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Train Problems

1. km/hr to m/s conversion: 5 a km/hr = a x m/s. 18 2. m/s to km/hr conversion: 18 a m/s = a x km/hr. 5 3. Time taken by a train of length l metres to pass a pole or standing man or a signal post is equal to the time taken by the train to cover l metres. 4. Time taken by a train of length l metres to pass a stationery object of length bmetres is the time taken by the train to cover (l + b) metres. 5. Suppose two trains or two objects bodies are moving in the same direction at um/s and v m/s, where u > v, then their relative speed is = (u - v) m/s. 6. Suppose two trains or two objects bodies are moving in opposite directions at um/s and v m/s, then their relative speed is = (u + v) m/s. 7. If two trains of length a metres and b metres are moving in opposite directions atu m/s and v m/s, then: (a + b) The time taken by the trains to cross each other = sec. (u + v) 8. If two trains of length a metres and b metres are moving in the same direction atu m/s and v m/s, then: (a + b) The time taken by the faster train to cross the slower train = sec. (u - v) 9. If two trains (or bodies) start at the same time from points A and B towards each other and after crossing they take a and b sec in reaching B and A respectively, then: (A's speed) : (B's speed) = (b : a)

Speed, Time and Distance

1. Speed, Time and Distance: Speed = Distance Time , Time = Distance Speed , Distance = (Speed x Time).

2. km/hr to m/sec conversion: x km/hr = xx 5 18 m/sec.

3. m/sec to km/hr conversion: x m/sec = xx 18 5 km/hr.

4. If the ratio of the speeds of A and B is a : b, then the ratio of the the times taken by then to cover the same distance is 1 a : 1 b or b : a.

5. Suppose a man covers a certain distance at x km/hr and an equal distance at ykm/hr. Then, the average speed during the whole journey is 2xy x+y km/hr.

. Work from Days: 1 If A can do a piece of work in n days. then A can finish the work in n days. n 2. n 3.Time and Work 1. then: Ratio of work done by A and B = 3 : 1. Days from Work: 1 If A's 1 day's work = . Ratio: If A is thrice as good a workman as B. then A's 1 day's work = . Ratio of times taken by A and B to finish a work = 1 : 3.

is called its selling prices. Selling Price: (S. Gain = (S. at which an article is sold.) SP = (100 .P.P.P.P. 4..P. the seller is said to have a profit or gain. Loss: If S.) Loss or gain is always reckoned on C. is less than C.P.) SP = (100 + Gain %) 100 x C. abbreviated as S.P.) Loss = (C. Selling Price: (S. Gain Percentage: (Gain %) Gain % = Gain x 100 C. Selling Price: The price.P.P. 2. 3. abbreviated as C. is called its cost price.) .P. Loss Percentage: (Loss %) Loss % = Loss x 100 C.(C. 6. 5. Profit or Gain: If S.P 7.P.P.Profit and Loss Cost Price: The price. .P. IMPORTANT FORMULAE 1.P.P. the seller is said to have incurred a loss. at which an article is purchased.P.) .. is greater than C.Loss %) 100 x C.(S.

P. . then Gain % = Error (True Value) . When a person sells two similar items.P.(Error) x 100 %. If an article is sold at a gain of say 35%. = 135% of C. and the other at a loss of x%.Loss %) x S.P. = 100 (100 + Gain %) x S. 12. If an article is sold at a loss of say.P.P. If a trader professes to sell his goods at cost price.P. = 100 (100 . 9. 10. Cost Price: (C. then S. Cost Price: (C. 35% then S.8.P.P.) C. but uses false weights. 11. = 65% of C. 13.) C.P.P. then the seller always incurs a loss given by: Loss % = Common Loss and Gain % 2 10 = x 2 10 . one at a gain of say x%.

