constantly by that complete extinction which it cannot long escape. of more than three centuries. exulting in strength.AMERICAN WRITERS ON THE NEGRO. which reared the stupendous structure of which impelled the armies of the Reforma- which planted in the New World the hardiest of its coloand which now. and that the limits of his possible expansion may be computed. abounding and eager for action. wields the destinies of the tribes. And it is in North America only that he is formidable. page 161. restrained even there within close limits. except so far as it is kept up by the slave-trade.

the negro and history confirms the evidence fui*nished by the investigation of the natural philosopher. . Morton. THE OFFSPRING OF CRIMES AGAINST NATURE. MULATTOES. and microscopy concur in proving that is of a distinct and inferior species to the Caucasian .216 '* MULATTOS S." Thomas Dunn English. can join in the latter ress. The unvai-ying color of the hair. and the half-brute-like character of the physiognomy. in the degradation of the white. . illustrating my position by numerous facts from the natural history of man and that of the lower animals. " IN 1842. . at that time. the volume. physiology. well as the peculiarity of its structure . THE OFFSPRING OF CRIMES. Many of my facts and alignments were new. 1 published a short essay on Hybridity. and can only result. who has any regard for sound morality. The question. to show that the white man and the negro were distinct species. 1851. Anatomy. The steady advance of the white species meets with no parallel in the black. or who feels any desire to see intellectual progress made certain. even to him . had not attracted the attention of Dr. Neither in ancient nor modern times has the negro. even when placed under the most favorable circumstances. The has proved itself. A movement for such ends is necessarily impotent. the object of which was. at the best for the negro. Letter to John Campbell. . No man who values himself. Philadelphia. and general formation are evidences not to be disregarded by the careful and conscientious philosopher. inferior to that of the dominant species. shape. when left to itself. and weight of the brain. CHAPTER XXXI. it soon retrogrades to hopeless barbarism. as the distinctive mark of all animals incapable of civilization. achieved anything of moment. absurd attempt to raise the negro to his own level. to be incapable of progEven when taught by a superior species.

217 leading to the commencement of a agreeable and useful career. " 3. and drew from the great anatomist a private letter. most instructive. That they are less capable of undergoing fatigue and hardand subject to a variety of chronic diseases. when crossed on the parent stocks. or New Orleans. enjoy extraordinary exemption from yellow-fever. when brought to Charleston. and in several which followed it at short intervals. " Almost fifty years of residence among the white and black races ship than either the blacks or whites. Dr. and which endured to the close of his " In the essay alluded to. spread in nearly equal proportions through South Carolina and Alabama. In the Western world. and that their children generally die young. they are less prolific than. Very different was the case in the Eastern world. " 7. cannot be predicated that either improvement or deterioration was the result. Savannah. There Greeks. That they are bad breeders. THE OFFSPRING OF CRIMES. 19 and Goths intermingled with races . That mulattoes are intermediate in intelligence between the blacks and the whites." 373. That when a negro man married a white woman. the intermixture of nations which followed the "It was not man conquests tions first of the Romans. That the mulatto women are peculiarly delicate. JosiaJi Clark tfott. although unacclimated. race. bad nurses. and afterwards of the northern nawas a union of races of equal quality and hence it . have satisfied me of the absolute truth of the preceding 1 deductions. That mulattoes are the shortest-lived of any class of the : human " 2. " 4.MULATTOES. That when mulattoes intermarry. Mobile. at least. I maintained these propositions " 1. Romans. " 5. and twenty-five years incessant professional intercourse with both. the offpartook more largely of the negro type than when the respring verse connection had effect. Types of Mankind. to me. That mulattoes like negroes. page until the discovery of a new world that races of of strikingly contrasted qualities came to intermix. " 6. liable to abortions. friendly correspondence.

Nature has endowed the various races of man with widely different qualities. has done with several closely allied species When the qualities of different races of man are equal. in a great measure. and that the fertility often . carefully guiding them from a cross with either pure parent. they are unequal. The mongrel French and English are equal to the pure breeds of Germany and Scandinavia. this fecundity never continues beyond a few generations. Theory of the Earth. but generally greatly decreased. them- " In regard to the sterility of hybrids in successive generations. page 118. and would not probably proceed so far. And when the mulebreeds. and contrives to produce all these intermixtures of which the various species are susceptible. even between species that have the nearest resemblances. bodily and mental. I do not doubt that it is usually the case. and hence the deterioration to which.. which is seldom the case. " Hence is all the cunning and all the force that man is able to exert necessary to accomplish such unions. without a continuance of the same cares which excited it at first. no detriment results from their union. that are thus produced by these forced conjunctions." Cuvier." I. deterioration of the higher race is the inevitable result. Anthropological Review. or between the martin and the weasel. page 405. Thus we never see in a wild state intermediate productions between the hare and the rabbit. When. by influencing the various species of animals with mutual aversion from each other.218 MULATTOES. yet he asserts positively that their fertility never increased. greatly inferior to themselves. John Crawford. must fall be ascribed that decline in civilization which ended in the downof the Roman power. for six or seven. on the other hand. Nature appears to have guarded against the alterations of species which might proceed from mixture of breeds. THE OFFSPRING OF CRIMES. But the power of man changes this established order. hap- pen to be fruitful. though Gartner was enabled to rear some hybrids. between the stag and the doe. Vol. but which they would never produce if left to selves. such as Egyptians and Syrians. much in the same way as it of the lower animals. and in one case for ten generations.

lest the thy seed which thou hast sown and the fruit of thy vineyard be defiled. let him not approach to offer the bread of his God. . suddenly decreases in the first 219 few generations. in which. saying. If " Ariel's positions be admitted as true. " I doubt whether any case of a perfectly fertile hybrid animal can be considered as thoroughly well authenticated. or brokenthing handed." Deuteronomy XXII. with wonderful ingenuity of citation and argument. thou Shalt kill the woman and the beast . 15. or that hath a blemish in his proach . who " Ariel. And if a woman approach unto any beast.MULATTOS S. or Tie that hath aflat nose. or crook-backed. " The Lord spake unto Moses. or a man that is broken-footed. For whatsoever man he be that hath a blemish he shall not apa blind man or a lame. Speak unto Aaron. Leviticus XX. in Cincinnati. what terrible penalties have been incurred by the vile and very disreputable individuals violated the following law many very who have : lie with a beast he shall surely be put to death and ye shall slay the beast. thou shalt not plough with an ox and an ass " Thou together. he endeavors to prove." Darwin's Origin of Species. fruit of shalt not sow thy vineyard with divers seeds. page 223. " If a man " Thou shalt not shalt not let thy cattle sow thy field gender with a diverse kind thou with mingled seed. even from the Bible itself. Whosoever he be of thy seed in their generations that hath any blemish." ." has recently pubsigns himself lished." Leviticus XIX. . THE OFFSPRING OF CHIMES. page 220. that the negro is a mere beast. 19." Darwin's Origin of Species. a " creature without a soul. a pamphlet. they shall surely be put to death. saying. and lie down thereto. Some one. or anysuperfluous. 9. or a dwarf.

. pure negro. any one shall have been a negro. and so every such person who shall have one-fourth part or more of negro blood shall.' " Leviticus 16.m or substituting for 4 its equivalent. " Let the first crossing be of a. pure white. As the issue has one-half of the blood of each parent. by way of abridgement. . having h .-{. tal letters of either. " Let the third crossing be of q and C their offspring will be A B C C a q -H call this e (eighth) who. THE OFFSPRING OF CRIMES. will be 2 ( A Call it. be ' : deemed a this mulatto. in conversation. " Let the second crossing be of h and B . be A .220 JUULATTOES. The case put in the first member of paragraph of the law is exempli gratid. or be scurvy or scabbed. for abbreviation. being \ negro blood.' . and any given mixture telligible. the estimate of their compound. in some cases. the algebraical notation is the most convenient and in- Let us express the pure blood of the white in the capiof the printed alphabet. constitutes the mulatto. . will be *i }- B R | . these words Every person. which is. other than a negro. in MS. may be intricate it becomes a mathematical problem of the same class with those on . . the pure blood of the negro in the small letters of the printed alphabet. . . : . he hath a blemish he shall not come nigh to offer the bread of his God. ' = 2 2 8842 . that one-fourth of negro blood. mixed with any portion of white. call it 4 Z 2 (quarteroon). letters. or hath his stones broken . The latter contains the true canon. eye. as in these. . what constituted a mulatto by our law ? and I believe I told you four crossings with the whites. XXL " You asked me. and A. therefore. The unit of blood of the issue being composed of the half of that a of each parent. . shall be deemed a mulatto. in like manner. . of whose grandfathers or grandmothers. h (half 2 the blood of the issue will it blood). the mixtures of different liquors or different metals. I looked afterwards into our law and found it to be in. and the blood of each of these may be made up of a variety of fractional mixtures.

Gray. let us examine their compounds.example. VL. less 221 to wit. or negro blood. March 4. the last issue is deemed pure Merino. | a 3 A B . 19* and black races have mingled very freely . and a third with any degree of mixture. however small. Amalgamation in races is more than a revolution in government. white. " Let i Ti ande cohabit. It is an attempt to make a fundamental change in the laws of nature." Jefferson's Works. second with his daughter. wherein 4 16 every compound be noted and summed. " From these elements. " Let q and e cohabit the half of the blood of each will be 22 -8 f' 884 16 16 8 . ' = A A a -. For h o ct . as clearing the issue of the negro blood. so that a third cross clears the blood. This will prove to be an impossibility. Thus a Merino ram being crossed.4I. blood.---k B = . the sum of the fractions composing the blood of the issue being always equal to unit. $ only. let h and q cohabit their issue will be n 2 2 4 . B A --H 8 c I wherein 4 16 a makes 16 a mulatto. page 436. 1815. Letter to Francis C. and. c their issue will be 22 = I -4- -4 |' 4 5 a B --h A n---r 16 still 16 8 4 = --h 16 . is no than J of a pure negro blood. wherein we find f of a. THE OFFSPRING OF CRIMES. 4 16 16 of a is no longer a mulatto and thus may -. .--. having in fact but of the country Our canon considers two crosses with the pure white. create a hybrid nation. Vol. by blending different species of the human race. third with his grand-daughter.MULATTOS S. It is understood in natural history that a fourth cross of one race of animals with another gives an issue equivalent for all sensible purposes to the original blood. longer a mulatto. 3 4 ' ' 8 8 4 884 H H s 6 . " The red. and fourth with his great-grand-daughter. first with a country ewe.

THE OFFSPRING OF CRIMES. a determination on the part of the people of Calishowing fornia to prevent. " A bill introduced into the lower .222 on MULATTOES. H. as strongly as by his ebony skin and curled hair. and Indians and Spaniards are as incongruous with each other as in the beginning. for a time. the amalgamation of the white and The following black races. provides that any white person who shall be convicted of marrying or otherwise cohabiting with a negro. that of the Indians in Spanish America has almost run out. of various tints.. N. The French. or both and that the fact that a person beds. is. but the hybrids gradually wear out. mulatto. suggestive of what ought to be done immediately by the people of that and every other State in the Union : House of the California Legon the 30th of January. item. it is believed. and. certainly shows that nothing short of insanity could hope to reconcile the dominant. con- trasted by his servile condition. But where is the French tribe of Indians They made the same experiment with the blacks in to be found ? present aspect of both hemispheres. the repugnance of caste which has grown up in this country on the part of the white freeman to the black man. did not make manifest the absurdity of the proposed system of mixing the black and white races in the management of a common government. or. I might say. but it So the old Spanish blood that mixed with is gradually vanishing. Chinese." Montgomery Blair. the domineering race. intermarried with the Indian tribes. to such a conjunction. from his first appearance among us. or Indian. islature . Domingo. by law. shall be punished by fine and imprisonment. while the old stock preserves its original type. this continent. and blending the two colors to make a third. to prevent the amalgamation of different races of men. Speech at Concord. boards. recently published in the newspapers. rather. and in the instaIf the history of the world. and the bility of their governments. and a mongrel race appeared. and the fatal result of this attempted amalgamation is shown in the degradation of both races. from the infancy of discovery on this continent. 1863. June 17. St. a piebald people of all colors.

cohabits. to the point) a nature-abhorred and short-lived monstrosity and yet mulattoes and negroes are the sort of creatures with . The circumstances in which all the individuals agree are these They are of a pallid : cadaverous white. called albinos. ALBINOS.ALBINOS. . strong. short. . teach that the mulatto Because common sense and common experience alike is the offspring of a crime against that he is always. healthy. I have known four of these myself. . ETC. though black themselves. whom Radical politicians would populate American States ! CHAPTER XXXII. predisposed to disease that he seldom recovers when once overtaken by severe sickness that he usually falls an easy victim to epidemics and that he is (speaking briefly and . in rare instances. or intermarries with an individual of shall be 223 any of said races. WHITE NEGROES AND OTHER CREATURES OF SUPERNATURAL WHITENESS. . coarse. " I WILL now add a short account of an anomaly of nature. tak- ing place sometimes in the race of negroes brought from Africa." It is said that there is not a life-insurance company in all the world that will take a risk on the life of any mulatto. primd facie evidence that such a person is not a white citizen. Why ? nature . perfect in their senses. without any colored spots or seams their hair of the same kind of white. even from his earliest infancy. who. white children. and born of . untinged with red. have. and have faithful accounts of three others. and shall subject him to all constitutional disabilities imposed on persons of color. and curled as is that of the negro all of them well formed. except that of sight.

