# Algebiaic Fiactions

An algebralc fracLlon can always be expressed ln dlñerenLţ yeL equlvalenL formsŦ A fracLlon ls
expressed ln lLs slmplesL form by cancelllng any facLors whlch are common Lo boLh Lhe
numeraLor and Lhe denomlnaLorŦ

Algebralc lracLlons can be slmpllfled by cancelllng downŦ 1o do Lhlsţ numeraLors and
denomlnaLors musL be fully facLorlsed flrsLŦ lf Lhere are fracLlons wlLhln Lhe
numeraLor/denomlnaLorţ mulLlply by a common facLor Lo geL rld of Lhese and creaLe an
equlvalenL fracLlonť
ŵ
Ŷ
˲ +ŵ
ŵ
ŷ
˲ +
Ŷ
ŷ
=
(
ŵ
Ŷ
˲ +ŵ) × ź
(
ŵ
ŷ
˲ +
Ŷ
ŷ
) × ź
=
ŷ˲ +ź
Ŷ˲ +Ÿ
=
ŷ(˲ +Ŷ)
Ŷ(˲ +Ŷ)
=
ŷ
Ŷ

1o mulLlply fracLlonsţ slmply mulLlply Lhe numeraLors and mulLlply Lhe denomlnaLorsŦ lf
posslbleţ cancel down flrsLŦ 1o dlvlde by a fracLlonţ mulLlply by Lhe reclprocal of Lhe fracLlonť
˲ +ŵ
Ŷ
×
ŷ
˲
2
- ŵ
=
˲ +ŵ
Ŷ
×
ŷ
(˲ + ŵ)(˲ - ŵ)
=
ŷ(˲ +ŵ)
Ŷ(˲ + ŵ)(˲ - ŵ)
=
ŷ
Ŷ(˲ + ŵ)

1o add or subLracL fracLlonsţ Lhey musL have Lhe same denomlnaLorŦ 1hls ls done by flndlng
Lhe lowesL common mulLlple of Lhe denomlnaLorsť
ŵ
(˲ +ŵ)
+
Ÿ
(˲ + ź)
=
ŵ(˲ +ź)
(˲ + ŵ)(˲ + ź)
+
Ÿ(˲ +ŵ)
(˲ + ź)(˲ +ŵ)
=
(˲ +ź) +Ÿ(˲ +ŵ)
(˲ + ŵ)(˲ + ź)
=
Ź˲ + ŵŴ
(˲ +ŵ)(˲ +ź)

When Lhe numeraLor has Lhe same or a hlgher degree Lhan Lhe denomlnaLor (lL ls an
lmproper fracLlon)ţ you can dlvlde Lhe Lerms Lo produce a mlxed fracLlonť

Functions
luncLlons are speclal Lypes of mapplngs such LhaL every elemenL of Lhe domaln ls mapped Lo exacLly
one elemenL ln Lhe rangeŦ 1hls ls lllusLraLed below for Lhe funcLlon f (x) ƹ x + 2

1he seL of all numbers LhaL we can feed lnLo a funcLlon ls called Lhe domaln of Lhe funcLlonŦ 1he seL
of all numbers LhaL Lhe funcLlon produces ls called Lhe range of a funcLlonŦ CfLen when deallng wlLh
slmple algebralc funcLlonţ such as f (x) ƹ x + 2ţ we Lake Lhe domaln of Lhe funcLlon Lo be Lhe seL of
real numbersţ țŦ ln oLher wordsţ we can feed ln any real number x lnLo Lhe funcLlon and lL wlll glve
us a (real) number ouLŦ SomeLlmes we resLrlcL Lhe domalnţ for example we may wlsh Lo conslder Lhe
funcLlon f(x) ƹ x + 2 ln Lhe lnLerval Ŵ2 Ƽ x Ƽ 2Ŧ

Conslder Lhe funcLlon f (x) ƹ x
2
Ŧ WhaL ls Lhe range of f (x)? Are Lhere any resLrlcLlons on Lhe values
LhaL Lhls funcLlon can produce? When Lrylng Lo work ouL Lhe range
of a funcLlon lL ls ofLen useful Lo conslder Lhe graph of Lhe
funcLlonţ Lhls ls shown lefLŦ We can see LhaL Lhe funcLlon only glves
ouL poslLlve numbers (x
2
ls always poslLlve for any real number x)Ŧ
1here are no furLher resLrlcLlonsŦ We can see LhaL f can Lake any
poslLlve valueţ Lherefore Lhe range of f ls Lhe seL of all poslLlve
numbersţ we may wrlLe f(x) 0Ŧ

When each of Lhe elemenLs of Lhe domaln ls mapped Lo a unlque elemenL of Lhe rangeţ under a
mapplngţ Lhe mapplng ls sald Lo be oneŴtoŴoneŦ When Lwo or more elemenLs of Lhe domaln are
mapped Lo Lhe same elemenL of Lhe range under a mapplngţ Lhe mapplng ls sald Lo be manyŴtoŴoneŦ
8elow are Lwo
examplesŦ
1he mapplng f ls oneŴ
LoŴoneţ Lhe mapplng
g ls manyŴLoŴoneŦ
We need Lo deflne
more preclsely whaL
we mean by a
'funcLlon'Ŧ

We can deflne a funcLlon as a rule LhaL unlquely assoclaLes each and every member of one seL wlLh a
member or members of anoLher seLŦ 1hls means LhaL every elemenL of Lhe domaln ls mapped Lo an
elemenL of Lhe range such LhaL Lhe lmage of any elemenL ln Lhe domaln ls unlqueŦ ln oLher wordsţ
each and every elemenL of Lhe domaln musL be mapped Lo one and only one elemenL of Lhe rangeŦ
lor exampleţ conslder Lhe expresslon ˳ = _V˲ Ŧ

noLlce LhaL any value of x ln Lhe domalnţ excepL x ƹ 0 ţ (lŦeŦ
any poslLlve real number) ls mapped Lo Lwo dlfferenL values
ln Lhe rangeŦ 1herefore ˳ = _V ˲ ls not a funcLlonŦ

When looklng for Lhe domaln of a funcLlonţ look ouL for
values LhaL would leave a negaLlve rooL or 0 on Lhe boLLom
of a fracLlonŦ AL Lhese values of xţ y ls undeflnedŦ

not a funct|on a funct|on

Many mapplngs can be made lnLo funcLlons by changlng Lhe domalnŦ lor exampleţ Lhe 'rooL of x'
mapplng can be made lnLo a funcLlon by changlng Lhe domaln from all real numbersţ Lo all poslLlve
numbersŦ 1hls wlll cuL off Lhe boLLom half of Lhe graphţ meanlng every elemenL ln Lhe domaln ls
maLched unlquely Lo an elemenL ln Lhe rangeŦ

