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Donated by NOCFL.

China

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Teaching Material Project Planning Group

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Canadian Consulting Group


Dr. Robert Shanmu Chen

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Mr. Zheng Zhining University of British Columbia

Dr.

Helen

Wu

University

of Toronto

Mr. Wang Renzhong McGill University

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Project of NOTCFL of the People's Republic of China

NEW PRACTICAL CIDNESE READER


Textbook

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Jerry Schmidt

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CONTENTS
lrtT §
Preface' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (I

A t?!U[' m

Introduction

to Main Characters

In

the Text

.. .. .. .. .... .. ......

......

......

....

(1)

~ il Lesson 1 t*X
Text New Words Notes

1m~T ,

"

3)

Pronunciation
F''-'d-

Drills

c±-JIL

Initials: Finals:

b a

P
0

m
e

n i
u

h U
00

tf~-£J:

en

ie in ing uo

1m. s:iI5M~)j fJtBQ¥

Conversation Saying hello

Practice

Greetings Phonetics

1.
2. 3. 4,

F -£J: fQ ~ ,btif~®!
Flj.'f] -=F~lj.'f]

-£J: Tones

Initials

and finals key

Pronunciation

Third-tone Spelling

sandhi rules

5.

mE] j;]!J11J

/\. iE-I! Grammar 1J.iE-B~iE-ff Word


-L. 1J.

* 1J. *£*~ l!!lJ


i*X 1:iPJ ¥1:f:f:
~p '

order in Chinese

sentences

Chinese

Characters Basic strokes of Chinese characters

~- il Lesson 2
Text New Words Notes

ftJfll't.~~

(14)

E3L

s -/,--

f'* )]

Pronunciation

Drills

c±--£J: F" tf~-£J:

Initials: Finals:

ei ou

an
Practice

ong

eng

ioo iou(-iu)

1m. s:il5~*)j (0)1~3JIJA


rO)$~

Conversation Greetings

Asking what someone

wants
1

Phonetics

1.
2.

3.

~fir Neutral tone jt-tr~~J! Pronunciation m £J ~1.JnIJ Spelling rules


Sentences Characters

key

/\. i!:f! Grammar 1. %?ii'=iPJi~ifr1i] 2. ffl"m?J"i¥J~~FI'6)1i]


Chinese

with an adjectival question with

predicate

"Yes-no"

"m?J"

W;.=. il
tJ),(

Lesson 3
Text New Words Notes

ftili~ P~B00A

(24)

!±. iPJ

ff~

Pronunciation Initials: Finals: [9.

Drills

zh -i h.l

ch oi

sh uoi ong

~115r%).j Conversation Practice iA 1§'A Identifying people 1'6]OO~i Asking someone's .nationality Ji. i!-tr Phonetics 1. =fir5tiftil Third-tone sandhi
2. 3.

":;f"i¥J5tiffiJ

Tone sandhi Pronunciation Characters

of key

":;f"

jt-tr~~J!
'¥J.. '¥

/,.

Chinese

m I2IIil
iJ),( !±. iPJ

Lesson 4
Text New Words Notes

iA iR 1~fIR~ ~

(36 )

ff~~ i!-tr r%).j fir -a

Pronunciation Initials: Finals:

Drills

1f~-a

j io

ian

iong
Practice

uei(-ui)

uen(-un)

ue

uon

[9. ~

115r%).j

Conversation

W*ft iq:

Asking for permission

v:
1. 2.
2

1'6]~i:g Asking someone's name Introducing oneself i§ftfr-ffl Phonetics i!-tr Pronunciation key jt-tr~~J! m £J ~1.JnIJ Spelling rules

Grammar

-1::;.

rJ..

~Jlwr~JE!JlU

*'

Sentences Chinese Characters

with

"£" (1 )

Rules of stroke order

~ Ji iJ Lesson 5 i5lt)( Text


~in]
New Words

flJTft~}j~)L

(48)

ii*f Notes i.g.-if~*.3j Pronunciation


]if -BJ: 'ff5j-BJ:
Initials: Finals:

Drills

z -i h]

c er

s iong
Practice

ua

uan

uang

On

1m. 4::il5'~*.3j

Conversation

~A
~ .!fjIJ

Looking for someone Saying goodbye Asking for directions Expressing Phonetics Retroflex Grammar ending key Pronunciation thanks

1'6]t-t!t8

J!!i~t 11.. ifr-if 1. ) L 1t'ff5j

ttHifJ6] 1-t in] I¥J 1'6]IaJ


-1::;.

rJ..

*'

Questions Combined

with an interrogati ve pronoun character strokes (1) (62)

Chinese

Characters

~ 1\ il

Lesson 6 (~3J Review)


Text New Words Notes Pronunciation Conversation Making comments Making suggestions Asking someone Refusing Phonetics Tone sandhi or declining to repeat politely of "-" Review Practice

ft1n*Wl-j/i<,~TP~

i5it)(
~in]

ii*f
i.g.-if ~.3j 1m. 4::it~*.3j if it

Jti5(.

i!*11!~
~J[1E
11.. i.g.-if
2.

something

llfiffi it]if~~-BJ:mil

,~,*

Table of Combinations

of Initials

and Finals

In

Common Speech 3

/\. i!ttGrammar 7ijJiPJi~i-fr/pJ Sentences with -L. lJ.. '¥ Chinese Characters
Combined Combination

a verbal

predicate

character

strokes

(2)

of strokes

m --t il
~iPJ fffl-

Lesson 7
Text

1$ iA iR ;r: iA iR 1m

(77 )

i5ft>c

New Words Notes

V+ -

V+ -

to indicate "~~"

a short and quick action

IljUPJ"n~" The :giPJ1H~fFJEi!

interjection

~*)j !J:@ffl
~(X~rnf

Nouns directly

used as attributives

Drills and Practice Meeting Talking someone for the first time

i?R~~

about one's major Comprehension and Paraphrasing

Reading 1m. 1~w;fQ~J£ E. i!ttGrammar

1.
2. 3. 4.

1E&~r6)/pJ V/A-not-V/A questions ffl"~"tt]p)GI¥J~'~j\:r6)/pJ Abbreviated questions "-tiL"fQ"t~"1¥J1.lI.I': The position of adverbs "-tiL"
Chinese Characters Chinese character components

*~~~** I¥JJEi!

Attributives

expressing

possession with "~" and

"tv

~), i~
~iPJ ff*-f

Lesson 8
Text New Words Notes

1$111~~ JL D A'"

(95)

ilx

The modal particle

"n~"

J!iPJ"fQ" "~" f1~

"="

The conjunction

"~"

and

"="

"fQ"
introducing an additional remark

":if" ( 1): MUiPJ":;k" !J:@ffl

~*)]

The adverb

":;k"

Drills and Practice Talking Asking Talking about one's family about someone's occupation

i?R~)M
1'6) q~ t

i?R~~
4

about one's university

Reading Grammar

Comprehension Numbers

and Paraphrasing

from 11 to 100 words as attributives

2. !l&:i:i~fFJEi! 3. ":1f
__,__ /\.

Numeral-measure with

"~/pJ

Sentences Chinese

4. ffl "JL"~"$j,"":tJtI'6J

":1f" . Q uestions

WIt

. h "JL"

or

"2 I ':5;7y"

"

1"). ~

Characters Structure of Chinese characters

¥J.~ S~~tig (1 )

(1)
(Ill)

~ fL i~
iJJt

Lesson 9
Text

1m 4' if:: -~~+ '$5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

1:i~ ff~

New Words Notes

rrh e expressIOn ."

1=1 nn 7E9 ? " .

";m/r~..·..·"

The adverb

"$"
to extend one's good wishes phrases as objects Verbs or Verbal

"*5L11]\"'"

~*!J:ib ffl
)j

lij] i~ ~ Z9J i~ i~ ~i1. F ~ f

i-a

Drills and Practice Asking about someone's someone's birthday and Paraphrasing Comprehension age and birthplace

~f,_J~

Making an appointment

m~ 1:
[9. l. 2. 3. 4.

i'6J:if ~ ~ ill 1:!'!!J,


B

Celebrating Reading

I~*fl~~~
Grammar

Ji. i-ar!

:if, jj , B if0 ~JtJl Expressing *sti'B] ~i~i-afF{k:i! Words 1; i~i~i-a/pJ Sentences with

the date and days of the week expressing a nominal time as adverbials predicate

/\.

ffl" ...... , ~Pl=b? ":tJiH6J tJ..~ Chinese Characters


¥JZ.~~~tig(2)
Structure

Questions

with ""',

~Pl=b? " (2)

of Chinese

characters

m +~
iJJt

Lesson 10
Text

:f.!t 1£ ~) L ~ J'C&

( 130)

1:i~ New Words ¥t~f: Notes f~~1~i~"J!", "tl~"fFJEi-a


":&~+VP" ":&~+VP"

Demonstrative as attributives

pronouns

"J!"

and

"tl~"

to ask about how one should Questions

do something

" ...... ,~~~/~Pl=b?"

i'6J/pJ
Monetary

with " ... ,~~~/~Pl=b? currency

"

A ~ ffi s~ .If!-1iI

"-JT ...... $j,"~~?"

"-JT"'$Y~~?"
units of Chinese

to ask the price of something 5

Drills and Practice Likes and dislikes

MS\:i13-~

12IJ. I#Ji-*,fO ~:i£


ti: J..L.

**
lp fA
'Ill

12§ xi

Solving language

problems

jffi

Shopping Reading Comprehension and Paraphrasing

'li,'L-l::

Grammar Prepositional
/.:;-)(

1. 11'- iP] iP] til 2•


I\A /~

phrase
,

1C lp 01J lRJlFjlp 'li -;:.-h '-;:;J 'EEl 'li

PJ

1).. " ~" ~R


objects

"~c'i:." ).6

Sentences

with double

(1):

"~"

and

"J!"
predicate and

3.

%:g:iP]i~i13-/pJ,fOii~iP]"1~"
Chinese Characters Structure

Sentences

with an adjectival

"1~"

of Chinese

characters

(3)

~+-~
ilx
1:.iP]

Lesson 11
Text New Words Notes

:ft~

i)t-

I~

L iR i!

(150 )

ff~:f:
" - A~UL"
"jf"(2)

The indefinite

measure

word "-

A~UL"
connotation expressing the continuation

"19J~£ "%z~~;E

"~~£"

with a negative "jf"(2):

:%Z~lJ\\~~Z#JfF8~m~
Drills and Practice Asking about time one's ability

of a state or action

t!)j J::J ~ ffl


1'6] ~'rBJ B

*~
]i.

*~~~j] it if ~~ i!?t

Expressing Il;

Expressing Reading

permission

or prohibition

12IJ. 1#J*7f1]~j£
Grammar Telling

Comprehension

and Paraphrasing

1. 2.