1200. 2005. = (17 weeks + days) 5 odd days. 2. 3. Leap Year: (i). iii. (ii). 2. ii. 1676 etc. None of the years 2001. Each of the years 400. 2002. if it is not a century. 1600. Every year divisible by 4 is a leap year. 2003. 1 leap year = 366 days = (52 weeks + 2 days) 1 leap year has 2 odd days. the number of days more than the complete weeks are calledodd days. 1800. we use the concept of 'odd days'. Note: A leap year has 366 days. Each of the years 1948. 1 ordinary year = 365 days = (52 weeks + 1 day. Counting of Odd Days: 1. Examples: i. 800. is a leap year. 3. . An ordinary year has 365 days. 4. 2000 etc. is a leap year. Every 4th century is a leap year and no other century is a leap year. For this. 100 years = 76 ordinary years + 24 leap years = (76 x 1 + 24 x 2) odd days = 124 odd days. In a given period. 2004. Odd Days: We are supposed to find the day of the week on a given date. Ordinary Year: The year which is not a leap year is called an ordinary years.Problems on Ages 1.) 1 ordinary year has 1 odd day. 2100 is a leap year.

1600 years. 1 odd day. Tues. 1200 years. Mon. Number of odd days in 200 years = (5 x 2) Number of odd days in 300 years = (5 x 3) Number of odd days in 400 years = (5 x 4 + 1) 3 odd days. Fri. Sat. 0 odd day. Wed. . each one of 800 years. has 0 odd days. of days: 0 Day: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sun. Similarly. Day of the Week Related to Odd Days: No. 2000 years etc.Number of odd days in 100 years = 5. Thurs.

Then. Average: Average = Sum of observations Number of observations 2. .Average 1. Average Speed: Suppose a man covers a certain distance at x kmph and an equal distance at ykmph. the average speed druing the whole journey is 2xy x+y kmph.

2. b.2) .(p2)!. cba) 3. c by taking two at a time are (ab. c taking all at a time are: ( abc. 7P3 = (7 x 6 x 5) = 210. bca. cb). 5! = (5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1) = 120.Permutation and Combination 1. 2. Examples: All permutations (or arrangements) made with the letters a. (n . hen.. pr) = n. factorial n. 3. 6P2 = (6 x 5) = 30. number of permutations of these n objects is = n! (p1!). acb. denoted n! is defined as: n! = n(n .(pr!) . bac. cab. Cor.. p2 are alike of another kind. number of all permutations of n things. Factorial Notation: Let n be a positive integer. Permutations: The different arrangements of a given number of things by taking some or all at a time. p3 are alike of third kind and so on and pr are alike of rth kind. 4. ac. ii. Then.r)! Examples: i.1)(n . b. Examples: i.1. ca. Pr = n(n . taken all at a time = n!..2) .. is given by: n i. iii. iii.. We define 0! = 1. ii... An Important Result: If there are n subjects of which p1 are alike of one kind. bc. such that (p1 + p2 + ... 4! = (4 x 3 x 2 x 1) = 24. Number of Permutations:Number of all permutations of n things.r + 1) = n! (n .1)(n . ba.. All permutations made with the letters a. ii. taken r at a time. are called permutations.

c taking ab. i.. ii. 3.r!) = n(n . B. 16 C13 = 16C(16 . 4. The only combination that can be formed of three letters a. possible selections are AB. Note that ab ba are two different permutations but they represent the same combination. AC.r) Examples: i. D are: AB. 5. Combinations: Each of the different groups or selections which can be formed by taking some or all of a number of objects is called a combination. C. b. Suppose we want to select two out of three boys A. n Cr = nC(n . Various groups of 2 out of four persons A. to r factors r! . Examples: 1. b.5.2) . Note: AB and BA represent the same selection. 16 x 15 x 14 3! = 16 x 15 x 14 3x2x1 = 560. ca.13) = 16C3 = . 11 C4 = (11 x 10 x 9 x 8) (4 x 3 x 2 x 1) = 330. B. c taken all at a time is abc. Then. C. Number of Combinations: The number of all combinations of n things. 2. BD. AD. Note: . n Cn = 1 and nC0 = 1.1)(n . taken r at a time is: n Cr = n! (r!)(n . bc. CD. All the combinations formed by a.. BC. BC and CA.