ComposlLe luncLlons
Conslder Lhe funcLlonţ g (x) ƹ (x Ŵ 2)
2
Ŧ lf we were glven a seL of numbers and asked Lo perform Lhe
funcLlon g on each of Lhemţ we would have Lo carry ouL Lwo separaLe calculaLlons on any one of Lhe
glven numbersŤ flrsL we would have Lo subLracL Lwo from Lhe numberţ Lhen we would square Lhe
resulLŦ 1husţ we may Lhlnk of Lhe funcLlon g as Lwo funcLlons ln oneŦ g ls composed of Lhe funcLlons
p(x) ƹ x Ŵ 2 and
q(x) ƹ (p(x))
2
Ŧ We say LhaL g ls a composlLe funcLlonţ and we wrlLe g (x) ƹ q(x) × p(x)Ŧ

fg(x) means 'app|y g f|rstţ then f '
CMAln 8AnCL
1
3
3
7
4
7
3
8
CMAln 8AnCL
1
3
3
7
4
7
3
8
lnverse luncLlons
Conslder Lhe slmpleţ llnear funcLlon f (x) ƹ 3x Ŵ 27Ŧ lf we feed x ƹ 2 lnLo Lhls funcLlonţ we geL ouL f
(2) ƹ Ŵ21Ŧ Suppose LhaL we are Lold LhaL Lhe funcLlon has produced Lhe number 9ţ buL we do noL
know whaL lnpuL produced Lhls numberŦ We can easlly work ouL Lhe lnpuL numberť
˦(n) = ŷn -ŶŻ = 9 - n =
9 +ŶŻ
ŷ
= ŵŶ

lf we know Lhe ouLpuL of a glven funcLlon and we requlre Lhe lnpuL of Lhe funcLlonţ we can flnd lL by
uslng Lhe |nverse funct|onŦ

1he lnverse of a funcLlon f(x) ls wrlLLen f
Ŵ1
(x)ţ and performs Lhe opposlLe operaLlon(s) Lo Lhe funcLlonŦ
1here are Lwo meLhods Lo flnd Lhe lnverse of a funcLlonť

O Work 8ackwards
We can Lhlnk of a 'funcLlon machlne' whlch Lakes an lnpuLţ performs Lhe
funcLlon on lL and produces an ouLpuLŦ 1he lnverse funcLlon machlne Lakes
Lhe ouLpuL from Lhe orlglnal funcLlon and glves us Lhe orlglnal lnpuL numberŦ

O Change Lhe Sub[ecL
eL y ƹ f(x)ţ and Lhen rearrange Lhe formulae Lo flnd xŦ ?ou Lhen swap x and y
(y belng f(x))Ŧ lor exampleţ g(x) ƹ 4x Ŷ 3ţ so leL y ƹ 4x Ŷ 3Ŧ

8earranged Lo flnd x glves ˦(˲) =
x+3
4

We can see LhaL Lhe graph of f
Ŵ1
(x) ls a
reflecLlon of Lhe graph of f (x) ln Lhe llne y ƹ x Ŧ
ln facLţ Lhls ls a general resulL for any lnverLlble
funcLlon (a funcLlon LhaL has an lnverse)Ŧ
noLe LhaL noL all funcLlons are lnverLlbleŦ n|y
oneŴtoŴone funct|ons are |nvert|b|eŦ

1he domaln ls Lhe seL of all numbers where Lhe funcLlon ls deflnedŦ Lgţ ˦(˲) =
ŵ
˲
, ls deflned everywhere
excepL aL xƹ0Ŧ 1he range ls Lhe seL of all posslble values Lhe funcLlon can Lake (lL usually helps Lo skeLch a
graphŦ So for exampleţ Lhe range of ˦(˲) = ˲
2
ls xƽ0Ŧ

1he range of ˦(˲) ls Lhe domaln of ˦

(˲), and Lhe domaln of ˦(˲) ls Lhe range of ˦

(˲).
1he x and y coordlnaLes where a graph meeLs Lhe axls swap for the inverse graph.

f f
-1
ex|stsţ then f
-1
f() ƹ ff
-1
() ƹ Ŧ
1he Modulus luncLlon

1he modulus slgn lndlcaLes LhaL we Lake Lhe absoluLe value of Lhe expresslon lnslde Lhe modulus
slgnţ lŦeŦ all values are poslLlveŦ
eŦg |Ŷ - ŷ| = ŵ, | Ŵ - Ź| = Ź, |-Ŷ| = Ŷ, |ŵ + Ż| = 8
We can deflneť

|˲| = Ӝ
-˲, ˲ < Ŵ
˲, ˲ Ŵ

y = |¡(x)|
eL us conslder Lhe graph of ˳ = |˲
2
-Ÿ| Ŧ As |˲
2
- Ÿ| ls always poslLlveţ Lhe graph of ˳ = |˲
2
- Ÿ|
cannoL exlsL below Lhe xŴaxlsŦ lor poslLlve values of xţ Lhe graph of |˲
2
- Ÿ| ls Lhe same as Lhe graph
of ˳ = |˲
2
- Ÿ|Ť buL for negaLlve values of xţ Lhe graph ˳ = |˲
2
- Ÿ| ls Lhe llne ˳ = -(˲
2
- Ÿ)

noLe LhaL Lhe graph of ˳ = |˲
2
- Ÿ|ls slmllar Lo Lhe graph of ˳ = ˲
2
- Ÿ
excepL LhaL Lhe negaLlve reglon of Lhe graph ls reflecLed ln Lhe xŴaxlsŦ ln
generalţ Lhe graph of ˳ = | ˦ (˲)| ls slmllar Lo Lhe graph of ˳ = ˦ (˲)
excepL LhaL Lhe negaLlve reglon of Lhe graph ls reflecLed ln Lhe xŴaxlsŦ

y = ¡(|x|)
lor Lhe funcLlon ˳ = ˦(|˲|)ţ Lhe value of y aLţ for example xƹ Ŵ3ţ ls Lhe same as Lhe value aL y for
xƹ3Ŧ 1hls ls because ˳ = ˦(|-ŷ|) = ˦(|ŷ|)Ŧ 1he resulL of Lhls ls LhaL Lhe graph ls reflecLed ln Lhe yŴ
axlsŦ 1he example below ls of ˳ = ŷ - |˲|

1here are Lwo ways Lo skeLch graphs of Lhe form ˳ =
˦(|˲|)ť
1Ŧ raw Lhe graph for poslLlve value of xţ Lhen
reflecL lL ln Lhe yŴaxls Lo glve a llne of
symmeLry aL xƹ0
2Ŧ raw Lhe graph of |˲| and Lhen
Lransform lL by Lhe vecLor (
0
3
)
1o solve oo epootloo of tbe type |˦(˲)| = ˧(˲):
O Dse o sketcb to locote wbete tbe toots sboolJ tooqbly lle
O olve olqebtolcollyţ osloq -˦(˲) fot teflecteJ potts of ˳ = ˦(˲) ooJ -˧(˲) fot
teflecteJ potts of ˳ = ˧(˲)

1o solve Lhe equaLlon |o˲ + b| = |c˲ + ˤ| lL ls easlesL Lo square boLh sldes Lo remove Lhe
modulus slgnŦ
LquaLlons of Lhe form |o˲ + b| = c˲ +ˤ need Lo be solved graphlcallyŦ

1ransformaLlons
When glven a skeLch of ˳ = ˦(˲)ţ you need Lo be able Lo skeLch LransformaLlons of Lhe graphţ
showlng coordlnaLes of Lhe polnLs Lo whlch Lhe glven polnLs are mappedŦ

