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Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Energy and Buildings

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ enbui l d

Double cooling coil model for non-linear HVAC system using RLF method

Raad Z. Homod

a

, Khairul Salleh Mohamed Sahari

a,

, Haider A.F. Almurib

b

, Farrukh Haz Nagi

a

a

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tenaga Nasional, Km7 Jalan Kajang-Puchong, 43009 Kajang, Malaysia

b

Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, The University of NottinghamMalaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 17 August 2010

Received in revised form19 March 2011

Accepted 22 March 2011

Keywords:

Building model

HVAC system

RLF method

Energy control

a b s t r a c t

The purpose of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system is to provide and maintain a

comfortable indoor temperature and humidity. The objective of this work is to model building structure,

including equipments of HVAC system. The hybrid HVAC model is built with physical and empirical

functions of thermal inertia quantity. Physical laws are used to build the sub-model for subsystems that

have low thermal inertia while the empirical method is used to build the sub-model for subsystems

with high thermal inertia. The residential load factor (RLF) is modeled by residential heat balance (RHB).

RLF is required to calculate a cooling/heating load depending upon the indoor/outdoor temperature. The

transparency, functionality of indoor/outdoor temperatures and simplicity of RLF makes it suitable for

modeling. Furthermore, the parameters of the model can be calculated differently from room to room and

are appropriate for variable air volume (VAV) factor. Nowadays, a VAV system is universally accepted as

means of achieving both energy efciency and comfortable building environment. Inthis research work, a

pre-cooling coil is added to humidify the incoming air, which controls the humidity more efciently inside

conditioned space. The model presented here is veried with both theoretical and numerical methods.

2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The pioneering simulation work of Stephenson and Mitalas [1]

on the response factor method signicantly improved the modeling

of transient heat transfer through the opaque fabric and the heat

transfer between internal surfaces and the roomair. The heat bal-

ance approaches were introduced in the 1970s [2] to enable a more

rigorous treatment of building loads. Rather than utilizing weight-

ing factors to characterize the thermal response of the roomair due

to solar incident, internal gains, and heat transfer through the fab-

ric, instead, the heat balance methodology solves heat balances for

the roomair and at the surfaces of fabric components.

Since its rst prototype was developed over two decades ago,

the building model simulation systemhas been in a constant state

of evolution and renewal. Numerical discretization and simulta-

neous solution techniques were developed as a higher-resolution

alternative to the response factor methods [3]. Essentially, this

approach extends the concept of the heat balance methodology to

all relevant building and plant components. More complex and rig-

orous methods for modeling HVAC systems were introduced in the

1980s. Transient models and more fundamental approaches were

developed[4] as alternatives tothe traditional approachwhichper-

E-mail addresses: Khairuls@uniten.edu.my (K.S.M. Sahari),

haider.abbas@nottingham.edu.my (H.A.F. Almurib).

formed mass and energy balances on pre-congured templates of

common HVAC systems. The delivery of training and the produc-

tion of learning materials [5] are also receiving increased attention.

Additionally, many validation exercises have been conducted [6]

and test procedures developed [7] to assess, improve, and demon-

strate the integrity of simulation tools.

Up to now, many modeling approaches have been available

and the techniques have become quite mature. However, only

two extreme modeling approaches can be generalized. The rst

approach, called physical models, builds up models entirely based

on universal laws, physical laws and principles [8]. The second

approach, calledempirical models, constructs models entirely based

on experiments or data [911].

This study adopted both methods, by employed energy and

mass conservation law to obtain the overall model of the system.

However, to do that for such a system with various thermal iner-

tia subsystems, care must be given to the heat storage capacity

of the subsystem and its relation to the difference in temperature

(input and output temperatures of control volume) and the differ-

ence in the humidity ratio. If heat storage is a function of these two

properties only, then we can apply physical laws directly. This is

applied to HVAC equipment, usually with lowthermal capacitance.

However, if it is related to other factors in addition to those two

properties, the empirical laws must be applied, andthis case always

with high thermal inertia subsystem. These methods are applied to

building structures (walls, windows, slab oors, ceiling and roofs)

to calculate heating and cooling loads. There are many methods

0378-7788/$ see front matter 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.03.023

Journal Identication = ENB Article Identication = 3159 Date: July 19, 2011 Time: 7:28pm

2044 R.Z. Homod et al. / Energy and Buildings 43 (2011) 20432054

Nomenclature

E energy, J/s

M mass, kg

m mass owrate, kg/s

T temperature,

C

humidity ratio, kg

w

/kg

da

Q cooling/heating load, W

CF surface cooling factor, W/m

2

OF

t

, OF

b

, OF

r

opaque-surface cooling factors

DR cooling daily range, K

PXI peak exterior irradiance, W/m

2

SHGC solar heat gain coefcient

D

oh

depth of overhang, m

X

oh

vertical distance from top of fenestration to over-

hang, m

F

cl

shade fraction closed (0 to 1)

IDF inltration driving force, L/(xcm

2

)

R thermal resistance,

C/W

IAC interior shading attenuation coefcient

FF

s

fenestration solar load factor

E

t

, E

d

, ED peak total, diffuse, and direct irradiance, W/m

2

T

X

transmission of exterior attachment

F

shd

fraction of fenestration shaded by overhangs or ns

L site latitude,

N

exposure (surface azimuth),

fromsouth

SLF shade line factor

used to calculate the heating and cooling load; these methods have

complicated characteristics due to thermal capacitance variation

for different buildings, which affect the heat storage properties.

Since the heat storage properties depend on ambient temperature,

solar gain incident on the building envelops and internal heat-

ing loads [12], and combination of all these elements producing a

time-varying load or time-varying heat ow with such a variation

causing the complication in cooling and heating load calculation

[13].

Therefore, the building and HVAC systemstructures are includ-

ing both types of high and lowthermal inertia, this paper proposes

the hybridization between the two modeling approaches, physical

and empirical, to arrive at an accurate model of the overall system.

The RLF method was derived by [14,15] from residential heat

balance (RHB), where the RLF method is built by applying several

thousand RHB cooling load results, and using these results to create

RLF by statistical regression technique to nd values for the load

factors. The procedure method of RLF is presented by ASRAE [16].

There are many reasons to adopt this method to build a model:

it is suitable to be applied on the computer process, it can be used

to calculate a cooling and heating load depending on inside and

outside temperature, cooling and heating loads can be calculated

roomby room, and also due to its appropriateness for variable air

volume (VAV) systems. The VAV systemis one of two types of mul-

tiple zone heating and ventilation systems. The second type is the

constant air volume (CAV). VAV systems are becoming very popu-

lar in the last few years because of the signicant energy savings

they provide as compared to the CAVmultiple zone central system.