This continued to increase till he became a man. These child. They are the property of Colonel Skipwith. A sixth instance is a woman. and has for several years been stationary. were the property of Colonel Carter. whose parents came from Guinea. and her eyesight so weak that she is obliged to wear a bonnet in the summer. by a black man. by a black man. of Albermarle. and has issue. He is the only male of the albinos which have come within my information. Three of these albinos were sisters. when a boy. The eldest three issue was black. The fourth is a negro a perpetual tremuaffected by the sun but they woman. it seems more incident to the female than male sex. by which time it had extended over his It is chin. who were black. with her second child." 318. and the of color was not accompanied with any sensible disease change . or in the coloring matter. in child-bed. and now advanced in years. Vol. ETC. She is stout and robust. He is tall of stature. as the eldest had. She had an albino It died at the age of a few weeks. having two other full sisters. which The youngest of the of age. born black. has issue a daughter. Butler. who were of their own color. quick Their eyes are in in their apprehensions and in reply. and of black parents on whose chin. page the white negroes they " The name albino was originally applied by the Portuguese to met with on the coast of Africa. by a black roan. one cheek. the property of a Mr. He is robust and healthy. parents who had no mixture of white blood. Whatever be the cause of the disease in the skin. Jefferson's Works. With . and had three other children. lips. Lee. lous vibration. I am not informed as to her eyesight.224 ALBINOS. His eyes are tremulous and weak. a white spot appeared. The middle one is now alive. see much better in the night than we do. the under jaw.. either general or topical. without any mixture of red. She is freckled. The seventh instance is of a male belonging to a Mr. was killed by lightning. in health. but it is better in the night than day. V1I1. of the albino white. of Cumberland. at twelve years died at about twenty-seven years of age. which produces this change. and neck on that side. near Petersburg. To these I may add the mention of a negro man within my own knowledge. very weak. They are uncommonly shrewd. and much . of Cumberland. jet-black.

It is observed in all climates. by their closing their eyelids even in the twilight. however. who believe them to be animated with the souls of their ancient kings. and among all races of men. Examples are not very rare among the feathered tribe. and their disposition to avoid the light. what ultimate cause the phenomenon is to be attributed. and the hair resembled that of the whitest horse. 225 the features of the negro and the peculiar woolly form of the hair. in fishes and some species of molluscous animals as well. According to nations of dark skin. as in other animals in that of the hair. page 284. they are correspondingly deficient in their mental capacity. They are It is not understood to most generally of the male sex. which. the effect being seen in the color of the plumage. such as is noticed in cases of leprosy. and kings of the Ashantees these people. inability to bear the light. Albino mice are not very uncommon." Neio American Cyclopaedia. and inhabiting hot climates. individuals possessing the same pecua great variety of the warm-blooded animals. albinos are more common among them. and a peculiar harshness of the skin. but this may be owing to the peculiarities being with is them more prominent. Linnaeus called the albinos nocturnal men. is not limited to liarities are found man for among . said to have had particular regard for collected around him about one hundred of Humboldt. is said to be much ex- They aggerated. more albinos are to be found among the negroes than among any other people. . The white elephants of India are venerated by the natives. and still more so among the whites. and One of the attracting more attention. the color of the skin was white like pearl. . Yet the albinos suffer from no different complaints from other persons. and like this better suited for use in the moonFrom this light. /. instead of the jet-black hue. In the human race. and. . Vol. Indeed. In the coppercolored races they are more rare. it .ALBINOS) ETC. Blumenbach notices the feebleness of their eyes. which seems given to bear to the inhabitants of the tropics to enable them the intense glare of the sun.. In the same family several children are sometimes born albinos. The white crow and the white blackbird are albinos. would seem to indicate that the phenomenon might result from a diseased organization. and in places sheltered from the light of day. perhaps. Hilaire. according to Geoffrey St. The eye. As in their physical development. generally lack the strength of other men . was like that of the white rabbit and ferret.

and On no condition whattheir persons are considered inviolable. page 311. believed to exist in this or not. Generally they are very mild and I have never heard of their taking advantage of their Guinea. . He has an enormous tuberosity on the back of his head but wheththe ficed. . the canoes are all turned . is quite satisfied with her fate. the Ethiopians. my informant Several canoes accompany him and the victim. and always in motion. mouth of the Brass Kiver. at Parrot Island. " Albinos may be found in almost every community in Southern Everywhere they are regarded as somewhat sacred. when an albino girl is sacriceremony is an old man named Onteroo. page 112. accustomed to take an albino child up as a sacrifice. but their In features they are not unlike the complexion is very nearly a pure white. is with their heads homewards the word is given. with a weight round her neck to prevent her floating. and their eyes are gray. it seems.226 ALBINOS. ETC. "At er his divinity cannot say. as she is indoctrinated with the idea that her future destiny is to be married to a white man." acknowledged inviolability. the officiator at this ." Ten Years' Wanderings among F. S. As soon as they reach the bar. by Thomas J. but of a cream color. Wilson's Africa. or is apprehended. ever would a man strike one of them. of the white man. " A curious superstition is connected with Parrot Island. Nutchinson. R. and offer it exists. rest of their race." Hutchinson's Western Africa. who. and the girl is thrown into the water. Whenever a scarcity of European trading ships authorities are the Duketown of their to the own God race. and is observed with religious punctuality by the natives of Old Kalabar. their hair of the ordinary texture. O. on the occasion of need arising from its performance. thus obviating the possibility of an escape.

The race from subjection. well cut. . . whence. man . the perfect harmony of all the figure. page 50. Earth and Man. are indebted for their origin. . are still considered the handsomest on earth. The eyes are lai-ge. all the nations of high civilization. The face is di- vided into three equal parts by the line of the eyes and that of the mouth. Various nations in the vicinity of Caucasus. . the truly historical nations . at . To this variety. is distinguished by the beauty of the oval formed by his head. The white race religious sentiment that brings man near to Him of whom he the earthly image. ' by man- " Let us take the head of a Caucasian. varying in complexion and the color of the hair. tkis and is still represents the highest degree of progress attained kind. without exception. . diately is What strikes us imme- the regularity of the features. their axis is placed on a single straight line. To this race belong. and those which have generally held all others in . it has been extended like the radii of a circle. The head is oval no part is too prominent beyond the others nothing salient nor angular . and with the profound moral himself. page 228. " which we are descended has been called Caucasian. 1 Arnold Guyot. not too near the nose nor too far from it .PRE-EMINENCE OF THE WHITE RACES. INCREASING PRE-EMINENCE AND PREDOMINANCE OF THE WHITE RACES. because tradition and the filiation of nations seem to refer its origin to that gi'oup of mountains situated between the Caspian and Black Seas. THE Caucasian race. into the province distinguished above them all the most perfect type of humanity the race best endowed with the gifts of intelligence. to which we belong." Cuvier's Animal Kingdom. as from a centre. disturbs the softness of the lines that round it. the most highly civilized nations. " Let us of raise ourselves higher . and pass is . the grace of the lines. 227 CHAPTER XXXIII. the Georgians and Circassians. still.

seem destined to become. further still. which carries Anglican and liberty over the globe. principles " We ." Man. Europe ably the first civilization for is still two unquestion- face of our planet has the of the civilizing continents. The nations of Europe represent not only the highest intellectual growth which the human race has attained at any epoch. nents. Arnold Ouyot. during the epoch which is preparing. page 255.228 PRE-EMINENCE OF THE WHITE RACES. page 31. prepares an epoch of aggrandizement more rapid The two Americas. and the irresistible logic of facts passing under our eyes compels us to believe that. right angles with the line of the nose. and are preparing to push their conquests Arnold Ouyot. the Caucasian. Such is the type of the white race. in their turn. to subdue nature. Earth and most perfect type of humanity. The stature is tall. " Asia has yielded to Europe the sceptre of thousand years. situated between the other four contistill. or a point of support for the establishment of easy and more rapid relations with all the nations of the world. page 328. wherever it moves. as it has been agreed to call it. ders neither too broad nor too narrow. and to the instrument of intelligence." " The establishment of European which has more than doubled the civilization in the New World. all the proportions reveal the perfect harmony which is the the essence of beauty. the boundaries of the domain of the civilized world can only be those of Arnold Guyot. accompany it. The length of the ex. equal to the whole height of the body in one word. liberal institutions and a common law full of manly rights and instinct with the principle of an expansive life. Earth and Man. The facial angle is ninety degrees. At the present day. because. Earth and Man. lithe. but they rule already over nearly nowhere has man known so well how make her every part of the globe. Nowhere on the surmind of man risen to a sublimer height ." belong to the Anglican race. tended arms is the most pure. territorial extent of the culti- vated nations. a new centre of action. the globe itself. well proportioned the shoul.

elongated skull the Mongolian of Eastern Asia and America. with or their combinations. and square skull and the Caucasian of Western Asia and Europe. up to the present moment. great types or varieties into which naturalists have divided the inhabitants of our planet. to rear and spread civil liberty over vast regions in every part of the earth. less completely. page 21. and compressed. "The Negro or African. to wit. its Caucasian variety. 229 We belong to that race whoso obvious task it is. on continent and isle. or were unable to become powerful themselves. combined with the highest form of beauty. while our own race is the sole cause of their destruction. broad and all but beardless . . page 13. the destinies of the species appear to have been carried forward almost exclusively by August. full brow. with his black skin. In this group is found the most perfect notions of the ideal beautiful. such. because we ourselves destroyed them. of relative proportion in art and in literature. and rounded skull . these three varieties of historian is human it. We belong to that tribe which alone has the word Self-Government. of logic and of 20 . because they did not resist the power of move powerful nations. " There are many nations and tribes which have already disappeared from the earth. among other proud and sacred tasks. "We now come to the typical Caucasian family.Government. are the three face. in virtue of to announce one important fact at the very outset. with his fair skin and face. and power of endurance." North British Review. as every school-boy knows. We do not grieve over the fall of the Celts. Civil Liberty and Self." Burmeister's Black Man. that. strength. the beings more or able. We look on with tranquillity as the aboriginal people of America decay and pass away. woolly hair. 1849.PRE-EMINENCE OF THE WHITE RACES." Francis Lieber. which em- braces the greatest cerebral development in width and depth. coupled with a nervous system less swayed by impulse. with his olive complexion. Accepting this rough initial conception of a world peopled everywhere. oblique eyes.

and delicacy and the manly character attains the most majestic and venerable aspect. in arts. he has measured time and distance. his logical intellect. from accident or from the elements and his reflective powers find expedients to brave danger with self-possession and impunity. which. and produced numberless discoveries useful in medicine. the possible combinations of numbers and quantity . coloin them. . when the positive facts are not otherwise shown . . while. for . It is here that human loveliness. he has modified bodily pain. the mathematical sciences in general. above the rest. and a few all signs. ences in general. female beauty is possessed of the highest . even in the midst of the enervating habits of high civilization . mere process of comparing sensations. and more elevated thought. and mastered the powers of lightning. The moral and intellectual character we find to be in unison with his structure the reasoning pownize. and acquired a critical literature. in volition. nevertheless. jushe alone of all the races of mankind has protice. a velocity of locomotion superior to the flight of birds by his chemical discoveries. with the sole exception of the positive His longevity is more generally protracted. more reasoning.230 PRE-EMINENCE OF THE WHITE RACES. descended into the deep. By mechanical researches. his solid fibre gives a reasoned self-possession and daring in vicissitudes. in their relative positions. strength of limb with activity of motion. he has arrived at ideas requisite for the acquisition of abstract truths . . making the sidereal bodies unerring guides to mark locality and give nautical direction he has ascended to the skies. . By means of ers outstripping the showing. arising from the passions. enabling it to endure the greatest vicissitudes of temperature in all climates." Hamilton Smith's Natural History of the Human Species. and humanity duced examples of free and popular institutions. denote. multiplied the results of industry.. resorting to actual experiment. and his physical characteristics have maintained them in social life. The Caucasian form of man combines. page 401. he invented simple arbitrary characters to represent words and musical sounds . grace. and manufacHe has founded a sound and connected system of the scitures.. to emigrate. he fixed bases whereon to build demonstrable inferences. " and multiply extremes. the bearded man has assuaged human toil. and created . .

