Master of Business Administration


MBA Semester 1

Management Process and Organization Behavior MB0038 Assignment Set- 2 Q.1 What is emotional intelligence? Explain Goleman’s model of emotional intelligence. A.1 Emotional intelligence (EI)-; Emotional intelligence (EI) describes the ability, capacity, skill or, in the case of the trait EI model, a self-perceived grand ability to identify, assess, manage and control the emotions of one's self, of others, and of groups.[1] Different models have been proposed for the definition of EI and disagreement exists as to how the term should be used.[2] Despite these disagreements, which are often highly technical, the ability EI and trait EI models (but not the mixed models) enjoy support in the literature and have successful applications in different domains. The earliest roots of emotional intelligence can be traced to Darwin's work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and second adaptation.[3] In the 1900s, even though traditional definitions of intelligence emphasized cognitive aspects such as memory and problem-solving, several influential researchers in the intelligence field of study had begun to recognize the importance of the non-cognitive aspects. For instance, as early as 1920, E.L. Thorndike used the term social intelligence to describe the skill of understanding and managing other people.[4] Similarly, in 1940 David Wechsler described the influence of non-intellective factors on intelligent behavior, and further argued that our models of intelligence would not be complete until we can adequately describe these factors.[3] In 1983, Howard Gardner's Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences[5] introduced the idea of multiple intelligences which included both Interpersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people) and Intrapersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one's feelings, fears and motivations). In Gardner's view, traditional types of intelligence, such as IQ, fail to fully explain cognitive ability.[6] Thus, even though the names given to the concept varied, there was a common belief that traditional definitions of intelligence are lacking in ability to fully explain performance outcomes. The first use of the term "emotional intelligence" is usually attributed to Wayne Payne's doctoral thesis, A Study of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence from 1985.[7] However, prior to this, the term "emotional intelligence" had appeared in Leuner (1966). Greenspan (1989) also put forward an EI model, followed by Salovey and Mayer (1990), and Goleman (1995). The distinction between trait emotional intelligence and ability emotional intelligence was introduced in 2000.[8] As a result of the growing acknowledgement by professionals of the importance and relevance of emotions to work outcomes,[9] the research on the topic continued to gain momentum, but it wasn't until the publication of Daniel Goleman's best seller Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can

understand and explain emotions. recognize. remember. communicate. taking over people's reactions literally before they have had time to think. the brain stores emotional. or surface behaviors. during its evolution over millions of years. for motivating ourselves. In Working with Emotional Intelligence (1998). survival-linked responses to visual and other inputs. Goleman went on to relate business acumen to emotional intelligence. .[10] Nancy Gibbs' 1995 Time magazine article highlighted Goleman's book and was the first in a string of mainstream media interest in EI. identify. but were still highly successful in terms of their lives and business achievements. Here. Goleman defined emotional intelligence as a capacity for recognizing our own and others' feelings. Mammals or human beings who have had their amygdala removed show no signs of emotional feeling at all. It includes the amygdala region. and is the most primitive part of the brain * the hippocampus evolved after the brainstem and is situated just above the latter. sometimes referred to as EQ) in a highly accessible form. It controls bodily functions and instinctive survival responses. the importance of which was identified by Joseph LeDoux during the 1980s. In the later Working with Emotional Intelligence he identified 25 EI competencies. he identifies others who were not well qualified or distinguished in academic terms. Emotional intelligence is the innate potential to feel. learn from. manage. The amygdala seems able to `hijack' the brain in some circumstances. both within ourselves and in our relationships. and provoking an immediate response to a situation. use. Key theories Emotional intelligence and the brain In Emotional Intelligence. In Emotional Intelligence he identifies many people who. He outlines how. and for managing our emotions. the brain has now come to comprise three main areas: * the brain stem is situated at the base of the brain and at the top of the spinal cord. The amygdala can catalyze the sort of impulsive actions that may sometimes overpower rational thought and the capacity for considered reactions. Goleman's interest in EI arose from a realization that a high IQ is not necessarily a prerequisite for having a successful life. Daniel Goleman : Emotional Intelligence [pic] Daniel Goleman is usually credited with challenging the traditional view of IQ (intelligence quotient) by drawing together research on how the brain works and developing this to promote and popularize e concept of emotional intelligence (EI. were nevertheless failures socially or in corporate life. while brilliant academically. and discussed how high emotional intelligence can make all the difference between success and failure. describe. Conversely.Matter More Than IQ that the term became widely popularized. Goleman describes how the evolution of the brain has implications for our emotions and behavioral responses.