¥P,~
Optative

time

~~~Z#JiP]i~i!/pJ
verbs

(1): ~,~~,
(1):

PI ~J,mi~

3. JiZ#J/pJ (1):
Sentences

*~§ ~

"~,~~,PI0(,mi~"
verb phrases ( 1): Purpose

with serial

4.

xJ~i!$JiP]i~i!/pJ
Sentences

(2) : $J: JiiJ objects (2):

with double Chinese

"*3('

and "1'6]"

/\.
6

1"J. '¥

Characters Structure of Chinese characters (4)

1)('¥ 8~ tS;j;iJ ( 4 )

~+=il
i;~t)( 1:iPJ

Lesson 12
Text New Words Notes
';::;1

~:i:~~~=1'tT~&

(168)

ff~
-P-1 1"HJ

"m." '-'+

Th e pronoun

"~,, 'BJ:

";& 1,_" to ask about the cause of something


The modal particle "P~" ( 1 ) : to soften the tone of speech

"N~ + Pr/NP + -~"


":fj"(-),sUL"

"N~ + Pr/NP + -~"

as an adverbial

modifier

The preposition

"Mr'
modifier ":fj" ( - ) ,8) L"

The adverbial

~%::g~

jg ffl

Drills and Practice Talking Expressing about one's health one's desire need or necessity Comprehension and Paraphrasing

i3R ~

fljcK (£

:~~IVf-£\~
ITIJ. 1. 2.
15EJ i3;

Expressing Reading

7fl~~j£
Grammar

±.i~i~ift /pJ J2f t~~jH6) /pJ


Chinese

Sentences Alternative :~

with a subject-predicate questions

structure

as predicate

3. ~~~

Zili iPJ i~ ift /pJ (2)

J;~ J~:f:

· Optati ve vel ·bs (2) :

"<lfi;;f;§ -:f;l; "'"',

rEf~" ,I(J;; }iII,

/\.

fJ. '¥

Characters Structure of Chinese characters (5)

m + .::. il

Lesson 13

iltlA iR 7 -1' l~

* 1¥J9~~~
and

(185)

ilJt Text 1:iPJ New Words ff~ Notes %?§:iPJ"~ "lfz "y"fFJEift
"Pr/N +JtJ L/tI~ J L"
"Pr/N+JtJL/tI~JL"

*~ 5ltYf

Adjectives

"~"

"y"

as attributives

to indicate

location

" 'ffi' 'ffi''' Z9J iPJ ~ Zili iPJ iPJ~]'fF JE ift

an d " 'ffi' " Verbs or Verbal phrases as attributives

~%::g~ jg ffl Drills and Practice i3R B ~£ 1:B{_j $ Talking about t].m Renting a house

something

that has happened

1lE>J(JtiJ

Asking for suggestions Making a phone call Invitations 7

n~it
~if

Reading

Comprehension

and Paraphrasing

v:

Grammar iftl'! 1. IlJJiPJ" T" (1 ) Pivotal

The particle sentences

"T" ( 1 )
Optative verbs (3):"

2. ~iftlO

PI~~,~"

Chinese

Characters Consulting a Chinese dictionary usmg radicals

~+ II9 i~
i51t)z:: :'±. iPJ y£*f

Lesson 14 (~:s:] Review)


Text New Words Notes

tR 1fF ¥:iNtk

'*

(206)

[9.

"1'6]······% "t~~ r6]1~ "1'6]··· " to extend someone's regards % 3:: i~~1J;J fF 5E ift Subject-predicate structures as attributives !J illffl Drills and Practice f~?&!J3§jJffX Making a complaint or an apology ~~1'6]1~ Passing on someone's regards 15" 13 Expressing holiday greetings 15i\l ~ 5fO ~ Jzt Reading Comprehension and Paraphrasing

~*)j

m~

'35..,)+ . lpiA

Grammar Four kinds of simple sentences

1. [9 # 13. ift 10 -f'


2.

/\#:tR:r6]:1Jl'!
Chinese

Six main question Characters Consulting by pinyin a Chinese alphabetical

types

dictionary order

arranged

1311 ~

Appendices

iftl'!*ift~UifrffJA:'±. iPJ ~ LJ I (1m ~ Xi ~R)


Vocabulary

m*
Index

Abbreviations

for Grammar

Terms

(224)

Index (Simplified Character

Script with Traditional

Version)

(225) (236)

{JfJT;% yXi!l** »1~bfJTttt~cZ M , i!G1f171 ~ i! 71~i! ~Ylfh! Er-J ~~)j yXi! m1ilffl ~ ffl tV, ~)j Er-J~~JfJT#JM *~XMB~ § B~~jj:cti!~ia*t], 0 i! ~:9J~~_!::j~§*-)( 1t~Q-U=!'B~~)j 5fQ PJTiJti~~tt ~~l)llt~, ~tI7*S:3f~)j ~~fflYXi!J111-rxr~B~~~j] 0 ~45~/\M 70 i5fCWIIIT]M71*)]~_&5fO 9=ti'ltV, WI~5I'f9:, 50 i!; JEJhlITml71=ti'l~5I' ~ 20 i!o ~;9~~1~~~1~9=t)(B~~)j ~ 9 f9:, ~PI fflfF~ ~=~ @ZPJTiJtij~~ffiii'#J~Er-JYXi!#_tM ,~*_t &)WJ~~i!, 4±I:~Mffl~M45; tl1PI tV,fF71~)j ~Er-J § ~~~J 0 4±I:M45 :I::tjj1fjc~ {gffi1f M~)j HJD 5fQ{ljfIJ -=PMl& :5jZifw 36m: 0 ~
f.J 1t~ ~q«~Jf~

m jSl.. mi5!Vis;»

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Preface
New Practical Chinese Reader is a senes of Chinese textbooks compiled at the beginning of the new millennium for the purpose of teaching Chinese to native English speakers or those who use English as their principal second language. language structures, It aims to develop the learner's communicative ability in Chinese by learning speakThe first four volfunctions and related cultural knowledge as well as by training their listening, The series consists of seventy lessons in six volumes.

ing, reading and writing skills.

umes, consisting of fifty lessons, are for beginners and pre-intermediate

level learners . The last two contain studying about Each volume

twenty lessons for learners at an intermediate level. This set of textbooks is designed for overseas students who either take Chinese as an elective or major in the language for a period of three years, one lesson a week, or one volume a semester. comes equipped with a workbook, an instructor's It can also be used by autonomous learners. manual, audiotapes and CD-ROMs.

Why have we named our teaching materials New Practical Chinese Reader?
We have given our textbooks this name, because it follows in the footsteps of the highly acclaimed and timetested Practical Chinese Reader (abbreviated set of textbooks. PCR below). However, in the meantime, it is an entirely new The characters PCR has been published in numerous editions since 1981 and has been adopted as a texthave accompanied two Now these charac-

book by Chinese language educators and learners worldwide during the last two decades. appealing in the lessons of PCR (Palanca , Ding Yun and Gubo, among others), ters have finally reached middle age, and it is time for their children's come the principal characters in New Practical Chinese Reader. generations of students of different nationalities during their study of beginning Chinese.

generation to learn Chinese and be~ and Lin Na, a British stu-

These include Ding Libo, a Canadian stu-

dent, who is the son of Gubo and Ding Yun; Ma Dawei , an American student; sult of the experience accumulated by the many teachers of the language,

dent. The teaching of Chinese as a second language has changed greatly during the last twenty years as a reboth inside and outside China. We hope that The new age in which we live requires that we improve our approaches and teaching materials. a number of areas.

this new teaching material will be able to make original contributions to the teaching of Chinese language in

New Teaching Material,

New Concepts

More and more Chinese language teachers advocate the idea that the fundamental goal of language teaching is to cultivate the learner's should be learner-centered. learn creatively, communicative ability in the target language. We believe new teaching materials needs and must enable them to We must create a method to the communicative apWhat is taught must be determined by students'

gradually strengthening

their motivation and sense of achievement.

synthesis of all pedagogical schools, ranging from the grammar-translation structure.

proach. We should both emphasize the communicative function and also obtain a firm grasp of language We should allow students to gain grounding in the four basic skills by means of a large number of vocabulary, sentence patterns, gTammar, and speech are the V drills and exercises while also mastering the necessary grammatical knowledge and rules for word and sentence formation. The study of pronunciation,

foundation smoother difficult, materials the target

of linguistic

communication. the principle

The only way that we can make of moving from the simple

the learning

process

easier

and

is by emphasizing progressing

to the complex

and from the easy to the language teaching-

gTadually as we constantly understand

review what has come before. and society

Finally,

must help students language

the culture

of the target language concepts that guided

so that they can use us while writing

more effectively.

The above are the basic

New

Practical Chinese Reader. Features of New Practical Chinese Reader 1. New Practical
materials, together

Chinese Reader does not follow the linear


adopting a cyclical arrangement cultural information. The teaching

structure

adopted

by earlier

Chinese

teaching

instead

with constant

review of language structure

structure passes

and function four cy-

with important

of language

through

cles in the six volumes. tion, students

In the first six lessons to various systematically

of Volume One, patterns

the focus of which is learning by engaging in simple dialogues,

pronunciaalthough that

are exposed

basic sentence at this stage.

grammar comprise

is not discussed

The second cycle is found in the twenty lessons One. In this cycle, students

Volume Two and the last eight lessons sentence command patterns. As a result,

of Volume

learn and practhey should have

tice fundamental an elementary ty-four lessons of lexical umes.

by the end of the first year of study, structure. Volumes expand

of basic Chinese

language

Three and Four contain students'

the twen-

of the third cycle,

which further

consolidate,

and deepen

understanding

items and sentence introducing

patterns.

The fourth cycle is found in the twenty lessons items and grammatical not emphasized points, in earlier

of the last two volconcentrate materials. on

Besides

more vocabulary

these lessons Chinese

the teaching

of complex

sentences

and paragraphs

teaching

These four large cycles contain ing the students' command

smaller

ones that interact structures

closely with the unit reviews, but also (and

not only increasglvmg

of linguistic

and functions, abilities emphasis

more importantly) process.

them a sense of accomplishment

in communicative breaks materials. the students with the

at each stage of the learning on structure at the

2.

New Practical
characteristic prominence introductions,

Chinese Reader
of earlier teaching training

expense

of function gives and

Even in its introduction in the most needed the phonetics. training

to phonetics, items,

this new series such as greetings

to function,

functional

at the same time as it teaches and topics of conversation, The last two volumes in paragraphs.

The first four volumes focus on the teaching abilities to use language structures at

of basic functions for communication. a higher level,

the students' ability

cultivate Functional

students'

to comprehend throughout

and communicate all six volumes Some pictures

especially

items are included reading

in or-

der to constantly turally authentic

improve the 'learner's materials

listening,

speaking,

and writing.

and cul-

such as selections literary of earlier pieces

from timetables,

menus,

advertisements,

announcements,

newspapers 3. Unlike

and classical

are also used.

the vast majority

textbooks,

New Practical
encountered rules

Chinese Reader emphasizes


lacking of learning the Chinese

the systematic in Chinese studying before

study of characters. characters, easy forms

In view of the difficulties stress

by students

a background script,

the first two volumes such as basic ones. strokes,

the fundamental components

character

and single-component One divorce

characters

first

moving on to difficult conversation characters text.

The first six lessons of characters

of Volume

the study of characters of sixty common,

from the

The teaching

starts with the introduction

easily learnt components. their

frequently

used as components

of other characters,

along with some character characters

The goal of this approach

is to allow students

to learn multi-component

by first mastering

VI

components. 4. Transcending the limits of campus life, New Practical Chinese Reader distinguishes itself even at the beginning stage from most previous Chinese textbooks by including a broader range of interesting materials. The first four volumes develop a series of attractive stories, tional students mentioned above, including their friendships, Yanzi, as well as several Chinese language teachers. everyday experiences, prehension. narrating the lives of the three internarelationlove stories and teacher-student

ships with the Chinese students Song Hua, Wang Xiaoyun, the journalist Lu Yuping, the tour guide Xiao Volumes One and Two interweave campus life with illustrating culturintroducing cultural norms and customs closely associated with speaking and com-

The third and fourth volumes concentrate on topics of interest to students,

al differences between China and the West. The last two volumes introduce various aspects of Chinese society, highlighting traditional and contemporary cultural life. 5. New Practical Chinese Reader abandons the mechanical, the amount of vocabulary and exercises, increase the amount of supplementary needs, monotonous and inflexible formulae of earlier teaching materials and can be adapted to the needs of students beginning at different levels. It increases while adopting a module structure that balances the relationship By guaranteeing the teaching of core material, it can contents so that students can learn according to their individual between core material and supplementary contents.

and teachers can use the textbook to suit the differing levels of their students ..

The Layout of Volumes One to Four of New Practical Chinese Reader • Textbook
This section supplies the topics and scenes of each lesson. For the most part, Volumes One and Two facilitating audio-lingual practice and providing an which,

Text

use dialogue form (with two paragraphs in each lesson), to six emphasizes the pinyin

overall grounding in the reading and writing of elementary Chinese. The pronunciation section in lessons one text, while lessons seven to fourteen focus on Chinese characters, however, have pinyin written beneath them. In the second volume, pmym disappears, free themselves from pinyin. and there are only

tone marks. From the third volume onward, tone marks are no longer used. In this way, learners gradually

New Words

This part of each lesson analyzes the morphemes (characters)

that form new words with the in-

aim of improving learners' dividual abilities.

comprehension and memory. At the same time, students can master the use of Supplementary words can be learned according to the learners'

new words by practicing them in phrases.

Notes

For the most part, notes contain explanations of new words, develop grammatical points taught preEnglish translations are provided to help students com-

viously, or introduce necessary cultural background.

prehend sentences containing grammar that will be dealt with in later lessons.

Conversation Practice

(included in Lessons 1 - 6),

Drills and Practice (included in Lessons 7 - 14)


linguistic strucVII doing pattern drills, and taking part in di-

We hope students will thoroughly master the key sentences illustrating the fundamental tures and functions introduced in the text. By practicing phrases,

alogues

and communicative

exercises,

students

can move successfully

from mechanical

exercises

to proficient

interaction.

Reading Comprehension
tence patterns and lexical oral and written strengthen

and Paraphrasing
items already taught, volume

Exercises thereby on,

of this kind ensure developing

the review of some of the sendiscourse abilities in both so as to

the students' of reading

forms . From the second reading

the contents

texts are expanded

the students'

comprehension.

Phonetics and Pronunciation


pronunciation the text focuses Students and the special on the principle achieve

Drills
difficulties features

(included it presents

in Lessons

1 - 6) In view of the peculiarities with English system,

of Chinese

to foreign learners pronunciation

as their mother tongue, and spelling for spelling, practice rules. the

of the Chinese

phonetics

can gradually

a good foundation

in pronunciation

by doing the exercises tone combinations,

four tones,

sound discriminations, words,

tone discriminations, classroom

tone sandhi, expressions.

on disyl-

labic and polysyllabic

and reading

Grammar
the difficulties

The grammar encountered

explanations

take into account of English

the special in learning

features them.

of the Chinese

language

and

by native speakers but articulate

They do not attempt structures

to treat Chi-

nese gTammar comprehensively tence formation. earlier.

the most important

grammatical

and rules for senpoints taught

Each volume has two review lessons

that help learners

review the grammatical

Characters

The texl first

introduces

character

components,

later

combining

them

to form characters. writing.

Rules for constructing

and writing characters

are also given to facilitate

the learning

of Chinese

Cultural Notes
sight into cultural cultural

At first,

cultural related

notes in the English to their language

language studies.

are provided As learners' texts .

so that students Chinese proficiency

can gain inimproves,

information

notes are incorporated

more and more into the Chinese

Workbook
is designed for students to use outside class. In addition general to exercises for studying characters, sentence patterns and words, it also includes exercises for speaking, aural comprehen-

The workbook phonetics, sion,

reading,

and writing.

Instructor's
of each

Manual
Manual lesson's makes suggestions contents. regarding the goals and methods the instructors of teaching and supplies about explaIt also supplies with more knowledge are provided. phonetics,

The Instructor's nations grammar

and vocabulary.

Unit tests and keys to the tests and exercises

Acknowledgements
Sponsored low),
Vlll

by the National

Office for Teaching materials

Chinese

as a Foreign

Language

(abbreviated

NOTCFL

be-

this set of teaching

is one part of a key research

project undertaken

by the Beijing Language

and Culture University.

Ms. Yan Meihua,

the director-general

of the NOTCFL, Professor Jiang Mingbao