Area of an equilateral triangle = 3 4 x (side)2. where is the central angle. 3 6. Length of an arc = . Area of a triangle = x Base x Height. Circumference of a circle = 2 R. IV. Area of a trapezium = VII. . 1. Radius of incircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = a 5. 2. Area of a circle = R2. Area of a rectangle = (Length x Breadth). 360 1 R2 4. a 23 . Circumference of a semi-circle = R. x (sum of parallel sides) x distance between them. V. Area of 4 walls of a room = 2 (Length + Breadth) x Height. Area of a sector = (arc x R) = . Area of a rhombus = 3. x (Product of diagonals). and semi-perimeter s = s 1. 2. 3. 2. Perimeter of a rectangle = 2(Length + Breadth). Area of a square = (side)2 = (diagonal)2. 1. 1. Area of a triangle = s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c) where a. Radius of circumcircle of an equilateral triangle of side a = . Area of parallelogram = (Base x Height). 2. Radius of incircle of a triangle of area VI. 2 360 2 R VIII. 1. where R is the radius. III.Area I. Area Breadth and Breadth = Area Length . 3. Length = II. b. 4. c are the sides of the triangle and s = (a + b + c).

ac) When a + b + c = 0.ab + b2) (a3 . viii.b)(a2 + ab + b2) (a3 + b3 + c3 .b)2 = (a2 + b2 . (a + b)(a . vii. v. vi. . iii. then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc.3abc) = (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 .2ab) (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + bc + ca) (a3 + b3) = (a + b)(a2 .b2) (a + b)2 = (a2 + b2 + 2ab) (a . iv.bc .ab .b) = (a2 . ii.b3) = (a .Numbers Some Basic Formulae: i.

= iv. a = a(1/n) ii. ab = a x b iii. Laws of Indices: am x an = a m + n am a n = am . (a)n = a (a)m = am a b = an bn . a is called a surd of order n.n (am)n = amn (ab)n = anbn a n b a0 = 1 2. Surds: Let a be rational number and n be a positive integer such that a(1/n) = a Then. Laws of Surds: i. 3. v.Surds and Indices 1. vi.

If a pipe can fill a tank in x hours. then the net part emptied in 1 hour = 1 y 1 x . 5. then on opening both the pipes. is known as an inlet. x 3. emptying it. is known as an outlet. Outlet: A pipe connected with a tank or cistern or reservoir. then: 1 part emptied in 1 hour = . 2. then the net part filled in 1 hour = 1 x 1 y . that fills it. If a pipe can empty a tank in y hours. Inlet: A pipe connected with a tank or a cistern or a reservoir. then: 1 part filled in 1 hour = . If a pipe can fill a tank in x hours and another pipe can empty the full tank in yhours (where y > x). .Pipes and Cistern 1. then on opening both the pipes. y 4. If a pipe can fill a tank in x hours and another pipe can empty the full tank in yhours (where y > x).

loga (xn) = n(loga x) 6. log3 81 = 4. 103 1000 (ii). namely 'characteristic' and 'mantissa'. other than 1 and am = x. loga x = 1 logx a logb x logb a log x log a = . 2. loga x = 7.Logarithm 1. Common Logarithms: Logarithms to the base 10 are known as common logarithms. Properties of Logarithms: 1. 4.1)2 = . then we write: m = logax and we say that the value of log x to the base a is m. Examples: (i).01 log(. Logarithm: If a is a positive real number. (.1) .loga y 3. The logarithm of a number contains two parts. loga x y = loga x . . (iv). 3. 34 = 81 (iii). loga 1 = 0 5. loga (xy) = loga x + loga y 2. logx x = 1 4. log2 1 8 = -3. 2-3 = 1 8 log10 1000 = 3.01 = 2.

For mantissa. Instead of -1.649 8. 2 (two bar). the characteristic is one more than the number of zeros between the decimal point and the first significant digit of the number and it is negative.Characteristic: The internal part of the logarithm of a number is called itscharacteristic. etc.00123 3 Mantissa: The decimal part of the logarithm of a number is known is its mantissa. the characteristic is one less than the number of digits in the left of the decimal point in the given number.6453 1 0. -2 etc. Case II: When the number is less than 1.3547 2 1 0 0.24 26. . In this case. In this case. Examples:Number Characteristic Number Characteristic 654. we write 1 (one bar). we look through log table.06134 2 0. Case I: When the number is greater than 1.

