Estuarine Marsh Habitats in the Oregon: Perspectives from the South Slough NERR

Craig Cornu Coordinator of Monitoring Programs South Slough NERR Charleston, OR

Nur Taufiq Syamsudin Nak Agung Putre Jaye

Presentation Outline
Estuarine marshes:
space
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Types, spatial distribution Ecosystem services Restoration design considerations:

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What are the most important considerations when designing a restoration project? Just pull back the dike and you’re done, right? Is planting required? Do tidal channels restore themselves?
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Monitoring & success criteria (brief)

Estuarine marshes:
Types, spatial distribution

Coos Estuary

marshes

Sout h Slou gh Estua ry

Estuarine marshes:
Types, spatial distribution
It would be different btw hilly, rocky, muddy, slope, plain inland, or other form of spatial area related to marshes and estuarine

Coos Estuary

Sout h Slou gh Estua ry

South Slough Reserve Administrat ive Boundary

Google : NWI (National Wetlands Inventory/ inventaris) classes

Table 1. Habitat description and cross-walked classification codes for the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) and National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) classification systems. Description Open water NLCD code NWI code (modified)

11 Most E1, L1, P, R1, R2 with AB and UB) Developed, open space 21 UUp Developed, all densities 23 UU except UUp Barren land 31 UB (all) Unconsolidated shore 32 E2US, L2US, MUS, R1US, R2US Deciduous forest 41 UF6 (all) Evergreen forest 42 UF7 (all) Mixed forest 43 UF8 (all) Scrub/shrub 52 USS (all) Grassland/herbaceous 71 UR (all) Cultivated crops/pasture 82 UA Palustrine forest 91 PF (all) Palustrine scrub/shrub 92 PSS (all) Estuarine scrub/shrub 94 E2SS(all) Palustrine emergent (persistent) 96 PEM (all) Estuarine emergent 97 E2EM (all)

Google : HGM classes hydrogeomorphic (HGM) wetland

Google : NERRS classes National Estuarine Research Reserve System

Habitat Mapping
Distribution of Tidal Marshes
Google : NWI (National Wetlands Inventory/ inventaris) classes

Upper Upper South South Slough Slough Estuary: Estuary: NWI Reserve HGM Habitat Staff Habitat Mapping Habitat Mapping Mapping

Cowardin, Lewis M. et al. 1979 Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States

Habitat Mapping
Distribution of Tidal Marshes
Google : HGM classes hydrogeomorphic (HGM) wetland

Upper South Slough Estuary: HGM Reserve Habitat Staff Mapping Habitat Mapping

Adamus, P. 2006. Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) Assessment Guidebook for Tidal Wetlands of the Oregon Coast, Part 1: Rapid Assessment Method.

Habitat Mapping
Distribution of Tidal Marshes

Upper South Slough Estuary: Reserve Staff Habitat Mapping

Kutcher et. al. 2008 Habitat Classification Scheme

Lower Estuary
(marine –dominated)

Mid-Estuary
(mostly marinedominated)

Upper Estuary
(river –dominated)

Salinity Gradient at High Tide- South Slough Estuary
January 2007

August 2007

J. Alexander et. al. 2007 SSNERR Estuary Atlas Project

Gradients That Affect Tidal Marsh Attributes
Estuarine Scale Marsh Scale Forest Edge
Lower Energy Energy reduced by channel sinuosity / roughness and vegetation on marsh plain

Lower Estuary
Energy Tidal/Wind Waves

Upper Estuary
Low Energy

Channel Edge
Higher Energy Tidal and wind wave energy

High Energy Proximity to ocean/full tidal energy/swells • Open/exposed estuary/relatively long fetch results in wind waves

Far from ocean influence/minimal tidal energy • Protected marsh plain/short fetch/small wind waves

Salinity

Soils

Elevation/ Tidal Inundation Period

Gradients That Affect Tidal Marsh Attributes
Estuarine Scale Marsh Scale Forest Edge
Lower Energy Energy reduced by channel sinuosity / roughness and vegetation on marsh plain

Lower Estuary
Energy Tidal/Wind Waves

Upper Estuary
Low Energy

Channel Edge
Higher Energy Tidal and wind wave energy

High Energy Proximity to ocean/full tidal energy/swells • Open/exposed estuary/relatively long fetch results in wind waves

