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derivative and inIinite series. It has two major branches which are integral calculus and

diIIerential calculus which are related by the Iundamental calculus theorem. Integral calculus are

used to calculate the volume and the area but however, integral calculus does not developed into

the systematic way. There are many mathematicians that gave contribution in calculus but I have

Iocused on Sir Isaac Newton ( 1643-1727 ), the mathematician and physicist Irom England.

Sir Isaac Newton is one oI the most Iamous contributors oI calculus with among other

things. He used calculus in his law oI motion and gravitation. By depending on the works oI

Galileo Galilei, John Kepler and Rene Decartes, Isaac has invented calculus. He used the method

oI calculus to solve the problems oI planetary motion, the shape oI the surIace oI a rotating Iluid,

the oblateness oI the earth and also the motion oI a weight sliding on a cycloid. The invention

and development oI his calculus was said to be the Iirst achievement in mathematics. He

developed series oI expansion Ior Iunctions, including Iarctional and irrational powers.

In 1684, Newton begin with Principia or Mathematical Principle oI Natural Philosophy,

to help summarised his discoveries about the physical world. Newton has emphasised his three

law oI motion which are the 1

st

law about the inertia, the 2

nd

law is about the Iorce oI an object is

proportional to the acceleration and the last law is the 3

rd

law oI motion is about an action

reaction. Newton has wrote a papers concerning in calculus, curves, optics and analytical

geometry. During that time, a German mathematician, Leibniz had created work about identical

mathematical on calculus and published this results in 1684. At that time, Leibniz was known as

calculus creator and this news came to England and Newton was angry. However, both oI them

has developed calculus independently. Newton was invented integral calculus while Leibniz was

invented diIIerential calculus.

Newton`s work are more widely use an inIinitesimal calculus in geometric Iorm, based

on limiting values oI the ratios oI vanishing small quantities. In his principle, Newton gave

demonstration oI this under the name oI the method oI the Iirst and last ratios and explained why

he put his expositions in this Iorm, remarking also that hereby the same thing is perIormed as by

the method oI indivisibles.

Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem, valid Ior any

exponent. Leibniz discovered Newton's identities, Newton's method, classiIied cubic plane

curves (polynomials oI degree three in two variables), made substantial contributions to the

theory oI Iinite diIIerences, and was the Iirst to use Iractional indices and to employ coordinate

geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations He approximated partial sums oI

the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler's summation Iormula), and was the Iirst

to use power series with conIidence and to revert power series.

Mathematics For Science

SMU 3013

Pensyarah : Abdul Halim bin Amat

Tajuk : Contribution of Mathematician in Calculus ( Isaac Newton )

Nama : Azuita Binti Zoolkiflie

No. matrik : D20091035125

Semester : 3

Tarikh : 22 1ulai 2010

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