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Contribution of Mathematician in Calculus.

Calculus is the branch oI mathematics that Iocused on limits, Iunction, integral,

derivative and inIinite series. It has two major branches which are integral calculus and
diIIerential calculus which are related by the Iundamental calculus theorem. Integral calculus are
used to calculate the volume and the area but however, integral calculus does not developed into
the systematic way. There are many mathematicians that gave contribution in calculus but I have
Iocused on Sir Isaac Newton ( 1643-1727 ), the mathematician and physicist Irom England.
Sir Isaac Newton is one oI the most Iamous contributors oI calculus with among other
things. He used calculus in his law oI motion and gravitation. By depending on the works oI
Galileo Galilei, John Kepler and Rene Decartes, Isaac has invented calculus. He used the method
oI calculus to solve the problems oI planetary motion, the shape oI the surIace oI a rotating Iluid,
the oblateness oI the earth and also the motion oI a weight sliding on a cycloid. The invention
and development oI his calculus was said to be the Iirst achievement in mathematics. He
developed series oI expansion Ior Iunctions, including Iarctional and irrational powers.
In 1684, Newton begin with Principia or Mathematical Principle oI Natural Philosophy,
to help summarised his discoveries about the physical world. Newton has emphasised his three
law oI motion which are the 1
law about the inertia, the 2
law is about the Iorce oI an object is
proportional to the acceleration and the last law is the 3
law oI motion is about an action
reaction. Newton has wrote a papers concerning in calculus, curves, optics and analytical
geometry. During that time, a German mathematician, Leibniz had created work about identical
mathematical on calculus and published this results in 1684. At that time, Leibniz was known as
calculus creator and this news came to England and Newton was angry. However, both oI them
has developed calculus independently. Newton was invented integral calculus while Leibniz was
invented diIIerential calculus.
Newton`s work are more widely use an inIinitesimal calculus in geometric Iorm, based
on limiting values oI the ratios oI vanishing small quantities. In his principle, Newton gave
demonstration oI this under the name oI the method oI the Iirst and last ratios and explained why
he put his expositions in this Iorm, remarking also that hereby the same thing is perIormed as by
the method oI indivisibles.
Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem, valid Ior any
exponent. Leibniz discovered Newton's identities, Newton's method, classiIied cubic plane
curves (polynomials oI degree three in two variables), made substantial contributions to the
theory oI Iinite diIIerences, and was the Iirst to use Iractional indices and to employ coordinate
geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations He approximated partial sums oI
the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler's summation Iormula), and was the Iirst
to use power series with conIidence and to revert power series.

Mathematics For Science
SMU 3013
Pensyarah : Abdul Halim bin Amat
Tajuk : Contribution of Mathematician in Calculus ( Isaac Newton )
Nama : Azuita Binti Zoolkiflie
No. matrik : D20091035125
Semester : 3
Tarikh : 22 1ulai 2010