which religion. To such a man slavery in the ab- stract is revolting. is to say. it is not wonderful that it is kept up in ence to our own reference to countries of which we know less. . He has instituted all the great religious systems in the world." Fisher's Laws of Race. and letters. " The Saxon or Teutonic man is a lover of His is the liberty. . order.PRE-EMINENCE OF THE WHITE RACES. But when insisted upon in refer- country. and form himself a part of the government he obeys. wealth. so that he may consent any control to which he does submit. he has been the principal posthe asserter of fixed laws. provided he be not the oppressor. Wherever he goes. his practical ability and faculty for abstract thought. and to his stock has been vouchsafed the glory and the conditions of The Caucasian type alone continues in rapid develrevelation. He loves also political liberty . if not by physical superiority. power over himself. therefore. with the oppressed. and would gladly break all chains of bondage. in part. to China. and his love of liberty. to Australia. Churches. to India. . page 371. truth. or America. and justice. and enterprise confer. a share of political power. at least by that dominion. law. arts. He freedom from the that to loves instinctively personal liberty. opment. Hamilton Smith's Natural Hisscience. follow his footsteps. more than three thousand sessor of all 231 human knowledge and years. but his love of liberty is. and has been able to acquire and keep it. his passion for conquest and power. " No delusion has so little foundation as that assumed law of it is climate which would confine the white races to the latitude of the free States of this Union. love of power. covering with nations every congenial latitude." tory of the Human Species. . except those which he imposes. colonizing race. he subdues and governs the weaker and lower races. page 16. When it is denied . charities. The characteristics of the Saxon. whilst they make him a colonizer and a ruler. will of another. only race that does love it. Saxon loves power his is the conquering. also render his rule beneficent. where the facts which overthrow it are familiar to everybody. He sympathizes. and portending at no distant era to bear rule in every region. indusThe try.

expelled from Acadia. race. and without any loss of their original vigor in either of those . Indeed seeing. Richard Grant "Most distinctly do I deny that this country is great only be- . widely separated latitudes. what absurdities may not be maintained ? " Westoris Progress of Slavery." White. and. page 160. John in the latitude of Quebec. 1865. as a whole. that the manifestation of the immutable qualthat the annals of the is the one great fact of history . The descendants of that race. worked thousands of years ago that at this very day it is breaking the bonds of treaties and destroying kingdoms to make nations. Weston's opinion of many observers. suffered a dispersion equally wide. world teach us that the po\ver of race is the one master and positive force. being found in the Carolinas. and on the upper St. of race appears to me. or to rate it at less than paramount importance. and. . they are of limited extent. Letter to the London Spectator. on the coasts of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. and the in- crease of the whites being greater than that of the blacks. who have long occupied the lower Mississippi and the most northerly of the Canadas. page 159. " Humboldt observes that the Caucasian races are distinguished by their flexibility of organization in respect to climate and of this we have a remarkable instance in the French. on the Gulf of Mexico.232 PRE-EMINENCE OF THE WHITE RACES. seems to me like calculating eclipses or building houses with like . the white race exhibits as in the much physical vigor at the South as at the North. ities that the greatness or abjectness of every people is if not solely. " I believe as it due primarily." Progress of Slavery. to one cause. two-thirds of their inhabitants being actually whites. to deny its force. decidedly more. disrespect to the force and law of gravitation. If there are malarious re-' gions at the South. that the Southern States can be occupied by anybody but negroes. the operation of which can be calculated upon as a certainty that it is the primal law of humanity that it is working as irresistibly and with action as positive and simple as it .

with the increasing facilities of communication by land and sea. until the destroying race 20* . osteological remains. Types of Mankind. are those alone that have extended over and colonized all parts of the globe and much of this is the work of the The Creator has implanted in this last three hundred years. which have always been the representatives of civilization. has its sole origin in the by which the land was settled and reclaimed. in spite of themselves." It is beau of civilization. page 77. . it is vast. " No two distinctly marked races can dwell together on equal terms. as displayed Josiah Clark Nott. and gradually supplanting inferior types. is because. literary record History. with a belief having the clearness of conviction and the earnestness of faith. moreover. Its real greatness. AVhen we see great divisions of the human famall difficulties to It is by increasing in numbers. every and scientific induction. government and its society were framed. qualities of the race and by which its . I believe. group of races an instinct that. it is im. 1865. spreading in all directions. mankind have been more distui'bed in their primitive seats and. Some per for a time." Types of Mankind. drives them races." Nott. all show that races have occupied substantially the same zones or provinces from time im- " memorial. like Rusrich and warlike. or spacious in the possession of dirt even because. encroaching degrees upon all other races wherever they "can live and pros- per. page 405. appear destined to live and proscomes which is to exterminate and supplant them. possible to predict what changes commg ages may bring forth. monuments. Since the discovery of the mariner's compass. tradition. destiny. Letter to the London Spectator. carry out their great mission of civilizing not reason or philanthropy which urges them on. The Caucasian through but ily it is the earth. it ' . like France. is it not reasonable Josiah Clark to conclude that they are fulfilling a law of nature. cause it is ' 233 sia. the strictly white races that are bearing onward the flamin the Germanic families alone." Richard Grant White.PRE-EMINENCE OF THE WHITE RACES. Observe how the aborigines of Amerraces.

he and progresses. We may carry thither the Anglo-Saxon vigor and enterprise. is civilized. "When we are free from this plague-spot of slavery. the curse to our industry. the Cai'olinas as active Then by peaceful purchase. what a nation we shall one day become America. on both sides of the equator. domestic. ecclesiastical. The South will be as the North. after all. tropical and temperate. Those groups of races heretofore comprehended under the generic term Caucasian. ture by the hand of his Creator. tyrant and no slave ! last May 12. may count her children at and among them all behold no by hundreds of millions. the strength of a man's arm. Mankind. rich. we may honorably go as Massachusetts. He conquers with his head as well not as with his hand. can change this law it is written in man's naJosiah Clark Nott. he is humane. The Caucasian has been often masnever their slave. our education. In history all rereligion to other races. Caucasian differs from all other races. Virginia rich as New York. " Theodore Parker. the mother of ! a thousand Anglo-Saxon States.234 PRE-EMINENCE OF THE WHITE RACES. in the Mediterranean of the Western World . prophetic eye to see that they are destined eventually to conquer and hold every foot of the globe where climate does not interpose an impenetrable barrier. active. the Anglo-Saxon The acquire the rest of this North American continent. but never taken theirs. It is intellect. and still more ion. our politics. the love also of law. and our i-eligwe shall increase more rapidly in number. "The . extending the area of freedom at every step. no missionary labors. page 79. No philanthropy. 1854. may further south. have in all ages been the rulers and it requires no ica are fading . abundantly be intelligent." Types of . no legislation. the best institutions of Then the present age. the old love of liberty. that conquers. the drainage of two vast continents. He has carried his ter of the other races. Nay. and possess the Atlantic and Pacific slopes of the Northern continent. away before the exotic races of Europe. Speedi at New York. social. political. may behold the Mississippi and the Amazon uniting their waters. Spaniards will make nothing of it.

the mighty energies of gravitation and the subtle forces of chemistry. and all the arts of Europe. be- cause steamboats and omnibuses. . and to the power of the republic. . and romance come of the same stock .. sian literature All the great limited forms of Republics are Caucasian. To the Caucasian race belong the Arabian. Jesus Christ. page 462. The Chinese philosopher.PRE-EMINENCE OF THE WHITE RACES. from the North Pole to California. adding to the real prosperity of the country. I only see that you can hardly place a . No other race can bring up to memory such celebrated names as the Caucasian race. . by freemen. by men of the Caucasian race. this continent all is to be Anglo-American from Pymouth Rock to That is certain Pacific Sea. 235 monai-chies are Caucasian. were Caucasian. all the great Moses. February 23. commerce. Egyptian and all the European nations are descendants of the Cau. for the supposed value of their services. we should doubtless now have at least three million white. from Suez to the Indian Seas. and from the Indian Seas all over the explored I only can see that on regions of the still farther East. ligions are of Caucasian origin. and in the Eastern world. 1849. if their descendants had never been here. their propagated places would have been supplied by white laborers." Theodore Parker. Horace Mann. and would have enlisted wind and fire and the vast forces of nature in their service. Buddha. of all colors. Zoroaster. Instead of the three millions slaves. Pythagoras. is an exception to the rule. finger on the map of the world and be an inch from an English . All the great sciences are of Caucasian oi-igin all inventions are Cauca. Luther. poets are of Caucasian origin casian race. Quoted in Types of Mankind. House ' It before has been said that whosoever would see the Eastern world it turns into a Western world must make his visit soon. Persian. like the North. " If the ancestors of the present three millions of slaves had never been brought here. they would have become ingenious and inventive. free-born citizens.. If the South had not had slaves to do their work for them. Confucius. Hebrew. water and steam and lightning. are extending themselves fi-om Egypt to Suez." of Representatives.

and to act on the whole Western world. the great principle of the freedom of human thought. and under various degrees of motive and stimulus on the other hand. truth in the idea that those nor our children. on both sides of the Atlantic. I believe there is no limit fit to be assigned to it by the human mind. are to react on India and on Asia." Webster's Works. nor our grandchildren to see it. If there be anything in the supremacy of races. PRE-EMINENCE OF THE WHITE RACES. because I find at work everywhere. under various forms and degrees of restriction on the one 214. the If there be any in progress will develop it. IL.236 settlement. . For myself. who issued from the great Caucasian and spread over Europe. and the respectability of individual character. Vol. but it will be for our descendants of some generation to see the extent of that progress and dominion of the favored races. experiment now fountain. it may not be for us. in these branches of a common race.

in whose behalf I have especially and persistently written. of being rendered unparalleled and perpetual. that the great mass of the poor whites here. National Intelligencer: In the accompanying communication. namely. 1867. the condition of their thraldom has been so aggravated. in your opinion. of earnest and honest appeals to men's reason. permit me to indulge in a few general but pertinent reflections. Before entering directly into this subject. a Carolinian. the object at which I have aimed. however. the publication of the article would promote. North Carolina. publish it in the columns of the " Intelligencer." Deeply impressed with the importance. even in part only. with the further and appalling danger. arid to say. if you please. you may. or other statement from me. that has for its basis truth and justice. under Radical misrule. precisely what I think. BY HINTON ROWAN HELPER. To the Good People of the Old Free States More than ten years ago. Although chiefly for the sake of the whites. that it is now in constant process of becoming worse and worse. and that. so far as I have given expression to my views. I. rather than to their passions or their prejudices. whether they knew it or not. who. Author of" The Impending Crisis of the South.APPENDIX ITS I. majority of the white people of the Southern States. as many of you will recollect. are still enthralled. November 11. I respectfully request that you will favor me with your attention while I explain. I have purposely delayed writing what I have here written until after the partial subsidence of the general excitement and confusion which have but so recently attended the great elections in many of the whiter and (therefore) better parts of our common country. under the black and blighting sway of Radicalism. RADICALISM IN THE SOUTH: BLACK AND BLIGHTING SWAY. the imparting to the public mind of the North a more accurate and adequate knowledge of the actual and prospective condition of things at the South. If. The generous the unfortunate hearing which you then accorded to me inspires me with confidence that you are again prepared to listen to any protest. 237 . within the last few years. were greatly oppressed and impoverished by existence among us of negroes and negro slavery. It has not been any part of my purpose either to please or to displease anybody. R. Thus surmising. or while I endeavor to explain. H. To the Editors of the H. but simply to tell the truth. at all times." ASHEVILLE." it is not at all unlikely that I have said some things to which both you and many of your readers may take exception. addressed "To the Good People of the Old Free States. made a special appeal to your enlightened and patriotic judgments in behalf of u large the non-slaveholdii'g whites. or complaint.