4) Empathy: the ability to see other people's points of view. self-regulation. and may be very wrong. as outlined below: 1) Self-awareness: examining how your emotions affect your performance. Yet.the two main functions of the brain regulating our behavior are situated in separate areas. retaining composure and the ability to think clearly under pressure. Because of this course of evolution. behaving openly and honestly. including employees. handling impulses well. optimism. negotiation. when people first confront stimuli that prompt. co-operation. dispute resolution. we may allow inappropriate emotional responses to pre-empt behavior based on consideration of more appropriate options. for example. Emotional intelligence is largely about understanding this and making use of our EI. ability to take the initiative. avoiding the tendency to stereotype others. commitment. well-developed. 2) Self-regulation: controlling your temper. memory and reasoning functions. using your values to guide decision-making. Today. Furthermore. Goleman's framework of emotional intelligence Goleman developed a framework to explain emotional intelligence in terms of five elements he described as self-awareness. motivation.looking at your strengths and weaknesses and learning from your experiences. 3) Motivation: enjoying challenge and stimulation. Unless intelligent control is exerted. extreme fear. and nurturing trustworthiness and self-restraint. good communication with others. their first impulse to active response comes from the amygdala. we usually have no need to fight or run away from dangers of the sort faced by prehistoric people. empathy and social skills.* The neo-cortex is the large. The results of this for human behavior can be catastrophic in that. and ability to deal with others' . while also controlling our responses to take account of it. top region of the brain which comprises the centre for our thinking. and being self-confident and certain about your capabilities. anger. values and goals. while possibly right for the situation. Our emotions have a `wisdom' of their own that we should learn to use more. we need to be aware of how the primitive response in the brain's emotional centre precedes all rational evaluation and response. and being guided by personal preferences in choosing goals. unless we are aware of the situation and practiced in controlling our initial feelings. our emotions and thinking intelligence . or frustration. While some instinctive reactions may be wise in given circumstances. capacity to initiate and manage change. 5) Social skills: the use of influencing skills such as persuasion. our emotional centers receive `input' before our thinking centers. self-assessment . and can react very quickly and very strongly in some situations. controlling your stress by being more positive and action-centered. stimulating instinctive actions that. Each of these elements has distinctive characteristics. seeking out achievement. are not rationally considered. the brain moves into survival mode. and being culturally aware. ability to inspire and lead others. particularly in terms of the intuitive sense they offer. listening skills.

Social competence * being empathic. in association with the Hay Group. being able to perceive another's thoughts and points of view * being aware of and sensing a group's dynamics and inter-relationships * focusing on others' needs. particularly when they are customers. to use in assessing and developing EQ competencies at work. He gives several anecdotal case studies to illustrate ways in which emotional intelligence can make a real impact in the workplace. 3. citing research from various sources that suggests senior managers with a higher emotional intelligence rating perform better than those without. Self-awareness * being aware of your emotions and their significance * having a realistic knowledge of your strengths and weaknesses * having self-confidence in yourself and your capacities.emotions .particularly group emotions. Goleman claims that people who demonstrate these characteristics are more likely to be successful in senior management. The Emotional Competence Inventory Goleman believes that emotional intelligence can be developed over a period of time and he developed an Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI). 4. Social skills * helping others to develop themselves * effective leadership * influencing skills . The ECI reduces the original five components of emotional intelligence to four: 1. Self-management * controlling your emotions * being honest and trustworthy * being flexible and dedicated. 2.