1hese may be comblned Lo glveţ for example b˦(˲ +o)ţ whlch ls a horlzonLal LranslaLlon of Ŷa
followed by a verLlcal sLreLch of scale facLor bŦ

lor comblnaLlons of LransformaLlonsţ Lhe graph can be bullL up one sLep aL a Llme sLarLlng from a
glven curveŦ

umeiical Nethous

ln real llfe slLuaLlonsţ we are ofLen faced wlLh equaLlons whlch have no analyLlc soluLlonŦ
1haL ls Lo say we cannoL flnd an exoct soluLlon Lo Lhe equaLlonŦ lor exampleţ we can solve
Lhe equaLlon˲
2
+ ˲ - Ŷ = Ŵ by facLorlslng(˲ + Ŷ)(˲ - ŵ) = Ŵ˲ = -Ŷor
˲ = ŵ

1he above equaLlon can be solved analyLlcally Lo flnd Lhe exacL soluLlonsŦ WhaL abouL Lhe
equaLlon cos (˲) - ˲ = Ŵ Ŧ 1hls equaLlon cannoL be solved analyLlcally unllke Lhe
prevlous exampleŦ We cannoL flnd Lhe exacL soluLlon of Lhls equaLlon uslng algebralcţ or any
oLher LechnlquesŦ We cannoL solve Lhls equaLlon exacLlyţ however we can flnd Lhe
approxlmaLe soluLlon or soluLlons Lo Lhe equaLlon cos (˲) - ˲ = Ŵ Ŧ ln facLţ we can flnd
Lhe soluLlon or soluLlons Lo an arblLrary degree of accuracyţ however Lhe more accuraLe we
requlre our soluLlon(s)ţ Lhe longer Lhe processŦ

1here are 3 numerlcal meLhods LhaL can be used Lo flnd approxlmaLlons Lo Lhe rooL(s) of a
funcLlon whlch may noL be posslble Lo flnd analyLlcallyť
1Ŧ Craphlcally
2Ŧ ooklng for a change of slgn
3Ŧ lLeraLlon

Craphlcally
?ou can flnd approxlmaLlons for Lhe rooLs of Lhe equaLlon ˦(˲) = Ŵ graphlcallyŦ 1hls ls Lhe
slmplesL numerlcal meLhodţ and ls done by drawlng Lhe graph of Lhe glven funcLlonŦ 1he
rooL(s) wlll lle where Lhe graph crosses Lhe xŴaxlsŦ lrom looklng aL a graphţ you can see
roughly where Lhls polnL lsţ Lherefore can say a rooL lles beLween ˲ = o and ˲ = b

Suppose we wanL Lo solve Lhe
equaLlon cos ˲ - ˲ = Ŵ Ŧ 1he
graph of ˳ = ˦ (˲) = cos ˲ - ˲
ls shownŦ We know LhaL Lhe soluLlon
of ˦ (˲) = Ŵ corresponds Lo Lhe
polnL where Lhe graph of ˦ (˲) cuLs
Lhe xŴaxlsŦ So we can Lellţ [usL from
ploLLlng Lhe graphţ LhaL Lhe soluLlon ls
somewhere around ˲ = ŴŻ Ŧ
We noLlce LhaL Lo Lhe lefL of Lhe rooLţ
Lhe funcLlon ls poslLlve and Lo Lhe
rlghL of Lhe rooL Lhe funcLlon ls
negaLlveŦ

Change of Slgn
ln generalţ Lhe slgn of a funcLlonţ (˲)ţ Lo Lhe lefL of a rooL ls opposlLe Lo Lhe slgn of Lhe
funcLlon Lo Lhe rlghL of Lhe rooLŦ We can use Lhls slmple facL Lo help us flnd Lhe rooLs of
equaLlonsŦ

lor example Lo solve cos ˲ - ˲ = Ŵ ţ we can calculaLe Lhe value of Lhe funcLlon aL a few
polnLs and see lf we geL a change of slgnť ˦ (Ŵ) = cos(Ŵ) - Ŵ = ŵ - Ŵ = ŵ (poslLlve)ţ
˦ (ŵ) = cos(ŵ) -ŵ » -ŴŸŹ9Ż (negaLlve)ţ so we can say LhaL Lhere ls a zero somewhere
beLween x ƹ 0 and x ƹ1Ŧ
1o geL a more accuraLe approxlmaLlon Lo Lhe rooLţ we could look aL Lhe value of Lhe
funcLlon f (x) aL Lhe polnL mldŴway beLween ˲ = Ŵ and ˲ = ŵţ lŦeŦ aL Lhe polnL ˲ = ŴŹ Ŧ
We see LhaL ˦ (ŴŹ) = cos (ŴŹ) - ŴŹ = ŴŷŻŻź (poslLlve)Ŧ So now we can say LhaL Lhe
rooL lles somewhere beLween ˲ = ŴŹ and ˲ = ŵŦ 1o geL a beLLer approxlmaLlonţ you can
conLlnue Lo values closer and closer LogeLherŦ

n genera|ţ |f you f|nd an |nterva| |n wh|ch ¡(x) changes s|gnţ then the |nterva| must
conta|n a root of the equat|on ¡(x) = û

1he only excepLlon Lo Lhls ls when ˦(˲) has a dlsconLlnulLy ln Lhe lnLerval eŦgŦ ˦(˲) =
ŵ
˲
,

has a dlsconLlnulLy aL ˲ = ŴŦ

lLeraLlon
1he lLeraLlon meLhod uses a formula LhaL by lnpuLLlng an approxlmaLe value of xţ a more
accuraLe value ls ouLpuLLedŦ
1he flrsL sLep ln Lhe process ls Lo rearrange Lhe equaLlon lnLo Lhe form x ƹ some funcLlon of
x (lf noL already glven)Ŧ 1hen an approxlmaLe value of x ls lnpuL lnLo Lhe equaLlonţ and Lhe
process repeaLs Lo glve more and more accuraLe values of Lhe rooLs of Lhe equaLlonŦ

lor exampleţ leL us conslder Lhe equaLlon U[_(˲) - ˲ = ŴŦ 1he mosL obvlous way of
rearranglng Lhls would glve ˲ = U[_ (˲)Ŧ now Lhe lLeraLlon formula ls ˲
n+
= U[_ (˲
n
)Ŧ We
sLarL wlLh an lnlLlal guess Lo Lhe rooL x
0
Ŧ eL us make our lnlLlal guess x
0
ƹ 0Ŧ7 Ŧ We Lhen feed
Lhe lnlLlal guess lnLo Lhe lLeraLlon formulaţ Lo produce a beLLer approxlmaLlon of Lhe
soluLlonţ x
1
Ŧ We Lhen feed x
1
lnLo Lhe lLeraLlon formula Lo produce a beLLer approxlmaLlonţ
x
2
and so forLhŦ
˲ = ŴŻŷ9Ÿ
\onential anu Log Functions
1he exponenLlal funcLlon (e) and Lhe naLural logarlLhm funcLlon (ln) are boLh Lhe lnverse operaLlons
of one anoLherŦ ˥
(x)
= ln (˥
x
) = ˲

e ls a speclal number slmllar Lo nŦ lL has a
value of 2Ŧ718 Lo 3dp (alLhough lL ls an
lrraLlonal number)Ŧ 1hls value ls Lhe only one
aL whlch Lhe value of Lhe gradlenL of an
exponenLlal graph aL a glven polnL ls equal Lo
Lhe gradlenLŦ As wlLh all exponenLlal
funcLlonsţ lL passes Lhrough Lhe polnL (0ţ 1)ţ
provldlng lL has noL been LransformedŦ