Trigonometry: In a right angled OAB. iii. v. 3. 1 + tan2 = sec2 . Values of T-ratios: ( /6) 0° 30° sin 0 3 2 1 3 ( /4) 45° 1 2 1 2 ( /3) 60° 3 2 ( /2) 90° 1 cos 1 0 tan 0 1 3 not defined . vi. sin .Height and Distance 1. 1 + cot2 = cosec2 . where BOA = . i. sin2 + cos2 = 1. ii. tan AB Hypotenuse Base = Perpendicular = AB 2. Hypotenuse OB Perpendicular AB tan = = . sin AB 1 OB sec = = . Trigonometrical Identities: i. cos OA 1 OA cot = = . OB OA cos = = . Base OA 1 OB cosec = = . iii. ii. iv.

Angle of Elevation: Suppose a man from a point O looks up at an object P. placed above the level of his eye.4. placed below the level of his eye. the angle which the line of sight makes with the horizontal through O. . Then. Angle of elevation of P from O = 5. is called the angle of depression of P as seen from O. then the angle which the line of sight makes with the horizontal through O. Angle of Depression: AOP. Suppose a man from a point O looks down at an object P. is called the anlge of elevation of P as seen from O.

When Rates are different for different years. Rate = R% per annum. Let Principal = P. say R1%. When interest is compound Annually: Amount = P 1+ R 100 n 3.Compound Interest 1. When interest is compounded Annually but time is in fraction. Amount = P 1+ R 100 3 x 1+ R 100 6. x due n years hence is given by: x Present Worth = 1+ R 100 . 2ndand 3rd year respectively. 2. R2%. say 3 years. When interest is compounded Half-yearly: Amount = P 1+ (R/2) 2n 100 4. Then. Time = n years. 7. . Present worth of Rs. When interest is compounded Quarterly: Amount = P 1+ (R/4) 4n 100 5. Amount = P 1+ R1 100 1+ R2 100 1+ R3 100 . R3% for 1st.

Thus. then the reduction in consumption so as not to increase the expenditure is: R (100 + R) x 100 % If the price of a commodity decreases by R%. To express x% as a fraction: We have. Results on Population: Let the population of a town be P now and suppose it increases at the rate of R% per annum. 100 5 a b = a b x 100 %. written as x%. then the increase in consumption so as not to decrease the expenditure is: R (100 .Percentage 1. Percentage Increase/Decrease: If the price of a commodity increases by R%. 2. 1 4 a b = 1 = . 20 x 100 . x% = Thus.R) 3. then: 1. 20% = To express Thus. 1 4 x 100 % = 25%. Population n years ago = 1+ R 100 n R 100 n x 100 % 4. x percent means x hundredths. Population after n years = P 1+ P 2. Concept of Percentage: By a certain percent. we mean that many hundredths. as a percent: We have. Results on Depreciation: .

Let the present value of a machine be P. If A is R% more than B. Suppose it depreciates at the rate of R% per annum.R) x 100 x 100 %. then B is less than A by 4. If A is R% less than B. Value of the machine after n years = P 1P 2. n R 100 n 3. Then: 1. then B is more than A by . Value of the machine n years ago = 1R 100 R (100 + R) R (100 . %.

The hands are in the same straight line when they are coincident or opposite to each other. it is said to be 15 minutes too fast. If a watch or a clock indicates 8. both the hands coincide once. On the other hand. if it indicates 7. . v. When the two hands are at right angles. ii. 2. viii. vi. When the hands are in opposite directions. when the correct time is 8. they are 15 minute spaces apart. i. In 60 minutes. the minute hand gains 55 minutes on the hour on the hour hand.45. In every hour.Clock 1.15. when the correct time is 8. vii. Minute Spaces: The face or dial of watch is a circle whose circumference is divided into 60 equal parts. = 360°. iii. it is said to be 15 minutes too slow. Angle traced by hour hand in 12 hrs = 360° Angle traced by minute hand in 60 min. Hour Hand and Minute Hand: A clock has two hands. called minute spaces. the smaller one is called the hour hand or short hand while the larger one is called minute hand or long hand. iv. they are 30 minute spaces apart.