Far from ocean influence/minimal tidal energy • Protected marsh plain/short fetch/small wind waves

Salinity

Full Strength Sea Water Marine-dominated part of the estuary
• •

Brackish/Fresh Water River-dominated part of the estuary

Higher Salinity Greatest estuarine influence

Lower Salinity Least estuarine influence

Seasonally consistent

Seasonally shifting with river discharge

Soils

Elevation/ Tidal Inundation Period

Gradients That Affect Tidal Marsh Attributes
Estuarine Scale Marsh Scale Forest Edge
Lower Energy Energy reduced by channel sinuosity / roughness and vegetation on marsh plain

Lower Estuary
Energy Tidal/Wind Waves

Upper Estuary
Low Energy

Channel Edge
Higher Energy Tidal and wind wave energy

High Energy Proximity to ocean/full tidal energy/swells • Open/exposed estuary/relatively long fetch results in wind waves

Far from ocean influence/minimal tidal energy • Protected marsh plain/short fetch/small wind waves

Salinity

Full Strength Sea Water Marine-dominated part of the estuary
• •

Brackish/Fresh Water River-dominated part of the estuary

Higher Salinity Greatest estuarine influence

Lower Salinity Least estuarine influence

Seasonally consistent

Seasonally shifting with river discharge

Soils

Higher Sand Component Marine-dominated part of the estuary

Higher Silt.Clay Component River-dominated part of the estuary

Coarser Texture

Finer Texture

Elevation/ Tidal Inundation Period

Gradients That Affect Tidal Marsh Attributes
Estuarine Scale Marsh Scale Forest Edge
Lower Energy Energy reduced by channel sinuosity / roughness and vegetation on marsh plain

Lower Estuary
Energy Tidal/Wind Waves

Upper Estuary
Low Energy

Channel Edge
Higher Energy Tidal and wind wave energy

High Energy Proximity to ocean/full tidal energy/swells • Open/exposed estuary/relatively long fetch results in wind waves

Far from ocean influence/minimal tidal energy • Protected marsh plain/short fetch/small wind waves

Salinity

Full Strength Sea Water Marine-dominated part of the estuary
• •

Brackish/Fresh Water River-dominated part of the estuary

Higher Salinity Greatest estuarine influence

Lower Salinity Least estuarine influence

Seasonally consistent

Seasonally shifting with river discharge

Soils

Higher Sand Component Marine-dominated part of the estuary

Higher Silt.Clay Component River-dominated part of the estuary

Coarser Texture

Finer Texture

Elevation/ Tidal Inundation Period

Lower Elevation Marsh Plain Combination of high energy, low profile vegetation (salinity and energy influence), and coarse soils acts to maintain relatively low marsh plain elevation

Normal Marsh Plain Development Protected, robustly vegetated marshes regularly inundated with sediment-laden tide water build and maintain mature marsh elevations

Lower Elevation Longer tidal inundation period (depending on presence of natural levees)

Higher Elevation Shorter Inundation period

Lower Estuary
(marine –dominated)

Metcalf Is. Dom Spp: SALVIR, PUCPUM, JAUCAR Total Spp: 6 Valino Is. Dom Spp: SALVIR, DI SSPI, JAUCAR, DESCAE Dominated ? Total Spp: 20 Valino Is. Is Dom Spp: DISSPI, SALVIR, JAUCAR Total Spp: 10 Hidden Cr. Dom Spp: DESCAE, JAUCAR, AGRSTO Total Spp: 18 Danger Pt. Dom Spp: AGRSTO, TRIMAR, CARLYN, DESCAE Total Spp: 21

Mid-Estuary
(mostly marinedominated)

Upper Estuary
(river –dominated)

? ?