But individuals are also gathering | | |information and impressions . when to meet. soon after leaving Princeton. Q. and avoid controversy or | | |conflict.about each other. or to roles and | | |responsibilities within the group. FOUR STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT Tuckman described the four distinct stages that a group can as it comes together and starts to operate. These may relate to the work of the group itself. This process can be subconscious. Some people's patience will break early. but the avoidance of conflict and threat means that not much| | |actually gets done. Since then. Looking at the behavior of small groups in a variety of environments.Discuss the five stage model of group development proposed by Tuckman. as important issues start to be| | |addressed. such | | |as team organization. Bruce W Tuckman is a respected educational psychologist who first described the (then) four stages of group development in 1965. and about the scope of the task and how to approach | | |it. although an understanding of the stages can help group reach effectiveness more quickly and less painfully. others have attempted to adapt and extend the model . Stage 1: Forming |[pic] |Individual behavior is driven by a desire to be accepted by the others. and suggested they need to experience all four stages before they achieve maximum effectiveness. Some will observe that it's good to be getting . and minor confrontations will arise that are | | |quickly dealt with or glossed over. He refined and developed the model in 1977 (in conjunction with Mary Ann Jensen) with the addition of a fifth stage.* excellent interpersonal communication skills * change management skills * ability to resolve arguments and discord * ability to nourish and build good relationships * team-player skills. This is a comfortable stage to be in. Serious issues and feelings are avoided. which does what.2. A. etc. he recognized the distinct phases they go through. and people focus on being busy with routines.although sometimes with more of an eye on rhyme than reason. | | | | Stage 2: Storming |[pic] |Individuals in the group can only remain nice to each other for so long.2.

and can appreciate each other's skills and experience. However. Bruce Tuckman revisited his original work and described another. individuals have had to work hard to attain this | | |stage. This high degree of comfort means that all the energy of the group can be directed | | |towards the task(s) in hand. effective group. characterized by a state of interdependence and flexibility. stage: Stage 5: Adjourning |[pic] |This is about completion and disengagement. the "rules of engagement" for the group become established. Having had their arguments. final. both from the tasks and the group members.for fear that the group | | |will break up. and everyone is equally taskorientated and | | |people-orientated. they now understand | | |each other better. loyalty and morale are all high. Everyone | | |knows each other well enough to be able to work together. Roles and responsibilities change according to need in an almost seamless way. | | |Group identity. and trusts each other enough to allow | | |independent activity. To deal with the conflict. | Ten years after first describing the four stages. and the scope of the | | |group’s tasks or responsibilities is clear and agreed. appreciate and support each other. Depending on the culture of | | |the organization and individuals. Individuals will| | |be proud of having achieved much and glad to have been part of such an . and are prepared to change preconceived views: they feel | | |they're part of a cohesive.especially from the outside . and may resist any pressure to change . | | |and will look for structural clarity and rules to prevent the conflict persisting. or revert to a storm.into the real issues. | Stage 3: Norming |[pic] |As Stage 2 evolves. individuals may feel they are winning or losing battles. Individuals listen to each | | |other. but it'll be there. | Stage 4: Performing |[pic] |Not all groups reach this stage. | | |under the surface. | | |whilst others will wish to remain in the comfort and security of stage 1. the conflict will be more or less suppressed.