a moral and social guilt of no less revolting magnitude than the political blunders which are also a part of Its base offspring. I think. a-> a last but temporary method of relief from their baneful existence among ii. in order to in'stire the true safety and success of the South. and I see now. The necessity for the removal and colonization of the negroes was as plain to me ten years ago as it is to-day but I foresaw then. I believe that the whole negro race is a weak and worthless race. moral. and then colonized somewhere beyond the present limits of speedily the United . though not always wilfully. While one of the inevitable effects of enduring any manner of association or relation between the two races is the partial elevation of the blacks. and it is plain now. and never did believe. if ever fit for any itself.South are worse than the people of the North. the other is only the too positive and irremediable degradation of the whites. Providence wilf MMiii cut them off. To me it was plain then. town. In quality of population. on the other hand. to the serious. put entirely upon bis own resources. in order to maintain. his masters. as I believe now. and for the filling up of the South by white people from the North and from Kurope on the other. yet It was not alone for their sakes that I was. and this. and as they Btill live under the condition of freedom. guided and protected him as an easy and questionable method of procuring their own bread and butter. however. should first be abolished. as I solemnly believe (particularly as it affects the whites).South are less advanced than you of the North. Living in close association. a shocking indecency. but neither of which dilemmas was ever likely to befall him so long as he had the benefit of guides and protectors in the persons of a few unfortunate white men. or the object thus aimed at will never be accomplished). indeed. and more especially "in negro slavery. or even within the boundaries of any farm or plantation. living together beneath the same roof. or material interest we of the . or elsewhere out of pur own country. The influence of the white on the black Is always for good to the black at the expense of the white: the influence of the black on the white is always bad for the white. into one or more of the South-bordering States or Territories of the United States. gradually die out and disappear. In anything and in everything wherein the white people of the . we must remove them all'. the great nursery and stronghold of negroes. and in whatever mental. or city.238 APPENDIX. ought ever to inhabit "the same_ country. many years since. as the case maybe. to open wide the way for the ingress of your superabundant genii of life and of light. and I believed riglitly. If colonized. is. you there are blessed with the white genii of Kurope. is to prepare the way. I believed. which. . and the white is again. it is but right and proper taut he should have been : . one of two fatal dilemmas would certainly befall the negro. and in order to guarantee uninterrupted peace and prosperity throughout the greater and better part of this vast continent. on the one hand. is left here. as. whether within or without the United States. detriment of the great majority of their own white fellow-citizens. as they did live under the system of slavery. a gross shame. much the same as we have hitherto removed certain tribes of Indians.States. in perpetuity. that. the victim. in a condition of political equality. I do not believe. that the two races the white and the black widely and irreconcilably different as they are in their natures. the delinquencies or the deficiencies. that. he will. then. and after a fair but final amount of advice and assistance. as is well known. like the Indian race. and always will be. that there Is in slavery properly provided for. living in juxtaposition within the acknowledged limits of any hamlet. an effete and time-worn race. What 1 would do to bring the south up to an honorable and ever-friendly equality with the North (and what must be done sooner or later. and then prudently and suitably let alone. for the egress of all our imps of darkness and of death. until after slavery. or. too. and invariably. if not irreparable. we must. colonize the negroes iu Mexico. and am. are alone attributable to the profitless and pernicious presence of the negroes among us. and a glaring crime. village. that if the negro. who. I believed then. and I perceive now. with as little delay as possible. and. I contend. and thus happily rid the earth of at least the bulk of the superannuated and inutile organisms which so unpropitiously encumber it In the current epoch. the great difference between the North ami the South is simply this while we here are cursed with the black imps of Africa. is no longer fit. in a state of freedom and self-dependence. root and branch. from the fated and complicated causes of neglect and hostility on the part of the whites. but this not without entailing on the whites a multiplicity of long-lasting injuries and calamities meanwhile. that there could be no general nor effectual demand raised for the displacement of the blacks on the one hand. hostile to slavery. the integrity of our national Union. Kqually did I foresee then. that the negroes ought to be freed.

and there should be no cessation of the quick and forcible ebullition of his vital fluid. and give undisputed and permanent place to their white superiors. we shall need Africa as a new continent for the enterprise and habitation of the redundant populations of Europe and of other portions of tlie white world and then the negroes. and in no other way may we ever reasonably expect to find the mountains and the valleys. and between Florida and Oregon. put long ago. he is. it is also plain. and with increased ' . it is neverthe that tlie negroes here. was the great Columbus and nia white-faced and Heaven-guided successors in maritime discovery wafted to this western world but to redeem it from safely the fruitless occupancy and from the wild and weird desecration of the savage Indian? Why was Moses and his compatriots and kinsman. should make the blood of every decent and respectabl* white man. at the same time. then. truly interpret or explain the exact purpose of God in reference to anything whatsoever. it is because he is a mere idler. highly reprehensible for not improving and disciplining the mind of whatever bent or capacity which a mighty and merciful God has been pleased to create within him. any and every other rational white man may be. In this respect. ever did. and commanded. both as to its realities and its possibilities. it is. It is true. Further. To what end. for that reason. the efforts which the Radical and other blind and fanatical friends of the negro are now making for his retention and equality among us are directly in conflict with the Divino purpose. like any one of you. and respectfully protest against that sort of infringement and libel on the preeminent prerogatives of the ancient Hebrews. and if so. not only permitted. the indestructible plan of Providence for extermi- nating the negro. and in this way only. with libraries and with churches." if it were not that Jehovah had ceased to have a use for those who had already accomplished the ends for which they had been created ? If we see. another use of the whites as instruments to modify. can this g^reat world of ours ever be made a world given to the worship of the one only living and true God. for even before we get America filled up with the white races. insist upon it. until. that men. we may seek to comprehend and interpret the will of God touching any one or more of the several races of mankind. I hesitate not to say that. with less favor. treated with less consideration. auspiciojjsly dotted over with schools and with colleges. and are still. liutfrom this cursory reference to the world at large. as I conscientiously believe. as his swift avengers against the negroes. equally gifted. and under a most atrocious public policy of the present. whether we be willing or not. therefore. or like myself. in their bloody aggressions against the Canaanites. with galleries and with museums. but encouraged. very many of them at least. and all the Indian tribes of the three great Americas and their adjacent islands of modern times. if not so gifted. both in America and in Africa. to say the least. in favor of the incompetent as against the competent. and beyond that. must stand aside. I contend. a large majority of the white people of the South have been. whether in Africa or elsewhere. quite as easy for us to perceive His desire and purpose to use us. less true dernonstrably true have hitherto been afforded opportunities. fragrantly wrong and impiously wicked. And just here I want to show how. and to the other Southern States. The exercise of common sense is the only prophecy with which I have ever yet been gifted . under a very criminal public policy of the past. in my humble judgment. <>r for what purpose. or if we think we see. and are. seriously proclaimed me a prophet. or be laid low. everywhere and at all times. should be exceedingly careful how they attempt to interpret any will or purpose of Heaven. But it is just this fair and equal chance which the slaveholders. If. In this way. except only and " New York possibly through conjecture. 239 his doom. the hill-tops and the dales. on the one hand. a purpose on the part ot the" Deity to cut off all the Canaanites ot old. always denied to the great majority of Southern whites . in the time of slavery. but I deny the soft impeachment. and. and ought to be. and with less justice. to leave alive none that breatheth. the glades and the glens. and all the other black and bicolored weaklings. for both an education and for an easy and comfortable livelihood. between Maine and Texas. 1 will say that I do not believe that any mere man. or to seemingly modify. far superior to the opportunities which were genfull and just understanderally enjoyed by the poorer classes of white people! ing of this cruel and flagitious discrimination in favor of the blacks as against tht whites. in favor of the vile as against the virtuous. astounding as the statement may appear. or ever will. the worthy whites of the South are at last allowed a fair and equal chance with the unworthy blacks. would be equally inevitable : itwould only be. than if they were negroes. I never expect to be gifted. let us come back fora little while toNorth Carolina. and it is precisely thi fair and equal chance which is now meanly and treacherously. In other words. I admit. literally boil with indignation. that in years gone by the Tribune" and several other gazettes of less ability and weight.APPENDIX. first here and then there. on the other. in matters of seership. A .

240 APPENDIX. and worthless blacks. treated as outcasts. very black. however. as waiters in hotels. Negroes. a> a matter of course. with more fidelity to their God. was kept alive. disgraceful. and yet the number of these. than the slaveholders here have sacrificed everything which they held dear on earth. !-ince the war. is very much worse. and aNo of true sorrow for their very numerous. and also to the religious meetings held in the churches and elsewhere. the blame. nre everywhere offering their services for the merest nominal wages and the old mas: I ! . the negroes here. but also within doors. Retained in great numbers in the cities and towns (just where not one of them ought ever to have been. merely because they did not own slaves. in order to preserve alive the very blackest and basest wretch that ever lived. The fault of the thing. Never did Brahmins. Indecent. . which were. in the families of the rich and refined. was. placed above the Yet it was not at all because of any inherent power or good meritorious whites quality in the negroes that the poor whites were thus crowded away from the many desirable employments and places to which they alone should have been heartily welcomed. to books. and unscathed the negro. and also of listening to the interesting and instructive stories of well-informed visitors and cosmopolitan strangers. their family. and a plague. let us_ sincerely hope and pray that the Kndicals may soon give evidence of similar perception. or Christians. here and there. both great and small. have had the constant benefit of hearing the intelligent conversation of their masters and mistresses. Every sort of actual'work with the hands. the condition of things in this respect is still unchanged. made every other interest in the country. their friends. a slight knowledge of the facts. not only out of doors. at all times. as they could beg. the slaveholders cheerfully gave to the battle and to death but the negro. were compelled to seek such an incidental and uncertain livelihood as they could procure by hunting and fishing. in the South generally. by the force of a vulgar public opinion. . were withheld from the whites. whether upon one's owu account or in the way of help or assistance to others. and very grievous political sins. as slaves and as servants. and equally as a matter of course. the poor whites. in a grossly aggravated and unexpected form. and in the families of the most learned and refined. on their importunate and resistless art of begging. or for the health and comfort of the body. was always much greater than the number of the negroes. magazines. by the common exigencies of their nature. Time and space both fail here of a suitable opportunity for entering into all the sad and shocking minutiae of the cruelly unjust proscription of the . what is worse. shiftless. their sons. what. hardships. and upon these facts a little sagacious reflection will enable you to perceive at once the numerous opportunities. a nuisance. at the same time. the meanest and most degraded of mankind. and forced Dorn and incapable blacks. pleasure-seekers and others. who. in the short-sighted and vicious policy which they pursued. Let me explain As is well known. who. subordinate and subservient to the negroes and negro slavery. ay. had access. relying. On the other hand. up to the close of the war. and is still among us. or themselves. were employed everywhere. too often only as a sort of specKven ial favor from one or more of their wealthier and better-hearted neighbors. There were never any vacancies or situations for poor white people. enjoyed none of the opportunities which were thus so easily within the reach of the negroes. For the sake of the country. and just where not one of them ought ever to be\ they always had free and undisputed admission to the public meetings in the court-houses and in the town halls. whi'le slavery existed in the South there was no respectability of labor. whether for the enlargement and cultivation of the mind. with all the threadbare and bad-fitting garments of their white superiors. they alone. this universal rule or custom of "having negroes around" was both fashionable and aristocratic. Just look at it! Just think of itl The mass of the white population of the South absolutely debarred from the pecuniary profits and other advantages of eminto the distant purlieus of poverty and ignorance The baseployment. sacrifice their country. as of old. all of their own kith and kin and color. denied them now by those wanton and reckless demagogues who constitute a usurpatory and tyrannical majority of the present Congress. Mahommedans. For nearly two hundred and fifty years. trymen. and. Hordes of hungry. who. and newspapers. of all the poor people in the South. is traceable directly to the slaveholders themselves. given to the negroes. and their counselves. among other tilings. but which. an'd criminal as it was in reality. Was such black and abominable idol ever so besottedly worshipped before ? Themtheir nearand distant relatives. their neighbors. a leper. to supply themselves. their property. and by such occasional jobs.Southern poor whites. as barbers and as body-servants to professional men. always looked upon as menial and degrading. The slaveholders are now beginning to see and lament the folly and blindness and bigotry of their unseemly devotion to the worthless negroes. As a cla-s. rest's exclusively with the Radical party. and as the mere ont-kirt tenants of the rich landed proprietors. both for education and for physical comforts. indeed.