From:

J. Hamilton et. al. 2010 SSNERR SWMP Biomonitoring Project

Y27 Restoration Site (The Wetlands Conservancy)

Y28 Least Disturbed Reference Site Dom Spp: PHAARU, JUNBAL, AGRSTO, ARGEGE, CAROBN Total Spp: 22

From:

H. Harris et al. 2010 SSNERR/NERRS Reference Sites Project

Change in Ecosystem Processes
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Tectonic uplift- Gradual elevation change sudden Tsunami- Infrequent but abrupt elevation change; sediment deposition, erosion Prolonged periods of river flooding or drought – changes in plant community structure and distribution Change in sediment regime- mature tidal marshes require sustained supply of sediment to maintain elevation Large wood, fire, salmon and other wildlife- All contribute to tidal marsh functions and affect marsh

dry
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Adamus, P. 2006. Hydrogeomorphic (HGM) Assessment Guidebook for Tidal Wetlands of the Oregon Coast, Part 3: Wetland Profiles of Oregon’s Coastal

Estuarine marshes:
Ecosystem Services

Estuarine marshes:
Ecosystem Services / Functions

HABITAT and food web support
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food production and feeding refuge grazing
Refuge and foraging for small fish and crustaceans Feeding grounds for larger fish and crabs during high water Habitat for birds, mammals and reptiles  High productivity at base occasional chain of food (vascular plants, microbial decomposers, benthic invertebrates)   Extensive use by migratory and transient fish and macro invertebrates due to geomorphological and biotic complexity;  Transfer of marsh production to greater ecosystem.

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From:
Peterson CH, Able KW, DeJong CF, Piehler MF, Simenstad CA, Zedler JB. 2008. Practical proxies for tidal marsh ecosystem services: application to injury and restoration. Advances Marine Biology 54:221–66.

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Estuarine marshes:
Ecosystem Services / Functions

BUFFER against storm and wave damage disapear
wave dissipation and water edge absorption
Attract/get
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Particularly important for fringing marshes along open estuaries where long fetch accentuates shoreline wave impact Entrain large wood that would otherwise cause damage in high intertidal Shrub-scrub and forested wetland completely dissipate waves
bush

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From:
Peterson CH, Able KW, DeJong CF, Piehler MF, Simenstad CA, Zedler JB. 2008. Practical proxies for tidal marsh ecosystem services: application to injury and restoration. Advances Marine Biology 54:221–66.

Estuarine marshes:
Ecosystem Services / Functions

SHORELINE STABILIZATION

stabilization and sedimentation to accommodate sea-level rise
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Sustain high rates of sediment accretion and shoaling
pelanggaran

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Promote marsh transgression Reduce water column turbidity

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From:
Peterson CH, Able KW, DeJong CF, Piehler MF, Simenstad CA, Zedler JB. 2008. Practical proxies for tidal marsh ecosystem services: application to injury and restoration. Advances Marine Biology 54:221–66.

Estuarine marshes:
Ecosystem Services / Functions

HYDROLOGIC processing
floodwater storage
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Constitute significant portion of tidal prism and flood water storage, particularly in marsh system and in tidal floodplains where they serve to dampen and desynchronize flood pulses

From:
Peterson CH, Able KW, DeJong CF, Piehler MF, Simenstad CA, Zedler JB. 2008. Practical proxies for tidal marsh ecosystem services: application to injury and restoration. Advances Marine Biology 54:221–66.

Estuarine marshes:
Ecosystem Services / Functions

HYDROLOGIC processing
floodwater storage
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Constitute significant portion of tidal prism and flood water storage, particularly in marsh system and in tidal floodplains where they serve to dampen and desynchronize flood pulses

WATER QUALITY

sediment, nutrient and pathogen removal in estuary and ocean
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From:
Peterson CH, Able KW, DeJong CF, Piehler MF, Simenstad CA, Zedler JB. 2008. Practical proxies for tidal marsh ecosystem services: application to injury and restoration. Advances Marine Biology 54:221–66.

Extensive nutrient uptake, especially by associated algae, accentuated by high flooding frequency and direction.

Estuarine marshes:
Ecosystem Services / Functions

BIODIVERSITY

including threatened and endangered species and resilience to perturbations
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High diversity and productivity of invertebrate and vertebrate fauna, especially threatened/endangered ocean-type Pacific salmon

From:
Peterson CH, Able KW, DeJong CF, Piehler MF, Simenstad CA, Zedler JB. 2008. Practical proxies for tidal marsh ecosystem services: application to injury and restoration. Advances Marine Biology 54:221–66.

Estuarine marshes:
Ecosystem Services / Functions

BIODIVERSITY

including threatened and endangered species and resilience to perturbations
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High diversity and productivity of invertebrate fauna, especially aquatic insects, support important nekton, such as threatened/endangered ocean-type Pacific salmon

CARBON STORAGE
Carbon soil
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Moderate to low due to lack of peat-building assemblages and high decomposition High sediment accretion accounts for some burial?