Furthermore, a VAVscheme can be used to condition occupied part

of a building.

To accommodate humid climates and environments, energy

savings can be achieved by adding a pre-cooling coil. This type of

congurationresults ina considerable amount of energysavingand

it is done by reducing reheating process [17].

2. Model development

HVAC systems can be divided into subsystems where each is

modeled separately and then combined to formthe overall system

model. There are six attributes of the physical space that inu-

ence comfort: lighting, thermal, air humidity, acoustical, physical,

and the psychosocial environment. Of these, only the thermal con-

ditions and air humidity can be directly controlled by the HVAC

system. Therefore, the construction of building models discussed

in this work is based on these two attributes.

The conditioned space temperature represents the principal

part of a thermal building output. To readily model the behavior

of an overall HVAC system under thermal analysis, theory of con-

servation of energy is applied. This is due to the fact that energy

can enter and exit a subsystem control volume by heat transfer

and owing streams of matter, which are dominant in any HVAC

process.

Moisture transfer processes are not only caused by internal gen-

eration processes and air migration from outside but also by the

condition of the air being injected into the zone by an air condi-

tioning system. To monitor the variation of moisture in an air ow,

theory on conservation of mass must be applied to the subsystem

control volume. Based on this, for a control volume concept with a

multi-dimensional owat a multi-inlet and a multi-outlet system,

were applied on HVAC system.

The model of a HVAC systemcan be represented by a large num-

ber of non-linear, partial differential equations. Most of which are

related to moisture owand heat transfer involving partial deriva-

tives of time and space. Solution of a set of these equations is very

difcult and therefore, some simplifying assumptions have to be

made [18]. For analysis purposes, the HVAC systemis divided into

a number of sections, and for each lumped parameter section, the

humidity ratio and the air temperature are assumed to vary only in

the axial directions and linearly with space. Linearizing the partial

differential equations reduces these equations to ordinary linear

differential equations by applying small perturbation and lumped

parameter techniques. In this work, the linearization process is

based on the following assumptions:

surface temperature of the heat exchanger and T

h,t

T

os,t

as advo-

cated by Wang et al. [19].

systemis the output of the previous one without any delay.

method.

The proposed model is developed to determine the optimal

response for the indoor temperature and humidity ratio by using

temperature and moisture transmission based on the hybridiza-

tion of physical and empirical methods. The main advantage of this

hybrid model approach is its ability to generate the relationship

between indoor and outdoor variation data like a temperature and

humidity ratio. This approach combines both lowand high thermal

inertia to get the overall systemmodel.

Since a large number of variables are required to describe the

mathematical model of the HVAC system, it is necessary to devise

a systematic convention for naming the variables. Due to this, the

HVAC components are divided into ve subsystems. Fig. 1 shows a

model scheme based on the following subsystems control volume:

Pre-cooling coil

Journal Identication = ENB Article Identication = 3159 Date: July 19, 2011 Time: 7:28pm

R.Z. Homod et al. / Energy and Buildings 43 (2011) 20432054 2045

Fig. 1. Representation of subsystemusing control volume concept for prototypical buildings with HVAC system.

Building structure

Opaque surfaces structure

Transparent fenestration surfaces structure

Slab oor structure

Conditioned space

The following subsections describe the modeling of each of the

above subsystems.

2.1. Pre-cooling coil

The conservation of energy is applied to the control volume of

pre-cooling coil as shown in Fig. 2, and the rst law of thermody-

namics can be expressed as follows:

energy accumulation in the metal mass of coil

..

M

He

cp

He

dT

h,t

dt

=

energy absorbed by the coil

..

m

w,t

cp

w

(T

wo

T

win

)

+

sensible energy delivered by air

..

m

o,t

cp

a

(T

o,t

T

os,t

) +

latent energy delivered by air dehumidication

..

m

o,t

(

o,t

os,t

)h

f g

(1)

where M

He

is the mass of heat exchanger (kg), cp

He

is the specic

heat of heat exchanger (J/(kg

C)), m

w,t

is the mass ow rate of

chilled water at time t (kg/s), T

h,t

, T

os,t

, T

o,t

are the temperature of

heat exchanger, out supply air and out air, respectively, at time t

(

C), T

wo

, T

win

are the water out/inheat exchanger temperature (

C),

m

o,t

is the mass owrate of outside air at time t (kg/s).

On the other hand, the variation of humidity ratio in control

volume for pre-cooling coil is calculated by applying mass conser-

Fig. 2. Thermal and moisture variation through pre-heat exchanger.

vation on air owstream. The following can be obtained:

latent energy delivered by air dehumidication

..

m

o,t

(

o,t

os,t

)h

fg

=

energy absorbed by the coil

..

m

w,t

cp

w

(T

wo

T

win

)

..

m

o,t

cp

a

(T

o,t

T

os,t

) (2)

Following the procedure presented by Ghiaus et al. [20], the

state space equations can be obtained. The dynamic subsystem

model of the pre-cooling coil is therefore:

x = A

pre

x +B

pre

u

pre

y

pre

= C

pre

x +D

pre

u

pre

(3)

where

x = [ T

os,t

os,t

]

T

, u

pre

= [ m

W

T

o

o

]

T

,

A

pre

=

m

o,t

cp

a

M

He

cp

He

m

o,t

h

f g

M

He

cp

He

m

o,t

cp

a

M

ahe

cp

fg

m

o,t

M

ahe

,

B

pre

=

cp

w

t

w

M

He

cp

He

m

o,t

cp

a

M

He

cp

He

m

o,t

h

f g

M

He

cp

He

cp

w

t

w

M

ahe

h

f g

m

o,t

cp

a

M

ahe

h

f g

m

o,t

M

ahe

,

C

pre

= [ 1 1 ], D

pre

= 0

where M

ahe

is the mass of air in heat exchanger (kg), T

os,t

and

os,t

are the temperature and humidity ratio of out air supplied, respec-

tively.

Acompletedescriptionof thephysical behavior for thetwo main

output components (temperature andhumidity ratioof out air sup-

plied) are obtained by taking the Laplace transformation of both

sides of Eq. (3), assuming zero initial condition to get:

_

T

os

(s)

os

(s)

_

=

_

G

1,1

G

1,2

G

1,3

G

2,1

G

2,2

G

2,3

_

_

m

w

(s)

T

o

(s)

o

(s)

_

(4)

where G

1,1

= cp

w

t

w

2

S/cp

a

m

o

((

1

s 1)(

2

S +1) +1), G

1,2

=

2

S/((

1

s 1)(

2

S +1) 1), G

1,3

=h

fg

2

S/cp

a

((

1

s 1)(

2

S +1) 1),

G

2,1

= cp

w

t

w

2

s/h

fg

m

o

((

2

S +1)(

1

s 1) +1), G

2,2

=cp

a

1

s/h

fg

((

2

S +1)(

1

s 1) 1), G

2,3

=

1

s/((

2

S +1)(

1

s 1) 1),

1

=

M

He

cp

He

/ m

o

cp

a

(time constant, s),

2

= M

ahe

/ m

o

.