1he domaln ls all real numbers and Lhe
range ls f(x) ƽ 0Ŧ

@he |nverse of the exponent|a| funct|on

|s the |ogar|thm|c funct|on base ţ |n(x)Ŧ
H˦ ˦ (˲) = ˥
x
, ˮ˨˥n ˦(˲)

= ˬn ˲

1he naLural log funcLlon ls a reflecLlon of Lhe
llne y ƹ e
x
ln Lhe llne y ƹ xŦ lL passes Lhrough
Lhe polnL (1ţ 0) provldlng lL has noL been
LransformedŦ 1he maln feaLures of Lhe graph
areť
 As ˲ - Ŵ, ˳ - -«
 ln(x) doesn'L exlsL for negaLlve
numbers
 when x ƹ 1ţ y ƹ 0
 As ˲ - «, ˳ - « (_l[cly)

1he domaln ls all poslLlve numbersŦ 1he
range ls all real numbersŦ

1o solve an equaLlon uslng ln(x) or e
x
you musL change Lhe sub[ecL of Lhe formula and use Lhe
facL LhaL Lhey are lnverses of each oLher ln order Lo flnd xŦ
CrowLh and decay models are based around Lhe exponenLlal equaLlonsŦ
iigonometiy
lor oneŴLoŴone funcLlonsţ you can draw lLs lnverse graph by reflecLlng lL ln Lhe llne y ƹ xŦ 1he
Lhree Lrlg funcLlons sln(x)ţ cos(x) and Lan(x) only have an lnverse funcLlon lf Lhelr domalns
are resLrlcLed so LhaL Lhey are oneŴLoŴone funcLlonsŦ 1he noLaLlons used for Lhese lnverse
funcLlons are arcsln(x)ţ arcos(x) and arcLan(x)Ŧ
arcs|n(x)
When drawlng Lhe graph of arcsln(x)ţ you sLarL wlLh a normal sln(x) graphŦ 1he domaln of
Lhls has Lo be resLrlcLed Lo -
n
2
¸ ˲ ¸
n
2
or -9Ŵ ¸ ˲ ¸ 9ŴŦ 1hls makes lL a oneŴLoŴone
funcLlonţ Laklng Lhe range -ŵ ¸ _n (˲) ¸ ŵŦ

1he graph can Lhen be reflecLed ln Lhe llne y ƹ x Lo flnd lLs
lnverse graphţ leŦ Lhe graph of arcsln(x)Ŧ
As wlLh all lnverse graphsţ Lhe range and Lhe domaln swapţ so
Lhe domaln ls -
n
2
¸ aiU_n (˲) ¸
n
2
and Lhe range becomes
-ŵ ¸ ˲ ¸ ŵ

arccos(x)
lor arcos(x)ţ Lhe graph of cos(x) ls resLrlcLed Lo a domaln of Ŵ ¸ ˲ ¸ n or Ŵ ¸ ˲ ¸ 9Ŵţ and a
range of -ŵ ¸ U[_ (˲) ¸ ŵŦ

When reflecLed ln Lhe llne y ƹ x lL glves Lhe graph of arcos(x)Ŧ

1he domaln becomes -ŵ ¸ ˲ ¸ ŵ

1he range becomes Ŵ ¸ orcos(˲) ¸ n

arctan(x)
8y resLrlcLlng Lhe domaln of Lan(x) Lo -
n
2
¸ ˲ ¸
n
2
ţ lL becomes a one Lo one funcLlonŦ 1he
range sLays tan (˲) e țŦ

When reflecLed ln Lhe llne y ƹ x lL glves Lhe graph of arcLan(x)Ŧ

1he domaln becomes ˲ e ț

1he range becomes -
n
2
¸ aiUtan (˲) ¸
n
2

ZT s˩n

˲ Joes Z[` meon tbe some tbinq os

nx

SecanLţ CosecanL and CoLangenL
ln addlLlon Lo Lhe normal Lhree Lrlg funcLlonsţ Lhere are secanLţ cosecanL and coLangenLť

_WU(˲) =
ŵ
U[_(˲)

U[_WU(˲) =
ŵ
_n (˲)

U[t(˲) =
ŵ
tan (˲)
=
U[_(˲)
_n (˲)

ÞyLhagorean ldenLlLles
lrom _n
2
0 + U[_
2
0 ɬ ŵţ we can work ouL Lwo more ldenLlLles uslng Lhe above funcLlonsť

_n
2
0 +U[_
2
0 ɬ ŵ _n
2
0 + U[_
2
0 ɬ ŵ

sI

s

+
s

s

ɬ

s

sI

sI

+
s

sI

ɬ

sI

1hese are undeflned when
sln(x)/cos(x)/Lan(x) ls equal Lo zeroţ as lL
would leave 0 as Lhe numeraLorţ whlch ls noL
a real numberŦ

1he graphs of Lhese funcLlons are found by
ploLLlng polnLs uslng Lhese formulaeŦ
ecant Cosecant Cotangent
ˮon
2
0 +ŵ = s˥c
2
0 ŵ +coˮ
2
0 = cos˥c
2
0

1he addlLlon formulae can help solvlng equaLlons by removlng an unknown from a brackeLţ
or aL leasL separaLe lL from know valuesţ egŦ _n (0 + ŷŴ)
1he addlLlon formulae areť

_n(˓ _˔) = _n ˓U[_ ˔ _U[_ ˓_n ˔

U[_(˓ _˔) = U[_ ˓U[_ ˔ +_n ˓_n ˔

tan(˓ _˔) =
tan ˓ _tan ˔
ŵ +tan ˓tan ˔

oubleŴAngle lormula
lrom Lhe above addlLlon formulaeţ Lhe followlng can be worked ouLŦ 1hey allow you Lo solve
more equaLlons and prove more ldenLlLlesŦ
1he doubleŴangle formulae are as followsť

_nŶ˓ = Ŷ_n˓U[_ ˓

U[_ Ŷ˓ = U[_
2
˓ - _n
2
˓ = Ŷ U[_
2
˓ - ŵ = ŵ -Ŷ_n
2
˓

tan Ŷ˓ =
Ŷtan˓
ŵ - tan
2
˓

1he cos(Ŷ˓) formula has 3 dlfferenL verslons LhaL can be worked ouL by subsLlLuLlng ln Lhe
ldenLlLy _n
2
˓ + U[_
2
˓ = ŵŦ

lacLor lormulae
lrom Lhe prevlously sLaLed ldenLlLlesţ Lhese facLor formulae can be worked ouLţ however
Lhey are glven ln Lhe formulae sheeLŦ

_n ˓ __n ˔ = Ŷ_n
ŵ
Ŷ
(˓ _˔) U[_
ŵ
Ŷ
(˓ +˔)