and Ms. Li Guiling from the NOTCFL were responsible for planning and organizing this project. The president of the Beijing Language and Culture University, for University Affairs, Researcher Wang Lujiang, dertaken by our university Professor Qu Delin, and the chairman of the Council
W1-

guaranteed the smooth implementation of this project

In order to obtain an understanding of Chinese teaching overseas, we made a

study trip to six Canadian universities with Chinese language progTams before compiling this set of materials. We are especially gTateful to Ms. Xu Lin, Educational Consul of the Chinese Consulate General in Vancouver, whose work helped us establish our partnership with the Asian Studies Department of the University of British Columbia. Om thanks are also due to Mr. Song Yongbo from the Teaching Bureau of the NOTCFL, the University of Montreal, the University of Toronto, the for the assistance he offered dwing the whole project. We are very gTateful to McGill University, University of British Colwnbia, these institutions. ed enthusiastically Simon Fraser University and the University of Victoria for the gTeat hospitaliHuron College of the University of

ty they offered us dwing our study hip as well as the valuable suggestions provided by our colleagues from Chinese language instructors from Queens University, Westem Ontario, York University, Langara College, Douglas College, and Comosen College also participatin om forum on Chinese textbooks. It is om pleasant duty to give special thanks to Dr. Dr. Helen Wu of the University of Toronto, and Mr. Wang Renzhong of Hobert Shanmu Chen, Chinese Coordinator of the Asian Studies Department of U. B. C. , Mr. Zheng Zhining from the same department, McGill University, who agreed to be on the Canadian Consulting Group for om teaching materials. They are also re-

Dr. Robert S. Chen and Mr. Zheng Zhining were in charge of the Canadian side of this joint project, which would never have succeeded without their continuous organization and coordination. Chen, Dr. Cheng Maorong, Dr. He Donghui, Dr. Li Tianming, of U. B. C., Ms. Xia Wei, sponsible for the final proofreading of both the Chinese and English texts of all six volumes. Dr. Hobert S. Mr. Zheng Zhining and Ms. Xia Wei, all Dr. Cheng Ms. Lin Huimin , Ms. Lti Mingzhu, in the proofreading of the Chinese spent much time and effort translating the original Chinese text into English. Ms . Yang Liqiong and Mr. Zheng Zhining participated

Maorong, Dr. He Donghui, Dr. Li Tianming , Dr. Mou Huaichuan, text. Mr. Allen Haaheim and Mr. Paul Crowe of U. B. C.. English translations,

edited and proofread the first version of the

while Professor Ierry D. Schmidt proofread the final version of all the English transla-

tions. Dr. Cheng Maorong, Dr. He Donghui, Ms. Lin Huimin, Ms. Xia Wei, Ms. Yang Liqiong and Mr. Zheng Zhining did trial teaching of sample lessons from the six volumes at the Asian Studies Department of U. B. C.. We are very grateful to all these people for their professional work. editors Wang Hongyu and Wang Biao, and painter Yang Keqian who Special thanks are also due to the director and general editor of the Beijing Language and Culture University Press, Professor Wang Jianqin, did much hard work to facilitate the publication of our textbooks. The chief compiler of this textbook series is Prof. Liu Xun. The other compilers include Associate Prof. Zhang Kai, Associate Prof. Liu Shehui, Associate Prof. Chen Xi, Ms. Zuo Shandan, and Ms. Shi Jiawei. Shi Jiawei and Liu Xun were in charge of writing Volumes One and Two. Volumes Three and Four were largely written by Liu Shehui and Chen Xi, and Volumes Five and Six mainly by Zhang Kai and Zuo Shandan. We sincerely request teachers and students using our materials to offer their valuable criticisms and suggestions to enable us to improve these textbooks in the future.

ex

Welcome to New Practical

Chinese Reader!

This make Chinese Chinese Chinese guiding of speakers companions your international

textbook Chinese students

features learning

several

imaginary Lin Na,

characters enjoyable:

to

experience Ms. Chen, and

more

Ding Libo, Hua,

and Ma Dawei; Zhang; and Xiaoyun;

teachers students reporter

Mr. Yang, Song

and Professor Wang

Lu Yuping. They, together 'with the help of


will act as tour guides the language today. with the for your adventure, world of our largest number into the fascinating Now let's

your instructor, Chinese, in the

you and your classmates world

get to know

for this journey:

1-

A 4m 11'- ~B
Introduction to Main Characters In the Text

T }J

~Jt DTl}g

Ubo
An American aged 22, male. student,

M..~~

Un

No

A Canadian

student,

A British student, aged 19, female.

aged 21, male. Gubo is his father; Ding Yun is his mother.

*-* Song
A Chinese aged 20, male.

Hua

_l..

IJ' ~

Wang xloovnn

fit- f:fii -t

LO Yupfng
reporter,

student,

A Chinese student, aged 20, female.

A Chinese

aged 26, male.

M~ yip %

Chen looshr
teacher,

g-lL#t;JX Zhong jiooshou


A Chinese professor, aged 48, male.

~h yip %

Yang looshl
teacher,

A Chinese

A Chinese

aged 30, female.

aged 32, male.

- 2-

This lesson to the Chinese is especially oped since

begins language,

by introducing including

some sounds

unique writdevelancient greet-

tones. The Chinese characters origins in

ing system dates back more than four thousand intriguing their to see how Chinese pictographic basically

years, and it

China. By the end of the lesson, you will know eleven Chinese characters ings in Chinese. and be able to express some everyday

~-t~ Lesson

NT hco

1fJ\ ~f

-. i*3Z4I

Text

l.u Yuplnq.

f,t- rfJ -t :
Ubo: fJ Dt: NY hoo, l.u YOpfng.

1t- :kf,

f~ ff,J -if- 0
"',,~

"I !,

,-

I,' l

1
II

II

I)

'j

l,' ......
I

,i r-< I, : '_
"

I,
II

,;

-3-

New Wonls

1. 2.

nl hco

Pr
A

1~
*f

you good; well; fine;

O.K.
reporter) student)

3. LUi Yelping 4. Ubo

PN
PN

Mf:fJ-t

(name of a Chinese (name of a Canadian

fJ~;t

Ubo:
/J

Un No, nY hao ma?

.s; '.1-.

tj5l...._:

;j;t.. l}j~, 1iJ~:kt l1lb?


:kt, 1,t ~?

Un No: W6 hen hoo , nY ne? ®

~t~}]~:1R ;J\.
Ubo:
.,J '1: ../J jIll.:

Ye hen hao.@

-1R- iff

/)' \

"

I c-

.
ir

, ,

r, I.

\'

,I

-4-

New Words 1. mo 2. w6 3. hEm 4. ne 5.


QPt

!1l!j

(interrogative

particle

for question

expecting

yes-no answer) Pr Adv MdPt Adv

-t\
1tt
~

I; me very (a modal particle


(I)

used for elliptical

questions)

ye

.-tk.

too; also

6. Un No

PN

(name of a British

student)

CD

NY hco
"Hello!", This is the most common

=. )t:~.1
"How do you do?" form of greeting people form is also

Notes

in Chinese.

It can be used know.

at any time of The response to

day when meeting this greeting

for the first time or for people

you already

"1t%" ("NT hoo").

@ NY hoc rna?
"How are you?" This is also a form of greeting, time, and the response is usually often used after you have not seen someone for some

"i!<;1~%" ("W6 hen hoo") or other similar formulae.

® NY

ne?

"And (how are) you?"

@ Ye hen hoo.
"(I am) fine (literally,
This is an elliptical when the context may also say is explicit very good), too." sentence, with the subject

"i!<;" (w6) omitted.


the subject

In spoken

Chinese, One

and there

is no ambiguity,

is often omitted.

"1~%"("Hen hoo") to answer the question

"1t%~?

"("NT hoo ma? ").

Pronunciation F -ff]:
Initials: b a

Drills
h

f:f)]-ff]: Finals:

00
(I J Students

p 0 en

mn
e u

ie

in

Ing

uo

are required

to master the characters

of the purple

new words in this lesson.

-5-

1.

tJt.if
bo po mo ne Ie he

Spelling

bo po mo noo lao hoo 6 nl h60 I I b6 lin n6 lu yu ping hen ye

bT pT rnT nie lie

bO pI] mO luo huo

bTn pTn

bTng pTng

2.

IrnPf The four tones


a nT hoo IT bo ITn no
10

a
nl hoo
11

11'1

hoo
1'1

n'lhoo
l.lbo

..

b6
lln

yO pTng wo ye
3.

no Iu yu w6 hen ye

b6 lin no lu yu w6 hEm ye

Un No

l.u Yuplnq

w6 hen hoo ye hen hoo

mif
bo
(eight)

Sound discrimination -po nu


(female)

nu
bie
strokes)

wu -(five)

hu
(tiger)

bTng -(ice)

bTn

pie -(left-falling

hu6 -(fire)

w6
(I)

4.

fRM

Tone discrimination

mo -(horse) (also)

rna
(mom)

mu-(wood) 11

mu
(in)

yT
(one) (door)

--

YI

ye --

ye

--1'1

men--

men

(night)

(strength)

-6-

5.

=pr~MThird-tone
nl hco

sandhi ye hoo hen hoo

ye hen hoo

6.

lJiirJlJ~~f'fi:!
NY hoo. NYmen hco.

Read the following classroom expressions aloud

·
' ••

_,_

••

!II

11

:••

11, ••••••••••

'.'

•••

II

••••••

· · · · ·

.' ·

KEY SENTENCES 1. NY hco. 2.. NY hdo ma? 3. W6 hen hco, nY ne? 4. Ye hell hco ..
~---'
-,-.--~,-~.• ' '. .. .. .. .. • .. .. II I!!I ., I!I' .. iii ir I!J 'iii • !II' iii II .. II' •

'II

( -)
1.

r 1T1~~!]ZSaying
Un No: l.lbo. 2.

hello]
the following dialogue

7G )'IJ; T)i!J S:-~% Complete


l.lbo , nY hoc:

~01!1 %01%
(1)

Make a dialogue based on the picture

A:

B:

(2)

A:

B:

-7-

(=) [fD] 1.

1~ Greetings 1 fG JJ)t T' 3lU 13 '1% Complete


M o Ll. NY hco m a?

the following dialogue

Lu Y1:
Ma U: W6 ye hen hco.
2.
,/.=E..£2

.c: '+ IFJ !5'Cii;;"k..t

S' . . rtuauonar .1

di ogue rna 1
friend whom you haven't seen for a long time. What will you

You run into a Chinese say to him/her?

( ..=.)

Ujf ~

Listen

and repeal

1tM-°l!; ? _f\1f<-M-, 1t oft.? _f\ ~1f<- M0

..Ll.

"1;0 E3

'3i.::e::

Phonetics
of modern Chinese usually and consists of an initial, which

A syllable is a consonant For example, can stand mon speech

in the common speech that begins the syllable, in the syllable an initial,

and a final,

which constitutes

the rest of the syllable. is the finaL A syllable In the com-

"ping",

"p" is the initial

"inq"

without

such as "ye",

but all syllables

must have a final.

of modern

Chinese,

there are altogether

21 initials and 38 finals.

2.

~lfJl.~
Initials:

Pronunciation key
m, n, I, h are, pronounced b like "p" in "speak" p like "p" in "park"
Note: Particular like" and unaspirated similarly to their counterparts voiceless) voiceless) be paid to the pronunciation of the aspirated
In

the English

language.

(unaspirated, (aspirated, should

attention consonants:

b-p.

Finals:

e
Ie

e" in "her" a nasalised sound like the "ng" in "bang" without pronouncing of the "e" in a compound final is different the "g" from that

like "ye " in "yes" The pronunciation

-nq (final) Note:

of the simple final "e".

-8-

3.

PfM

Tones
is a tonal language
In

Chinese

which the tones convey differences

In

meamng.

)\.(bo)
In common tone marks: speech there

1i (b6)
are four basic

~(ba)
tones,

13 (be)
represented respectively by the following

" " " v"

" for the first tone, for the second tone, and

'" " ,,,

for the third tone, for the fourth tone. contains

When a syllable the vowel letter syllable

only a single vowel,

the tone mark is placed should When

directly

above if the

as in "lu" and

"hen".

The dot over the vowel "j"

be dropped above

the tone mark is placed is composed vowel pronounced The openness

above it,

as in "nT", "nin" and (e.g. hoo).

"ping".
should

the final of the

of two or more vowels,

the tone mark

be placed

with the mouth widest open of the mouth for the vowels,

from widest to smallest

is as follows:

4.

=Ff~JlJ
the second

Third-tone sandhi
when immediately followed by another third tone, unchanged.
-+ -+

A third tone,
In

should

be pronounced

tone,
-+ -+

but with the tone mark "v" remaining

For example:

111 hco
hen hco

ni hoc hen hao

W6 hen hoo. Ye hen hao.

W6 hen hco. Ye hen hco.

5.

f*1j.JilU Spelling rules


At the beginning of a syllable,
"j"

is written

as "y"

(e.g.

ie -+ ye).

"i"

IS

written

as "yj"

when it forms a syllable

all by itself

(e.g. T -+ yT).
IS

At the beginning

of a syllable,

"u" is written as "w" (e.g. uo -+ w6). "u"


all by itself of a syllable (e.g. (e.g. U -+ wu). or forms a syllable
1:1 -+

written

as "wu" when it forms a syllable When "u" is at the beginning

by itself,

a "y"

IS

added

to it and the two dots over it are omitted

yen.
-9-

&iiil9ii~
person, placed tense, very important

Word order in Chinese


of Chinese gender, number,

sentences
grammar is that it lacks sense. of morphological of a sentence changes however, in is The word order,

The main characteristic

and case in the strict grammatical meamngs.

to convey different

The subject

is usually

before the predicate.

For example:

Subject

Predicate

1$ NY
ft
W6

~fo
hco.

1~
hen

ffo
hco.

fJ1it
Ubo

ill
ye

1~
hen

~fo
hco.

~~
Chinese dating Chinese tion: characters originated antiquity. from pictures. Present-day Here

Chinese Characters
The history characters, of their formation illustrating is very long, long evolu-

back to remote characters,

Chinese

which evolved from ancient their

are square-shaped.

are some examples

Picture

Oracle' Bone Inscription

Small Seal Character

Official Script

Complex Character in Regular Script

Simplified Character in Regular Script

~... '
~

2~-'
~~tl.

-='

-,

.:)0"

r:
I'
1J"

--.....

f~\

J~

I~

-10-

1.

&*~*~iI
Chinese characters

Basic strokes of Chinese characters


are written strokes by combining and "combined"
V31~OUS

kinds

of

"strokes".

These

strokes

can be divided

into "basic"

strokes.

Basic strokes of Chinese characters


stroke Name
dian

Example

Way to Write
The dot
IS

1'1

written

from top to bottom-right,

as

10

the first stroke of "]"]". The horizontal The vertical bottom, The stroke is written from left to right. stroke is written from top downward

-----*

heng shu
pie

t
-,
/'

*!J
/~

as in the second stroke

stroke of
IS

"*".

to

)/
~

downward -left

written stroke

from

top

to

bottom-left, The

as in the second stroke


IS

of "jJ". from top to

no
tf

downward-right

written

bottom-right, The upward

as in the second stroke


IS

stroke of "J\_". from bottom-left to

written

,./

top-right,

as in the fourth stroke of ":fl(;".

2.

lA:Ej~*&*
(1)

yT
be

Leam and write basic Chinese characters

VDJ1I!D3T:1fli .......3,. i

one

1 stroke

(2)

/~ eight

/~ 2 strokes

)(

_((.l

t· ...

)o(;","f "

1''V-. 'AJ

r~

(3 )

!J
n
strength

7!J
2 strokes

(4)

1'1 (F9)
men
door

r 1'1
3 strokes ./1 ~~ too; also 3 strokes

/ 1*\ tl1 iriL


- 11-

(5) ~

ye

(6) ~

(,~) horse "~" is written 3 strokes as "~ " on the left side of a character.

'-(

mo
Note:

I"

.'

.r

..

(7)

*
nu
Note:

~
Ij""'

}{/J'l
(

"*"

female is written

3 strokes as ",* " on the left side of a character.

( 1"£

';7 .,-

III
,!

':

(8)

Ji_

T fi
five

wu
(9)

s:
4 strokes

-*mu
Note:

"'*-"

wood is written

4 strokes as "~ " on the left side of a character.

(10)

k..
hUG
Note: fire
":k.._"

It
4 strokes is written as " at the bottom of a character.

3.

lA.1iillx'fl tt9&~ Learn


texts

and write the Chinese characters appearing in the

if..

Ifn

+-*Cultural Notes
and "Common Speech" (Putonghua)
almost making four thousand years ago and that the The comNations

The Chinese Language CHanyu)


Scholars spoken language munities, a billion think Chinese writing Chinese

originated antiquity,

language

goes back to remote in many dialects in Southeast of Chinese

it one of the world's

oldest languages. Chinese

In spite of its great age, is spoken especially native

is now one of the most widely used living languages. within China, Europe, worldwide. as well as in many overseas and the Americas. Asia,

And there are more than the United

speakers

It is one of the languages

uses when conducting - 12-

official business.

Chinese

belongs

to the Sino-Tibetan Chinese that constitute in China, of China's

language 94%

family.

Hanyu , literally
by the Han, of China. The northern

"language

of the

Han",

refers

to the standard groups groups

language,

and is spoken

Hui,

Manchu,
are fifty-six di-

and other recognized

ethnic ethnic

of the population groups.

There

using as many as eighty different territory and includes two thirds

languages. or Mandarin "common as the basis of its population. Stanspeech". for its

Chinese dard Chinese pronunciation

includes

variants

from seven main dialect

alect covers three fourths

is also known by its official designation, on the northern vernacular in this textbook. dialect, using literature and modern

Putonghua, literally
of Beijing structure.

Putonghua is based
nese that is taught

the dialect

for its grammatical

This is the Chi-

- 13 -

Have Chinese lesson, express

you

ever

wanted

to say hello

in and

to your friends? your needs.

By the end of this

you will be able to greet others

;g=tl

Lesson 2

Ni

rncnq

ma

1~ 'rt
-. i*~

PIb
Text

~*"

Lin No:

l.u Yuplnq , nY hoo rna?

~~l~:

fit;J:Y"

1~

~r ,

1;J~ -.kt j1~?


hao rna? CD
r.

Lu Yuping:

W6 hen boo. NY bobo , mama

M'l f:fu -if.'.. :


Lin No:

1!l

1~ i:-~, *f
n

-k~-k~

l.t

j1~?

Tornen

dou hen hoo. ~ I\IY monq

rna?

~t"" -k})f;:
f.t-

'f-tJ:-1n ;J\
~

i~ Hz
'f-2: 0
)" '':: c

1~~
AJJ

'~i: .\1lIJ '?

l.u Yuplnq. W6 bu monq. NY nan pengyou

mf:
~1}1\ :

1t J'J

s.

ne? T)t?
\I

Lin No:

To

hen mango

**-

1-tJ:- fit

- 14-

j::i~
* 2. ma
3. bobo

New Wonh;
A QPt

1. monq

'Ii: 1119

busy (a particle yes-no used for questions


[I)

expecting

answer)

N N
Pr Pr

-%-%
~~-kl!;

dad mom they; he; (used them him after pronouns

4. mama 5. tornen

ta men
6. dou 7. bu 8. nan 9. penqyou

Suf
Adv Adv A

1~1f1 1~ 1f1
~~ ~

ft, 1/]\ ,1m

or certain

nouns to denote both; not; male friend (a modal particle all no

plural)

J3
J1J]~

.,
Gege:

N
MdPt

* 10. ne

):IJt.

used for elliptical

questions)

DTng Llbo Gege, nl yeo kafei ma?

-r fJ iJt:

~-~,

1~ ~ vhuv4Jo. \1~?

W6 yeo kafei.

-¥f~:
Dldi:

4\

-*"

rWu

JI~

l~ o
@
0
!l~

DTng l.lbo,

**:

W6 ye yeo kofel.

-1\ -d:..
*t,

-*

11},1O

f-

-r

.n iJt:

Hao, w6men dou he kafei.

~ /lfJ

;tf~

l'aJ ~!1I'~f0

r'

(l) Words marked

by an asterisk have appeared