From:
Peterson CH, Able KW, DeJong CF, Piehler MF, Simenstad CA, Zedler JB. 2008. Practical proxies for tidal marsh ecosystem services: application to injury and restoration. Advances Marine Biology 54:221–66.

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Estuarine marshes:
Ecosystem Services / Functions

SOCIO-ECONOMIC services to
humans esthetics, heritage, ecotourism, education, human health
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High non-extractive tourism use, especially associated with migratory and resident bird watching Recreational extractive uses generally restricted to waterfowl hunting Very important Native American traditional harvest for weaving, therapeutic and other cultural uses Many small community groups have instituted stewardship and monitoring of local coastal wetlands.

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From:
Peterson CH, Able KW, DeJong CF, Piehler MF, Simenstad CA, Zedler JB. 2008. Practical proxies for tidal marsh ecosystem services: application to injury and restoration. Advances Marine Biology 54:221–66.

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Estuarine marshes:
Ecosystem Services / FunctionsMudflats

Estuarine marshes:
Restoration design considerations

Question:
What are the most important considerations when designing a restoration project?

Society for Ecological Restoration's Guidelines for Developing and Managing Ecological Restoration Projects

http://www.ser.org/content/guidelines_ecological _restoration.asp

Society for Ecological Restoration's Guidelines for Developing and Managing Ecological Restoration Projects
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Conceptual Planning Preliminary Tasks Implementation Planning Implementation Tasks Post-Implementation Tasks Evaluation and Publicity

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http://www.ser.org/content/guidelines_ecological _restoration.asp

Conceptual Planning 1. Identify the project site location and its boundaries. 2. Identify ownership. 3. Identify the need for ecological restoration. 4. Identify the kind of ecosystem to be restored. 5. Identify restoration goals. 6. Identify physical site conditions in need of repair. 7. Identify stressors in need of regulation or re-initiation. 8. Identify and list the kinds of biotic interventions that are needed. 9. Identify landscape restrictions. 10. Identify project-funding sources. 11. Identify labor sources and equipment needs. 12. Identify biotic resource needs and sources. 13. Identify the need for securing permits required by government agencies. 14. Identify permit specifications, deed restrictions, and other legal constraints. 15. Identify project duration. Project duration can greatly affect www.ser.org project costs.

Preliminary Tasks 17. Appoint a restoration practitioner who is in charge of all technical aspects of restoration. 18. Appoint the restoration team. 19. Prepare a budget to accommodate the completion of preliminary tasks. 20. Document existing project site conditions and describe the biota. 21. Document the project site history that led to the need for restoration. 22. Conduct pre-project monitoring as needed. 23. Establish the reference ecosystem or “reference.” …etc.

www.ser.org

Question:
Just pull back the dike and you’re done?

…Dike breach vs. dike removal

Dike breach vs. dike removal Considerations:
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Project goals- full functional recovery? Project funding Opportunities to use dike material for beneficial purposes

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Kunz Marsh Lessons Learned
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Few diked tidal wetland projects will have enough dike material to adjust the entire site for subsidence.

Suggest trying the use of available dike material as a prograding bench next to upland edge?

Applying the Concept

1991 Aerial Photo

Dik e Subsid ed marsh surface

1991 Aerial Photo

Dike Material 1.8 m NAVD (Mid Marsh) Marsh w/ removed dike 1.4-1.5 m NAVD (Intertidal Mudflat)

1991 Aerial Photo

1991 Aerial Photo

Mature marsh 2.2 m NAVD

1991 Aerial Photo

Question:
Is planting required??

Yr. 0

Yr. 3

Yr. 6

Planting required?
Considerations:
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Project Goals Landscape setting Propagule sources Colonization opportunities Likelihood/intensity of invasive species presence

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Lyngby’s sedge

Planting required? No
Kunz Marsh Restoration Project

Cornu, C. E., and S. Sadro. 2002. Physical and Functional Responses to Experimental Marsh Surface Elevation Manipulation in Coos Bay's South Slough. Restoration Ecology 10: 474-486.

Planting required? Definitely
Anderson Creek Restoration Project

Anderson Creek Percent Cover 1999-2006
100% 90% 80% 70% Percent Cover 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

Cornu, C.E. 2005. Restoring Anderson Creek Marsh. South Slough NERR Coastal Resource Management Series. CRMS-2005-3. Coos Bay, Oregon.