or Jamaica. as the poorer classes of the white people of North Carolina. whether here or elsewhere. and far more potent for mischief than either of the others. and barefooted at that. the decency or the respectabilIn this way the ity. some travelling toward . where. negro-favoring enactments of this unconstitutional and unprincipled Congress. and so I will only remark here. rather than remain the victims of that terrible thraldom of negro supremacy. is the whole Radical party. is added a third power. leaving State. and five children. Almost every day. the poorer whites are invariably the greater victims . European emigrants and emigrants from the North are restrained almost entirely from coming to the South I And thus swiftly and infamously are the narrow-minded and revengeful Radicals converting all the States of the South into one vast Hayti. against which the poor whites of the South have for so long a time barely been able to offer even a feeble resistance. of employing and having about them none but white persons. between the negro owners. but more especially that very unscrupulous and desperate embodiment of it now justly described and detested as the rump Congress. which a most mean and malignant assemblage of heartless Radicals are now fastening upon them. from an involuntary feeling of commiseration. This family was composed of the father. with rare exceptions. and forced to flee to foreign lands. apparently possessed of no clothing. but (shameful and shocking to relate) of many of the wealthier whites also. elsewhere. bound for Brazil and . and ruin of stupid and beast-like hordes of black barbarians. 21 . for against these are arrayed the low prejudice and the hostile influences of not only all the negroes. grandmother. or those who were but lately so. he is all the while gnawing deeper and deeper into the vitals of first one side and then the other. to this double and distressing opposition. many white families have I seen leaving the State. To enter adequately into details or particulars upon this subject in a mere newspaper article. or Mexico. all on foot. and which still exists. rather than submit to the further clnnger and disgrace of Radical-negro and negro-Radical domination. Indiana.APPENDIX. Within the last few weeks especially. continues to be banefully ine terposed between the two great white elements in the South. driving from the country the white people. and my heart. and. accustomed only to such wretched and barbarous assistance as can be got from negro slaves and negro servants. our own native white people are robbed of their natural freedom. North Carolina. This third power whether it seems to be so or not. but many of the whites who are already here are every day becoming more andmore anxious to abandon their homes and emigrate to distant and foreign lands. and carrying in a small bundle on their backs every article of property. not only are white emigrants from the North and from Europe now coming hither in less numbers than they came under the old condition of things. and others. like a slugd gish. mother. but with all the emphasis of earnestness and truth. under the oppressive and tyrannical operations of Radical military despotisms. and of the South generally. who are. is quite out of the question. almost bled when I became a witness of their dire destitution and wretchedness. This is what comes of that unnatural and execrable bond of sympathy and selfishness which has so long existed. except the two or three soiled and tattered garments which they were wearing at the time. devastation. and all this mainly in consequence of the blundering and unconstitutional enactments. for several months past. particularly attracted my attention. to utterly crush out and ruin forever the poor whites of the South. ever since I last returned to the have I seen whole families. Under the wrongfully discriminating. or whether it was intended to be so or not. are anxious to leave. I have scarcely the heart to speak. are now having to struggle against . that I do not believe any people in any part of America were ever subjected to such unjust and oppressive straits. Of the two classes of whites f who are thus incessantly preyed upon and despoiled by the blacks. such miserable and wretched shifts. whom I met on the road. in alliance with the negroes and the ex-slaveso. One family of eight persons. and surrendering it completely to the pollution. While thus. it is this third power. far more crafty. are yet under the spell of sable witch and sable wizard. of which they could claim the ownership. but are destitute even of the scanty means necessary to take them away. of the more able and venturesome sort. the only worthy and saving elements of population. of whatever nature or kind. a pesterer of detestable character and color. far beyond the utmost limits of their own native soil. yet meandering woodworm. some going in the direction of Illinois. nevertheless holders. the unstatesmanlike and infamous legislation of that oligarchy of sectional demagogues known as the rump Congress. and sometimes two or three together. the eldest" child . and of a still larger number who. and the negroes themselves . have as yet learned little or nothing of either the advantage or the duty. ters 241 and employers. and now. negro. in a general way. Of the extreme poverty and distress of many of the poor whites who are now emigrating from the State.

Wliether fleeing from oppression (this time not so much the oppression by ex-slaveholders. appeal to God and to the good people of the North. here and now. As soon as it became known that Mr. who. There were and are in that county. numerous cases of actual want. such as is used for the weaving of plain cloth. the only goods mid chattels. in every other county. being not more than twelve years of age. however." Coarse straw hats. for the most part. an appeal was made to a few wealthy gentlemen of Baltimore. for the utter crushing out and destruction or whom there is now in force a most foul and formidable triple alliance of Radicals. were the only things they had as shields from the weather. or but one of few. and that much worn. and ignorant. they " had. are in a manner naked. In behnlf of these long and sorely oppressed poor whites. and despair. a great many poor widows and orphans. Nor is this an exaggerated picture. sud to reflect. and as for the boys. a kindhearted and very estimable citizen of that was ascertained a short while since that unless the pressing necessities of a large number of the poor white people could soon be relieved. cold. the least harm that is felt from this alliance cornea from the ex-slaveholders. almost literally nothing to wear. there was great danger that many of them. indeed. who had on very old and rudely patched brogans. for the first time in their lives. Mr. all were travelling on foot. indeed. that white people are better than negroes. which. in this . the only household gods of this poor. and with scarcely clothes enough upon themselves to cover. uncombed. but also of almost every other thing. I should feel it niy duty to give a somewhat full and minute account of several of them. at the present time. And these victims. and the number is increasing. are principally ot the former class of poor whites. In a email cotton-cloth wallet. adjoining the county in which I am now writing. whose husbands and fathers were conscripted and killed during the late war. as I myself saw many of them returning. in a manner destitute not only of furniture and bedding. now who are not poor. In view of the wretchedly ill-clad condition of these eourceless. and very common pantaloons. with a dingy-looking sun-bonnet. to be given awav at his discretion to the persons indicated. and who now. I say. as. this politically oppressed and unfortunate family. appeared to be the only article of clothing of which any one of the females was possessed. his office was literally besieged. so far as it would go. Except the youngest child. with all due deference and respect. as poor as poor can be. as already explained. suffering. without and there are few meeting. until very soon there was not a single bunch left. In their behalf. which was in its mother's arms. on every hand. I. Alfred Krwin. but heavy-hearted. and were it not that I fear to tax too severely your patience. but eventually to overcome. this uneducated. and all were barefooted. and for the means not merely to enable them to withstand. without houses. if not die outright. barefooted. was appointed to make the distribution. with the single exception of the father. as the oppression by Radicals and negroes). are only now beginning to accept in practice the correctness of their ancient and all-the-while preaching. in a truly serious and melancholy sense. the threefold and iniquitous opposition thus arrayed against them. The sight. as already intimated. Krwin had received this thread. were deposited the only movables. and negroes. and parish throughout the South. during the ensuing winter. it is only one of many. In Marion. except here and there a and without employment. to rickety. the county seat of McDowell county. ex-slaveholders. As it is. and to distribute a bunch of that. comfortless log cabins. district. The head of the family had no coat. 1 will only advert to two or three cases in addition to the one already mentioned. redilapidated log-cabin. but. A single outer dress. or whether remaining at home under the galling yoke of tyranny. of cold and hunger. amounting almost to despair. and the*e shabby vestments seemed to constitute the sum total of their personal effects. which was swung across the shoulders of the father. the condition of things would not be so bad but. and where I now reside. some of whom had come twelve or fifteen miles over the rough mountain roads. and by no means clean. and then it was truly touching to witness the profound disappointment and grief. on foot. and as ignorant and miserable as possible. Were it but a solitary case. the whole South is now full of just such victims as the family just mentioned. their own persons.242 APPENDIX. common shirts. especially among the poor whites. except a troop of half* . and which he evidently carried without its causing him any particular burden or inconvenience. Scarcely anywhere can one travel in the South. had been generously contributed in Baltimore. of the numerous careworn and indigent mothers who were still unprovided for. it was thought best to spend the money.State. without lands. in the usual way. to each fatherless family. all badly worn. and starved. ragged. who nobly responded in the form of a liberal contribution of money. a lawyer by profession. sickness. poor widows and orphans. would sutler intensely. . for cotton thread. of the commonest and cheapest stuff'.tne sight of these very poor widowed mothers having to return home empty-handed.

was left In the world without means. was burned to ashes during the great conflagration. Again I passed into the street. 243 starved. the daughter. Some years ago it was the boast of certain distinguished and patriotic Republicans. examining and ascertaining. and elaborately dwelt upon and denounced by many of the pro-slavery politicians who. I made a similar appeal in my " The anti-slavery and anti-negro book. and as drones and sluggards behind. sentence. and which. even. male or female. on the right hand and on the left. In such perfect accord. Were it not that these same men. As is well known to many intelligent and worthy persons all over the country. became very sick. who sense. and was an appeal to the whites alone. the whole. though in the wrong. and in all its parts. as far I could perceive. would readily perceive and I . that some of them were reduced to mere skin and bone. and. were noted for their sagacity and eloquence immediately before the war. as stumblingblocks in front. and Clark of Missouri. side apartments. was distinctly admitted. for instance. regretting that I had not the ability to place in her attenuated and leather-like hands dollars instead of dimes. to the extent of any page. Almost immediately afterward her mother. There also did I see agaih. and everything in it. parlor. as a whole. this is not the first time that I have made an appeal for justice for the poor and oppressed whites of the South. Her father was forced into the war. met me in the street. the two books might have been fitly bound together." And yet there are certain scribblers and babblers of nonmere penny-a-liners. I returned to the Mckerson House. and was killed. Of one of them. whether white servants were employed in or about any of the private houses but. and without employment. She was but fifteen years of age. Lucifer-like. who burned unarmed merchant ships at sea). where I had stopped. as the curse-inflicting pets. an only child. who was evidently besought me for a little money to buy bread but an indifferent shadow of her former self. Willuim Goodell. tha_t honest-minded man could calmly and attentively peruse my " Impending Crisis of " without to abhor slavery. dining-room. and she." that. I saw multitudes of sleek. and Wendell Phillips. it was almost entirely destroyed by fire during the a piece of warfare about as brave and brief occupation of Sherman's army. alas not one could be seen. to see whether it was possible for me to obtain a glimpse of even one white servant. while walking about the city (or rather the ruins of a city. by the great laws that indicate the common justice and decency of things. foul-smelling. who. line. should have been occupied by whites alone. half-clad. alike of infatuated and folly-governed ex-slaveholders and Radicals. they themselves. as Pryor of Virginia. entitled Impending Crisis of the South. were lazily occupying places which would have been infinitely better occupied by whites. little short of actual starvation. the childlike simplicity. and grinning negroes. stupid. Hindman of Arkansas. they. have taken upon themselves the despicable character of Radicals. fallen from the no white heights of Republicanism into the black depths of Radicalism. During the earl} part of last month I was in Columbia. how poor white persons are treated as the inferiors of negroes. old or young. without friends. upon all points. filthy. I complain of this charge simply and solely because it is not true. and helpless children. are " The Impending Crisis of the South" and " Xojoque. and from one street into another. paragraph." Four months ago I reiterated that appeal in my anti-negro and anti-slavery book. Republicans who have since. and repeatedly inveighed against with great severity by such negro-loving abolitionists (but otherwise able and excellent men) as George B. I . the South learning having ceased to be Republicans. ami elsewhere. and soon died in a paroxysm of despair and delirium. At different times. which should in all cases. greasy. without exception. constituting a carefully constructed engine of literary warfare against negroes and negro slavery. but I looked in vain. for. with tears and laments. was. " entitled Nojoque. My heart sickened under the plaintiveness. Indeed. feign obliviousness of these facts. Cheever. Ten years ago. I asked a few questions. and who affect to find disagreements and antagonisms between the two publications here named. but for the difference in time of writing and printing. and there I looked hither and thither through hall. and how to the latter are given places of in-door ease and profit.APPENDIX. defensible as that of Semmes. The fact was also freely admitted. a spectacle too sorrowful to behold with anv ordinary emotion. and not an appeal to the negroes. as I had frequently seen before. or word. The prominent and important fact that " The Impending Crisis of the fcouth " was written in the interest of the white people of the Southern States. as is well known. who criticise books without reading them. several white women and girls. Yet. and. in which case the contents of both would have lormed but a single work. two volumes in one. The house in which she and her mother lived. who were so emaciated by a long and distressful period of hunger. South Carolina. such politicians. be given only to tho former. and the obvious truthfulness of her statement. yielding to excess of grief and despondency.