in previous lessons.

- 15 -

1. gege 2.

!£i~
yew

New Words

-ij-~
~

elder brother to want coffee younger we; us brother

v
N N
Pr

3. kOlfei 4. dldi 5. women 6. he 7. 01ng

~~f

iftift
~1f1
j1~

v
PN

to drink (a surname)

CD

NY bobo , mama nco mov


"How are your mom and dad? rlY bobo -your dad, " your mom,

nl mama --

nl nan penqyou _-

your boyfriend.

(2) Tomer dou hEm hno


"They are both fine (literally, very good)."

NY yon kofei ma?


"Do you want coffee? " is a sentence pattern commonly used when asking "~~···"("W6

"1fJ\~···~?
what others want,

"("NY yeo ... mov ") whereas

yeo ... ") is used to express what "I want".

@ W6

ye

vco koMi,
too."

"I want coffee,

Women

dot. he kafei.
coffee."

"We all drink

Pronunciation
~-HJ: F"
1. Initials: d , ~-liJ: Firrals: el t
OUi

Drills
iIOIJJ(-iu)

g an

k ang

f eng

iao

mil
de te ge ke

Spelling
dou tou g6u k6u don ton gon ken dong tang gong kong

- 16-

bei

pei fei hei to men wo nT non peng you bO ge dT he ko fei


3.

bon pan fan han to men nf non peng y6u bu mong ge df he fei

beng peng feng heng to men wo


III

bico pico

diO niO

2. 1m p6 The four tones


tornen

wo nl nan peng you


bu

women
nlrnen

nan peng you


bu

non pengyou mong gege dldi


bu

mang ge dl ka fei

ge dl he
tei

he kofei

mif
do
(big)

Sound discrimination

--

to duo
(many)

ke -(rnay )

ge geng

kou
(mouth)

--

gou
(dog)

dou -(all )

gen -(to follow)

dTng -(nail)

tTng
(to listen)

4.

mw
(knife)

Tone discrimination
doo

dco --

tu -(soil)

tu
liu

you -(again)

you
(to have)

nf
C Buddhist

III
nun)

liu -(six)

ken -C to

kan
- 17-

see)

5. @pi Neutral tone


boba nlmen hco ma? mama women I\lY ne? gege tornen NY nan pengyou ne? dldi

6.

~iflt~ii
kele (coke)

Practice on disyllabic words


yeye
(grandpa) (younger sister)

yYnlioo (drinks)

meimei

honboo
pfngguo

(hamburger) (apple)

fayTn (pronunciation) heibon


(blackboard)

7.

lVJitrJlJiM!:~mlf
TIng wo fayTn. Ken heibon.

Read the following clas.sroomexpressions aloud


(Listen to my pronunciation.) (Look at the blackboard.)

Conversation Practice
• !III If I! • II •••• it 411 •• !I •••• ., ..
;jj

ill

II!!

II

•••••••

I,

••

II

....

II

: KEY SENTENCES
: 1. Tornen d6u hen nco.

·2. :

NY mang

mo? .' . .
IIIJI I' • II ••• '•• 'II 'I!I I!!I • II •

: 3. Wo bu mango

: 4. NY yeo kafei rna?

· 5. :

W6 yeo kafe,j. d<5u ine kafeil.


• iI :Ii II • Ii
III! 'J! "

: 6. Women

·
111.:

111 !II

II!!

•••

II

II;

'Ii

( -)

r (OJ 1~f.lIJ).. Greetings 1 7Gmt -F 1 J 4iil'5 Complete the


1

following d ialogues ma? NY ne?

(1) A: B:

Do Un,

nY monq

A:
(2) A: NY bobo mama hoo rnov NY gege ne?

B:
A:
- 18 -

(3)

A:

NY dldi

hoo mo> I\]Y


------

B: A:
(=) [iD] Wfi

Ile?

Asking what someone wants] 1. 7t )j~ -f 3JIJ ~ ttr Complete the following dialogues
(1) A: Nfll yeo kofei mov

B:

W6 yeo kofei. Ile?

A: NY

c:
(2)

A: NY B: A: NY

yeo

mcv

ne?

c:
2.

7®' 1~4r~t ake M


(1) A:

a dialogue based on the picture


? it

-\

B:

',~r,

Il~I-J-- 1-.t I ~J"


I

;) - 11';.
I""
. ,

~ - 'I!l
I
.h

/!I'liJ'

_:.t'._

f ;., _.-"
,.
I" -

~ 0;: .;, .;J,,.,. -!_! ""') , I~ '" 'r~1 I


.'
!

",

_. --I I' !
. ~~

.' 1_

--;'-

-·I..,~· ,

!d~'. \
"'•

._.

-Ci~
__
/'

-~

I ~'.
1

I, .l"'::_:~J'8'

?'r'~'1

~Jt3r-tl":,-\ _ *',
'__ ('-]_

"-}"Il! "": .... I. -y--,


_< (':)

-c.{

II-

(2) A:

B:

( -)

QJT ~

Listen and repeat 1~ % % -lllh -lllh ;:t~M- 11E; ?


0

1~1n~1P<-*

- 19-

n. i.g~-",
1.

Phonetics
there are a number of syllables which are

~Jb'

Neutral tone
speech of modern Chinese, tone. and are pronounced by the absence in a "weak" This is known as the neutral tone and is

In the common unstressed indicated

of a tone mark. For example:

!lib

ma

ne

111

men

2. 2tlf~®! Pronunciation key


Initials:

f d 9 k

is pronounced

similarly

to its counterpart

In

the English

language

like "t" in "stay" like "t" in "tag" a soft unaspirated Particular

(unaspirated) (aspirated) "k" sound (aspirated) should be paid to the pronunciation of the aspirated and

like "k" in "kangaroo" attention consonants:

Note: Finals:

unaspirated

d-t,

g-k.

ei ou on

like "ay" in "play" . like "o " In " so " like "an" in "can"

(light) (without stressing the "n")

3.

m~:I1lJruJ

Spelling rules
final

The compound tone mark is placed

"iou"

IS

written

as

"-iu"

when it comes after an initial

and the

on "u" .

For example:

Ii U (six).

-.

I \./ iB)~,

Gramlnar
-

1.

~~Wilm1iJ

Sentences with an adjectival predicate


Subject Predicate

1$
Ni

ffo
hoo

1m
To

1~
hen

'tt 'tt

mango
0

ft
W6

/G
bu
~~

mango

1mfn
Tornen
- 20-

1~
hen

~fo
hoo

d6u

Adjectives called a sentence modified adjectival functions Note: modify.

in Chinese such as

can

function

directly and

as predicates. Adjectives The negative adverb

This

kind

of sentence

is

with an adjectival is generated such as

predicate.

in this kind

of sentence

can be with an that they

by adverbs predicate Adverbs

"1~", "ill",
by placing

":tV.

form of sentences

the negative and

"/G" before the adjective


before the adjective

as the predicate.

For example:

":f!(; /G'~".

"1~", "ill",

":tV

must be placed

2.

m"~"Et9~~FJliJ1ij
A declarative sentence

"Yes-no" question with "m}"


can be changed into a "yes-no" question by adding the question

particle

"P!?J"

at the end of it.

Statement

Question

1fJ\PJ0

1fJ\ PJ- PI) ?


NT hoo mo ;
0

NT hoo.

1m:g:g ,m~~~~PJTo boba mama

1m:g:g ,~~~~~~~fll~?
To bobo mama dou hoo me>

dou hoc.

ftm'ft

ftm fr; rlIb ?


To mang
0

To mango

mov

1fJ\~ rmo P~p

1fJ\~

rWQ

P~pPI!J?

[\IT yeo kofei.

NT yeo koMi mov

t. )X ¥3ID
1.

Chinese Characters

lAjij~*OC*

(1)

T
dTng
nail

-T
771

Learn and write basic Chinese characters


2 strokes

(2)

71
doo
Note: knife "JJ"

2 strokes as "
IJ "

is written

on the right side of a character.

J
!

(3)

x_
you
Note: agam "5l" was originally 2 strokes a pictograph of "the right hand".

(4)

*do
big 3 strokes
- 21 -

(5 )

0
k6u
mouth

,
earth

)10
3 strokes

tJ

·f ..... \

(6)

±
to
Note;


3 strokes as "J " on the left side of a character. ... ... ...

"±"

is written ...
SIX

(7)

...
/'\

no

--/ /'\

4 strokes

(8)

/G
bCJ
no,

-7/f"/G
not 4 strokes
--?

t. ---'-="'

~' r ~ x, ( ,"

(9) ~

=r r s.
nun 5 strokes 5 strokes

nf

Buddhist

(10)

liT
ke
can,

-'-PPliT
may

2.

iA.~i¥:t.p~&* Learn
texts
\1~

and write the Chinese characters appearing in the

(1)

ma (~!0)
11

E; ----+

+ 11;
of speaking,

(" 0"

denotes

the meaning

"Jk"

denotes

the pronunciation)

(2)

'Jt ne

~----+O+~
(" 0"

denotes

the meaning

of speaking,

"x."

denotes

the pronunciation)

(3) ~~~~ mama

U,~-!lJf~)

j{~ ----+:It.
(":k " denotes

+ 11;
the meaning of woman,

"Jk"

denotes

the pronunciation)

(4) ~~

gege

~----+
- 22-

liT

Chinese Characters and Simplified Script


The Chinese today. Unlike characters, signific script is the only logographic systems writing system still in daily use Chinese script
In

the world indicatthe a

the alphabetic

used by most languages, combined of meaning characters used,

is made up of component, belongs. represents

the majority

of which are "pictophonetic". the phonetic, monosyllables, of Chinese are frequently characters

Most consist

of one component

ing the sound Chinese of which adequate therefore continuous duce

of the character, characters represent

with one semantic to which the character each

or radical,

which shows the category The total number situations. number of Chinese

and generally

character thousand

single morpheme.

is estimated while three

at over fifty thousand, are normally and are has

only five to eight thousand for everyday complicated attempts

A considerable

are composed The object by eliminating What characters,

of numerous of these complex

strokes

to write. With a view to facilitating to simplify the writing system. of characters characters. the number

writing , modern

scholars language

have made reforms

been twofold: refer to graphs

to reduce

variants , and to recharacters" are

the number

of strokes their earlier characters

in certain forms.
IS

are known as "simplified

that have been thus altered; characters

traditional

on the other hand, Republic

those that retain while traditional plified characters

The use of simplified

now official policy in the People's mainly of being to academic easier to learn, memonze,

of China, Sim-

are restricted

use or aesthetic

purposes.

have the advantages

read and write.

Here are two examples:

mother door
characters

(simplified) (simplified)
are used in this textbook,

-k~ F~

mother door

(traditional) (traditional)
are also supplied

Simplified

but traditional

characters

for the convenience

of the reader.

- 23-

Now,

would you like occupation

to use Chinese and nationality,

to learn more as well as we will

about the people you meet? This lesson will show you how to ask a person's introduce friends, create compound family and others. In addition,

words from basic words.

~=tl

Lesson 3

To

shl

no

guo

~tk ~

P]~

~A
Text

ren

Gege:

uoo,

~,¥f:

iJ ,Jt ,}]~ s: iii?


}]~lC_

no shl shei? 100sr1T.

DTng Ubo: No shl women

T
Gege:
_jff_. <if

fJ

>Jt:

.A 11'1
!!J

;t Y1i

To sht no guo ren? CD

~J

"'J:

.;it !1JJ~
fi__

A?
®

DTng l.lbo , To shl Zhonqquo reno

Women

100shT dou shl Zhonqquo reno

}J

~Jt: ~

rf ~

Ao

.~ 11']

~ yrp .:f~;t

'f ~

Ao

-24 -

~iRJ
1.

New Words Pr

to

:it
;:E_
6

she; to be which

her

2. Shl' 3.

V
QPr

no no
shei

jl'!1~
.@J

4. guo 5. ren 6.
7.

N
N Pr QPr

country,

nation

.A...
})~

people , person that who; teacher both; China all whom

iit

8. laoshT

N Adv
PN

* 9. dou
10. Zhonqquo

kY~
~

tt!l
run hco:
@

DTng

uoo.
}J;;{:

Chen lcoshi,

Zhe shl w6 gege,

to shl woryu

f;ttooshl.
;;r~ ') I'
k /lFFi
<]

;t yrp, 1$ :iff!

1i A:._ -t\ ,¥f--¥f,

1tf!.;l(_ j)---i%

Chen looshl.
lTJt~

NY hco.

Yrr :

1,f-:kf

DTng l.lbo ,

Zhe shl w6 penqyou.

JJ iJt:

1!;t

}]JL&_ o

Chen Iooshl,

NY hoo: NY ye shl looshi mov

FH;
JJAiZ_ :

~ Yrr:

1t- -lit! 1t- ~


1:E.

j(_

Yrr I1lh ?
0

Pengyou:

Nfn nco: W6 ou sill laoshT, w6 shi yishenq.

*!

~:;r:

:t- Vrr, ~ Jt ~ 1-.


mov

Chen laoshT:
jt!j;

k vrr
iJ iJt:

:n;t,

l.lbo, zhe shl nY nomoi

i:t :ft_ 1,t- -*15 ~7} j1~?


@

DTng Ubo:

Bu shl , to sill w6 woipo.

T
)!;1:.

~~ +tt ;t,
Woipo,

It._

-t~

j~

Jto
- 25-

Chen looshl.

;t yip :

jr~,

nin hoc:

1& ~t!

!£ iRJ
1. nfn 2. zhe

New

Words
Pr Pr Pr

-f.t
I~"'"

you (polite this she; her

form)

* 3. to
4. weiyO

M!.
jri%

N iPr N N N iPN

foreign language you doctor; physician on the father's on the mother's side side

* 5.

nr

1t-

6. yTshengl 7. nomoi 8. weipa 9. Chien

-m~

lK!t

jr~

grandmother grandmother (a surname)

M~

=. )±~
<D re
shl

Notes

no

gu6 r~n?
" characters for the third person singular

"What's There for a male;

her nationality? are two Chinese the other

"to": one

IS

"1ili.",

used

"Yll!,",

refers to a female.

~ re

shl Zhonggu6 reno


the nationality country of an individual, of origin. the character

"She is a Chinese." To indicate

"A" (ron)

IS

usually

placed

after the name of his/her

For example:

~ 00 (Zhonqquo

)-~

OOA

(Zhonqquo

ren)

@ Chen IfleshY, nfn hOe!


In China, section him/her tles. name. er, head, a person's engineer, position or occupation, such as the director is frequently of a factory, manager, movie director, to such expressions impolite for a student or teacher, used as a title to address always precede the tipersonal

in preference

as Mr. or Miss. to address

Surnames

It is considered
"Surname

a teacher

directly frequently

by his/her

+ teacher"

is the most proper

form of address

used for a teach-

e.g., "Chen laoshT(~~ljfjl)".

"run U~~ is the polite form of "iff", )"


person during a conversation People or to a person mal occasion. - 26in Beijing

commonly

used to refer to an elderly when speaking

or a senior on a for-

of the same generation

are quite fond of using this form of address.

@ Zh~ shl WD gage.


"This is my elder When introducing brother." someone to a person, we often use the sentence pattern " ]X::Jil:

... "

("zhe shj···"). "~"(sh1)

is pronounced

as a weak syllable.

@ Ubo, zhe shl nT nainai rna? The Chinese their specific used depending husband's parents side. of his/her language uses relationship to other members a relative are

Bil shl, ta shl wO waip6.


to individuals in a family Different so that of the family is made clear. or wife's used words are or the his/

many words for referring

on whether

is on the mother's

side or on the father's by a child used to address to address

Some examples father,

"yeye"

and

"noinoi''
and

differentiated

from "woiqonq"

"wcipo"

her mother's

parents.

, - _. -i.g~t~>-J
F'

Pronunciation

Drills

zh eh sh r -, ~-st Finals: -i[1] 01 uoi ong


L

-:=l=-Hj: Initials:

mil
zha zhT zhe
zhci

Spelling

eha ehT ehe


choi

sha shT she


shoi

rT reng rang

zhou zhuo
zhuoi

ehou ehuo
chuoi

shou shuo
shuci

zhong
2. P.Q,a

ehong

The four tones

eha zhe shT

eha ru zhe
sht

ella ru zhe
shl

eha ru zhe
shl zhe shl
-27-

100 chen
wei

lao chen yu yf sheng gua


ren

ylJ

yT sheng zhong guo


3.

lao chen woi yO YI sheng zhong guo


ren

100 chen woi yu yl sheng zhong guo


ren

100shT Chen 100shT woiyO


ylshenq

Zhonggua
Zhonqquo ren

mil'
bl

Sound discrimination

zhong --- chong


(middle)

sheng --- shang


(to be born)

rl
(sun)

re
(hot)

pi

dong

--- tong

rou --(meat)

ruo

(dagger)

(to understand)

4.

M:JV
( ten)

Tone discrimination

shf ---

shl
( an-ow)

zhe
(person;

--thing)

zhe
(this)

ren
(person)

ren zhuoi

poi --- poi


5.

cheng
(city)

cheng

zhuoi ---

*=Jk Half third tone


100shT wo gege nl wcipo hao ma nl yoo
noinoi

wo

penqyou

nl bobo

nl monq wo yeo
Combination of tones

women wo ndinoi no gua ren hen m6ng ye yoo

nlmen

kele

6.

J1f~m~
kofei

"-"+" v"

Zhonggua

heibcn

shenqdioo
(tone)

tornen

( I)

,,0

"

here represents

the neutral

tone.

- 28-

yTsheng

he ch6
(to drink tea)

shent!
(body)

chiton
(to eat a meal)

zhTdao
(to know)

" ;' "+,,-,,

" ;' "+" ;' "

" ;' "+" v"

" ;' "+" ,,,

" ;' "+ "0

"

tushu
(books)

ch6ngch6ng
(often)

niunoi
(milk)

Iiul1
(fluent)

pengyou yeye

chengg6ng
(success)

yfnh6ng
(bank)

pfngguo
(apple)

chldco
(late)

7.

XltifiJilPi
g6ngren

Practice on disyllahic
(worker)

words
YTnggu6 (England, UK) Degu6 Meigu6
(Germany) (America)

shonqren (merchant) lushT (lawyer) qonbu (cadre) chongzhong n6ngmfn


8.
(factory manager) (peasant)

Fcquo (France) Egu6 (Russia) Hlben (Japan)


the following classroom expressions aloud

M.t'1JJill~miiRead
Do koi shOo Gen wo nion. NYmen nion. Dong bu dong? Dong Ie. Bu dong.

(Open the book.) (Read after me.) (Read out.) (Do you understand? (Yes, )

I1we understand.)

(N 0, I1we don't understand.)

.1Z!1!~~
11
•'

Conversation Practice
II •• ; 1.1111 ••• 1.1111.111 •••••• 1 ••

••••••

".

11111

" ..

.
...

KEY SENTENCES 1. No shi shei? 2. No sht women 10oshT. 3. To shl no gu6 ren? 4. To shl Zhonggu6 reno 5. Zhe shl wo penqyou 6. NY ye sht looshi ma? 7. Wo ou shl looslh~, wo shl yishenq.
III III •••• ' 'II' III ill • II • ' III II III .. II II' il, 'iii III Ii .. II! • iii! 110 '•• ill .: II!I :1 III

.
II!I

: .
- 29-

( -)

[iA t~A Identifying people]


Make a dialogue based on the picture

:f-l~ ~i~" 1:£1

(1) A:

l\Jo shl sheiv _

B: No shl

(2) A: To shl shei?


B: To shl

( =)

[IOJ ~ fi Asking someone's nationality] T J'U~"~rs- Complete B: A:


B;
(2) A: f\lfn shl YTnggu6 ren ma? ' Nfn sht no gu6 ren? To the following dialogues (1) A: f\lfn shl no gu6 ren?

1. 7E)J)t

ne?

B: Bu shl , __________

A:
- 30-

2. 1f 1!14i-j;6 Malee a dialogue based on the picture

A: To shl

no

gu6 rEm?

B: ( -)
1.

[1'f ~g Introducing people 1

%J:i.Y:T·31Uf?1%
B:

Complete

the following dialogues

(1) A: Zhe shl Un yishenq. Zhe shl Chen 100shT.

c:
B:

I\lfn hoc,

Un yishenq.
______ . Zhe shl

(2) A: Zhe shl

C:
2. 'I'p~f:m~-j,~. Situational dialogue and classmates.

Introduce ( 1m)

your teacher

~Jfi£
~1..o

Listen and repeat


tJ~ Jf__ i11? tJ~ Jf__ M~ yrp :t0

:lit Jf__ tf J!l A_

:it Jf__ *. }]}J s. ,~

~ Jf__:t-

yrp ,11t Jf__


- 31 -

· ~n.~
1.

Phonetics
by a first, second that is, or fourth tone, or most neutral tone

=,a~M
A third

Third-tone sandhi
when followed becomes a half third tone, For example: a tone that only falls but does not nse.

tone,

syllables,

usually

The tone mark is unchanged.

III gege III monq mov

w6 yeo

2. "~"t¥J:g£\Ij Tone sandhi of "~"


"/G" is a fourth tone syllable by itself. But it becomes a second tone when followed by a
fourth tone. For example:

bu he
bu shl

bu monq

bu h60

bu yoo
like "j" in "jerk", u naspirated.

3.
I

£il~tl
Initials:

Prootmciation key
but with the tip of the tongue curled farther back,

zh ch sh r

like "ch " in "church", back, aspirated.

but with the tip of the tongue curled

farther

like "sh" in "ship", as in "right" tongue curled farther

but with the tip of the tongue curled but with lips unrounded, Always pronounce back. the Chinese

farther back.

in English,

and the tip of the

11'1 sound

with a nice smile! (2) Finals:

oi -i [1]

like "y" in "sky"

(light)

"-i [1]" in "zhi", "h" " "h" c S


to pronounce

"chi",

"shi"

and

"ri" is pronounced
the initials

differently

from the simple final "i [i]". an d"" r, the simple

After pronouncing

"zh",

t h e tongue dC' not move. oes final "i [i]",

are must b e ta ken not

which is never found after "zh",

"ch",

"sh" or "r",

1.

lA.1j~*&~ Learn

and write basic Chinese characters


(7.
,.I

(1)

A
ren
Note: people,

JA
person 2 strokes "A"
IS

'~l

On the left side of a character,

written

as "1 "

"'\

- 32-

(2)

shi
(3)

+
ten

--t2 strokes
/'