and especially their reaction to change. and external factors. • Interpersonal Interpersonal conflict is the most apparent form of conflict for workplace participants. A. threats and counter threats etc. The strong drive for work related achievement in some participants can clash with . and each time that happens. Some authors describe stage 5 as "Deforming and | | |Mourning". It is easy enough to observe the results of office politics. recognizing the sense of loss felt by group members. Much conflict exists in every workplace without turning into disputes. In many workplaces there are strong ethno-cultural and racial sources of conflict as well as gender conflict. But for us the real value is in recognizing where a group is in the process. Conflict. however. There are jurisdictional disagreements among individuals. There are subtler forms of conflict involving rivalries. change related. arguments. organizational. They are the outward articulation of conflict. Disputes are merely a by-product of conflict. They need to | | |recognize what they've done. and how long and hard people should work. whether they were conscious of it or not. Many work groups live in the comfort of Norming. gossip. This should be distinguished from disputes. or forward into Performing. Typical disputes come in the form of formal court cases. A group might be happily Norming or Performing. This may lead to charges of harassment and discrimination or at least the feeling that such things exist. and helping it to move to the Perform stage. how the work should be done. The effective management of workplace conflict requires an understanding of the nature and sources of conflict in the workplace. Conflict occurs when there is a perception of incompatible interests between workplace participants. groups are often forming and changing. This will govern their behavior towards each other. role definitions.enjoyable group. personality clashes. There are disputes over how revenues should be divided. but disputes do not exist without conflict. they can move to a different Tuckman Stage. and between unions and management. and will help the group get back to Performing as quickly as possible. and consciously move on. There is the inevitable clash between formal authority and power and those individuals and groups affected. Also language and personality styles often clash. Seasoned leaders will be ready for this. grievances. Conflict can exist without disputes. and are fearful of moving back into Storming. departments. | Tuckman's original work simply described the way he had observed groups evolve. values and interests between people working together. but a new member might force them back into Storming.3 What are the possible sources of organizational conflict? Explain. and rumors. Q. might not be so easily noticed. and struggles for power and favor. jealousies. creating a great deal of conflict in the workplace. People often bring their stresses from home into the office leading to further conflict. There is also conflict within individuals — between competing needs and demands — to which individuals respond in different ways. In the real world. Conflict takes many forms in organizations. An additional source of workplace conflict can be found in varying ideas about personal success. The first step in uncovering workplace conflict is to consider the typical sources of conflict. There are a variety of sources of workplace conflict including interpersonal.3 Organizational conflict -: Organizational conflict is a state of discord caused by the actual or perceived opposition of needs.

In addition. To look for external factors of conflict. as can change work methodologies. FIRO-B. Thomas-Kilman. A change in government can have a tremendous impact. Additionally. Also public and non-profit workplaces in particular can face political pressures and demands from special interest groups. Public ideologies can have an impact on the way employees are treated and viewed in such organizations. • External Factors External factors can also lead to conflict in the workplace. domestic and foreign competition. workload and benefits. Again surveys. the distribution of duties. In addition to this. confidential surveys. Funding levels for workplaces dependent upon government funding can change dramatically. the more likely there will be significant conflict. the more change and the more recent the change. including the use of personality testing instruments like Myers-Briggs. All organizations experience such conflict.participants who do not emphasize work-related success in their lives. In Workplaces That Work. A thorough review of the workplace is suggested for such sources of conflict. . and varying views on accountability. interviews and focus groups can be a good way of uncovering interpersonal sources of conflict. Many workplaces suffer from constant reorganization. interviews and focus groups can help reveal these sources of conflict. Companies or government departments that have constant relationships with outside organizations will find this to be a major source of conflict for workplace participants. There are a variety of ways to uncover such sources of conflict. reaching back as far as 10 years to determine the level of churn that has taken place. Labor/management and supervisor/employee tensions are heightened by power differences. • Organizational There are a number of organizational sources of conflict. changing markets. In line with reorganization. Conflict can arise over resource allocation. Conflict arises with clients and suppliers effecting customer service and delivery of goods. conflict can arise where there are perceived or actual differences in treatment between departments or groups of employees. have a review of the relationships between the subject organization and other organizations. leading to further stress and conflict. Discuss the different categories of environmental stressors. many public and non-profit organizations suffer from downloading of responsibilities from other organizations. Differences in supervisory styles between departments can be a cause of conflict. different levels of tolerance for risk taking. Workplace analysts should review the history of the particular organization. seniority/juniority and pay equity conflict. • Trends/Change The modern workplace has significant levels of stress and conflict related to change-management and downsizing. especially on public and non-profit organizations. Economic pressures are caused by recession. Much can be learned from the lessons of similar organizations that have made a study of this source of conflict.4 The environmental stressors have a great impact on work performance and adjustment of the individual in an organization. Also there can be work style clashes. Generally speaking. and Personality Dynamics Profiles. there is a convenient check-list and advice to help the analyst reveal the prevailing sources of workplace conflict Q. Those relating to hierarchy and the inability to resolve conflicting interests are quite predominant in most workplaces. organizational sources of conflict can be predicted based upon best practices from similar organizations. Technological change can cause conflict. and the effects of Free Trade between countries.