in the . the desolating and destructive rule of Radicalism can soon be checked and averted. and. or greatness. learn to love white people us so infinitely the superiors of negroes as to burn with a deep and unquenchable desire to save the former from any and all manner of contamination by the latter. and granaries. Here. a party which. would endure the wrong. to demand. Either at the actual time respectively of each robbery. as affecting the two races. Xot far from here. I have known inKtances where white men. and disgracing and crippling all the others. rather than subject themselves to the insult. not in name. by the irresistible force of the facts and logical inferences therein recorded. and that harmony of plan and action. and its corruptions. and loss of time which they well knew they would be but too likely to incur by making complaint. a few weeks ago. with the old slaveholdiug influence. entered since the establishment of the Radical negro bureau. they are almost constantly committing brutal murder and highway robbery . every one of which had. if not of necessity required to remain at home and work. . the first and most important tiling necessary to be done. there is already an almost total suspension of all public and private works. is bringing utter abjectness and ruin upon at least ten States of the Union. which is just as black and bad as it can be. punished only in the mildest possible manner. expense. acknowledge that every sane person who familiarizes himself with the contents of " Nojoque " must. and poultry. prosperity. and their fences arc. Nor would it be an easy matter to make up a full and complete indictment against them of all their'high crimes and misdemeanors. outragpigs. it was fully ascertained and proven. and those very whites themselves being the victims. their churches. that unity of sentiment and purpose. In every district or community of a considerable size. in a spirit of the most savage wantonness and revenge. the children. unless. and. and sleep is banished. where there were just eight stores. their out-houses. and without action. Indeed. having been kinds are going to decay. Especially among the negroes here crime and lawlessness of every sort are now far more rife than ever before . and not a few of the fords and ferry-boats. therefore. indeed. thus preventing here. been broken into and robbed. their dwellings. before whose Dogberry agents the presence and the testimony of as good white men as ever lived are but too often treated with contempt. its shortcomings. have been so long out of repair that they have become absolutely dangerous . whether at the negro bureau. at different times. on the right hand and on the left. breaking into dwellings and warehouses . leading us to fear that a still more oppressive and galling yoke is heid in reserve for us. monstrous affiliation with negroes. the increasing demoralization of the negroes is now. keeps the negro unnaturally and dissentiously interlarded between the two great while elements of the South. ing pure and innocent white girls. in most cases. but in reality. with unabating energy and firmness. pass the whole matter by in silence. and the other two by persons unknown. I was. total. and eternal separation. in many cases. stealing everything that they can lay their hands upon. or. which have been so unnecessarily and so wickedly inflicted upon us by the Radical Congress. while. are too frequently so destitute of clothing that their parents are ashamed to let them go peyond the narrow limits of their own mournfully foreboding and gloomy observation. in its is to utterly break down and destroy the whole Radical party. fields of grain.Southern States. men have no heart to do anything. those who travel here extensively. iu order to remedy existing evils. where at greatly misused and abused least ordinary instructors and schools are still to be found. without which it is impossible tor us ever to attain anything like permanent peace. and in many places. or afterward. Terrorism reigns supreme among the white females of every family. will do so at the Imminent peril of their lives. and not unfrequently. Everywhere throughout the South.244 APPENDIX. Many of the public roads and bridges. the Radical influence. an absolute. sadly seen and sadly felt. Because of its gross excesses. iu the good Providence of God. in a state ot dilapidation: their institutions of learning. setting on fire and utterly destroying the houses and other property of their white neighbors. All of them bad been. that six of these stores had been forcibly and feloniously entered by negroes. and under the atrocious Radical threats of unlimited confiscation and perpetual disfranchisement. they (the delinquent negroes) are never punished at all . and their public buildings of all such as were not actually burned to ashes during the war. or at anyone of those other bureaus of military despotism. depredating on orchards. in a small town. under the vicious protection afforded them by the Radical negro bureau. coupled. their nopes and their energies hare been crushed. coming to a knowledge of crimes committed by negroes. among the eight millions of people who alone are good for anything. whether by Bteam-power or by horse-power. if punished. appropriating to their own use other people's cattle. under the actual military despotisms wnich an unrepublican and malignant Radical Congress have foisted upon us.

evinced. with whom. vastly the superior of foully and shamefully betrayed and dishonored and we . in the persona of factious and fanatical multitudes of Radical demagogues. since the days of John Quincy Adams.APPENDIX. Radicals we never were. rank with wantonness and usurpation. a few months ago. And I here tell these Radicals. strongly fortified in the morbid and misplaced sympathy of the Radicals. and eminently solicitous to promote. has always been rigidly faithful in the performance of his constitutional duties. peace and prosperity. With few exceptions. that the negroes. in all proper ways. East and West. and I tell them with emphasis and distinctness. the Republican party. at Salisbury. every species of outrage and crime. the better class of Union white men of the South would be precisely where they were before. there should always prevail a sentiment keenly alive to the suggestion. seem to be actuated by no such sentiment as this. however. inflexibly honest. in my opinion. is not now in a state of general good order. An intelligent and distinguished merchant of Boston. But why do I speak of a warlike contingency of this sort as being now even within the bounds of possibility ? I will tell you. on a certain occasion. with a detestation unutterable. As a mere party measure. It is. 245 Prior to that time. not black Republicans. who. but. that there should be both a measure and a limitation of punishment. and justly. as represented in the Radical Congress. would find in him the best president. must lead to the most solemn and profound conviction. and not we who have left the Republican party. by laws more tyrannical and barbarous than were ever before enacted by any civilized legislature. that we have had in America. of the cruel treatment and death of spine thousands of Union soldiers in Libby Prison. nor can we be. Abraham Lincoln alone excepted. and ruin. I dined in New York. is alone due to the unwise and unjust legislation of the Radical Conlarge majority of that Congress are now evincing. they would be with the right. they are inflicting all manner of severe penalties and punishments on eight millions of people They complain. Among men whose hearts are not entirely callous to every consideration of justice and humanity. Yet. though at times somewhat stubborn and imprudent. but as a warning. for the protection and for the benefit of Union men in the South. all the white people here. indeed. reject. had come to dwell in their hearts. their former schemes of revenge. remarked to me. if not principally. For the crimes which were committed by only a few dozen actual traitors (the more prominent and guilty of whom ought. or have but recently gress. and of the Government of the United States as constitutionally organized. and still more strange to say of white men in this nineteenth century. were. in detailing to posterity the true history of the administration of Andrew Johnson. strange to say. that in his opinion the present or a future Bancroft. are abandoned to every high principle of honor and right reason. the Radicals. in the deep and troubled sadness of those about me. a disposition to prosecute. and at Andersonville. despotism. the imputation that we have any sympathies or purposes in common with base-minded and degenerate partisans. in any future conflict of arms (which. that has left us. Let the whole crowd of noisy radicals. thus far. they now threaten to impeach and remove a President who. that. as if. the white Union men of the South feel that they have been most I I scorn and indignation. the entire batch of their disgraceful and ruinous military measures of reconstruction. in the breast of every right-thinking man. and except these there were none. Broken-hearted over the disastrous realities of the present. Republicans. are incessantly annoying and defaming one who is. but white Republicans. women. and dimly peering into the dark and uncertain future. I would that this were so. may God and good men avert I) between the friends and enemies of the Constitution. more strange to say of white men. and are none worthy of the name) detest. These facts. and to protect them from further outrage. not as a threat. if possible. even to still greater lengths. with immeasurable We A 21* . something sncred. well considered. thoroughly patriotic. not unlike a pack of poodles snarling and snapping at the heels ot an elephant. then. but not with the Radicals. they vauntingly proclaim to the world that their measures of military reconstruction were enacted in great part. of whatever condition in life. North and South. they are deliberately crushing out the spirit and the lite of millions of innocent men. and are still. God. in every good quality. the public good. Sometimes it has seemed to me that I could discern something holy. like the Radicals. to have been hanged more than two years ago). with impunity. and most worthy merchant of the city of Boston. no store in that town had ever "been entered by burglars. are feeling themselves at comparative liberty to commit. That the whole country. in his great mercy. That was the honest opinion of a highly-educated. w'ho. and children In the vain effort to exculpate themselves. I tell them that the true Union men of the South (the white Union men. high-minded. are dejected and sorrowful to an extent that I never before witnessed.

his gross stupidity. without delay. for the ensuing Presidential term. who are so pertinaciously striving to reduce the white races of our country to the low level of negrohood. he only spoke of "the President. and from Behring's Straits to the Isthmus of Darien. in all respects. a truly ableand patriotic President of these United States and we believe further. and is still making. and Ohio. for one. that. unless it came to me through white votes alone. ought to be everywhere refused and rejected with the utmost disdain. and to beg that the radicals will give no occasion for it). Another gentleman (and this brings me to the very gist of what { wish to say in reference to future lighting. . and they wish well to the whole country indeed. in magnanimous and praiseworthy coalition with the Republicans. I am a rather sinful sort of man. Sherman. that however much others may itch for office. and. or any number of any other people. that the infamous dogmas and teachings of the Radicals. trust. franchisement of the whites. . an unmitigated despotism. unless the South. by her own volition. Doolittle. he ought not to be allowed either to vote or to hold office. I may say. declared to me. and Randall. is a consummate outrage.246 APPENDIX. with the black crime resting upon my soul of having. his despicable characteristics. Adams. . or under any possible or conceivable circumstances. yet I feel happy in the perfect assurance that I shall never go down to the grave nor elsewhere. and this simply because they have not mentioned the names of such clear-sighted and worthy Republican statesmen as Seward. according to the opinion of some. and we insist upon it. of right. he did not even mention the name of Andrew Johnson. reflect whether the positive opinion thus expressed was not tolerably well founded. when the entire continent of North America. that the abolition of slavery among us ought to leave the negro occupying in the South precisely the same status that the abolition of slavery among you left him occupying in the North. so extensive are their good will and aspirations in this regard. we may yet have to look for the safe piloting of the ship of State over the many rough shoals and breakers among which the Radicals have so negligently and so culpably allowed her to drift. shall be found to be too small to represent in full on the maps the peaceful. au unparalleled infamy. nor to fill or perform any other high function which appertains. both the semblance and the reality of white States. Fessenden. Welles. would take up arms to resist the usurpation. and he believed the people would generally do the same thing. and that it would prevail only at the North. should always appertain exclusively. are very desirous that all the Southern States shall at once be prudently and properly rehabilitated. that I would accept.] We insist upon it that the enfranchisement of the negroes." he. we want them to retain. to the worthy and well-qualified white citizens of our country. that they hope the day will soon come. We believe that Andrew Johnson has made. that. The white Union men of the South are not only Southerners. and so avoid the utter disgrace and worthlexsness of becoming black States. ever voted for a and the disnegro. who occupies an important judicial position. would soon become firm and faithful friends of the Union. because of his natural inferiority. but if so. from the Atlantic to the Pacific. that in case of the attempt of the Radical Congress to remove the President in any manner. Browning. it would seem that. t'liere is no position of honor. Raymond. He further remarked that in such an event the war would be one merely for the preservation of republican and democratic institutions. within the gift of any number of the American people. they are also Americans. unless it be through the folly and the crime of the Kadical party. McCulloch. as free and equal States. whereby the supremacy of the negroes has already been established. we want them to resume. and all the white men here. however unregenerate I may be in other respects. two or three dozen arch-traitors exccpted. in any contingency. nor the names of any of those tried and trusty Democratic statesmen to whom. with enlightened and republican constitutions of government. and an . that he would make. It and is very certain. their rightful status in the nation. [Speaking here only for myself. and progressive superficies and boundaries of our national domain. or profit. we want them acknowledged and treated. I most sincerely hope and trust that they may never be gratified nor will they be. also. or come some time. or is about to be established in almost every Southern State. And while this is strictly true. in June last. a better President than any one of the gentlemen whose names the Radicals have yet mentioned in connection with that high office. Now. without advocating his election or re-election. in the person of himself. with absolute sincerity and truth. and his brutishness. Constitution. in the amplest possible sense. should come to be a party to it. if they were only afforded a just and reasonable opportunity to become so. as an individual. We insist upon it. themselves. or for any cause not explicitly prescribed in the mind you. We. a New Yorker. the white Union men of the South. prosperous. We insist upon it. Pennsylvania. it may be that there are certain men in the South who would be more or less rejoiced at the outbreak of a war of that sort. similar to those of New York.