~~~lt

L:
bY
dagger

L:
2 strokes

f
~

f
~

(4)

!10~
middle 4 strokes

zhong
(5)

~~ ,rr-.:::.,
';

El
rl
sun

nnn
4 strokes

l_)

r~

(6)

_Yl (Jl )
bel
shell

n§l_Yl
4 strokes

€3 (f)
-'t
=-... - J-~=_--' -C"1

(7)

.£.

yu
Note:

-jade
,I

:f_f_.£.
5 strokes
" ..L" is wri tten as "J "
.~~.:.

On the left side of a character,

...."';'_

..I'

(8)

3c
shl

.J-

!:::.g:-3c
5 strokes

alTOW

1
5 strokes

(9)

1sheng

r-: ~

41person

to be born;

suffix denoting

(10) ~

person;

+
thing

j_jt-;f-11%~

(;3t-+ E1 )
8 strokes

zhe 2.

iA.~ iIl:t.p B W J£~&

* Learn
"-:Jt ",

and write the Chinese characters appearing

in the texts (1) ~ to

:kt
(The

----* ~
"female"

+~
side, denotes something related to a woman.) - 33-

(2)

1-tt

to

1~ ~ 1 +~
(The "standing person" side, "1 ", denotes something related to a person.) (3)

11'1 men Urn

11'1 ~
(The meaning (4)

+ 11
"1 ", and the phonetic side is "f"l ".)

side is

1t- nl

1~ ---). + ~ 1
(;F:
(The "standing person" side"
J

htlT;F
denotes something

5 strokes)
related to a person.)

1"

(you'erduo) (nozlponq) tJ~

(the (the

"right-ear" "that" side)

side)

2 strokes 4 strokes

!J
(5)

no

+~
(6)
llJ)~

no
l1JJ~ -> 0 + JJ~
(The meaning side is "0", and the phonetic side is "fJ~".)

(7) ~~

no
~

___,.

jt

+ JJ~
side is "-:;k " and the phonetic side is "fJ~".)

(The meaning

(8) ;tf~ dou

;tf~ ;P(loozltou) (jTnzlr)

---+ ~
(the

+~
-

"old" top)
character)

+
1

_Ly
n

4 strokes

rp
Y
- 34-

(the

"towel"

rp

3 strokes 2 strokes

(shlzlponq ) (the "teacher"

side)

(9)

:t- yip looshl (:t- ~ip)


~
-----)0

jt- +

yrp

y
(The

- + rp
frame,

fi
denotes the boundary
3 strokes

_"fi' l r /t( r

I~

Q (guoZikuong)
(10)

tf

n r=J
-----)0

"country"

"Cl",

of a country.)

§J Zhonqquo

(tf @)

m1
C
(11)

r=J + ~
frame) -

(yTzlkuong) (the "doctor"

2 strokes

ffi. 1- yishenq (-11-)

C
;::(_(plzldl) (12) (the "foot"

+
7 strokes)

(~:bottom) ~

-r --;::- ;:(_ 7F

5 strokes

Jk.. shl

Jf_ _,.

El + ;::(_
Cultural Notes
Scheme for the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet

Chinese cilitate Phonetic plication adopts indicate Chinese language.

differs from alphabetic

languages

in that its written notation drafted the

form is not directly characters "Scheme sounds")

related

to its pronunciation. the consultation Alphabet",

In order to provide phonetic


of dictionaries, commonly and in 1958 the Chinese to transcribe Chinese characters. provides

for Chinese passed ("arranged

and to fathe apPinyin to The the

phonologists

for the Chinese system.

government sounds, Pinyin many

an act to promote

of this scheme, the Latin alphabet the different language,

known as the pinyin

and four diacritical Chinese advantages

tone marks

tones of Chinese and has aided of Chinese

is now widely used for the study of (Putonghua). for learning practical

the popularization

of standard

use of pinyin

in the study

- 35-

In this lesson, name politely, for permission. introduced sounding unfamiliar in initials

you will leam

how to ask someone's and how to ask initials similarseem than of the Chinese different and so may

how to introduce this lesson are

yourself,

The pronunciations found in English,

to you. Don't be discouraged,

however, for with

daily practice

you will surely be able to master them.

~ll!Il. Lesson

it q~
-. i*3Z~

ni

hen

gaoxlng
---.5' ~

II=fJ /"

Text

l.coshl.

KeyY jlnlai 'ma? CD

%- Vir:

~ y:J.

jlt*- "197
@

~*- -M~:
l.ooshl,

Un l\Jo:

OYng jln:

Yang

looshi, nln hco. Zhe shl w6 penqyou ,

it

iii 1
0

~h;;tt

Yip,

f11

*t it
0

;it ~

jJJJ j,z_,

to shl jlzhe. 1~ ;t 1G:1it


Olnqwen ,

nin gulxlng?

:t- Vrp :
- 36-

ikfOJ,

f$

-f-B-?

Lu

LIJ Yuplnq. @ id fi1, ):11 Mt f:f,J 1l~ lfi-t : ~ I\IY hco , Lu xionshenq , renshi nY hen t.oosht, ') '0 f-7 . 'l~ *f; 1 \.1/, 1~ ~P<:it vip : f'ft J't.±
Yuplnq , W6 xing
JIOO
0
9

Lu,

gooxlng.
~ ".) ~AQ

Lu
[f;t,

Yuplnq.

Yang

f:F:J-t .

kroshl,

renshi nfn, w6 ye hen gooxlng.


') 't:1 "1 ~ 1/,

~h
New Words

;t vrp,

'1';t.
1~""

1~

~~

/,

:£i~

1. renshi

V
A

-l-A1.f,.
~/,

to know (somebody) happy; may to come in to enter to come please you (polite friend reporter May I ask ... ? to ask what's your honorable one's surname to be called Mr. (a surname) surname? form) pleased

2. gooxlng 3. keyY 4. jl~nloil

-;;:~

OpV VC V V V Pr
N N

PJ"VA

jln
lail 5. q~ng

i! it
J~

**if).

*-

* 6. * 7.

nfn pengyou

JJJJJi._

8. jlzhe 9. qlnqwen

1C.;t-

V V
IE

itfOJ
I',;]

wen
10. gulxlng

-t-kl-H.
f1~

xing,
11. jioo 12. xicnshenq 13. Yang

V/N V
N

is'''/surname

jG1.
~h

PN

r[§~1dB]
~~dUCing ~ oneself

.-.---.....

Un No:

W6 shl Yuyon xueyunn

de xueshenq.

W6 xing Un,
~

~t'" j~~:

~}E._

i% §

~ft

~7 ,*:t

~i if-- ,
(j)

[leo Un No. W6 shl YTnggu6 reno NY xing shenrnev


111-)

**

~Mli 0

.t\. Jt

*00

1,7- ~i

f+ ~ ?
- 37-

Mo Dowei.

W6 xing Mo,

jioo Mo Dowel.
j:rJ-)

~ *-71:
Un l\Jo:

.t. -HNY
8

y:;,

g, k7t7
mov
)..._

shl Jioncdo

ren

*WJI~ :
Mo Dowel.

'1~ JZ j)rJ~k

"2:1 ?
ren , w6 shl Meigu6
A._,

W6 bu shl Jicncdo

ren,

ye shl
>~

~. k39:

i\:f:
-~ §
New Words

j(_

jJrJ·:t k_ fJl.;

$.. j(_
0 ~

00
~

A,

k
0

Yuyon Xueyuon

de xueshenq.

~ Itt

'* 1-

W6 xuexi Honyu.

SJ ~5tif;-

1. yOyon 2. xueyuo n 3. de
4.

N N Pt
N

j%

xueshenq

5. shenme 6. xuexl 7. HonyO


8.

QPr

v
N
PN

'* fiG '* 11t '*


fJ~
{!.,

language institute; college or modifying particle)

(a possessive student what to learn; Chinese

>]

to study (language) England student)

~J.3%
~

Ylinggu6

9. MOl Dowei
10. Jioncdo
11.

pN
PN
PN

!Ill y:; kfJ

Great Britain; (name Canada

of an American

!JrJ~
~

*-

Mieilgu6

l!]1

the United States;

America

Notes

(D

KeyY jlnloi ma?


"May I come in? "

Qing, jln!
"Come in, "OTIlQ (ii!J please! " used for making polite requests.

) ... " is an expression

- 38-

@ OTngwen, nin gulxlng?


"May I ask what is your (honorable) This is a polite way of asking the first time, name. it is considered or "to means Notice that "gul(:if()" surname? " In China, when meeting rather than someone his/her for full surname someone's surname.

more polite (1tB/~JE)".

to ask his/her

can only be used in combination "May I ask ... " or "Excuse

with "nY(1/'j,)" or "nin(f2~)", and is a polite way of

and not with "w6(fI(;)"

"Olnqwen
asking

(iff I'P))"

me, but...",

a question.

@ W6 xing Lu, jico Lu Yupinq


"My surname When saying "W6 is Lu, and my full name is Lu Yuping." "Nin gulxlng? ", one can either give one's surname by xing "W6 ji(~10"'" or say both "W6 answering xing .. ,", the question

or give one's full name by saying one's surname

jioo .... "


Note that in Chinese, always comes first, and the given name comes last.

Renshi nT hen gooxlng.


"(I'm) glad to meet (literally, know) you."

@ V\f6 shl YOyan xuevuor


"I am a student at (literally,

de xueshenq
of) the Language Institute."

(7) NT xing shenme?


"What's to a child, your surname? " someone's surname is appropriate when an adult
IS

This informal

way of asking

speaking

or when young people

are talking

with each other.