A. It can be a force caused by nature or humans and can be done without intent. germs from ill employees who come to work can permeate the environment. talking and other workplace sounds • Crowding: Large numbers of individuals in one place at the same time Chemical In some workplaces. strains. poor work performance. Truck drivers who spend hours on the road without the proper back support can also receive an ergonomic injury. your feet and legs can be affected. but their behavior can be severely altered. repeated exposure to sitting in an uncomfortable or badly designed desk chair or using a computer without proper supports can cause physical injuries. • Walking or Standing: If you are doing either of these for extended periods of time without wearing the correct shoes. Chemical stressors include: . various chemicals can cause employees stress. Other stressors of this kind include: • Heavy Lifting: Without the proper back support lifting belt. Different categories of environmental stressors. and inconveniences. Any external event in a natural physical environment that causes an individual stress or anxiety is known as an environmental stressor. • Talking on the Phone: Placing the phone receiver between your head and shoulder to talk can strain your neck muscles. absenteeism and possibly even physical injuries. you can really strain your back. For instance. Those affected by these stressors don't necessarily change their routines. These include: • Temperature: Prolonged exposure to excessive heat or cold • Lighting: Lighting that is too bright or too dim • Vibration: Excessive vibrations placed upon the body such as in jack-hammering • Indoor Air Quality: In states where there are no stateside smoking bans. Also. unnatural movements or postures while performing job duties can be considered ergonomic environmental stressors. whether it's because they work directly with the compounds or because of the fear of having them nearby is the cause of the anxiety. environmental stressors include a variety of hazards. yelling.4 --Environmental Stressors in the Workplace Environmental stressors in the workplace can create an unpleasant atmosphere. Physical Environmental stressors in the workplace that force your body to compensate for conditions that are outside of the norm are known as physical stressors. • Noise: Excessively loud laughter. In the workplace. Ergonomic • Repeated. indoor smoking can be a hazard for some individuals. Use a speakerphone or headset to eliminate this ergonomic stress.

They include: • Viruses: In the workplace. • Allergens: Substances that cause the immune system to fight against itself are called allergens. . should be safely stored Biological Biological environmental stressors can affect your body and make it tough to perform on a dayto-day basis. spreading diseases and germs very quickly. They can cause and spread many diseases through physical contact. flues and other infections can be spread through the air (sneezing or coughing) or by physical contact. These types of stressors can make you ill. • Parasites: Although very difficult to detect. a good ventilation system must be installed • Explosives: Materials that can explode through detonation or decomposition. colds. must be securely stored in an area that is safe distance away from workers • Corrosives: Substances that can destroy or severely damage any material or substance with which it comes in contact.• Flammables: Gases or liquids that can be ignited and start a flame. they can come from a substance in the air to a natural or unnatural agent in the environment. if stored or disposed of on the premises. pretty much the same way viruses spread. parasites live inside or outside of other organisms while feeding off of them at the same time. • Bacteria: These single-cell organisms can rapidly multiply. In a workplace. tired or other feeling that is out of your normal range.

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