U[_ ˓ +U[_ ˔ = Ŷ U[_
ŵ
Ŷ
(˓ +˔) U[_
ŵ
Ŷ
(˓ -˔)
1he 8ŴAlpha MeLhod
?ou can wrlLe expresslons of Lhe form o U[_ ˲ + b _n ˲ţ where a and b are consLanLsţ as a
slne funcLlon or a coslne funcLlon onlyŦ Pavlng Lhe ablllLy Lo do Lhls enables you Lo solve
cerLaln sorLs of LrlgonomeLrlc equaLlons and flnd maxlmum and mlnlmum values of some
LrlgonomeLrlc funcLlonsŦ 1hls wlll only flnd values for acuLe angles of ĐŦ

We sLudy Lhe expresslon ˞cos(˲ -o) and noLe LhaL cos(˲ -o) can be expanded uslng an
˞cos(˲ - o) = ˞(cos ˲ U[_ o + s˩n ˲ _no) = ˞cos ˲ U[_ o + ˞s˩n ˲ s˩n o

We can reŴorder Lhls expresslon as followsť
˞cos(˲ - o) = (˞cos o) cos ˲ + (˞s˩n o) s˩n ˲

lf we wanL Lo wrlLe an expresslon of Lhe form o cos ˲ + b s˩n ˲ ln Lhe form ˞cos(˲ - o)ţ
we can do Lhls by comparlng o cos ˲ + b s˩n ˲ wlLh (˞cos o) cos ˲ + (˞s˩n o) s˩n ˲

olng Lhls we see LhaL
o = ˞cos o (ŵ)
and b = ˞s˩n o (Ŷ)

8y squarlng each of LquaLlons (1) and (2) and addlng we flndť
o
2
+ b
2
= ˞
2
cos
2
o + ˞
2
s˩n
2
o
= ˞
2
(cos
2
o + s˩n
2
o)
= ˞
2

1herefore ˞ = Vo
2
+ b
2

We can flnd o by dlvldlng LquaLlon (2) by LquaLlon (1) Lo glve

˞s˩n o
˞cos o
=
b
o
= tan o

knowlng tan o we can flnd Đ by flndlng arcLanŦ Soţ now we can wrlLe any expresslon of Lhe
form o U[_ ˲ + b _n ˲ ln Lhe form ˞cos(˲ - o)

1hls same meLhod works Lo flnd soluLlons ln Lhe form ˞s˩n(˲ -o)Ŧ 1hls ls done by uslng Lhe
addlLlon rule wlLh s˩n(˲ - o) and Lhen followlng Lhe normal sLepsŦ

Maxlmum/Mlnlmum ÞolnLsť
1he maxlmum value of Lhe coslne funcLlon ls 1 and Lhls occurs when Lhe angle x - Đ ƹ 0ţ
lŦeŦ when x ƹ ĐŦ 1he maxlmum value of a slne funcLlon ls also 1ţ however lL occurs when Lhe
angle x Ŷ Đ ƹ 90ţ lŦeŦ when x ƹ 90 + ĐŦ
Converselyţ Lhe mlnlmum value of Lhe coslne and slne funcLlons ls Ŵ1Ŧ lor cosţ Lhls occurs aL
180Ŧ lor sln lL occurs aL 270Ŧ
Dslng Lhese facLsţ Lhe maxlmum and mlnlmum polnLsţ and Lhe values of x aL whlch Lhey
occurţ can be worked ouLŦ Poweverţ Lhe value of 8 before Lhe sln/cos funcLlon wlll sLreLch
Lhe graphsţ meanlng Lhe max/mln polnL ls generally _˞Ŧ 1hls needs Lo be Laken lnLo
conslderaLlon when flndlng Lhe values for xŦ
iffeientiation
1he Chaln 8ule
1he chaln rule exlsLs for dlfferenLlaLlng a funcLlon of anoLher funcLlonţ for example U[_(˲
2

1hls ls an example of a composlLe funcLlon Ŷ lL comprlses of Lwo funcLlons f(x) and g(x)ţ
where f(x) ƹ cos x and g(x) ƹ x
2
Ŧ ComposlLe funcLlons come ln Lhe form f(g(x))Ŧ

1o dlfferenLlaLe y ƹ f(g(x))ţ leL u ƹ g(x)Ŧ 1hen y ƹ f(u)Ŧ 1he chaln rule ln order Lo dlfferenLlaLe
ls glven by
ˤ˳
ˤ˲
=
ˤ˳
ˤ˯
×
ˤ˯
ˤ˲

Alsoţ a parLlcular case of Lhe chaln rule ls LhaL

ˤ˳
ˤ˲
=
ŵ
_
ˤ˲
ˤ˳

1he ÞroducL 8ule
8y uslng Lhe producL ruleţ you can dlfferenLlaLe funcLlons LhaL have been mulLlplled
LogeLherŦţ for example ˲
2
Vŷ˲ -ŵŦ
1o dlfferenLlaLe Lhe producL of Lwo funcLlonsţ dlfferenLlaLe Lhe flrsL funcLlonţ Lhen mulLlply lL
by Lhe normal second funcLlonŦ 1hen add Lo Lhls Lhe dlfferenLlaLed second funcLlon
mulLlplled by Lhe normal flrsL funcLlonŦ

lf ˳ = ˯˰ţ Lhen
ˤ˳
ˤ˲
= ˯
ˤ˰
ˤ˲
+ ˰
ˤ˯
ˤ˲

1he CuoLlenL 8ule
?ou can dlfferenLlaLe raLlonal funcLlon ln Lhe form
u(x)
¡(x)
by uslng Lhe quoLlenL ruleŦ lL ls used
when one funcLlon has been dlvlded by anoLherţ for example
x
2x+5

lf ˳ =
u
¡
ţ Lhen

ˤ˳
ˤ˲
=
˰
ˤ˯
ˤ˲
- ˯
ˤ˰
ˤ˲
˰
2

SLandard erlvaLlves
1here are cerLaln funcLlons LhaL have sLandard derlvaLlvesţ some of whlch are glven ln Lhe
formula sheeLţ such as Lanţ secţ coLţ and cosecŦ CLhers need Lo be rememberedţ such as
ln(x)ţ e
x
ţ sln x and cos xŦ

O lf ˳ = ˥
(x)
ţ Lhen

dx
= ˦

(˲) ˥
(x)

Cne of Lhe mosL lmporLanL feaLures of Lhe funcLlon f (x) ƹ e
x
ls LhaL Lhls funcLlon ls lLs own
derlvaLlveţ lŦeŦ lf ˦ (˲) = ˥
x
ţ Lhen ˦ Ȋ(˲) = ˥
x
alsoŦ 1hls resulL can be used wlLh Lhe
chalnţ producL and quoLlenL rules Lo enable you Lo dlfferenLlaLe oLher funcLlonsţ glvlng Le
sLandard resulL aboveŦ

O lf ˳ = ln|f (˲)]ţ Lhen

dx
=

(x)
(x)

1hls ls a more general verslon of ln(x) dlfferenLlaLlng Lo 1/xţ and ls found by uslng Lhe chaln
ruleŦ
O lf ˳ = _n ˲ţ Lhen

dx
= U[_ ˲

1hls resulL can be used along wlLh Lhe chaln rule Lo dlfferenLlaLe more compllcaLed
expresslonsţ or along wlLh Lhe quoLlenL rule and Lhe derlvaLlve of cos x Lo work ouL Lhe
derlvaLlve of Lan xŦ