2.2. Mixing air chamber

To formulate an overall energy balance for this subsystem, the

energyis transferredwithinthe controlledvolume at a uniformrate

Journal Identication = ENB Article Identication = 3159 Date: July 19, 2011 Time: 7:28pm

2046 R.Z. Homod et al. / Energy and Buildings 43 (2011) 20432054

Fig. 3. Thermal and moisture variation through air mixing chamber.

by streams of air as shown in Fig. 3. The time dependent thermal

balance equation can be expressed as follows:

energy accumulation in air mass of mix chamber

..

M

m

cp

a

dT

m,t

dt

=

energy leaving by air out

..

m

m,t

cp

a

T

m,t

+

energy delivered by air in

..

m

os,t

cp

a

T

os,t

+ m

r,t

cp

a

T

r,t

(5)

whereM

m

is themass of air incontrol volumeof mixingair chamber

(kg), cp

a

is the specic heat of moist air (J/(kg

C)), T

m,t

, T

os,t

, T

r,t

is

the Mixing, outside supply and return temperature, respectively,

at time t (

C), m

os,t

, m

r,t

, m

m,t

is the mass ow rate of ventilation,

return and mixing air at time t (kg/s), M

m

cp

a

is the heat capacitance

of air for mixing air chamber (J/

C).

The effectiveness of the humidity ratio can be similarly modeled

to the thermal model by applying the principle of mass conserva-

tion to a control volume of mixing box, which can be expressed

as:

mass accumulation in mixing air chamber

..

dM

m

m

dt

=

mass delivered by air in

..

m

os

os,t

+ m

r

r,t

..

( m

r

+ m

os

)

m,t

(6)

where M

m

is the mass of air in the mixing chamber (kg),

r

,

os

,

and

m

are humidity ratio of return, outdoor supply and mixing,

respectively (kg

w

/kg

air

).

The state space dynamic model of subsystemcan be dened as

x = A

mx

x +B

mx

u

mx

y

mx

= C

mx

x +D

mx

u

mx

(7)

where

x = [ T

m,t

m,t

]

T

, u

mx

[ T

os

os

m

os

m

r

]

T

,

A

mx

=

_

1 0

0

m

r

M

m

_

, B

mx

=

m

os,t

2M

m

0

T

os,t

2M

m

T

r,t

0

m

os

M

m

m,t

M

m

r,t

M

m

,

C

mx

= [ 1 1 ], D

mx

= 0

and y

mx

= [ T

m,t

m,t

]

T

is the output of the subsystem, tempera-

ture and humidity ratio of mixing air.

The procedure for obtaining the relation between the input and

the output (eliminating the states vector x) is similar to the pre-

cooling coil by taking the Laplace transformation of both sides of

Eq. (7) to get:

_

T

m

(s)

m

(s)

_

=

_

G

1,4

G

1,5

G

1,6

G

1,7

G

2,4

G

2,5

G

2,6

G

2,7

_

T

os

(s)

os

(s)

m

os

(s)

m

r

(s)

(8)

where G

1,4

= m

os

/2 m

m

(

ch

S +1), G

1,5

=0, G

1,6

=

os

/2 m

m

(

ch

S +

1), G

1,7

=

r

/ m

m

(

ch

S +1), G

2,4

=0, G

2,5

= m

os

/2 m

m

(

ch

S +1),

G

2,6

=

os

/2 m

m

(

ch

S +1), G

2,7

=

r

(s)/ m

m

(

ch

S +1),

ch

=

M

m

/ m

m

(time constant, s).

2.3. Main cooling coil

The method for obtaining the relation between the input and

the output is similar in the pre-cooling coil where we applied con-

servation of both energy and mass on main cooling coil control

volume. Following the same manner for the pre-cooling coil to get

thermal and moisture dynamic subsystemequations, the following

state space can be derived:

x = A

m

x +B

m

u

m

y

m

= C

m

x +D

m

u

m

(9)

where

x = [ T

s,t

s,t

]

T

, u

m

= [ m

mw

T

m

m

]

T

,

A

m

=

m

m,t

cp

a

M

mHe

cp

He

m

m,t

h

f g

M

mHe

cp

He

m

m,t

cp

a

M

mahe

h

f g

m

m,t

m

mahe

,

B

m

=

cp

w

t

w

M

mHe

cp

He

m

m,t

cp

a

M

mHe

cp

He

m

m,t

h

f g

M

mHe

cp

He

cp

w

t

mw

M

mahe

h

f g

m

m,t

cp

a

M

mahe

h

f g

m

m,t

M

mahe

,

C

m

= [ 1 1 ], D

m

= 0

and y

m

= [ T

s,t

s,t

]

T

is the output of the subsystem, temperature

and humidity ratio of supplied air to conditioned space.

To eliminate the states vector x, we followsimilar method in the

pre-cooling coil by taking Laplace transformation on both sides of

Eq. (9) to get:

_

T

s

(s)

s

(s)

_

=

_

G

1,8

G

1,9

G

1,10

G

2,8

G

2,9

G

2,10

_

_

m

mw

(s)

T

m

(s)

m

(s)

_

(10)

where G

1,8

= cp

w

t

mw

4

S/cp

a

m

m

((

3

s 1)(

4

S +1) +1), G

1,9

=

4

S/((

3

s 1)(

4

S +1) 1), G

1,10

=h

fg

4

S/cp

a

((

3

s 1)(

4

S +1) 1),

G

2,8

= cp

w

t

mw

3

s/h

fg

m

m

((

4

S +1)(

3

s 1) +1), G

2,9

=

cp

a

3

s/h

fg

((

4

S +1)(

3

s 1) 1), G

2,10

=

3

s/((

4

S +1)(

3

s 1) 1),

3

= M

mHe

cp

He

/ m

m

cp

a

(time constant, s),

4

= M

mahe

/ m

m

(time

constant, s), M

mHe

is the mass of main heat exchanger (kg), cp

He

is

the specic heat of heat exchanger (J/(kg

C)), m

mw,t

is the mass

owrate of main cooling coil chilled water at time t (kg/s), T

h,t

, T

s,t

,

T

m,t

are the heat exchanger, supply air and mixing air temperature,

respectively, at time t (

C), T

wo

, T

win

are the water out/in heat

exchanger temperature (

C), (T

wo

T

win

) = t

mw

cooling design

temperature difference (

C).