Pronunciation Drills
-o±--BJ: F' mJ-BJ:
1.
Initials:
finals:

q io Ian uei( -ui)


J

lang uen( -un)

Oe

(jon

mil"
jI jio jicn jiong jln

Spelling
qT qio qion qiong qTn xT xio
xion

xiong xTn
- 39-

jTng ju jue
juon

gUT zhOn
2.

qTng qO que quon kuT


chun

xTng xu xue xuon huT tlJn jl zhe qlng


jln

i!QPf

The four tones

jT zhe qTng jTn guT xTng xion sheng yO yon xue yuon xT hon jio
3.

jf

j'f

zhe qfng

xfng
xion

zhe qlng jln gUI xing


xidn

jlzhe qlng jln gUlxlng


xionshenq

gul xing
xion

sheng yu yon xue yuan xf han jia

sheng yO yon xue yuan XI han jia

sheng yu yon xue yuan XI han jia

yOyan xueyuan
xuext
Honyu

Jionada

mil

Sound discrimination

jioo -(to teach)

qico tfng
(to stop)

yue -(month)

ye
(night)

dUI -(right)

tul

tion -(field)

yon -(speech)

yang
(sheep)

zhl -(only)

chi
(ruler)

4.

mJiJ

Tone discrimination

sh6u -(hand)

shou
(thin)

xio -(down)

xio

shul -(water)

shul
(to sleep)

- 40-

xTn
(heart)

xln
(letter)

boi -(white)

boi

xico
(small )

xico
(to laugh)

5.

JfJRfdl-€t
" v"+"-"

Combination of tones
"v "+" ,,, "v"+"v" "v"+" , " "V"+"
0 "

ldoshi BeijTng
(Beijing)

yuyon IIJxfng
(to travel)

keyY yCJfo
(grammar)

qYng jln
kuoshl
(exam)

women jiejie
(elder sister)

" '''+''-''

"'"+'''''

,,'

"+" v"

,,'

"+" ,,,

" , "+"

"

Ub6 mionbco
(bread)

woipo

Honyu

gulxlng
zhuyl
(to pay attention to)

meirnei keqi
(courtesy)

lionxt
(exercise)

boozhl
(newspaper)

6. ~

if;;..

Practice on disyllabic words YTngyu (English)

tcitoi (Mrs) xioojie


(Miss)

Fovu

(French)

nushl (Madam)

Deyu (German) Eyu (Russian) R1YIJ ( Japanese)

jinglY (manager) t6ngshl


(colleague)

7.

lJIlilrfJlJlljitJtim Read the following


Zh uyl fayTn. Zhuyl shenqdioo. Dul bu du/? Dul Ie.

classroom expressions a'oud

(Pay attention to your pronunciation.) (Pay attention to your tones.) (Is it right? ) (It's right)
- 41 -

.1

II :II

III !!!

I!

I: .; ••••••

' .••••.

.. iI

II II II

:II

'I

••

II:

I.

!!I

!!I

'II •

II ••

I: .'

(-) [iw* it if
;;g!!1 s;t!':§'

·
,I

: KEY SENTENCES ., 1. Key'l jinlai ma? 2. Q'Ing jlnl "? 3 ,. N'In gUlxlng. 4. W6 xlnq Lu, jioo l.u yupfng. : 5. Renshi nl hen gOOXlJrlg. :. 6. W6 shl Yuyon xueyuon de xueshenq. 7. W6 xuext Honyu.

· · ·

'I

••

11 •••••

II

II

•••••••

III 'I

II

,:

..

"!!I

lI!!iI

••

II

!!II

I: •

I:

•••

II

••

iii

II!!

l1li

Ii

••••

,Ii

Asking for permission]

Make a dialogue based on the picture

A: -----------------------------B:

( .. ) r (OJ 9:i~

Asking someone's

name

1
dialogues

)GJYQ;-F :@?'~tr Complete §u (1) A: Nfn gUlxlng?

the following

B: W6 xing A: W6 iioo

, jioo
w6 hen gooxing.

B:
(2)

A: 1'1'1xlnq B: A: To jiao B: A: To xlnq B:

shenrnev

(3)

shenrnev

(4)

shenmev

-42 -

( .=.)

I~ lr!B ft
'rnjl:~~
Ask everyone

Introducing oneself]
dialogue
himself/herself in a meeting by imitating Dialogue II
In

Situational

to introduce

the

text.

( 1m)

~JT~
itilo
I~'"

Listen and repeat

.{~ }(±. ? % LJ. . ..Y{

~
1.

Phonetics
key
voiceless palatal affricate. To produce this sound, first raise and press the tip of the tongue

£if~t!
Initials:

Pronunciation

j is an unaspirated

the front of the tongue to the hard palate against squeeze the back of the lower teeth, out through the channel

and then loosen the tongue and let the air and the

thus made. The sound is unaspirated

vocal cords do not vibrate. q is an aspirated voiceless palatal affricate.

It

IS

produced

In

the same manner

as

"j", but it is aspirated.


X

is a voiceless

palatal

fricative.

To produce

it,

first raise the front of the tongue out. The

toward (but not touching) vocal cords do not vibrate. Note-The "u"

the hard palate

and then let the air squeeze

finals that can be combined

with "j",

"q" and "x" are limited to "i",

and compound

finals that start with "i" or "u".

2.

m2i~OOJ
(1) When (2) When

Spelling rules
the compound final

"uei"

is combined gul.

with initials,

it

IS

simplified

to

-UI

and

the tone mark is written

over "i". final

For example:

the compound

"uen"

is combined

with initials,

it

IS

simplified

to -un.

For example: (3) example: When


XUE).

lun.
"0"
IS

combined

with j,

q and x ,

the

two dots

over

it are

omitted.

For

"y" is added

to the compound Yuyon

finals which start with "u"

and the two dots

over it are omitted. Note:

For example:

Xueyuon.
"0".

"J", "q", and "x" are never combined with "u" and

- 43-

· r-;
"~"¥iU(l)

~I
(1)

Grammar

Sentences with "~~'

Subject

Predicate
Adv

V"~"
~

N/NP

Pt

1m To
J;;b MG

~Jifi

shl

IGoshT.

*11 Dawei

/G

~Jifio
lcoshr.

bu

shl
~

To

~m
B" sentence, by putting

~:'±.
xuesheng
is used to connect "~ ".

~?

shl
the verb "~" before

mov
the two parts. Its negative

In an "A ~ form is made emphatic, Note: "~"

"/G "

the verb

If the sentence

is not particularly

is read softly.

The adverb

"/G" must be placed before "~" .

.Chinese Characters
1.

~JH&Jil!J Rules of
Example

stroke order
Rule to Write
Horizontal before vertical before downward-right

Stroke Order

+
A

-+
J
-3t
'0

Downward-left

1-ll;
/"
'0

1-ll;
/"
'0

From left to right From top to bottom From outside to inside before closing

JJ
i!l
1

J1

JJ fi1
IJ

n
J

i!l
1

Outside

before inside

J'

J'

Middle before two sides

- 44-

2.

iA.~~*&*Learn and write basic Chinese characters


-t:
qT
seven

(1)

-- -t:
2 strokes

(2)

IJ'
xioo
small,

IJ

;J'
3 strokes ~" 4 strokes
" 'u
, ...

little

I,

(3 ) I\.,;

I~

I~

I~

xTn
Note:

heart On the left side of a character,

"

is written

as

" If " , as

In

"lti:" .

(4)

J1<shul
Note: water

J 1J 1Y J1<4 strokes "Jj(." is written as "


I
,~

:t
\.

, -'ht
f ,'\
1

:-..

On the left side of a character,

(5)

J]
yue
moon

)
~ hand

n Jl J]
4 strokes ~

»
f
EI3

" , as

In

"~51",

(6)

-t
sh6u
Note:

_::_-t
"+"
4 strokes is written as

~..!!dk
/

;.. , ./

On the left side of a character,

(7)

W
tion
field

"i ''.
'fu-~-' ,::,.._r~
"\'i~"'j'~ \r~1r

I1I-1fF1W
5 strokes

~'~',''':'''

""

.I,.:~

(8)

s]
boi
white

OAs]
/

(~ + r=1)
5 strokes

(9)

/,

,
only

11 0

/,

(0

+ /,)
5 strokes

zhl

(10)

:
speech

.;-

_!-'';-

-, -

.;-

yon
Note:

"

.;p

7 strokes
"+"
D

l
as

'06.;

~
'-

,-~
I~

(.~-1·....// ' '-I --:1


l./

9NI'1;t..
I
,I

'j ~·Io?

On the left side of a character,

is written

" -i " ,

as

In

"iA. if,.",
- 45-

3.
(1)

iA.~.:t:J:f1if.J&¥ Learn
texts i_A:i;; renshi C-,tZ{, ~)
,

and write the Chinese characters appearing in the

1("i ",

+A.
side plus the phonetic side, "A" . )

the meaning

("i ",
(2)

the meaning

side,

denotes

language-related

behavior.)

if>i.

yuyon (~i.)

+1L+12
I'
, (sandianshuT)(the
"three-drops-of-water" side)

3 strokes

(3) ~5l f> Honyu i

Ul~ )

,
, ,

+5l
I\.;

(4)

f~ nfn

1$

-+

1~ +
have"

T
(5)

(y6uzltou)(lhe"Lo AJJ

top)

~/

s.

2 strokes

penqyou

JJJJ -+ jJ

+ jJ
5l

Ji_
(6)

--1-

;- +

-t-M- gulxlng (-t-M-)

tf
11 .,
(7)

Yl
J -r

(jiaozlpang)
J1~

(the

"calling"

side)

l-

2 strokes

jioo
11~ .. ~

12

- 46-

~ (8)

(shoozlponq)

(Ihe "lacfJe" side)

'7 ~

3 strokes

f8 de

tJ'-] -»

+~

- 47-

How will you be able China? ask regret, practicing directions,

to find

your way around express gratitude

in and

By the end of this lesson, look for people, and say goodbye in Chinese. your pronunciation

you should be able to Remember to keep

and tones every day.

, ~liiJ

Lesson 5

Canting zci

1tff 1£

nor

~~)L

Mo Dawei:

Olnqwen,

zhe shl Wang Xiooyun

de sushe rnov
(l~

bb

k_J:J :

it (OJ
;:E_o
B

it Jf:.._
i-~

J ~ -i\

1~~t- rt~?

Nu

xueshenq. Sh1. QYng jln, qYng zuo.

*
bb

;!!.1.. ~ .:

ili,
.r,

'_;E.. 11')

4:0
.?±- 1119 ?

Mo Dowei.

Xiexie. Wang xicoyun zoi ma?CDC2:i

.k 7b :
xueshenq.

1M1·~t
0

Ij'*

Nu
f1;

To bu zoi.

-}; *1-:
Mo Dawei:

:kt /G /(f_

To zoi nor? ~

*-fJ : Af..1. ~
:

:W!. it vJJ~JL ?
w6

*"
bb

Nu

xueshenq. Dulbuql,

xt~~?
Mei guonxi. ~§t
Zoijinn.

bu zhTdao.®

-fj(, ~

J;Pito

Mo Dowel,

k7b :

*- K>:.

Hco , zoijion.
0

:ij-,

_,"L 0

-* ~ 1-:
- 48-

l\Ju xueshenq.

-1f-JLo

~ i~
2. zoi 3. nor

NewWr

ords

1. canting

Jrk-ff
:(J_
1I)]~JL

dining room to be (here, there) where May I ask ... ? to ask this dormitory female student to enter to sit
j

V QPr
V V

to be (in, on , at)

* 4. qlnqwen
wen

itlOJ
I';]

* 5.

zhe

Pr
N A

6. sushe 7. nu

i! ~%

* 8.

xueshenq

*
iti

~1_

* 9. jln
10. zuo 11. xiexie 12. dulbuql

v v
V

i~ti~t
){t~~
~

to thank I'm sorry

IE Pr
V

* 13. w6
14. zhTdao 15. mel guanxi

I; me
to know never mind; good; well; it doesn't matter fine;

:1-J731L
:J1. ¥- ~ rs: A ;r;

IE
A

16. hoo 17. zoiiion

O.K.

IE
Adv

good-bye agam (name of a Chinese student)

zoi
18. WOlng xiooyun

PN

Mo Dowei.

Xioojie,

qlnqwen canting

Ib k JfJ :
Xioojie:

11'. ~lL,

it f~

zoi nor?

If

1±1IJ

!IJJ~JL?

Zoi er cenq er ling sl hoo.@

JJ~*.
Mo Dowei.

:(J_ .=:-- AiXiexie

C [j:f[itlj]

-=-~

VS]

Expressing

thanks"
,
r

=
Xioojie:
I

, r,

_. ,
\
I ,

Buyonq

xie.@

J' JiI. :

;r: Jf]

1~t
'.1

- 49-

Song Huo:

Dawei,

women

zci zher.

*~

ir-: k)1] :
Xiooyun.
I

kJ.J

.:f\1n
wo

1f_

iiJLo
e])

Mo Dawei:

Dulbuql,

loi won Ie.

It:f:~,

$.
0

Wang
__f_

Mei guonxi.

J ~ -i;- :
New Words

~.t

* ff.

*-

nh 10 s.

:£i~
l. xioojie 2.

N
Nu M Nu

'J~-ML
~

Miss; two story; zero fom number

young lady

er

3. ceng 4. ling 5. 81

floor

,0
ro:J ?
'0

N1!l N Adv
Pr

6. hao
7. Ibuyong 8. zher 9. won

~m
~

need not here late (modal partical/' aspect of a Chinese partical )

:iK_)L

A
Pt

lO. Ie
11. Song
- 50-

r
;R1-t
T

Huo

PN

(name

student)

CD

=. 51~n
Wang, xicovun zci rnov
"Is Wang Xiaoyun in? " "Where is she? "

Notes

@ To zoi nOr?

DulbuqT, w6 bu zhTdao.
"dulbuql (xt /F fIi:,)"
is a phrase commonly used
In

making

excuses

or apologies,

and

the response

to it is usually

"mei guanxiU)Z~~* )".

@ Canting zoi nan


"Where is the dining hall? "

Zai er ceng er ling sl hoo


"It's in No. 204 on the second floor." In Chinese the ground floor of a building is considered to be the first floor.

@ Buyong xie.
"Don't mention it." to an expression of thanks. One may also say, This phrase xie (/G is used as a response

"Bu

1~~1') ".

(J) DulbuqT, w6 loi wan Ie.


"Sony, I am late."

~-~"~i~~~~
F ,-

Pronunciation Drills

-±.--BJ: Initials:
Finals:

fW-Bt
1.

-i [1]
long

er
ua uan uang un

miff
zo zT zO

Speng lli
co cT cO so sT sO
- 51 -

zuon zuT zCln zhuong jiong jOn guo


&.,
r:

cuon cuT cOn chuong


qionq

suon suT sOn shuong


xionq

qOn kuo
fOUI

xOn huo

lmJ1i
zci

The

tones
zci zoi zoi

con tTng sT ceng wen xie


jion

can tfng ceng er wen xie wan yong wang yun song hua

can Ung sl er wen xie


jirm

can tlng sl ceng er wen xie


jion

contlng sl ceng
er hoo qlnqwen xiexie zoijion

won yang wong yOn song huo


3.

won yang wong yOn song

won yong wong yun song huo

laiwon Ie buyong Wang


Xiooyun

Song Hua

Mil Sound discrimination


zl
(son)

--

cl

qie -(and)

jie kuo

[ion
(to see)

--

qion

qTng -(blue-green)

jTng

kuoi
(quick)

huon --

huonq

- 52-

4. 1JffI.J Tone discrimination


sl
(four )

--

sT yang

jYng
(well)

qYng wen

er
(two)

er
(son)

yang

wen -(written language)

xionq
(bear)

xiong

5.

mJ-£U:er~JL1tOO
er (two) erzi (son) erduo (ear) nu'er (daughter)

Final "er" and retroflex ending


zher (here) nor (there) nor (where) wanr
(to play)

6.