O lf ˳ = U[_ ˲ţ Lhen

dx
= -_n ˲

1hls resulL can be used along wlLh Lhe chaln rule Lo dlfferenLlaLe more compllcaLed
expresslonsţ or along wlLh Lhe quoLlenL rule and Lhe derlvaLlve of sln x Lo work ouL Lhe
derlvaLlve of Lan xŦ

1he formula LhaL are glven ln Lhe formula sheeLť

O lf ˳ = tan ˲ţ Lhen

dx
= _WU
2
˲

O lf ˳ = U[_WU ˲ţ Lhen

dx
= -U[_WU ˲ U[t ˲

O lf ˳ = _WU ˲ţ Lhen

dx
= _WU ˲ tan ˲

O lf ˳ = U[t ˲ţ Lhen

dx
= -U[_WU
2
˲

 °   f °¯¾ fn°¾ ½ ¾¾ °¾¾¯½ ¾¯ nf°n °f°fn¾nf n¯¯°   °¯ ff°   °¯°f    fnfn°¾nf° ¾¯½  nf°n ° ° @ ¾ °¯ f¾f°  °¯°f¾¯¾ fn¾ ¾   f fn°¾°  °¯ f\$ °¯°f ¯½ fn¯¯°fn   ¾ f° n f f° f °fn°     { { { {     { { {  {   @¯½fn°¾ ¾¯½¯½ °¯ f¾f° ¯½  °¯°f¾  ½¾¾  nf°n  °¾ @   ffn° ¯½   n½nf fn°     { {{ {   { { {{ { {   { {  @f ¾ fnfn°¾  ¯¾f  ¾f¯  °¯°f @¾¾ °  ° °   ¾n¯¯°¯½   °¯°f¾  {  J ° °¯ ff¾ ¾f¯ f   f°  °¯°f%¾f° ¯½½ fn°% nf°    ¯¾½ n f¯ fn°          { { { { { {{ { { { { {{ { { { { { {{ { { { { {{ {  .

aZU`[Z_ °n°¾f ¾½ nf½ ¾¯f½½°¾¾nf    ¯ °  ¯f°¾¯f½½  fn °   ¯ °° f° @¾¾¾f   °n°%% +    @ ¾ f°¯ ¾f nf° °f°n°¾nf   ¯f° °n° @ ¾  f°¯ ¾f °n°½ n ¾¾nf  f° f°n°  ° ° f° ¾¯½ f fn°n° ¾nf¾%% +  f   ¯f° °n°  ¾   f°¯ ¾  °  ¾  nf° °f° f°¯ ° °n°f°   ¾f% f%°¯  ¯ ¯ ¾  ¾n  ¯f°  f¯½  ¯f¾n°¾   °n°%% +° ° f      .

°¾  °n°%%   Jf¾ f° %%"   f° ¾n°¾° f ¾ f¾°n°nf°½ n "J °° f°  f°n°¾ °¾ n°¾  f½  °n° ¾¾¾°  J nf°¾ f °n°° ¾ ½¾ °¯ ¾%¾ff¾½¾ f° f°¯ %  @  f °  ¾n°¾ J nf°¾ fnf°f f° ½¾ f     f° ¾ ¾ f½¾  °¯ ¾  ¯f %%     J ° fn   ¯ °¾  ¯f°¾¯f½½ f°   ¯ ° f° ° f ¯f½½°  ¯f½½°¾¾f  °  ° J °¯   ¯ °¾  ¯f°f  ¯f½½  ¾f¯   ¯ ° f° ° f¯f½½°  ¯f½½°¾¾f  ¯f°  °  f  f¯½ ¾  @ ¯f½½°¾°  °  ¯f½½° ¾¯f°  °  J °  °  ¯ ½ n¾ f  ¯ f° f #°n°#   .

J nf° ° f°n°f¾f f° f¾¾nf ¾ fnf°   ¯ ¯ ° ¾ f ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¾f° ¾  @¾¯ f°¾f    ¯ °  ¯f°¾¯f½½ f°  ¯ ° f° ¾nf ¯f f°  ¯ °°  ¯f°¾° °  ¾  fnf°     ¯ °  ¯f°¯¾ ¯f½½ ° f° °°   ¯ ° f°   f¯½ n°¾   ½ ¾¾°      -n ff°f °  ¯f°  n ½  %  f°½¾  f°¯ %¾¯f½½    °f ¾ ° f° @       ¾°f°n°   J °°  ¯f°f°n°  f ¾f  f f° f °  ¯ ffn°  ¾ f ¾ ¾° °                               - .f°¯f½½°¾nf° ¯f °°n°¾ nf°°  ¯f°  f¯½  ## ¯f½½°nf° ¯f °f°n° nf°°  ¯f°¯f f°¯ ¾ f½¾  °¯ ¾ @¾n  ¯f f½ ¯ f°°    ¯ °°  ¯f°¾ ¯fn ° f°  ¯ °° f°   .-    °f°n°      f°n°   .-   -  .

¯½¾ °n°¾ .

°¾  °n° %% % %     °f¾ °¯ ¾f° f¾ ½ ¯  °n°° fn ¯   f nf¾ ½ff nfnf°¾°f°°    °°¯ ¾ ¾  f ¾ fn¯ °¯   °  ¾f    ¾ @¾  ¯f° °n°f¾°n°¾°° ¾n¯½¾  °n°¾ ½%%  f°  %% %½%%% J ¾ff¾fn¯½¾ °n° f°   %% %% ½%%   %%¯ f°¾#f½½¾  °# .

° ¾ °n°¾ .

°¾  ¾¯½ ° f°n° %%      °¾°n°    %%   ½½¾ f f  f °n°f¾½ n  °¯     ° °f°½½ n ¾°¯  J nf° f¾ °½°¯   % {J { J % 7 J    ° ½f °°n°f°     °½ °n°  nf°°   ¾° ° ¾ °n°   @ ° ¾ f°n°%%¾ ° %% f° ½ ¯¾ ½½¾ ½ f°%¾% °n°  @  f ¯  ¾°  ° ¾ f°n°   O J fnf ¾  J nf°°f#°n°¯fn° #nf ¾f°°½ ½ ¯¾  °n°°f° ½ n ¾f°½ @ ° ¾ °n°¯fn° f ¾  ½¯ °f°n°f°  ¾¾ °f°½°¯    O .

07807.5   { {f°   ¯f° { {¾ f°  { {   + ¾¾  °+%% +%%   .f°   © n    %% f°  ° ff°  ¯f °   °¾f½f°  % °%%%  f¯½ %%   ¾       ff° °  ¾ { {    J nf°¾ f f½ %%¾f   n° f½%%° °    °fn ¾¾f ° f ¾f°°    °n°%f°n°ff¾f°° ¾ %  - f°f°n°¾f °   ° °  ° °n°¾f °       ¾ °      @  ¯f°¾ ¾ f°¯ ¾   °n°¾ °   { { n ½f  @ f° ¾ ¾ f½¾¾  f ¾ °n°nf°f %¾f ½¾¾ nf f½  f¯½  f°  { { ¾    @ f°  { {¾  ¯f°   @ f° n °f ¾  ff½¯ ¾ f¾¾f½147903.