Most cooling coil models can be utilized only when the coil is

totally dry or totally wet because they are based on the convection

heat transfer coefcient, which is dependent on the nature of the

surface, e.g. Ghiaus et al. [20] and Wang et al. [21] models. On the

other hand, the cooling coil model of this paper is developed based

on the application of mass and energy conservation Balance rules

on the control volume basis. This method is not affected by the

nature of the surface.

2.4. Building structure

The thermal mass of the building structure creates a load lev-

eling or ywheel effect on the instantaneous load. There are three

Journal Identication = ENB Article Identication = 3159 Date: July 19, 2011 Time: 7:28pm

R.Z. Homod et al. / Energy and Buildings 43 (2011) 20432054 2047

Fig. 4. Heat transfer by face temperature difference.

factors associated with the heat gain/losses to/frombuilding struc-

ture as a result of outdoor temperature and solar radiation. These

factors are related to opaque surfaces (walls, ceilings, roofs and

doors), transparent fenestration surfaces (windows, skylights and

glazed doors) and slab oors. To create building model structure

with ambiguity of thermal ywheel effectiveness on indoor tem-

perature, we used empirical RLF method.

2.4.1. Opaque surfaces

Heat transfer in opaque surfaces is due to conduction, convec-

tion and radiation. During which a stored heat will uctuate with

time. This is mainly due to two factors: the dramatic change of tem-

perature outside the system, and solar radiation that also change

dramatically during the day. To calculate this thermal capacitance,

we apply the energy conservation law of Eq. (11) on the systems

control volume. The left hand side of the equation represents the

accumulate rate of thermal storage of opaque surfaces while the

right hand side corresponds to the heat that enters and goes out

through the control volume [22,23]:

accumulation of energy

..

M

wl

cp

wl

dT

wl,t

dt

=

difference between in and out of energy

..

Q

opq

in

Q

opq

out

(11)

where, M

wl

cp

wl

is the heat capacitance of walls, ceilings, roofs and

doors (J/K),

i

Q

opq

in

and

i

Q

opq

out

is the heat gains and losses

through walls, ceilings, roofs and doors.

The heat that goes into the control volume (heat gain) of opaque

surfaces such as walls, doors, roofs and ceilings is due to two

aspects: the difference in the inside and outside temperatures of

the surfaces as illustrated in Fig. 4, and the gain of the solar incident

on the surfaces. On the other hand, the heat that goes out the con-

trol volume (heat lose) is due to heat convection to the conditioned

space.

The RLF method is used to calculate heating and cooling loads

based on two factors. One is the area of surface (A

wj

), and the other

is the surface cooling factor (CF

opq

j

) [16]. Thus, the heat entering the

surface or control volume (

Q

opq

in

) can be written mathematically as

follows:

Q

opq

in

=

j

A

w

j

CF

opq

j

(12)

and CF

opq

is dened as:

CF

opq

= U(OF

t

t +OF

b

+OF

r

DR) (13)

where U is the construction U-factor, W/(m

2

K), t is the cooling

design temperature difference (

C), OF

t

, OF

b

, OF

r

are the opaque-

surface cooling factors, and DR is the cooling daily range (K).

Hence

Q

opq

in

=

j

A

w

j

U

j

OF

t

(T

wlou

T

WI

in

) +

j

A

w

j

U

j

OF

b

+

j

A

w

j

U

j

OF

r

DR (14)

InEq. (11),

Q

opq

out

is the heat transfer due toconvectionintocon-

ditioned space. Following Newtons law of cooling for convection

heat transfer,

Q

out

can be written as:

Q

opq

out

=

j

A

w

j

h

i

j

(T

WI

in

T

r

) (15)

Thus, applying RLF method in the entire building using Eq. (11)

will give us an empirical time dependent heat balance equation as

follows:

M

wl

cp

wl

T

wl

out

,t

T

WI

in

,t

t

=

j

A

w

j

U

j

OF

t

(T

wl

out

,t

T

WI

in

,t

) +

j

A

w

j

U

j

OF

b

+

j

A

w

j

U

j

OF

r

DR

j

A

w

j

h

i

j

(T

WI

in

,t

T

r,t

) (16)

The implication behind Eq. (16) is that the temperature proles of

the building opaque envelopes are given by the linear combina-

tion of T

wl

out

,t

and T

WI

in

,t

as shown in Fig. 4. For a thin, uniform

construction material, the method gives a good estimation. How-

ever, for a thick, heavy mass material, the equation shows a big

error. One way of modifying Eq. (16) is to introduce more nodes,

for example T

wl

out

,t

, T

1,t

, t

2,t

, . . . , T

n,t

, T

WI

in

,t

for approximating the

temperature prole can be represented as the linear combination

of T

wl

out

,t

, T

1,t

, t

2,t

, . . . , T

n,t

, T

WI

in

,t

. Laplace transformation can be

used and the equation is reduced to a rst order time lag corre-

sponding to T

wl

out

,t

and T

WI

in

,t

as explained below[24]:

M

wl

cp

wl

dT

Wl

in

,t

dt

=

j

A

w

j

U

j

OF

t

(T

wl

out

,t

T

wl

in

,t

) +

j

A

w

j

U

j

OF

b

+

j

A

w

j

U

j

OF

r

DR

j

A

w

j

h

i

j

(T

Wl

in

,t

T

r,t

) (17)

Taking Laplace transformation on both sides of Eq. (17) and assum-

ingzeroinitial conditions andsimplifyingexpression, wecanobtain

the following transfer function:

T

Wl

in

(s) = [ G

1,11

G

1,12

G

1,13

]

_

T

o

(s)

k

2

T

r

(s)

_

(18)

where G

1,11

=k

1

/(

5

s +1), G

1,12

=1/(

5

s +1), G

1,13

=k

3

/(

5

s +1),

5

= M

wl

cp

wl

/(

j

A

w

j

U

j

OF

t

+

j

A

w

j

h

i

j

), k

1

=

j

A

w

j

U

j

OF

t

/

(

j

A

w

j

U

j

OF

t

+

j

A

w

j

h

i

j

), k

2

= (

j

A

w

j

U

j

OF

b

+

j

A

w

j

U

j

OF

r

DR)/

(

j

A

w

j

U

j

OF

t

+

j

A

w

j

h

i

j

), k

3

=

j

A

w

j

h

i

j

/(

j

A

w

j

U

j

OF

t

+

j

A

w

j

h

i

j

), the k parameters are k

1

is the function of thermal

resistant and outside temperature, k

2

is the function of thermal

resistant and solar radiation incident on the surfaces (

C) and k

3

is

the function of thermal resistant and convection heat transfer.