J1fWm1t
"-,, + "-,,

Combination of tones

"-,,+" ; "
YTngguo shenqci
(new word)

"-,,+"
JinglY qionbl
(pencil)

v"

"-"+" ,,,
gooxlng gongzua
(work)

"-,,+"
xiOxi
(rest)

"

contlng feijT
(plane)

xionshenq

kciche
(to drive a car)

huonyfng
(to welcome)

kcishl
(to start )

shcnqdicn
(shop)

qTzi
(wife)

" ; "+"-,,
mlnqtion
(tomorrow)

" ; "+" ;"


xuexl huldo
(answer)

" ; "+"
youyang
(to swim)

v"

" ; "+" ,,,


xueyuon zozhl
(magazine)

" ; "+"

"

shenme mfngzi
(name)

shfjion
(time)

pfjiO
(beer)

zuotion
(yesterday)

zuqiu
(football )

cfdion
(dictionary )

cldoi
(audio tape)

haizi
(child)

7. :«if~:il. Practice on disyllabic words


jioosht
( classroom)

Helen (The Netherlands) Aijf (Egypt) Yuenon Toiguo Ylndu


(Vietnam) (Thailand) (India)
- 53-

Inang (auditorium) ccochonq


(playground)

cesuo (toilet) ytyuon (hospital)

8.

~if;;i!E~
shtyonshl

Practice on polysyllabic words tushuquon (library) Xlnjicpc (Singapore)


FeilubTn (the Philip hines ) XTnxTI6n (New Zealand) Aodoltyo Mol6ixTya Ylndunlxiyo
(Australia) (Malaysia) (Indonesia)

bonqonqsh'
tYyuguon

woishlchu
tfngchechong

9.

tuJ~~?IJiaatmii
Oing nion kewen.

Read the following classroom expressions aloud


(Please read the text.)

Oing nion shenqcl. (Please read the new words.) W6 shuo , nimen tTng. (Listen to me.)

., :

'I ••

III ••••

II,

Ii

I!'

'"

••••

III ill,

•••

I!!

•.

1iI.

iii

II

.ii:

iii

ill

il

••••••

' III

.1

KEY SENTENCES
1. Olng jilin, qlng zuo.
2. W6 bu zhTdao. 3. Zoijion.

'.,

.
'

4. Olnqwen, canting
5. X'iexie . 6. Buyonq xie. T Dulbuql. 8. lMei 9'uanxi.

zoi nor?

· · · · .· '
1'1.

~!!II

.. '.'Ii

••••••••

!trlii

III I

Il'."

......

111.

Iii

Iii

••

, •••

( -)

[fCJ t-tl'LB Asking for directions 1 1. j[; ~ T 3JIJ *,-1'r§- Complete the following
(1) A:

dialogues

Olnqwen,

cesuo zoi nor?

B:
A: Xiexie,

B:
- 54-

(2) A: Olnqwen, B: Dulbuql,


2.

jiooshl zoi nor?

'It~ii:'1f5

Situational

dialogues

In an unfamiliar

building:

(1) You are looking for the elevator

(Et!1~, diontl).

(2) You are looking for Mr. Yang's office.

(_:..)[~. A Looking for someone] l. iG )J)Z T 3llj ~tt Complete the B:


A: To zoi nor? B: Dulbuql, A: Mei qucnxi. Zoijion!

following dialogues

(1) A: Olnqwen , Un No zoi ma?

B:
(2) A: ____________________
7

B: Zoi. Oing jln.


2. ;fI' 004i '~f5 Make a dialogue based on the picture ( 1) Xuesheng:
7

Yang lcoshl.

(2) Un No:

uoo

zoi ma

Mo Dowei: Un No: Mo Dowei: Un No: Mo Dowel,


7

- ss-

( -)

r J! fJ:
(1)

Making an apology]
Make a dialogue based on the picture

J-.:;

0'::1;1

~'I~I~i!

A: B·

(2) A:

B:

( IIT!)

[fC] IJ:R.ill! Asking about someone's occupation]


1.

% fix ~)JrJ %-r-,s

Complete

the follow ing cl ial ogues

( 1) A: Nfn shl yTsheng ma? B: Bu shl , ________


A: Nfn ne? W6 ye shl xueshenq , w6 xuexl Honyu.
?

, w6 shl

c:

(2) A: -------------B: Shl ,

to

shl waiyO lcoshi.


?

A: NY
B: W6 bu shl waiyO IGoshT. W6 sht

(1i)

I!fi~ Listen and repeat it I~ ,11!!. fI-J .nJ % ;(±. "JJ~) L ?


;{±. ~Jl;;
~-

0 -t

1~t1At
- 56-

'*
*
ix__
'Jl-

10] ,

lIE i): -iR F!j; :t- yrp 11l!;?


, ~ ;r; -j,J... -iR
0 0

xi ;r; ~
¥- ~ A tr'-

..Ll. . "};CJ EI

:c

'3i.3Z.

Phonetics
by itself but is attached by the letter as in to another to the

1.

JL1tM

Retroflex ending (final)


"er"
sometimes final. does not form a syllable A retroflex final is 'represented "r " added

The final

final to form a retroflex final. In actual

writing , ")L" is added

to the character

in question,

"nclr(13JiUL)".

2.

~if~ti
z
c

Pronunciation key
like "ds" in "beds" with aspiration e.g. "s" in "see " pronunciation) like "ts" in "cats", pronounced like "er"

Initials:

s
Finals:

as in English, in "sister"

-r (final)

(American

Grammar

m ~i£I'!-B 1-~ipJ1~1~ 10 I'll]


Statement

Questions

wi th an interrogative

pronoun

Question
---+

No shl women IdoshT.


JJ~

No shl shei?
JJ~

s.
-lii

4~1n

::t yip 0
---+

s: iii ?
ji

Wo xing Mo.
~

NY xing sherrnev

~o zoi er cenq. ;{J_


---+

1t
-- -*0
rEm.
Ao
In

'it ~?
zoi nor?

Canting

Canting

t-ff To sill
:kt
7Z.
a

Zhongguo

---+

t-ff To shl
:lit

;(J_

PJ)~ JL

rp~

s.

no guo renv
(I)J~

l!l

A?
is the same as that in a the part

The word order declarative sentence.

a question

with an interrogative a question

pronoun pronoun

In this kind of sentence, pronoun

simply replaces

of the sentence

to which the interrogative

corresponds. - 57-

t.
l.tJt*j[1t~IlII(l)
Stroke
-?

5)(~-

I.-.T... ~.".

-~

Chinese Characters

Combined character strokes (1)


Name Example Way to Write
The horizontal stroke with a hook, in "1$", turn,
IS IS

henggou hengzhe hengpie hengzhegou

1~
11;
x_

written

like the fourth stroke The horizontal written

--,

stroke with a downward


In

like the first stroke stroke

"~" -

;;

The horizontal the left,

with a downward

turn

to

is written

like the first stroke in

"Jl..",
in

1
1-

1'1
is: 1:0

The horizontal a hook,


IS

stroke with a downward written like the third

turn and stroke

"i'l ",
The horizontal then an stroke upward with turn stroke a downward to in the
~p

turn,
IS

hengzheti shugou

and

right,
,

written

like the second stroke

""li"

The vertical the second

with a hook,

is written

like

stroke in

"T",

2. iA.~~*tJt*
(1)

er
1-

Learn and write basic Chinese characters

two

JL

2 strokes

~ =--==:rr.

(2)

JL (jG)
er
son

2 strokes
-?

'3
-if #

V---::\ _"y' I _",J

r--:')

.-/!

(3 )

zT
(4)

113 strokes 4 strokes

..
-'

son

'"

I.)

jTng
(5)

1t-

-_:::::.j=-1twell

Jt
wen
written language 4 strokes

- 58-

(6) ~(JL) jion


to see 4 strokes

(7)

lL
qie
Note: loaned and function

nFfFflL
5 strokes
for ";f1l" (zu, ancestor). for the original When character. it became a

"JI.." is the original character


word,

";f1l" was substituted

(8)

V!J
81
four

17 V1 vq V!J
5 strokes

(9) ~

w6

I,me

7 strokes

(10)

11
qTng
blue-green 8 strokes

3.

t.J...~~:x ~
in the texts

B lfI ~tro&!j! Learn


(the "location" top) ~;-

and write the Chinese characters appearing

1(zuizltou)
(1) ~

strokes

zoi

;(±_~1+_±'
(2)

::k zuo ~ -----*


J.

J.

+ _±.

(3)

it 1'0] qlnqwen C-tt rpJ )

it
I~

-----*

i + 11
side is

(The meaning

"i ", and the phonetic side is "~".)

-----*

1'1 +

0
- 59-

:t_

(z6uzhTdT)(the

"hurrying"

side)

3 strokes

(4) ~

zhe (li)

1! __,. { + )
(5)

i._

Hi jln (11!..)

±!
(6)

--+

-Jt-

+ i._

1}X zoijion

(1}JL)

1} ----+ -

n
top)

+ _±_
6 strokes)

(-rnFJr1-1t
r-z".
(7)

(xuezltou)
~

(the

"study"

, \\

\\!

/'! ~

'*

5 strokes

1.. xueshenq

(~1..)

--+

r-z".

+ -f

(8)

M- hco

(9)

IJ'1JL xiaojie

~n----+

-Jt.

+ II
(the "use" frame) )

(yonqzlkuonq)

2 strokes

(10) ~ JfJ

buyonq

JtJ

--+n

+t

- 60-

Chinese Dictionaries
Unlike dictionaries piled most English are organized dictionaries, in a number in question, alphabetically (New Chinese in which entries of different ways. romanization according are arranged Chinese system), to radical, Hanyu at present alphabetically, dictionaries by the number whereas Cidian Chinese of strokes dictioChiReThe entries.

can be com-

alphabetically

(using pinyin

or another

used to write the character published naries are often arranged Zidian

or by the radical and include Dictionary) dictionary, their radical

of the character. and stroke-number

Many dictionaries modem indexes. (Modern

before the 1920s order their entries

The Xinhua nese Dictionary) public second of China.

and Xiandai containing

are among the most widely used dictionaries The first is a pocketsize characters, dictionary words, definitions, and idiomatic and the detailed students

in the People's and tones. entries. (Sources there Chinese

some eight thousand

It deals mainly with individual


is a medium-sized single characters, compound Cihai designed

pronunciations, expressions. Ciyuan

including set phrases,

more than fifty-six thousand

It covers
of Words) language

The encyclopedic dictionaries and culture. specially

(Sea of Words) often issued for international

are both large dictionaries,

in multi-volume

sets. Currently

are also many

who want to study

- 61 -

In this lesson, You will accept also learn

you will be able to learn what to do what another person has said. how to and how to make suggestions,

when you don't understand or decline

suggestions,

and how to make comments.

This lesson also provides tones covered so far.

a review of the pronunciation

.7\t~Lesson

(H3a

Review)

Women qu y6uyong, hoo

~1rJ

-*

1'1l0

Wf~Jj(,

~f
Text

Q~

-. il>lt~
Wong
.E,

Xiooyun.
J

Un

No, zuoticn
ofJ;..

de jTngju zenmeyonq-

CD

J \ -i::: :

tf-. -Mil,
1f<-'~l; ';it IIIJ j-1J,

a~

-;f: }!1]
;:~~

It: ;i,. if ?
1Lz M- ,

Un

~t -Mil:

No·

Hen you ylsi.

;f£[

t: 1'£'
.ia:
XJ

Jlntion
0

ticnql hen hco , women qu

~.:k
11-g.. ? ~J

-t\ 1n -i-

youyonq , hco mov ®

Wong

Xiooyun,
J

Toi hoo Ie! Shenrne shfhou qU?

J'

-i;" :

k -lif 1! 1t ~
Xionzoi qu ,

at +~ };;?
@

Un

No·
Xiooyun,
I

key! mov
\7_~

~t- -itJJII:
Wong
.E,

JJiG~
Key!.

4-, \1f VA
0

J \ -i;.-

P'f VA

- 62-

New Words

t qu 2. youyonq 3. zuotion 4. jlnqju 5. zenrneyonq 6. you ylsi 7. jTntiion

v
VO N N QPr IE N N N Adv QPr N N

to go

~,1j<..

to swim yesterday Beijing opera

atk
"tjlJ
I&~/II
k/..}¥

how is it? interesting

q..k

today day weather too; what time; now moment extremely

ticn
8. tionql 9. toi

s:
J\._

A_~

* 10.

shenrne

1t~
E'r1r~_
JJt1±-

It shfhou 12. xicnzoi

(B)
DTng Ubo: Yang

looshi, mlnqtion nfn you shljion mcv

T
Yang

}Jilt:
looshr.

fm

;t Yip,

~k

1~ ifst

faJ

vl1; 7

Dulbuql,

ih
T

:ft V'15: ni)t:

xt ~~,
sf] ~

qYng zoi shuo yf bien. ®

it -Jft iJt - i®..o


nfn you shljicn

DTng Ubo:

Mfngtion

1~;f:f

st fSJ

me?

vi!;?

i'

Women qu do qiu, hco rno?

-1\ 11'1
Yang

* Jr

J;f..,
SfJ:k

:kt "19 7
~
(/)

_ _J

looshl.

Hen booqion,

mlnqtion wo

-r\

ih

::t Yrr : 1lZ


/ '

~E~,
.....

hen monq , konqpo bu xfng.

1~ IIi:,
...... 0

)'}'t ,~ I~~ ~
,

1To

,,!-

Xiexie rumen.

1~t-jM 1b- /"1 'J' II

- 63-

~l~

New Words

1. minqtion

N V N V M VO V N

I'1jJ *-

tomorrow to have time to say; number to speak of times (of action)

2. you 3. shljicn 4. shuo 5. 6.

t"

Et is]

oren
do qi'lJ dio
qiu

iJt i&

-irJ*-iT J*;j~~ I~i:

to play ball to play ball to fed busy to be afraid that; to be O.K. to thank you (pl.] perhaps SalTY Isorry

7. bcoqion * 8. monq 9. konqpo 10. xing *11. xiexie 12. nlrnen

VIA
A Adv

v
V
Pr

4-r

~d~

j!H~t
1t-1fl
_, ~+m& lI.ff
" commonly

Notes

CD

Zuotion
"...

de jTngju zenmeyang?
Beijing opera? " is an expression most extensive used to ask for someone's Beijing opera has enjoyed As a unique OpIniOn. the greatest of

"How was yesterday's zenmeyang? and culture, has the Among the roughly popularity Chinese

300 forms of opera in China,


influence.

art form representative

it is loved by many people

all over the world.

@ \N6men qi. youyonq , hoo rna?


"Shall we go swimming? " used when making a suggestion.

""',

hoo 11'10? " is a. pattern

CID Tai nco Ie! Shenme shihou qU?


"That's also used great! to express When are we going? " used to show enthusiastic approval. It is You may also use "hco "T ci hoo Ie!

('j\JfT!
happy

)"

is an expression

agreement

with a suggestion.

(y.J )" or

"xing (1l)" as a. response.

@ Xianzai qu, KeyT rna?


"Is it O.K. to go right now? " ". ". keyT mo? " is another expression used to make a suggestion. If you agree with a suggestion, you may say "keyT (PI ~), " or "hoo )

- 64 -

(y.J ) ".

Mrngt,icln nfn

you

shfjian rna?
"

"Do you have time tomorrow?

@ QTng zoi shuo


"Pardon? him/her This phrase

yr

olen.
" words were not heard clearly and you would like

Would you say it again? them.

is used when the speaker's

to repeat

(J) Hen ocoqion,


"I'm sorry,

rnfngtion

wo

hen monq,

kongpo bu xing.
refusal.

but I'll be very busy tomorrow, I'm afraid I can't."