 ¾°n°  @ ¯ ¾¾°° nf ¾f f  f ¾ f   ½ ¾¾°°¾  ¯ ¾ ¾°  ff ¾f ½¾  É   É  É   É   É É   É  É  % J nf° °     É É     Y ÉX{Y{É É É ¾É É¾ff¾½¾  f½ É É  ¾n°¾  f½ É É¾ ¾f¯ f¾ f½ nf°° ¾   f¾ ½¾ f ¾  f½ É É  ° f f ¾  f½ É É¾ °   { {  É É¾¾¯f f½ - f f½  n ½f ° f  ° f½¾  n °  f¾ °  ° f  f½  É { {É¾¾¯f f½   { { n ½f ° f  ° f½¾  n °  f¾     Y X{ÉYÉ{  °n°   {É É{  f f  f¯½    ¾ ¾f¯ f¾ f f   @¾¾ nf¾    {É É{ {É É{ @  ¾¾¾f f½¾  n °  É É f¾ @  f¯½  ¾  @  f f¾¾ nf½¾ ¯ {É É {    f f½½¾ f     n°  f¾ f°  ¾¯¯ f  f f½É Éf°  ° f°¾¯   n  { {  ° @¾ f° f° ½ É { {É  @¾   f°ÉI ¯ ¾¾°  f°¾ ¯ÉI O D¾ f¾ nnf    ¾¾   O  f fnf ¾° { {  n ½f¾   n ½f¾ { { IÉ IÉ ÉI I { {f°  { { É¾ f¾ ¾¾f  ¾ ¾ ¯   °  ¾ f½nf  .@ .

 @f°¾¯f°¾ J ° °f¾ n { { °  f  ¾ nf°¾¯f°¾ f½  ¾°n °f ¾ ½°¾n  °½°¾f ¯f½½     @ ¾ ¯f n¯ °   f¯½ I { I{ n¾f°ff°¾f° f   f nf¾ n¾nf fn   n¯ °f°¾f°¾¯f°¾  f½nf°  ½° ¾ ½ff¯ ¾f°¯f  °n       .

aW^US W`[V_   f°        fn¾°{   {{  {           @ f   f°nf° ¾ f°fnf°   fn¾°¾ Jff   f°IJJ{ {      @¾ f°nf°° ¾ f°fnf°   ½ ¾ f¯½ J nf°°°   fn¾°¾ f°¾°f fn f°   n° ¾ J nf°°¾ ¾ f° fn    nf°°   f½½¯f ¾°¾°¾  f°IJJ{ {      °fn  nf°°   ¾°¾°¾f°f f  fnnfn    ¯ fnnf     ¾°%¾%  °  ½n ¾¾   @  f °¯ nf¯  ¾fnf° ¾ ° f½½¯f°¾ %¾%f °n°n¯f° ½¾¾  ° f°fnf    f½nf   °fnf° ¾°    f°    nf°° f½½¯f°¾ ¾  f° { { f½nf @¾¾  ¾¯½ ¾°¯ nf¯  f° ¾ °   f° f½  °°n° @  %¾%    f½n¾¾ ¾  f¾ ¯°fff½ nf°¾    ¾½°¾    nf°¾ff ¾  ° If°  I   ½½¾  f°¾   f°IJJ      @  f½   { {  IJJ    ¾¾° J °f ¾°  { {  n ¾½° ¾  ½°   f½ { {n¾   f¾  nf°  ©¾¯ ½° f½ f ¾°¾ ¾¯   f°       J °n f      °n°¾½¾ f°     °n°¾ ° f    ° f ¾f°¾  f  °fn  f°¾nf °f°fn¾°  @f¾¾f nf°°° f° fn¾°  f°  f¯½  nf°¾  f½nf .

° ° f  ¾°f°n° { {   f¾½½¾  ¾°  °n°   J nf°¾ ¾¾¯½ fn ½¾°  ¾ f°¾   .

f° °  f¯½ ¾ IJJ       nf°nfnf  f  °n°ff  ½°¾f° ¾   fnf° ¾°  { {  IJJ{ {     %½¾ %  { {  IJJ{ {    % %° f % ¾ nf°¾ff  ¾f ¾¯     ° f°    @ f¯ fnnf f½½¯f°   n f f   °n°%%f ½°¯ f  °   f°    f ½°      J ¾ f {  { IJJ{  {     %½¾ % ° nf°¾ff   ¾¾¯     °    f°   @ f  f½½¯f° nf° n°° f ¾n¾ f° n¾      ° ° f ° f°° f°nX{Y{nf° ¾¾°  ° ° f¯¾ n°f°f  f°X{Y{   @ ° n ½°¾¾ ° { {f¾f ¾n°°° ° f   { {  f¾f ¾n°°f    f° @  f°¯  ¾ ¾f¯ff °½°f°f½½¯f f  f¯  fnnf f ¾½  @ ¾¾ ½° ½n ¾¾¾ ff°   f°° ¯ ¾¯ °n° %°f f  °% @ °f°f½½¯f f ¾°½°  f° f°   ½n ¾¾ ½ f¾ ¯ f° ¯ fnnf f ¾ ¾  f°   f¯½  ¾n°¾   f°U[_ { { @ ¯¾ ¾f  ff°°¾   U[_{ { -  f°¯f¾ U[_{ { J  ¾ff°°f ¾¾   ¾¯f °f ¾¾   J  °   °f ¾¾°  f°¯f ½ n f  f½½¯f°  ¾°  J  ° °  f°¯f½ n f  f½½¯f°  f° ¾    %  .

 \[ZWZ`SSZV [Y aZU`[Z_ @  ½° °f°n°% %f°  °fff¯°n°%°%f   ° ¾ ½ f°¾ ° f°   { { Z{ {    ¾f¾½ nf°¯ ¾¯f f¾f f   ½%f¾f° f°f°¯ % @¾f ¾ °°  fn f  f  °f° ½° °ff½ff °½°¾ f  f  ° ¾f ½° °f °n°¾ ½f¾¾ ¾ ½°% %  ½ °f¾° °f°¾¯   @  ¯f°¾f f°¯ ¾f°   f° ¾%%     @ ° ¾   ½° °f°n° ¾ f¯n°n° f¾  °%%  H  { {     @ °ff°n°¾f  n°  °   ° °   ½f¾¾ ¾  ½°% %½ °f¾° ° f°¾¯ @ ¯f° f ¾ f½ f  J {{   J   @  ¯f°¾f½¾ °¯ ¾ @  f° ¾f f°¯ ¾   @¾ f° f°¾°°%% ¯¾nf°  ¾ © n ¯ff° ¾   fnf f ° ¾ ¾ fn ° °      ¾ 7  7    °%%  ¾°# ¾° f  °¯ ¾   °     ¾ 7  7 {_[c { .

f°  nf¯ ¾f  f¾ f°   ½° °f f°¾  ^Y[Z[W`^  °  ° °n°¾ nf° f¾° ¾ f½   n°° °   @   °n°¾¾°%% n¾%%f° f°%%°f f°° ¾ °n°  ¯f°¾ f  ¾n ¾f f °  ° °n°¾ @ °f°¾¾  ¾ ° ¾  °n°¾f fn¾°%% fn¾%%f° fnf°%%  fn¾°%% J ° f° f½fn¾°%% ¾ff°¯f¾°%%f½ @  ¯f°  % % @¾¯f ¾f°  °  ¾f¾  ¾n  °n° f° f°   _Z{ {  @ f½nf° °   n ° °  ° ¾ ° ¾ f½   f½fn¾°%%  ¾f° ¾ f½¾  f° f°   ¯f°¾f½ ¾   ¯f°¾ S^U_Z{ { f°  f°  n¯ ¾     fnn¾%% fn¾%%  f½n¾%%¾ ¾n f ¯f°  % f° f f°  U[_{ {   J °  n ° °   ¾ f½fn¾%%   @  ¯f° n¯ ¾   @ f°  n¯ ¾    fnf°%%  ¾n°  ¯f°f°%% f° ¾f¾`SZ{ {    IJIJJ{ {   n¯ ¾f° ° °n° @  J °  n ° °   ¾ f½fnf°%%   @  ¯f° n¯ ¾    @ f°  n¯ ¾ S^U`SZ{ {     .