From Eq. (18) the opaque inside temperature surface (T

Wl

in

(s))

inputs are outdoor temperature (T

o

(s)), thermal resistant and solar

radiation incident (k

2

) and roomtemperature (T

r

(s)).

Journal Identication = ENB Article Identication = 3159 Date: July 19, 2011 Time: 7:28pm

2048 R.Z. Homod et al. / Energy and Buildings 43 (2011) 20432054

Fig. 5. Heat transfer through fenestration and windows.

2.4.2. Transparent fenestration surfaces

Heat transfer in this part is somewhat different than in opaque

surfaces. This is because the heat gain of these surfaces consisted of

two parts: the rst one represents heat transferred by conduction,

which is the result of the difference between the inner and outer

temperature, and the second part represents the heat transfer due

to solar radiation which itself consists of a group of factors as illus-

trated in Fig. 5. However, Eq. (11) is still valid here, and we can use

it but by changing the way of calculating the heat entering the con-

trol volume (heat gain). The RLF is implicated the components of

the second part with rst one to obtain the heat entering the con-

trol volume. As before, the factors used are the area (A

fen

j

) and the

surface cooling factor (CF

fen

j

) to calculate the heat gain as follows:

Q

fen

in

=

j

A

fen

j

CF

fen

j

(19)

where CF

fen

j

is given by equation CF

fen

=u

NFRC

(t 0.46DR) +

PXI SHGCIACFF

s

,

Q

fen

is thefenestrationcoolingload(W), A

fen

is the fenestration area (including frame) (m

2

), CF

fen

is the surface

cooling factor (W/m

2

), u

NFRC

is the fenestration NFRC heating U-

factor (W/(m

2

K)), NFRCis the National FenestrationRatingCouncil,

t is the cooling design temperature difference (K), DR is the cool-

ing daily range (K), PXI is the peak exterior irradiance, including

shading modications (W/m

2

), SHGC is the fenestration rated or

estimated NFRC solar heat gain coefcient, IAC is the interior shad-

ing attenuation coefcient, and FF

s

is the fenestration solar load

factor.

PXI is calculated as follows:

PXI = T

X

E

t

(unshaded fenestration) (20)

PXI = T

X

[E

d

+(1 F

shd

)ED] (shaded fenestration) (21)

where PXI is a peak exterior irradiance (W/m

2

), E

t

, E

d

, and ED are

peak total, diffuse, and direct irradiance, respectively (W/m

2

), T

X

is a transmission of exterior attachment (insect screen or shade

screen), and F

shd

is a fraction of fenestration shaded by permanent

overhangs, ns, or environmental obstacles.

E

t

, E

d

, and EDvalues are based on two surface conditions, where

for horizontal surfaces:

E

t

= 952 +6.49L 0.166L

2

, E

d

= min(E

t

, 170) and

ED = E

t

E

d

(22)

For vertical surfaces

=

180

E

t

= 453.4 +1341 5279

3

+3260

4

34.09L

+0.2643L

2

12.83L 0.8425L

2

+

_

0.9835L

2

+1

_

,

E

d

= min

_

E

t

, 357 86.98

2

+1.76L

108.4

4

L

+1

_

and

ED = E

t

E

d

(23)

where L =site latitude,

N, =exposure (surface azimuth)

from

south (180 to +180).

The shaded fraction F

shd

can be taken as 1 for any fenestration

shaded by adjacent structures during peak hours. Simple overhang

shading is given by an estimated equation:

F

shd

= min

_

1, max

_

0,

SLF D

oh

X

oh

h

__

(24)

whereSLFis theshadelinefactor, D

oh

is thedepthof overhang(from

plane of fenestration) (m), X

oh

is the vertical distance from top of

fenestration to overhang (m), and h is the height of fenestration

(m).

IAC values are computed as follows:

IAC = 1 +F

cl

(IAC

cl

1) (25)

where IAC is the interior attenuation coefcient of fenestration

with partially closed shade, F

cl

is the shade fraction closed (0 to

1), and IAC

cl

is the interior attenuation coefcient of fully closed

conguration.

Thus, the heat gain through a fenestration is given as:

Q

fen

in

=

j

A

fen

j

u

NFRC

j

(T

o

T

g

in

)

j

A

fen

j

u

NFRC

j

0.46DR

+

j

A

fen

j

PXI

j

SHGC

j

IAC

j

FF

s

j

(26)

After obtaining the heat transferred into control volume (heat gain)

of the fenestration surfaces, the same method used in the opaque

surfaces can be followed to get the transfer function. Here, the

inputs are: the outdoor temperature (T

o

), the indoor temperature

(T

r

) and the location of the conditioned place (f

DR

). The output is

the inside temperature of the glass (T

g

in

) which is dened as:

T

g

in

(S) = [ G

1,14

G

1,15

F

1,16

]

_

T

o

(s)

T

r

(s)

f

DR

_

(27)

where G

1,14

= R

g

f

1

/(f

1

R

g

+1)(

g

S +1), G

1,15

= 1/(f

1

R

g

+1)(

g

s +

1), G

1,16

= R

g

/(f

1

R

g

+1)(

g

S +1),

g

= Cag R

g

/(f

1

R

g

+1), R

g

=

(1/

j

A

fen

j

h

i

j

), f

DR

=

j

A

fen

j

u

NFRC

j

0.46D, f

1

=

j

A

fen

j

u

NFRC

j

(W/k).

2.4.3. Slab oors

The slab oor of the building has big thermal capacitance stor-

age. In fact, it is the largest among the different sections of the

building andtocalculate it. We canrewrite the energy conservation

lawof Eq. (11) as follows:

accumulation or storage of energy

..

M

slab

cp

slab

dT

slab,t

dt

=

difference between in and out of energy

..

Q

slab

in

Q

slab

out

(28)

Journal Identication = ENB Article Identication = 3159 Date: July 19, 2011 Time: 7:28pm

R.Z. Homod et al. / Energy and Buildings 43 (2011) 20432054 2049

where

i

Q

slab

in

and

i

Q

slab

out

are the heat gain and loss through

slab oor, respectively (W) and M

wl

cp

wl

is the heat capacitance of

slab (J/K).