in or out of Mexico. and that the military authorities ought. but by colonization. or by negro bureaus. whether national. republican in form. I doubt whether there are five thousand white men. to tell us. and all will be well. Indeed. or has been. that the whole drift of radical legislation. Further. and every other Radical officer in the land. or at any future time. fibre of hair (or wool) upon their heads. and everywhere. that the numerical preponderance of the whites in the South will save them from the corrupting and demoralizing influences of the negroes. or that one idiot. they will gradually fall behind in the career of life. to be held subordinate to the civil authorities. for food. be wholly and summarily withdrawn from official life. As well might they tell us that a pound. we are equally firm in the desire and determination to get rid of the negroes not by hurting a single if we can. Let it be made manifest. perilous to all the principles of enlightened self-government. and that new and better men men possessed of good common-sense men controlled by sentiments of justice for white people. would be willing to incur the odium and the infamy of voting for a return to the system of slavery. that the good results which the loyal and intelligent masses of the country had a right to expect would soon follow the abolition of slavery and the suppression of the rebellion. under an oligarch v of Radicals. an aider and abettor of that usurpatory and tyrannical oligarchy. as they ought to be. further insist upon it. so rash. that what the short-sighted and fanatical Radicals are aiming at as a mere possible good to four millions of blacks. With an eye and a purpose to these ends. in the pitiful attempt to excuse their own gross ignorance and folly. and still is. not by taking from them one drop of blood. that if. . one and all. which now weigh so heavily upon white people. and. whether for service. for the speedy repeal of all such political and mercenary monstrosities as the negro bureau bill. We want. and that the poor and distressed of the white race are those who. who would. seriously threaten to neutralize all the wise and patriotic labors which the Republicans so heroically and so gloriously performed both before and during the war. in being but just to our own race. While. for the last eighteen months and more. and let it be proclaimed abroad. may at once be lightened. under an oligarchy of slaveholders. shall. there. is a positive disservice and evil to eight millions of whites. in the whole State of North Carolina. The only persons here who. in all the South. and alarmingly degrading and inimical to the white civilization and progress of the entire New We governments We World: It is absurd and useless for the Radicals. is simply their misfortune. even if they had the power. or for whatever other thing. county. and should always be so considered. if they could. be so unwise. euphemized as the American Congress. throughout the entire length and breadth of the land. and that the burdens of taxation. two hundred men. we insist upon it. on the one hand. that an ounce of arsenic would accomplish no mischief in a peck of meal that a phial of prussic acid could effect no injury in a pitcher of water. feverish and frantic with contagion. as to undo the acts of emancipation. die out. of good standing or influence. no re-estoblishment of slavery. in any considerable number. have the highest claims upon us. no less than by sentiments of justice for men sufficiently free from sectional bias men of enlarged and black people statesmanlike views shall be ejected in their stead. for clothing. It is safe to say that there are not to-day. are negroes themselves. unrepublican. We insist upon it that it is pre-eminently our duty to be just and kind to our own race. on the other. and we will have. or a less quantity. whose instincts tell them. we ask that every Radical Senator and Representative in Congress. and become fossilized. Let this be done.APPENDIX. we are firm in the wish and purpose not to have any more slavery in the South. State. in the future as in the past. . the negroes or others are the sufferers. have slavery re-established. shall neither be defeated nor indefinitely delayed and we protest that the disingenuousness and treachery of the Radicals since the war. that if really put upon their own resources in communities of white men. that. at all times. 247 insist upon it that our Federal government and our State are. except only in eases of actual war. might not communicate the effluvium of fatal infection to a score or more of sane men. for education. We ask for the immediate repeal of all military laws which are antagonistic to the spirit and form of republican government. unstatesmanlike. vindictive. and finally. We also ask that the expenses of the army and navy may be reduced at least one-half. and also. and so reckless. or municipal. who is. and in no manner propped up or sustained at the expense and degradation of a greater or less number of whites. under the inscrutable purposes of Providence. atrocious crime. . fail to multiply the inferior race'to which they belong. especially. therefore. at the very next elections in which their names may be brought before the people. of strychnine would do no harm in a barrel of flour. lias been. whether by servitude. here. while tacitly admitting the black and baneful excesses of their legislation. who would now. and despotic.

muskets. and mulattoes. of peace and civilization. not with any of the sanguinary and sorrowfuJ weapons of death. Then. And then. will it be possible for our States of the South to begin to be equal with your States of the North. have brought imperishable greatness and glory to the North. and be with us and of us. not to the devolving upon us. and in this effort. Indians. and. and also occasionally in some of the more innocent and manly games and sports. battle-field. by sound counsel and otherwise. having filled our States. and we foolishly retained them. for the first time since you wisely abolished slavery and negroes. bayonets. but which. . And then. but to courteous emulation and rivalry in all of the noble arts and refinements. which will be in perfect harmony with that wisdom and patriotism. in our excest-ive folly and stubbornness. then we mean to fight you again . to aid us.248 APPENDIX. having at last imitated the good example which you have held prominently before us for more than half a century. nor sabres. swords. we have untW now rejected . ment. but with all the pleasing and ennobling agencies of life. as we all advance onward in the grand march ot improveand we want tens and hundreds of thousands of you to come among us. at the same time. in the varied and arduous duties and responsibilities which are now we shall begin to challenge you in good earnest. and not with such intolerable human rubbish as negroes. through the mighty energies and enterprises of white men. ay. which. not with steam-rams. with white people. we most earnestly and trustingly solicit your fraternal co-operation. as you have h'lled your States. cannon.

" was written in the interest of the negroes. I have declared heretofore. which is an abomination and a curse. no inconsistency of statement. to say the least. and long before the present day. by an appeal to the record. not with reference. to be quite sufficient . an undesirable population. and. whether viewed in relation to their actual characteristics and condition. it seems to me. that there is. except in a very slight degree. of however little importance they may be." Without going into the body of the book. if we had the power." 249 : unity of the races. at the same time. " The Impending Crisis." On page 143. that the former work. to offer evidences of the fact (in reply to sundry ill-founded accusations to the contrary). to its humanitarian or religious aspects. I will bring forward three or four additional extracts. Turn to the dedication page of " The Impending Crisis " (and in order that you may be enabled to do so conveniently. we do not believe in the : On page 85. have never undergone any change whatever. but by no one who has ever read the book with his eyes open. turn to the preface and see what I have said there. I have considered my subject more particularly with reference to its economic aspects as regards the whites. IDENTICALNESS OF THE SENTIMENT AND SCOPE OP "THE IMPENDING CRISIS OF THE SOUTH. we are frank to confess. if you will grant me the space. This is simply untrue. in reality. And now for the proofs of declaration. 1 said "All mankind may or may not be the descendants of Adam and Eve. I herewith transmit a copy to your address). 1SS8. we would have rid ourselves not only of African slavery. having been in a comparatively wealthy and uncrippled condition. but." A LETTER FROM To MR. who. by a gradual process that could have shocked no interest and alarmed no prejudice. are. but " To THK NON-SLAVEHOLDING WHITES OF THE SOUTH. I advocated the raising of a large sum " One-half of which sum would be amply sufficient to land every negro in this country on the coast of Liberia. both North and South. From the second paragraph. touching the negro. mind the Caucasian drift of the whole work ? Now. the Editors of the National Intelligencer: Once more I beg leave to reiterate the fact. mark you. Incur own humble way of thinking. On : ASHEVILLE. and I now declare again. and you will there find that the book is conspicuously dedicated to whom? Not to the negroes. January 22." Does not this dedication of itself show plainly to every candid my page 145. and in a spirit of hostility to the whites. 1 said : " Confined to the orginal States in which it existed. that my views. and it is believed by some." It has been said.APPENDIX II. the country. whether with reference to the negroes. I quote as follows " In writing this book." . nor to their masters. between my two political works. or through the strong antipathies of the whites. by many persons of loose habits of utterance. HELPER. " The Impending Crisis of the South" and " Nojoque. ought. it has been no part of my purpose to cast unmerited opprobrium upon slaveholders. at the time I wrote. nor to display any special friendliness or sympathy for the blacks. these quotations from the dedication and the preface. North Carolina. or with reference to slavery. whither. but also of the negroes themselves. we would ship them all within the next six months." AND " NOJOQUE. in our judgment. the system of enforced servitude would soon have been disposed of by legislative enactments.

will justify the assumption that I ever regarded the negro otherwise than as a very inferior and almost worthless sort of man. and the United States of America. to follow the same. and which the radical party are now viciously and criminally endeavoring to perpetuate. No worker in wood ever grooved a plank with more set purpose to introduce therein the tongue or the dovetail of another plank. and retained among us. justly and liberally provided for. A few years more. . if not the whole of America. and not to the spreading. on page 144 " Let us charter all the ocean steamers. My opposition to slavery (and. line. and the tyranny of a usurpatory Congress. but I will neither trespass on my own time by transcribing them. than I wrote the " Impending Crisis " with the fixed " determination. until all the slaves who arc here held in bondage shall enjoy freedom in the land of their fathers. I am more opposed to it now than I was ten years ago) looked to the ultimate whitening up of all the Southern States." The abolition of slavery was only a necessary step. toward tbe accomplishment of a still nobler work. colonized. which still exists. with AVyo<ye. and left to himself. If possible. only a few years would be required to redeem the United States from the monstrous curse of negro slavery. in any sense. paragraph. that. and clipper ships that can be had on liberal terms. increased. nor to the continuance of that foul blackness and discoloration of them which then existed. the treason. will be found to be happily and prosperously and permanently peopled by vigorous and all. despite the formidable opposition encountered through the baseness. but to be freed. . which. It was my intention that my " Impending Crisis" should DC an earnest anti-slavery appeal to the great majority of the white people of the South. and keep them constantly plying between the ports of America and Africa. packets. nor to any extent.-///( qua non. sentence. when critically examined and fairly interpreted. an appeal to the negro and I challenge any one to quote from the book a single page. or word." Dozens of similar extracts might be given. a . in due time. not to be kept in slavery. is now in rapid process of consummation. if spared.triumphing offshoots of the white races only.250 APPENDIX. and not. nor on yours by asking you to publish them. Under a well-devised and properly conducted system of operations. and then put wholly upon his own resources. : Pursuing this idea of colonization. I said.

80. Clapperton. 76. 155. 49. 165. 15-19. 82. 102-105. Caillie. Brodie. Adams. 34-37. 123. Hugh.jji 86. 103. 229. 130-133. William Charles. Canot. 135. 64. T. 179. 147. Clay. 122. 97. 143.. 189. Butcheries and sacrifices (human) in Negroland. 95. 50. 179. Hermann. Brooks. 108. Boston Post. Alexander. 119. Thomas Hart. Sir John. James. 193. 169. 51. Negroes. 133. Barrow. 142. 153. 188. 251 . 41. 166. 120. American Writers on the Negro. 105-117. and Concubinage in Negroland. 104. 141. 63. 19-25. 114. 16. 120. Britton. 101. John Quincy. 118. Courtship. 156. Marriage. 75. 119. 138. 142. J. 85. Louis. 134. 177. 49. 48. James. 128. 164. 17. 127. 141. Baker. 116. 173- Andersson. 91. Burmeister. 111. Hamette Cruickshank. 33. African Anecdotes. 123. 75. 29-37. Montgomery. 58. G. 132. John. 170. 121. 178. 42. 178. increasing Pre-eminence and Predominance of the. 138. Burton. 114. 182. Richard F. Negroes. 170. African Repository. 222. 183. Cox. Samuel White. Re'ne'. 15. 210. 101. Benton. Henry. Crawfurd. 34. Begging. Henry. 125-130. 83. 146. 82-89. Agassiz. Blood-thirstiness and Barbarity of the Blair. 89. 146. rj. 92. 115. 44. Extortion. Burial Rites in Negroland. 163. 80-82. Dr. Carousals in Negroland. 102-105. James Edward. 78. 216. Cannibalism in Negroland. 40. Barth. 90. 29-37. "Ariel.. 93. 221. 144. Albinos. 154.INDEX. Cowardice of the Negroes.. 40. Baldwin. Campbell. 118-122. 27. 145. 168. Charles John. 195. 156. 38. 84. 24. 51. 95. John. 159. 99. 25. 162. Adams. 68. 81. Barbarity and Blood-thirstiness of the 76.94. Caucasian Races. 104. and Bobbery in Negroland. 129. 32. 227-236. Prof. Theodore. Black (color) disliked by the Negroes. 194. 52. S. 217. Bruce. 163." 219. 43. California Legislature. 31.. S. 120. John. 64. Bowen. 223-226. Color (black) disliked by the Negroes. 109. 48. 171.