ZTJ J V[W_Z[`WSZ`W_SW`ZYS_   nf° .

¾ nf°f° .

f° ° °f ° °¯f °n°¾   f ¾ nf° n¾ nf°f° nf° °    @ ¾ f ° °  ° _WU{ {  U[_{ { ¾°%%\$n¾%%\$f°%%¾ f  f¾    f f¾ °¯ f n¾° f f°¯    U[_WU{ {  _Z{ { @ f½¾ ¾ °n°¾f °    ½°½°¾¾° ¾ ¯f  U[`{ {  `SZ{ { U[_{ {  _Z{ {  nf° .

¾ nf°  .

f° °      9f f° ° ¾ ¯_Z   _Z    U[_  U[_    nf°¯  ° ¾¾° f  °n°¾     _Z  U[_        .

  °¯f  IJ  J I   IJ  IJJ I  @ f °¯f nf° ½¾° f°¾  ¯°f°°°°¯f fn   f f¾¾ ½ff ¯°f ¾   _Z{ { @ f °¯f f     _Z{ { _Z U[_ U[_ U[_ { U[_ _Z   _Z _Z  U[_{ `SZ{     ° ¯f { `SZ `SZ   `SZ `SZ ¯ f  f °¯f  °nf°   @ f¾  ¯  f°¾f° ½ ¯  ° ¾  @    f° ¯f f f¾¾   _Z  U[_  U[_ _Z `SZ   _Z U[_   U[_ `SZ `SZ    _Z  @ IJJ{ {¯ff¾   ° ¾°¾fnf°   ¾ ¾°°   °_Z U[_    fn¯f  ¯ ½ ¾¾f  ° ¾  ¾ fn¯f nf°       f  °° ¯f ¾     _Z _Z _Z { { U[_ {  { .

f¯¯\$.°¯¯9°¾  @ ¯f¯¯f  n¾° °n°¾f° ¾nn¾ ° f° +      °  @ ¯f¯¯f f¾° °n°¾f¾   nn¾ °  f°       ° +  . U[_ U[_ U[_ { { U[_ { { @  ½f.   nf°  ½ ¾¾°¾ ¯I U[_ I _Z   ff°  f n°¾f°¾ f¾f ¾° °n°fn¾° °n°° f° f  ¾ °f  ¾¾  n f°¾¾°¯ n f°¾f° ° ¯f¯¯f° ¯°¯¯f ¾¾¯  °¯ n°n°¾ @¾°° f ¾fn f° ¾   J ¾   ½ ¾¾° IJJ{ {f° ° fIJJ{ {nf°  ½f° ¾°f° f °¯f  IJJ{   {  {IJJ U[_   J J _Z  {  IJJ U[_    J J J J  J nf°  ¾ ½ ¾¾°f¾¾  IJJ{  {   { IJJ{IJJ   { J J{J J    f° f° ½ ¾¾° ¯IIJJ  IJ J ° ¯ IJJ{  {   nf° ¾ n¯½f°IIJJ  IJ J { IJJ{IJJ   { J J{J J   °¾ ¾ f I f° I  IJJ{ {   J J{ {  ¾f° fnf°¾%%f° %%f° f ° °  I I   IJJ    J J         {IJJ   J J  {    @    I I    J nf°°    °f°%% f°%%    °°`SZ  nf°°   ° °fnf°  ° nf° f° ½ ¾¾°  I _Z ° ¯ IJJ{  { ¯I U[_  @¾¾f¯ ¯  ¾° ¾°¾° ¯ J J{ { @¾¾ °  ¾°  f ° J J{ {f°  °° °¯f¾ ½¾   .

° ¾   ¯°¯¯f  n¾° f° ¾° °n°¾¾  n¾ ¾nn¾f  ¾°nn¾f  J J IJJ I I `SZ  .

D¾° ¾ fn¾  ¯f¯¯f° ¯°¯¯½°¾ f°  f ¾fn  nn nf°       f    ¾°\$n¾°n°¾ n  f½¾ ¯ f°° ¯f\$¯°½°¾ ° f @¾° ¾ f °° n°¾ f° °° ° f ¾  XXW^WZ`S`[Z @ nf°  ¾¾   °f°f°n°f° °n°  f¯½ U[_{ {  @¾¾f° f¯½ fn¯½¾ °n° n¯½¾ ¾°n°¾%%f° %%    %% n¾f° %%  .

¯½¾ °n°¾n¯ ° ¯%%%%    @   °f  %%%%   %% @ ° %% @ nf° °    °f  ¾ °     ¾ f½fnfnf¾  nf° ¾f  @ .

f°     @ 9 n  ¾° ½ n nf°   °f °n°¾ff  °¯½      f¯½    @   °f  ½ n°n°¾    °f  ¾°n°  °¯½  °¯f¾ n° °n° @ °f ¾    °f ¾ n° °n° ¯½   °¯f¾°n°     °    @ . °  nf°   °f f°f°n°° ¯ { { { {  ¾°  ° ¾¾   °° °n°f¾ °   f°   f¯½    .

   °  f° f  f ¾ @  f n f°°n°¾ff ¾f° f  f ¾ ¾¯ nf  °°  ¯f¾  ¾nf¾f° ¾ n n f° n¾ n  ¾°   ¯ ¯  ¾nf¾ °%%   ¾°f° n¾    { { { { { { O   °   °  ¯¾¯½f° f ¾ °n°%%  ¾f¾°n°¾¾° f   { {   °  { {   f¾ @¾ ¾nf° ¾   nf° ½ nf°  ° ¾ °f     °f  °n°¾ °  ¾f° f  ¾f    { {  O  Z{X{ {{  ° { {  @¾¾f¯  ° f ¾°°%%   °f°\$ f° ¾°  ¾° nf°   O  _Z  ° U[_   @¾ ¾nf° ¾ f° nf°    °f ¯ n¯½nf  ½ ¾¾°¾ f°  ° f°   f n¾  f f°   O  U[_  ° _Z   @¾ ¾nf° ¾ f° nf°    °f ¯ n¯½nf  ½ ¾¾°¾ f°  ° f°   f ¾°  f f°   @ ¯fff  °° ¯f¾    O   `SZ   ° _WU  O   U[_WU   ° U[_WU U[`  .

O   _WU  U[`   °  ° _WU `SZ U[_WU  O    .

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