Wang [25] and Bligh et al. [26] found that heat gain to concrete

slab oor is mostly through the perimeter rather than through the

oor and into the ground. Total heat loss/gain is more nearly pro-

portional to the length of the perimeter than to the area of the oor,

andit canbe estimatedbythe following equationfor bothunheated

and heated slab oors:

Q

slab

in

= f

t

P(T

slab

in

T

o

) (29)

where

Q

slab

out

is the heat loss through slab oors (W), f

t

is the heat

loss coefcient per meter of perimeter, W/(mK), P is the perimeter

or exposed edge of oor (m), T

slab

in

is the inside slab oor tempera-

ture or indoor temperature (

C), and T

o

is the outdoor temperature

(

C).

The output heat (heat loss) from concrete slab oor has been

calculated by ASHREA organization by following the same meth-

ods used in the opaque and fenestration surfaces [16]. As before all

factors affecting the output heat have been embedded in two fac-

tors only: the area (A

slab

j

) and the cooling surface factors (Cf

slab

j

).

Therefore, the heat output of control volume is as in Eq. (30):

Q

slab

out

=

j

A

slab

j

Cf

slab

j

(30)

where A

slab

is the area of slab (m

2

), (Cf

slab

=1.91.4h

srf

) is the slab

cooling factor (W/m

2

), h

srf

is given by h

srf

= 1/(R

cvr

+0.12), where

h

srf

is the effective surface conductance, including resistance of slab

covering material (R

cvr

) such as carpet (Representative (R

cvr

) val-

ues are found in Chapter 6 of the 2008 ASHRAE HandbookHVAC

Systems and Equipment [27]).

To obtain slab oor transfer function, Eqs. (29) and (30) are sub-

stituted into Eq. (28), and after simplifying the expression, Laplace

transformation is applied on both sides of the resulting equation.

The slab oors subsysteminputs are slab oors area (A

slab

) and

outdoor temperature T

o

, while output is inside slab oors temper-

ature T

slab

in

(S) as shown below:

T

slab

in

(s) = [ G

1,17

G

1,18

]

_

A

slab

T

o

_

(31)

where G

1,17

=(1.91.4h

srf

)/(

slab

S +1), G

1,18

=f

t

P/(

slab

S +1),

slab

=C

slab

/f

t

P, C

slab

=

i

M

slab

i

cp

slab

i

, is the heat capacitance of

slab oors (J/k).

2.5. Conditioned space

The conditioned space is covered by walls, windows, doors,

ceilings, roofs and slab oors. In other words conditioned space

components are air space, furniture, occupant, lighting and appara-

tus that emits heating load. By means of conditioned space control

volume, we analyze the effectiveness of temperature and humid-

ity ratio by applying conservation of energy and mass. The RLF and

physical laware used as analytical tools to model indoor tempera-

ture and humidity ratio.

Sensible heat gaincanbe evaluatedby applying thermal balance

equationonconditionedspacetoget thecomponents thermal load.

The most critical components affecting the conditioned space are:

(1) Heat traversing opaque surfaces (

Q

opq

), which is the amount

of heat transferred to indoor air from walls, roofs, ceilings and

doors, (2) the heat traversing transparent fenestration surfaces

(

Q

fen

) as in windows, skylights, and glazed doors, (3) through slab

oors (

Q

slab

), (4) inltration and ventilation (

Q

inf

), (5) occupants,

lighting, and appliance (

Q

ig,s

), (6) furnishing and air conditioning

spacecapacitance(

Q

air

+

Q

fur

) and(7) coolingloadexertedbyHVAC

system(

Q

s

).

The heat balance of conditioned space is given by the equation:

accumulation or storage of energy

..

Q

air

+

Q

fur

=

difference between input and output of energy

..

Q

opq

+

Q

fen

+

Q

slab

+

Q

inf

+

Q

ig,s

Q

s

(32)

where

Q

air

=

storage energy at air mass

..

M

air

cp

a

dT

air

dt

,

Q

fur

=

storage energy at furniture mass

..

j

M

fur

j

cp

fur

j

dT

fur

dt

,

Q

opq

=

convection heat gain fromopaque surface

..

j

A

w

j

h

i

j

(T

Wl

in

Tr

) ,

Q

fen

=

conduction heat gain

..

(T

g

in

T

r

)

R

g

+

solar radiation heat gain

..

j

A

fen

j

PXI

j

SHGC

j

IAC

j

FF

s

j

,

Q

slab

=

convention heat gain fromslab oors

..

j

A

slb

j

h

i

j

(T

slb

in

T

r

) ,

Q

inf

=

heat gain due to inltration

..

C

s

A

L

IDF(T

o,t

T

r,t

), and

Q

ig,s

=

sensible cooling load frominternal gains

..

136 +2.2A

cf

+22N

oc

.

Substitution these quantities into Eq. (32), yields

M

r

cp

a

dT

r,t

dt

+

j

M

fur

j

cp

fur

j

dT

fur,t

dt

=

j

A

w

j

h

i

j

(T

Wl

in,

t

T

r,t

) +

g

in

,t

T

r,t

R

g

+

j

A

fen

j

PXI

j

SHGC

j

IAC

j

FF

s

j

+

j

A

slb

j

h

i

j

(T

slb

in

T

r

) +C

s

A

L

IAF(T

o,t

T

r,t

)

+136 +2.2A

cf

+22N

oc

m

m

cp

a

(T

r,t

T

s,t

) (33)

The rate of moisture change in conditioned space is the result

of three predominant moisture sources: outdoor air (inltration

and ventilation), occupants, and miscellaneous sources, such as

cooking, laundry, and bathing as shown in Fig. 6. We applied the

conservation of mass lawon the components of conditioned space

Journal Identication = ENB Article Identication = 3159 Date: July 19, 2011 Time: 7:28pm

2050 R.Z. Homod et al. / Energy and Buildings 43 (2011) 20432054

Fig. 6. Heat and humidity owin/out of conditioned space.

to get a general formula as follows:

rate of moisture change

= rate of moisture transfer +rate of moisture generation

dmoisture value

dt

=

i

input moisture rate

e

output moisture rate +

gen

moisture generation rate

(34)

The mass balance of conditioned space is given by the equation:

dM

r

r,t

dt

= m

s

s,t

+ m

inf

a,t

+

Q

ig,l

h

fg

m

r

r,t

(35)

A complete description of the space physical behavior for the

twomainoutput components is givenby combining thermal model

equation (33) with moisture model equation (35) deriving the

whole subsystemstate space equation of conditioned space as pre-

sented by Ghiaus et al. [28]. Then eliminating the states vector x,

we followsimilar method in the pre-cooling coil by taking Laplace

transformation on both sides of the state space equation to get:

_

T

r

(s)

r

(s)

_

=

_

G

1,19

G

1,20

G

1,21

G

1,22

G

1,23

G

1,24

G

1,25

G

1,26

G

1,27

G

2,19

G

2,20

G

2,21

G

2,22

G

2,23

G

2,24

G

2,25

G

2,26

G

2,27

_

T

Wl

in

(s)