44. Duncan. 17-19. 17. Fisher. 216. 168. Gordon. 150. 102. Failure of Missionary Enterprises in Kicherer. 227. "). Huxley. Andrew H. and Holes (but no Du Chaillu. 95. Habits. Parke. 33. 80. Richard. the Introduction and the Appendixes to the volume in hand. J. 73. 94-97. James R. Customs. Sydney George. Thomas 154. 134-138. 33.. Manners. Gluttony of the Negroes. Alfred W. 100. Doolittle. 53-56. 158-161. Cnvier. 93. Arnold. inance of the White Races. 182. 57-70. 65. Henry. 196. 77. fices in Negroland. Glover. Hutchinson. 146. Freeman. 109. 82-89. 79. land. Francis. Indolence and 23. John. 91. 126... INDEX. 25. 160. 30. Thomas Dunn. 218. Idolatry in Negroland. 226. 21-23. 148.. 231. 136. Thomas H. 218. 91. Dixon. and Idolatry in Negroland. Drunkenness and Debauchery In Negroland.. 94. 138-152. 81. 110. Fetichism. 68. 213. Hovels. 122-125. Harris. 125. 197. Stephen A. 126. Human Butcheries and Human Sacri- Douglas. 29. in Negroland. 26. . Cornwallis. Lieber. Lander. 77. 59. 143. Mr. 158.. 159. 167.252 Cumming. 157. 166. 84. 87. Dr. Guyot. 126. Extinction (probable) of the Negro Increasing Pre-eminence and Predom- Race. J. 122. Samuel T. 173-177. Krapf. (Extracts from Denham and " Clapperton. 01. 63. Paul B. 152-158. Jefferson. Priestcraft. 158-161. Charles. 24. 62.. 79. Huts. 169. 228. and Customs In Ne- Darwin. Helper. Denham. 185. 39. 118-122. 97. 145. 138. 156. Hendricks. Louis. 112. 159. Negroes. 219. 70-74. 69. Extortion and Robbery in Negroland. 60. 184. 108. 92. 153. 28. 84. 19-25. 134. Negroland. 187.. Hinton Nojoque R. Godwin. 160. Dishonesty of the Negroes. 153. 28.. Drayson.. Laziness of the Negroes. See also 128. Lichtenstein. 158. 215. 114. 49. 112. 39. 220. 199-208. 149. Improvidence of the 96. Inhospitality to Strangers in Negro- English. Foote. Houses) in Negroland. 227236. 16. 92. 170. 111. Thomas A.. Lawlessness and Misery in Negroland 89-94. 228. Doctors in Negroland. 71. 71. groland. 72. Decrease of the Negro Race. Thomas. 172. 148. 138-152. 82-89. 104. 121. Funeral Rites in Negroland. 75. J. 186. 105. 227. 113. Habits. 122-125. 57-70. and Manners. 100-102. 101. 31. 224. 38. 37. 131. 97. 130.

Lincoln. Parton James. 139. Winwood. 72. 132. 61. Speke. 181. and Moral Differences between the Macbrair. 105-117. New American Cyclopaedia. 61. 102. 150. Shamelessness and Nakedness in NeScott. 172. Failure of in Negroland. 70. Theodore. 137. 49. 41. 26. 57. 41. 124. 190. Samuel George. Marriage and Concubinage In Negroland. as sacred Relics and Ornaments in Negroland. of Crimes Sacrifices. Penury and Misery in Negroland. 103. 114. 121. 136. 21. Morton. 167. 171. Manners. Lopez. 253 15. Charles Hamilton. 162. 37-44. 45. 209. 96. Park. 60. 104. 180. 211. Moore. London Dispatch. 87. 136. 137. Wm. 16. 57-70. 229. 19. 165. 167. 25-29. 133. 97. Robert. 216. Anna M. 125. Missionary Enterprises.INDEX. 167. Murray. 98. 88. 142. 50. 89. and Idolatry in Negroland. Mulattoes. Slavery and the Slave-trade in Negro* 129. Moffat. Andrew. 76. Abraham. 86. 22 . 70-74. Horace. 28. North British Review. 149. 146. Livingstone. 157. 210. 75-78.87. 153. 117. National Intelligencer. 47. William. 105-117. 25. Physical. and Moral Differences between the Whites and and Nakedness in Negro- land. M. 165. 130. the Offspring Richardson. Whites and the Blacks. 30. 8994. 162-172. 118. Robbing Strangers in Negroland. 234. 80-82. 225. 230.94. against Nature. Ogilby. Fetichism. Mungen. 152. groland. 123. Lyell. 134-138. 80. 37. Seward... Hugh. New York Tribune. 137. Habits. 95. 90. 78. 229. 127. 75-78. Parker. Josiah Clark. 214. 65. Mental. 132. 79. R. 180. Sir Charles. Charles. Francis. Probable Extinction of the Negro Race. 98. 90. H. 87. Physical. 140. 138. Night Carousals in Negroland. human. 158-161. 101. Rain-doctors In Negroland. 138-152. 233. 110. 32. 160. 235. 116. Nakedness and Shamelessness in Negroland. 144. James. Skulls. John Banning. 135. Raleigh Register. land. 166. Smith. John. human. Steedman. Livingstone.. 30. 173. Priestcraft. 128. 82-89. 17. Mungo. Nott. 48. David. 122. and Customs in Negroland. Eduardo. Mann. in Negroland. 104. 155. 51. 19- Mumbo Jumbo in Negroland. 98. an African Accomplishment. Prostitution Mental. 170. 172. Lying. 191. 77. 125. 144. 150. 20. Reade. 118. 216-223. 131. Polygamy in Negroland. 75-78. 100. 117. the Blacks. 42. 179. 110.

land. 187. 178. 21. 85. 118. 65. 84. Westminster Review. 179. 107. G. 45-57. White. George M. 231. 97. 161.. Untruthfulness of the Negroes. 82-89. Van Evrie. 235. 214. In NegroStrangers. 45. Wrangling and Lawlessness in Negroland. 105. 106. 98-100. 72. 45-57. White (color). 39.226. 223-226. . 89-94. 211. 232. 63. 103. 128. Webster. 147. 17. M. White Negroes (Albinos). 100-102.. 98. 112. 125-130. E. Wheelock. 212. Francisco Travassos. the Negro's Affection for Theft as a Fine Art cans. 148. 125. Voracity and Gluttony of the Negroes. Venality of the Negroes.. 102-105.. A. J. 232. Witchcraft in Negroland. J. 77. 215. Wilson. 94-97. 43.254 INDEX. Pre-eminence and Predominance of the. Inhospitality to. Daniel. Weston. 227-236. 31. Leighton. NeTimidity and Cowardice of the groes. Thurman. 213. among the Afrithe. 151. Richard Grant. Valdez. 66. White Races. 108. H. in NegroSuperstition and Witchcraft land.


There is a Idnd ofphysiognomy in (he titlei of books no less than in the faces of men." the one as the . to ex- pect from other. by which a skilful observer will know as well what BUTLER.

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Helper's array of figures and authorities! "Portland Transcript. Helper's Republicans new bonk will greatly Intensify. on receipt of price. the rights of citizenship and domi* * * The and the Ifadicals are now at cile. and nut only thut.00.among u. Helper. remaining a mere Mack and barren spot on its surface. or politically. $2. and is an exponent of the ideas of a great majority We may say that. he would have given evidence of the fact at some period of his have done all the thinking a-nd working that have moved the existence: that white world. How they must exult over Mr.WOJOQUE A QUESTION FOB A CONTINENT. is. and can never remain among the whites upon an equality. volume. white and black. The author gives lists of many of the great men in politics. 479 pages.' This is the legitimate conclusion of that theory of awhile man's country to which some of our people are so devotedly attached. literature. Louis JCcpublicaa. both blnck and habitable globe. thiit their State passed the first 'Personal Liberty Bill. and have it peopled only by ' the heaven-descended and incomparably superior white r. " Mr. mm "This work is eertninly very unique. . for the same reason that it will bo popular in his own region now. By Iliuton Kowan North Carolina. Mr.) has been translated into French.. he is most respected. of OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. his book would in the Middle States." St. the negro. we think." loggerheads very Boston Courier. hud he lived in colonial times.00.' which Mr. and do n"t intend to have negroes hung permunentlv round thwir necks by lllack Republican of mankind. that where the negro is least known. Thusitwas in Vermont. as an intolerable nuisance. Helper is from North Carolina. m 1 the border free States had such an abhorrence of the blacks. this is a very funny book. against negro suffrage. The author wants to write all the negroes out of America. and will be sent by mail. Price. They will find in it the most slashing and conclusive argument! ever published on their side of the paramount political question now agitating the country. but to sweep away the colored nice*. (Xojoqur. science and the arts. and gives evidence of a great deal of literary It is largely a compilation or series of extracts from various well known writers on labor. by M. the subject of the negro race. governmenr. from every point of view. For in those days negroes were numerous here. to any address. he is regarded." ***One large handsome 12mo. elegantly printed and bound in cloth. . from the earliest ages down to the present. in the gated the subject has been led to conclude namely. thatiftha negro had been anybody. and of the relation of the two races. The argument is. quite right in his impression. that the negro race is hopelessly inwhite race. meanwhile. Canonge^ of New Orleans. This is tfojoqur. while in all region* where white Inlior is better adapted to the soil. jO-This book is sold by booksellers everywhere. $2. by G. and where he most nboundj he is least appreciated. that the gnat body of the white peoplein the United States do not desire. free of postage. only the most intelligent surviving and remaining. CAF^LETON. und the name of no negro nppenrs among them. ns an intellectual being. This work. and it is ' a pretty quarrel. It is a fact. while Kentucky and Maryland which two States lost ten times as many slaves as all the other Southern States combined. intellectually. ferior to the Helper brown from the whole " Joke or Xojoque. or the recognition of nny of the dark races as the equal of the white man. J^EW . socially." Pittsbltrff Post. which any careful observer may verily. the good people took such a deep interest in them. dy. have been well received even in New Kngland. PUBLISHED. and were despised now they are scarce. author of " The Impending Crisis of the South. where groes were nearly as scarce as monkeye. that thsir Legislatures passed stringent laws to deprive those who were among them. W.

Smoked Glau A new comic illustrated book by Orpheus C. Keckley. author Leaves. A novel Rote Mather by Mary J. to Make Money. .f the ccl-brilted English work.'." reprinle. Widow 8|<ri|:iHii A new comic book. . ( .w illu.. ~.r'.The New Books. Y. u Fay A magnificent A new novel.g P. $1. $2.. .-By Mra. r . by . illuatrated book..75 $1. $1 .60 $1. bound are gold everywhere on receipt of price.50 (1. The Culprit 11. Elizabeth StoUdard. : to Keep A valuable book for every one. by Captain Mayne Held. $L'..50 W oman. $1. lie. $1.. . Ilk-hard U. by and 0.liii. . 1U. $1. Publisher.50 Our Artist in lly i. by the author of" Widow A r. .br I'ol lard. Artemm Ward in r. Our Artiit in Cuba. M Mademoiselle Merquem Fairfax A brilliant uorel. Holmea.awyiT. Kiraball. Fllea A apicy new book by Fanny " " Fern Fern. author of " L<. N.. A Book about I. .. Kerr..v .-ne.uml. .50 $1. comic illustrations. jiottttyefree.TU home anmnement.75 . . . $1 "i $1 50 ^msense A laughable book. CARLET3N. by " Brick 8en Pomeroy A book for Hearta and Homei. Sotiallsm. or.l. J-au Swinburne'.lruted book.liheSc.i. $2.tlu.. by John Esten " Cook.50 *..-..00 $1.00 $ 1 .l . Kret llartr Illuitrated. <O T^np'. wiih r<."")0 aii.lli.e by Mrt. W.50 $1. $2. Ward. of Foufuurille A Satire on Fourrierin.-\ Khno MiVeneria . . (Banker) A new uuvel.ondcn an.i.!! elegantly b-.l A new comic II. $1.50 $1. . His Laughable Kpl. " Ion.. it by A. etc. . .50 How St. ." .'.k of Poem full . . .. . .00 .- . Love Letters Corry O'Lanug A curioui and fiuciuatlDfr collection of biliat-daui.50 Joh Billing! on Ice A rich and racy new comic tplendid .l . $1. retnarknble bo. W. While-House Revcl.raic Illustration. . 497 Broadway. . fn>m the French of George Sand.00 $1. $1 50 . I $178 '. l. .t Cause. Love and Marriage The riiilotophcn A faaciuatinn book by Fred Saundera...tle-s. . authorof'Beulah. . illuitrate. Jl. . . .-nry Tower*.f illuntrationi fu r Anu^h. Papers." . Ik-liin. nulliur of ff These books will be sent iiy are a!l bciiiitifully mail. prim .. .50 $2.75 A new novel. lineman A new illutrt-d ' novel. author Surrey of Eagle'a Xeat. author of "Lena Riven.... .75 $1. . The Lot Caute Regained Folly ai it By Edward A..Brick" Pomeroy illuatrated.75 ..




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