0% 1999 2003 2004 2005 2006

Buttercup Reed canary grass Small-fruited bulrush Bentgrass

Velvetgrass Soft rush Willow

Bird's foot trefoil Horsetail Slough sedge

Planting required? OMG Most DefinitelyWasson Creek Restoration
Project

Reed Canary Grass

Kunz Marsh Restoration Project

Lyngby’s sedge dominance

Kunz Marsh Restoration Project
KM High

Total Percent Cover

CARLYN AGRSTOSALVIR DESCAE Salt Pan 20081577 522 298 238906 20091698 298 228 178766 20101972 638 160 236480 Average 1749 486 229 217 717

KM M id
CARLYN AGRSTODESCAE TRIM AR 20082964 682 404 364 20092572 366 271 108 20102982 516 240 428 Average 2839 521 305 300

Total Percent Cover

Lyngby’s sedge dominance

KM Low
CARLYN ZOSJ AP TRIM AR ELEPAR 20081988 652 296 188 20091752 446 220 206 20102194 422 430 328 Average 1978 507 315 241

Total Percent Cover

Dang P er oint R S ef ite

CARLYN AGRSTO TRIMAR DESCAE 2008 1472 1544 1060 1178 2009 1700 1546 1492 1056 2010 1582 1570 1610 1240 Averag e 1585 1553 1387 1158

Total Percent Cover

H. Harris et al. 2010 SSNERR/NERRS Reference Sites Project

Question:
Do tidal channels restore themselves?

Yr. 0

Yr. 1 Yr. 4

Do tidal channels restore themselves? Yes and No: Kunz Marsh Restoration Project

7 channels detected +3 yrs. 23 channels detected +9 yrs. 47 channels detected +11 yrs.

C. Cornu. 2007 WTRP Update @ Estuarine Wetland Restoration Advisory Group Mtg..

Do tidal channels restore themselves? Yes and No: Dalton Creek Restoration Project

Yr. -7

Yr. 1

Yr. 7

Cornu, C.E. 2005. Restoring Cox, Dalton and Fredrickson Creek Marshes. South Slough NERR Coastal Resource Management Series. CRMS-2005-2. Coos Bay, Oregon.

Monitoring and Success Criteria

Monitoring and Success Criteria Consideratio ns
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Restoration Goals / Objectives - Probably linked to ecosystem services / least-disturbed marsh functions:

Monitoring and Success Criteria Consideratio ns
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Restoration Goals / Objectives - Probably linked to ecosystem services / least-disturbed marsh functions: Habitat and food web support
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Buffer storm and wave damage Shoreline stabilization Hydrologic processing Water quality Biodiversity Carbon storage Socio-economic services

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Monitoring and Success Criteria Consideratio ns
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Restoration Goals / Objectives - Probably linked to ecosystem services / least-disturbed marsh functions
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memorandum

Protocol - Before-After / Control Impact (Before and “as-built”-After / Reference site-Restoration site) - Track specific suite of marsh attributes as indicators of marsh structure and function

Monitoring and Success Criteria Protocols

Monitoring and Success Criteria Vegetation Protocols

Monitoring and Success Criteria Reference Condition Database

Brophy et. al. 2010 In-Situ Multichannel Wireless Sensor Networks and iButton Temperature Logger Arrays for Characterizing Habitat Drivers in Tidal Wetland Reference Sites. Final report in prep.

Monitoring and Success Criteria Reference Condition Database

Brophy et. al. 2010 In-Situ Multichannel Wireless Sensor Networks and iButton Temperature Logger Arrays for Characterizing Habitat Drivers in Tidal Wetland Reference Sites. Final report in prep.

Monitoring and Success Criteria Reference Condition Database

Brophy et. al. 2010 In-Situ Multichannel Wireless Sensor Networks and iButton Temperature Logger Arrays for Characterizing Habitat Drivers in Tidal Wetland Reference Sites. Final report in prep.

Database to be made available on the Oregon Explorer website

Craig Cornu South Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve Charleston, OR craig.cornu@state.or.us 541 888-2581 x:301
http://www.oregon.gov/DSL/SSNERR/resourcelibrary.s html

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