T

g

in

(s)

T

slb

in

(s)

T

o

(s)

T

s

(s)

f

4

s

(s)

o

(s)

Q

ig,l

(36)

where G

1,19

= k

wl

/f

2

(

6

S +1), G

1,20

=1/f

2

R

g

(

6

S +1),

G

1,21

=k

slb

/f

2

(

6

S +1), G

1,22

=f

3

/f

2

(

6

S +1), G

1,23

= m

m

cp

a

/f

2

(

6

S +

1), G

1,24

=1/f

2

(

6

S +1), G

1,25

=0, G

1,26

=0, G

1,27

=0, G

2,19

=0, G

2,20

=0,

G

2,21

=0, G

2,23

=0, G

2,24

=0, G

2,25

= m

s

/ m

r

(

r

S +1), G

2,26

=

m

inf

/ m

r

(

r

S +1), G

2,27

= 1/h

fg

m

r

(

r

S +1), k

wl

=

j

A

slb

j

h

i

j

,

f

3

=C

s

A

L

IDF (W/k), C

s

is the air sensible heat factor (w/L . S . K.),

A

L

is the building effective leakage area, cm

2

, IDF is the inltration

driving force (L/(s cm

2

)), f

2

=

j

A

w

j

h

i

j

+(1/R

g

) +

j

A

slb

j

h

i

j

+

C

s

A

L

IDF + m

m

cp

a

(W/k),

6

=C

af

/f

2

(s), C

af

is the heat

capacitance of indoor air and furniture, m

inf

is the inltra-

tion air mass ow rate (kg/s), f

4

=f

fen

+136+2.2A

cf

+22N

oc

(W),

f

fen

=

j

A

fen

j

PXI

j

SHGC

j

IAC

j

FF

s

j

is the direct radiation (W),

s

,

o

is the humidity ratio of outdoor and supply air, respectively,

and

Q

ig,l

is the latent cooling load frominternal gains.

3. Resulting overall model

The model block diagram represents a good overall picture of

the relationships among transfer function variables of a subsystem

model. It is possible to arrange the nal subsystems transfer func-

tions (Eqs. (4), (8), (10), (18), (27), (31) and (36)) in a way to reect

reality where the output of the rst subsystem is the input to the

next subsystemand so on and so forth. This is illustrated by Fig. 7.

Note here that it is difcult to arrange and derive the overall math-

ematical model that represents the systems general equation by

only looking at these equations. Therefore, we sought the help of

graphics.

A complete description of the plant behavior for the two main

output components is givenbycompacting subsystemmodel equa-

tion of pre-cooling coil, mixing air chamber, mean cooling coil,

conditioned space and building structure. The whole compact

model transfer function of HVAC equipment and building is rep-

resented by Eq. (37).

_

T

r

(s)

r

(s)

_

=

_

T

1,1

(s) T

1,2

(s) T

1,3

(s) T

1,4

(s) T

1,5

(s) T

1,6

(s) T

1,7

(s) T

1,8

(s) T

1,9

(s) T

1,10

(s) T

1,11

(s) T

1,12

(s)

T

2,1

(s) T

2,2

(s) T

2,3

(s) T

2,4

(s) T

2,5

(s) T

2,6

(s) T

2,7

(s) T

2,8

(s) T

2,9

(s) T

2,10

(s) T

2,11

(s) T

2,12

(s)

_

m

w

(s)

m

mw

(s)

m

os

(s)

m

r

(s)

T

o

(s)

o

(s)

f

4

Q

ig,l

A

slab

f

DR

k

2

T

r

(s)

(37)

where

T

1,1

(s), T

1,2

(s), . . ., T

1,12

(s) andT

2,1

(s), T

2,2

(s), . . ., T

2,12

(s) represent

the input factors that can be obtained fromEq. (36) and Fig. 7.

Eq. (37) implies that the systemhas twelve input variables and

two outputs.

Journal Identication = ENB Article Identication = 3159 Date: July 19, 2011 Time: 7:28pm

R.Z. Homod et al. / Energy and Buildings 43 (2011) 20432054 2051

Fig. 7. Subsystems model block diagram.

The input variables are:

1. m

w

(s) is the owrate of chilledwater supply topre-cooling coil,

2. m

mw

(s) is the owrate of chilled water supply to main cooling

coil,

3. m

r

(s) is the owrate of return air to conditioned space,

4. m

os

(s) is the owrate of outside air to conditioned space,

5. T

o

(s) is the perturbations in outside temperature,

6. k

2

is the perturbations due to thermal resistance of building

envelope,

7. f

4

is the perturbations of internal sensible heat gain,

8. A

slab

is the area of slab oors,

9. f

DR

is the location factor,

10.

o (s) is the perturbations in outside air humidity ratio,

11.

Q

ig,l

is the perturbations of internal latent heat gain, and

12. T

r

(s) is the conditioned space temperature.

On the other hand, the output variables are:

1. T

r

(s) is the roomtemperature or conditioned space temperature,

and

2.

r

(s) is the roomhumidity ratio or conditioned space humidity

ratio.

4. Simulation results and discussion

In order to evaluate the performance of the previous thermal

moisture model strategies presented in this work, a residential

building used by the RLF methodology [16] has been adopted. The

geometry of the building is shown in Fig. 8 and is the same one

usedinASHRAE[16] toinvestigate the parameters of the developed

model.

Fig. 8. The geometry of the building chosen to get model parameters.

The building construction characteristics are documented in

Table 1.

The residential building model is a typical one-story house that

has a simple structure. The overall area is 248.6m

2

while the over-

all area excluding the garage is 195.3m

2

, the gross windows and

wall exposed area is 126.2m

2

while the net wall exterior area is

108.5m

2

, and the overall house volume excluding the garage is

468.7m

3

. Other construction characteristics are documented in

Table 1. In order to test the model identication procedure, the

multi-zone model of the RLF methodology has been adopted.

The building properties and weather data obtained for Kuala

Lumpur city have been used for cooling load calculation. By means

of natural ventilation (the HVAC components are turned off)

applied on a building model, then the outside condition and inter-

nal gains are the only affected on the indoor condition. Based on

these conditions, all cooling loads for residential building were cal-

Table 1

Material properties of model building construction.