and we In the ratio a : b. Product of means = Product of extremes. Eg. Also. 3. Thus. 2.Ratio and Proportion 1. c. Mean Proportional: Mean proportional between a and b is ab. The ratio 5 : 9 represents 5 9 with antecedent = 5. 4 : 5 = 8 : 10 = 12 : 15. b. Proportion: The equality of two ratios is called proportion. a : b :: c : d (b x c) = (a x d). Here a and d are called extremes. 4 : 6 = 2 : 3. 4. Comparison of Ratios: . Third Proportional: a : b = c : d. Rule: The multiplication or division of each term of a ratio by the same nonzero number does not affect the ratio. we write a : b :: c : d and we say that a. Ratio: The ratio of two quantities a and b in the same units. we call a as the first term or antecedent and b. the second term or consequent. Fourth Proportional: If a : b = c : d. while b and c are called mean terms. If a : b = c : d. d are in proportion. is the fraction write it as a : b. then c is called the third proportion to a and b. b. consequent = 9. Eg. c. then d is called the fourth proportional to a.

. if x = ky for some constant k and we write. We say that x is inversely proportional to y. x 1 y . Duplicate Ratios: Duplicate ratio of (a : b) is (a2 : b2). Sub-duplicate ratio of (a : b) is (a : b). Compounded Ratio: 6. (e : f) is (ace : bdf). Triplicate ratio of (a : b) is (a3 : b3). The compounded ratio of the ratios: (a : b). then a+b a-b = c+d c-d . b d 5. Variations: We say that x is directly proportional to y.We say that (a : b) > (c : d) a c > . (c : d). x y. Sub-triplicate ratio of (a : b) is (a1/3 : b1/3). if xy = k for some constant k and we write. 7. [componendo and dividendo] 8. If a b = c d .

Boats and Streams 1. 2 1 Rate of stream = (a . 2 . Speed upstream = (u .b) km/hr. 3. If the speed downstream is a km/hr and the speed upstream is b km/hr. Downstream/Upstream: In water. If the speed of a boat in still water is u km/hr and the speed of the stream is vkm/hr. then: 1 Speed in still water = (a + b) km/hr. then: Speed downstream = (u + v) km/hr. the direction along the stream is called downstream. the direction against the stream is called upstream. And. 2.v) km/hr.

Races: A contest of speed in running. Race Course: The ground or path on which contests are made is called a race course. means that the person among the contestants who scores 100 points first is the winner'. In a 100 race. 8. 6. 5. then we say that 'A gives B.12) = 88 m. 4. A will have to cover 100 metres while B will have to cover only (100 . If before the start of the race. Starting Point: The point from which a race begins is known as a starting point. sailing or rowing is called a race. Start: Suppose A and B are two contestants in a race. then we say that 'A can give B 20 points'. 7. 2. . riding.Races and Games 1. B runs (100 . a start of 12 metres'. the race is said to be dead heat race. Games: 'A game of 100. Winner: The person who first reaches the winning point is called a winner. driving. Dead Heat Race: If all the persons contesting a race reach the goal exactly at the same time. To cover a race of 100 metres in this case. Winning Point or Goal: The point set to bound a race is called a winning point or a goal. 3. If A scores 100 points while B scores only 80 points. 'A can give B 12 m' or 'A can give B a start of 12 m' or 'A beats B by 12 m' means that while A runs 100 m. A is at the starting point and B is ahead of A by 12 metres.12) = 88 metres.

56 = (Sum due) . (S. and true discount is reckoned on the amount. 156 in 4 years.D. When the sum is put at compound interest. on T.I.W.. = Interest on P.(T.I. Clearly. T.D.D. 156 after 4 years and the rate of interest is 14% per annum. Amount 5.) (S. the payment of Rs. now will clear off the debt of Rs.D.W.W. then P.True Discount Suppose a man has to pay Rs. = 2.) We define: T. 156 due 4 years hence.I. 100 at 14% will amount to R.D. P. Amount = (P.) . 100.) = Rs. We say that: Sum due = Rs. IMPORTANT FORMULAE Let rate = R% per annum and Time = T years. Rs. = 1+ R 100 T .(P.W. Then.D.) = Rs.W.I.(T.) x (T.D. 156 due 4 years hence.) = S.W. True Discount (T. Sum = 100 x Amount 100 + (R x T) (P.) Interest is reckoned on P. Present Worth (P.W. So.) .) + (T.D.D. = RxT Amount x R x T 100 + (R x T) 4. = 3.) = 100 x T.) x R x T 100 (S. 1.W. (156 .100) = Rs.

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