"kongpo bu xing" is a phrase to express a courteous

1.

mtf

_" ~=e§-~~r·· , Pronunciation


Spelling

Review

zhT jO ben zhong zan zha ge

chT qlJ peng chong cang cha ke

zT gO tan gan jTn zO


jI

cT kO dang kong qTng cO qT

2. U!lPf The four tones you you you yang yong zuo zuo zuo
tion tion

you yong zuo


ticn
jln

youyong
zuotion

jln qT
xicn

tion jln

jTntian
mlnqtion tionql xionzoi

rnfng qf
xicn

ming qi
xion

mlng ql
xicn

jTng jO boo
qion

ju baa
qion

jlng jO boo
qion

jlng ju baa
qion

jlngju
bcoqion konqpo bu xfng
- 65-

kong xTng

xfng

kong xing

kong xing

3.

mtf
jiO -(nine)

Sound discrimination
xiu

sT
(private)

shT

cun
(inch)

zun juan

ql -(air)

jl

dul -(to exchange)

tul

guan

4.

5fl\1l Tone discrimination


wang -(to die)

wong san

ken
(to see)

--

kan
shen

gong
(labor)

gong -guai

san
(three)

shen -(body)

guoi

5. JliMm1t
" '1/"+ "-,,

Combination of tones
" '1/"+" / " "'1/"+"'1/" " '1/"+" , " "'1/"+"0

"

looshl

yOyTn
(pronunciation)

yOyon do qiu
qlchuonq
(to get up)

keYI yCJfa
(grammar)

konqpo qlnqwen nushl


(Madam)

jiejie
zenme
(how)

xicoshuo
(novel)

fudco
(coach)

Ylzi
(chair)

" , "+ "-,,

",,,+,,/,,

"'''+'''1/''

"'"+'''''

"'''+''0

"

shang ban
(to go to work)

sl ceng
kewen
(text)

woiyO dionYlng
(movie)

booqion hulhuo
(conversation)

xiexie rneimei

qlche
(car)

luyTn
(sound recording)

fuxf
(review)

diormco
(computer)

Honzl
(Chinese character)

keqi

6. Xl if it i!ii Practice on disyllabic words


duo n I ion
chiton shonqke xioke 7.
(to do physical training)

chongge
tioowu

(to sing a song) (to dance)

(to eat a meal) (to have lessons) is over)

xlzoo

(to take a bath) (to sleep)

(class

shuljioo

~lt~~il
xie Honzl

Practice on polysyllahic words


ken luxicnq
ZUO (to watch video) (to do exercise) (to read the new words) characters)

shuo HonyO (to speak Chinese) nicn shenqct


(to write Chinese (to listen to tape)

lionxl

tTng luyTn
- 66 -

fonyl juzi (to translate sentence) yong dionnoo (to use computer)

8.

l~'l~l"iiitf9.~ Read the following poem aloud


Deng
k"<-,:a

Guan Oue
~.

Lou
~

-if

(Tang)

'Wang Zhlhuon

(;g- )
Bai

.r.
y1

Zi~
shon
~

rl
EJ He ~"f

jln,
R, ,

tJ
Huang

*ru
A

hoi i!ij: II'

IiILJ.

Jr
YU
:(;_

qionq
'j]

qion

5ffu rnu,
0

'it

fyl

£
ceng

Geng
~

shang

lou.
~o

J:.

-*
(Please (Please (Please (Let's

9.

lIil-rJlJiJl1lJUm
Ol'ng ken shu. Ol'ng xie Hcnzl.

Read the following classroom expressions aloud


look at your books.) write the characters.) read it again.) do dictation.)

Ol'ng zoi nion yi bien. Women tTngxie.

.'

11

'Ii

I!l

iI

,iii,

III

III

II

11\1

II

III

II

!!

IIij

.Ii

••

Ii!

I, II,

ii, iii

II

III

iii

,Iii.

"

,ill

,I I!i

II

II

II

!!!

iii

"

III

II

II!

II:

III. ill

iii!

II

iii

Ii,

Ii

II

I, !I

Ii

II

I!

iii

III

II

110

KEY SENTENCES
1. Zuotion de ]Tngl~IJ zsnrnsyonq? 2. Jmtion tionql hen hoo, women qu youyonq, hdo ma? : 3. Tel hoo le!1 Shenrne shlhou qu? : 4. xicnzo: qUI, keyl' ma? . 5. Keyl'. 6. Mingtion
nin you shljlcn ma? konqpo
..
III'

7. Dulbuql, ql'ng zoi shuo yi bien. 8. Hen bcoqion,


Ii

bu xlnq.
tIi ill II
Ii!

.
- 67-

'II!

II III.

'.' II Ii

II II.

'I!I

II I!!

'.I!!I

III "

11111

'I!II!III!I

II

II.

II

II'.

II II II,.

II

II II II II II II.

_.,

II Ii

11111'11

II

II

••

"

II' It

...

II II II lI.

(-)

[~i)(
(1) A:

Making suggestions]
a dialogue based on the picture , hoo ma?
----------------?

W I!I~-~_ Make

B: Tai hoo Ie!


A:

, keyY ma?

B:
(2)

A:

, hoo mov
Shenme shfhou qU?

B:
A:

I["(':f)'~ '~'-T

'f'i

, keyY ma?
DulbuqY, Mei guEmxi.
A'.

B:
A:

fT

.GAl - ~'-:_-.
J\\

~~'

_'J!"' ~\;'-.

'fi_f;

(Use the word "ticowu" which means "to dance".)

(=) [i~

W [~I~i:~ A: A:
( .=.)

*:m

j[ Asking someone to repeat something]


?

Make a dialogue based on the picture

B: Du'ibuqY,
?

[iIf!. it Making comments]


a dialogue based on the picture

~ I!I~-~!Make
(1)

A: Olnqwen,

zhe shl shenmev

B: Zhe shl wushu. Wushu zenmeyang?

A:
(2) A: Zhe shl shenmev B: Zhe shl xionqrnco.
A: Xi6ngmoo zenmeyonqv

B:

- 68-

egg) f~f1Jl'mHfJ~i%ill~T~
(1) A: Nfn hco!

3] Imitate the following dialogues

B: I\lfn hoo!

A: Olnqwen,

nfn gulxlng?

0,~,L<i'[V~\ /t~i ,~\fft:ll


Doxue (university) de

{7t

r~

B: W6 xing U, jioo U Moll. Olnqwen , nfn xlnq shenrnev A: W6 xing Song, B: W6 shl Meigu6 xueshenq. A: Henshi nfn hen qooxlnq. Renshi nfn, w6 ye hen gooxlng.
! , '\

jioo Song Huo. l\Jfn shl no gu6 ren? ren, shl Beijing

B:

(2) A: Ubo, nY hco rnov

, 'I

\.

'\ '\~-"""~-;"! \" ' h.J

""('?t:-.;-\ \
I~-~'
j

.. ~..._

~."" , .. ,

J_)~ to..
if ,I,;:
j

'J \ ,,('./1'\
(

B:
A:

W6 hen hco. Song Huo, W6 hen mong. NY wo.po

nY ne?

L ~J,J/~.(·

"~

,)..

1J:~;;bf l I' i
..l.

1-'.

.~)

-, __,: J,.

hoo ma? dou hoo ma?

B: Xiexie , to hen hco. NY bobo , mama


A: Tornen dou hen

nco.

Mall,

zhe shl w6 penqyou , DTng Llbo.

B: NY hoo.
A: Zhe shl Moll. C: NY hco. W6 jioo Moll, shl Beijing xuexl Honyu. Doxue de xueshenq. W6

OYngwen, nl shl Meigu6 reno

ren ma?

B: Bu shl, w6 shl .lioncdo (3)

A:

To shl shei? To shl w6men laoshT. ren ma? reno To xing Chen.

B:
A:

To shl Zhonqquo To shl Zhonqquo No shl shei? To jioo Lu YOpfng.

B:
A:

B:
A:

To ye shl looshi rnov To ou shl looshT. To shl jlzhe.

B:

- 69-

(4)

A: Xionsheng, qlnqwen , bonqonqshl

zoi nor?

B: Zai wu cenq.
A: Chen looshi
zoi ma?

.., \-.;,
~~'
~.,

'r-'{ _",'fl

B: Shei? Dulbuql, B: To zoi.


A: Xiexie. B: Bu xie. (5) A: Keyi jlnlai mov

qlnq zoi shuo yi bien.

A: Chen Fongfong looshT zoi ma?

r\1:$(r~~
(
.~

~i

~~~J'C .:
_.::1' ~ .;
~
I

-I

~t

. ~'Ii\>'< c., ',_1,. _, \-'~'(

' r~

I, -'

B: Wang xionshenq , nin hco. Oll1g jln, qlng zuo. A: Du'fbuqi, wo loi wan Ie. B: Mei quonxi. Nil1 yeo kofei rnov A: Wo bu yeo. Xiexie. Mingtion women qu ken jinqju, B: Dulbuql,
(E)

hoo ma?

mlnqtion wo hen monq , konqpo bu xing.

PJl-j£ Listen and repeat

-1'\ 5.t I1JT ik Ji , it 11- iYL - iJ& xt ~ ~, EjJ *--1'\ 5.t;{:f at fa] , f& 't~~ 4T
0

n. i~~
1. "-"trtJ~~
Normally word, phrase in the fourth "-"

Phonetics
by itself, "-" at the end of a is pronounced It is

Tone

sandhi of "_,,
in the first tone when it stands number. tone, a first tone, second or is used as an ordinal However, or third

is pronounced

or sentence,

tone when it precedes

tone syllable.

read in the second

tone when it precedes

a fourth tone.

yl bei (one cup)

yT +

~
v

----+

yl +

~
v

example:

yl pfng

(one bottle)

yl ben (one copy) example: yf bien (one time/once)

yT +
-70 -

----+

yf +

2.

if ii ~ pr -SJ: 1$ -8} m~ ~ta


in Common Speech
There to these,

* Table
we can

of Combinations of Initials and Finals


in the common more speech than of modern Chinese. The

are more than 400 meaningful from Lesson

syllables

If we add the four tones


syllables covered

distinguish

1,200

syllables.

1 to Lesson 6 are shown in the table on the next page.

$iiJiNl!1lJ
The main object usually

1\. i-B)1i

in a sentence

Gramlnar

Sentences with a verbal predicate


part of the predicate follows the verb. with a verbal forms predicate is a verb. The One of its negative is made by placing the adverb

"/G" before the verb.

Predicate Subject Adv V


I

0 ~JJu~F kafei

1l1l? rna?
rli?J? ma?
0

1fF
NY

yoo

ft1n
Women

1!f~
dou

,llb)j 'T-"---

lx i!

xuexi

Honyu. @~jL ? nor?

~JT
Canting

tE
zoi

ft
Wo

/G
bu

9;Omo
zhTdao.

ft
WO

M:
xing

~mo
l.u. ijYj\ y]~
0

1«B
Ta
1$
Jl!J"'

~4
jico
E!Jj5C

Un No.

I
rli?J?

if
you

Btl'S]
shljion

l\Jin

rnlnqtion

mov

-71 -

t. )X~
Stroke
I

Chinese Characters

1. &. ¥ j(1t~·nm (2) Combined character sttokes (2)


Name Example
The vertical
l--

Way to Write
stroke with a horizontal like the second turn to stroke

shuzhe

J-J

the right,

is written

. In
The

"LlJ " ,
vertical stroke is written with an upward turn to
In

shun

v~

the right,
"I)),",

like the first stroke

The vertical

stroke

with a horizontal like the second

turn stroke

to

shuzhezhegou

the right,
~

and then a downward IS written

turn and a
10

hook,

"'EJ" .

C.

I henqzhewcn
gou

The

horizontal then

stroke

with turn

a vertical to the right

turn, and

-JL

and

a horizontal hook,

an upward ' stro k e In

is written

like the second

"11" ,
stroke to the left, and then a like

The downward

piezhe

horizontal the second

turn to the right, stroke in

IS written

"1:..",

<
2.

piedion

*"
strokes
strokes strokes like

The downward extended

stroke to the left and then an is written like the

dot to the right,

first stroke in "~",

~IOOm1t Combination of
The relationship between are three ways to combine (1) Adjacent (2) (3) (not attached)

in a Chinese

character

can be essential

to its meamng,

There

in a character:

Ie, CrOSSIng lik '

"--t"
'T"

"*"

"r:";
"A" ,Po..,

")L",
A; "±" ",I," I-LI,

,,__.. "

-,

,/ "--!-.,, u,

Connec tiIng l'k Ie,

"T"

"*,".

- 72 -

3.

lAli~*& ~ Learn

and write basic Chinese characters

(1)

1L
jiO
mne

1L
2 strokes

(2)

L
sT
private 2 strokes

(3)

-t
cun

--t-t
a unit of inch 3 strokes

( 4)

.r,
gong
labour

-r .r,
3 strokes

I,
'---....__
,/

wang

to die

3 strokes

(6)

ql ...

san

three

3 strokes

- --

(7)

~ C~) --C~
aIr

--C
4 strokes

(8)

3L
11

-... ...
\

... ... \f _\j_


5 strokes

to stand

(9)

3r
shen
Note: "~"
,~

(
~ ~

~ iJ 3r
7 strokes of a character,

body

On the left side or in the middle is written as "~ "

(10)

JL

dul

to exchange

7 strokes -73 -

4.

iA.~ilx.:p tI9&¥
texts

Learn and write the Chinese characters appearing in the

(1) };;-

(2)

1) it ltg, you ylsi

*"
;tr
If!;. W
I~

qu

~ ~ ~

r
5L
...

Fl
' I\..>"

ft-

+ SJ + ' + I\..>"
k_

(3)

k ~ tionql (k~)
~ ~

-+
k_ +

(4)

toi

*1t
~

(5)

1t~

shenme (~~)
-~

1
/

+
~

----+

(6)

at1'*- shfhou (Bt1'*-)

st ~

EJ +

-t
time.)
;:L

(" El ", the "sun"

side denotes

+
(7) 13l.1f_

*10 strokes)

xionzo i (JJL1f_)

J}L ~
(8)

YL

aJJ k

aJJ~

mlnqticn

El +j]
the "sun" side and the "moon" side, "J]", denote light.)

(" El ", -74 -

(9)

at faJ

shijion (at M )

fa]
(0)

1'1
( ~JL ) -"
, "}

iYL shuo

1JL

,,?

-----+

+ Jt
3 strokes "«:"
IS

't
(1)

(shuxlnponq)
(On the left side of a character, written as

",t ".)

,ti: mcnq

Iji: ~
(2)

't + -t+~

-i~hM xiexie ($1#)

1~t---+ i -

+-t
_
Chinese ever since.

_ ~1t~Di.R
Beijing about thesizing featuring melodies opera is a branch instrumental motions of traditional music,

Cultural Notes

Beijing Opera
musical drama. acrobatics, It took shape and martial in Beijing art synarts, and

150 years ago and has been popular recitation, symbolic and stage design.

Beijing

opera is a theatrical and suggestive as a performing

singing,

dancing, beats

The highly fonnulaic to its uniqueness

movements Bei-

of the actors

are accompanied

by the rhythmic All contribute culture

of gongs and drums, strongly

or the haunting
alt.

of traditional

instruments.

jing opera is rooted deeply

in Chinese

and still appeals

to many Chinese.

-75 -

The first
IC

SIX

lessons

of this textbook provide an overview of the phonetwhich consists in Chinese. is to acquire of twenty-one initials, thirThere are only a little over 1,200 Now that you can use the ability to communihow to respond to you have met with more forty key sentences as well as also Chinese. characters You have

system of the Chinese language, finals, initials

ty-eight

and the four basic tones. and finals learning

ways of combining

pinyin, you should be able to read any Chinese syllable correctly.


A major goal of language cate in that language. a number than one hundred So far, more learned For this purpose, you have learned have learned Chinese

of basic social situations. twenty-two sentences items

In addition, of classroom formed

words and expressions,

and have studied

you have acquired

sixty basic

than fifty new vocabulary some rules of stroke

from them. characters.

order for Chinese

This elementary words and con-

vocabulary

will be useful when you start to learn compound

tinue to build your vocabulary.

-76 -