Component Description Factors

Roof/ceiling Flat wood frame ceiling (insulated with R-5.3 berglass)

beneath vented attic with mediumasphalt shingle roof

U=0.03118W/(m

2

K)

roof

=0.85

Exterior walls Wood frame, exterior wood sheathing, interior gypsumboard,

R-2.3 berglass insulation

U=51W/(m

2

K)

Doors Wood, solid core U=2.3W/(m

2

K)

Floor Slab on grade with heavy carpet over rubber pad; R-0.9 edge

insulation to 1mbelowgrade

Rcvr =0.21(m

2

K)/W; Fp =85W/(m

2

K)

Windows Clear double-pane glass in wood frames. Half xed, half

operable with insect screens (except living roompicture

window, which is xed). 0.6meave overhang on east and west

with eave edge at same height as top of glazing for all

windows. Allowfor typical interior shading, half closed.

Fixed: U=2.84W/(m

2

K); SHGC=0.67

Operable: U=2.87W/(m

2

K); SHGC=0.57;

Tx =0.64

IAC

cl

=0.6

Construction Good Aul =1.4cm

2

/m

2

Journal Identication = ENB Article Identication = 3159 Date: July 19, 2011 Time: 7:28pm

2052 R.Z. Homod et al. / Energy and Buildings 43 (2011) 20432054

Fig. 9. Indoor temperature variation due to outdoor temperature variation.

Fig. 10. Indoor humidity ratio variation due to outdoor humidity ratio variation.

Fig. 11. HVAC plant open loop response for indoor temperature and humidity ratio.

Fig. 12. HVAC plant open loop response for indoor temperature and relative humidity.

Journal Identication = ENB Article Identication = 3159 Date: July 19, 2011 Time: 7:28pm

R.Z. Homod et al. / Energy and Buildings 43 (2011) 20432054 2053

Fig. 13. Indoor thermodynamic properties transient response for whole building and HVAC plant.

culated every 1h for 24h by using numerical methods [29]. These

calculated cooling loads were used to nd out the indoor temper-

ature and humidity ratio. And these temperature and humidity

ratio checked against the simulation model outputs as shown in

Figs. 9and10. Fromthegures, wendthat thereis substantial con-

vergence between the calculated results and the simulation model

outputs.

The effect of HVAC plant on the indoor air temperature and

humidity can be investigated by an open loop response.

4.1. Open loop response

To incorporate the HVAC plant in the simulation of the resulting

model, both supply air and chilled water owrate for comfortable

indoor conditions must be calculatedrst. This is done by analyzing

and computing the cooling loads based on the outdoor conditions.

First, it is assumed that the outdoor temperature and humidity

ratio are 33

air, respectively. Under these conditions, the HVAC inputs are cal-

culated and fed to the model of the open loop system. These inputs

were: (1) chilled water supplied to the pre-cooling coil, 0.62kg/s,

(2) chilled water fed to the main cooling coil, 0.87kg/s, and (3) the

sumof returnair andfreshair as the total suppliedair tothe system,

607L/s.

When feeding the model with the above inputs, the indoor con-

ditions which are the output of the system are observed to settle

within the comfort zone in a nite time. The results are illustrated

in Figs. 11 and 12 where the temperature and humidity ratio are

shown in Fig. 11 while Fig. 12 shows the temperature and relative

humidity. To further understand the behavior of the system, the

psychrometric chart is used in the next section.

4.2. Psychrometric process line analyses

To illustrate and validate that the system does indeed have

a big thermal inertia as initially suggested; the psychrometric

process line analyses are used. Many HVAC processes can be rep-

resented as straight lines connecting two or three state points on

the psychrometric chart. These points show the thermodynamic

properties of moist air [30,31]. Fig. 13 shows a transient state

process of conditioned space as in Section 4.1. The dotted line

represents an ideal process of these states, while the real system

takes a different path represented by the continuous line connect-

ing state (1) to state (2). This case is related to the transients of

the states. The difference between the two cases is an evidence

that the system has a thermal inertia. The difference is increased

by increasing the thermal capacitance (big thermal inertia) of the

model.

Fig. 14. Complete HVAC cycle and transient model response.

Journal Identication = ENB Article Identication = 3159 Date: July 19, 2011 Time: 7:28pm

2054 R.Z. Homod et al. / Energy and Buildings 43 (2011) 20432054

FromFig. 13, it is obvious that the nal state condition (point 2)

is located inside comfort zone as expected where the comfort zone

is dened in [32].

4.3. Model validation

To validate the derived models, two different calculation meth-

ods were carried out using the indoor model conditions. At rst,

comparison is done between building simulation output and calcu-

lation results by numerical methods. The data results showpartial

agreement as Figs. 9 and 10. The overall systemis then tested using

the psychrometric chart, showing transient response periods. Here,

the system is compared to the calculated results of every subsys-

tem process by CLF/CLTD

c

(cooling load factor for glass/corrected

cooling load temperature difference) method [33].

The steady state psychrometric processes result for each sub-

systemare presented on the psychrometric chart of Fig. 14 where

it is showthat the two paths ended at the same point which means

that they are relatedtogether. Process lines are coloredinredtodif-

ferentiate themwith the indoor transient response colored in blue.

The process started at an initial room condition (point 1) before

ending at a steady state point (point 2). The psychrometric process

lines for moisture air behavior through the subsystem model are:

12 moist air process line through the pre-cooling coil, 23 moist

air process line through the air mixing chamber, 34 moist air pro-

cess linethroughmaincoolingcoil and45moist air process linefor

building cooling load. In the gure, points 5 and 2 are almost coin-

ciding, verifying that both model behavior and CLF/CLTD

c

(manual

cooling load calculation) are completely correlative against each

other.

5. Conclusion

This work adopted a hybrid method that uses both physical

and empirical modeling schemes to arrive at a model that can

accurately represent a building and HVAC system with its vari-

ous thermal inertia subsystems. It was shown in the paper that

the resulting hybrid model behaved in a similar fashion to the real

system. The systemdoes not contain different subsystems with dif-

ferent thermal inertia only, but many of its parts have pure lag

times, and they also have non-linear characteristics. In addition,

thermal load for such a systemis very complex due to the chaotic

or unpredictable behaviors of many of the external and internal

disturbances to the system. One of the major unpredicted distur-

bances to the system is the variation of solar radiation, which is

very hard to model correctly. For these reasons, empirical analyses

wereemployedonthoseparts of thesystem. As for theHVACequip-

ments, physical laws could be used and then linearized. The overall

model gives two coupled outputs: temperature and humidity ratio.

The obtained temperature model equation is fromthe ninth order

while the humidity model equation was fromthe eighth order. This

model with its large number of measurable variables can then be

controlled to achieve good transient and steady state responses. It

is not in the scope of this paper to performthe control design, but

it is denitely the next step of this research.

Appendix A. Supplementary data

Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in

the online version, at doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.03.023.

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