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Lniversiti Pendidikan Sultan ldris

1anjung Halim, Perak Barul Rizuan.

Cuurse :
Environmental Science
SSV 3013
1ittle :
Basic Teaching Aids.
Solar Energy.
Lecturer :
Dr.Norjan bt YusoI
Hembers :
Bil. Name Matric Number
1. Azuita bt ZoolkiIlie D20091035125
2. Fadilah bt Mahmud D20091035094

.0 Learning Outcomes
At the end oI this topic, students should be able to :
i. DeIine what is energy.
ii. DeIine what is solar energy.
iii. Understand the characteristics oI energy.
iv. Know the application oI solar energy.
v. Comparing the advantages and disadvantages oI using solar energy.

.0 Introduction
Energy is an ability to do works. Solar energy is an alternative energy source that involves
harnessing the radiant light energy emitted by the sun and converting it into other Iorms. Energy
cannot be created or destroyed and this is the principles oI conservation oI energy. However,
energy can be transIormed into another Iorms such as thermal energy, electrical energy and also
kinetic energy. Solar energy is an example oI renewable energy which cannot be Iinished and it
is naturally replenished.
Energy comes in a variety Iorms :
i. Electricity
ii. Biomass Energy - energy Irom plants
iii. Geothermal Energy
iv. Fossil Fuels - Coal, Oil and Natural Gas
v. Hydro Power and Ocean Energy
vi. Nuclear Energy
vii. Solar Energy
viii. Wind Energy
ix. Transportation Energy
Solar energy is in a Iorm oI radiation at which the emission oI energy Irom sulight in the Iorm oI
electromagnetic waves and photons. On Earth, there are Iundamentally only three ways in which
energy can be transIerred Irom one place to another ; conduction, convection and radiation.
Conduction involves the adjacent transIer oI heat energy Irom one atom to another through the
mass oI a gas, liquid, or solid. Condution results in the continuous Ilow oI heat energy along a
temperature gradient Irom areas oI higher to lower temperature. Convection involves the transIer
oI heat energy by way oI mass movements oI a substance in gas or liquid Iorm in a vertical
direction. Convection is oIten seen as rising masses oI gas or liquid called convection currents. It
is important to note that energy transIer by way oI conduction and convection depends on the
presence oI matter. These Iorms oI energy transIer do not operate in the vacuum oI space.
Radiation is the only means oI energy transIer that can occur across outer space. The transIer oI
radiation produced at the Sun's surIace through space supplies the Earth with most oI its energy.
There are so many application oI solar energy Ior examples the solar oven and photovoltaic cell.
Solar oven is a device Solar oven or thermal oven is a device which use solar as a main energy
source to cook/heat something. Solar oven works by Iollows greenhouse eIIects principle. There
are three process that involves in the solar oven ; heat gain, heat loss and heat trap. Besides, the
application oI solar is the photovoltaic cell which uses solar energy to drive the electricity.
It is beneIicial to use solar energy as the main source because it is environmental Iriendly and no
Iuel is needed. Besides, it needs less cost and simpler compared to the real oven. However, it has
some disadvantages as it is limited only during the sunny days. Besides, we have to spend a
longer time to cook Ioods using a solar oven.

Activities :
ctivity GreatIul Energy` Ilash cards.
Objective i. Student will able to understand the term
oI energy.
ii. Students will give the examples oI Iorm
oI energy.
%ools and materials A piece oI Ilash cards
Period 1 hour
Procedure i. Get students in pair.
ii. Each group will be provided with set oI
Ilash cards which contained key term
and pictures.
iii. Students needs to discuss in their group
to match the cards with correct terms
and pictures.
iv. Students must match the terms with the
correct pictures.
v. Teachers will evaluate how many terms
are corrected match. Marks will be
given to each oI the students.

ctivity Build a homemade` model oI solar oven and
experiment on tomatoes.
Objective i. Students should know the application
oI solar energy.
ii. Students will able to understand the
transIormation oI energy.
%ools and materials Polystyrene
Aluminium Ioil
Black paper
Period 3 days
Procedure i. Each students will be provided with the
materials stated.
ii. They must build a model that are
related to the transIormation oI solar
energy into thermal energy.
iii. Each student will come out with
diIIerent sizes oI model. They must
compared and determine which sizes oI
modules are the best.
iv. Next, they must measured the
temperature inside the box oI a model
that they used.
v. The model must be placed under the
sun Ior a Iew days to trap the heat.
vi. The important things is, students must
be able to explain each uses and
Iunction oI each materials. For
example, the Iunction oI aluminium Ioil
is to reIlect the energy that lies on it.
vii. AIter the students trap the heat, the heat
are ready to be used to heat somethings.
The students will be given tomatoes
and the tomatoes will be put in the box
that already be heated. Students will
see the changes on the tomatoes and
understand how the solar oven works.

ctivity 3 Study case.
Objective i. Students should be able to identiIy the
advantages and disadvantages oI using
the solar energy.
%ools and materials "uestionnaire
Period 2 days
Procedure i. Students Iorm a group oI 5.
ii. The qustionnaire will be distributed to
each group.
iii. Students reads the instruction and they
have to Iind a solution Ior the question.
iv. Students must Iind the inIormation
through the internet, books and other
v. For the next day, the have to present
about what they are have done.

ctivity :
Instruction : Match the Iollowing pictures in a correct terms.



ctivity :
%itle : Build a Homemade` model.
Objective : To understand the transIormation oI energy.
Materials : Polystyrene
Aluminium Ioil
Black paper
Procedure :

i. Build a model as shown below :

lack aer
4luminium Fuil

ii. Next, placing it under the sunlight.

iii. Particles inside box is gain energy Irom sunlight and moves randomly with high energy.

iv. Students needs to measure the temperature oI the box by using thermometer Ior each two
hours. Record the data.

Light rays hit the
aluminium fuil in
the bux.
Bu yuu knuw2
O Sular energy is transfurmed tu thermal energy.
O 1hermumeter can unly measure in the furm uf heat. Su, we can see here the
sular energy is change tu thermal energy.
%itle : Experiment on tomatoes.
Objective : Determine how thermal energy works.
Materials : Thermal Oven
Procedure :
i. Put the tomatoes in the thermal oven and place under the sunlight Ior three days.

ii. AIter Iew days, the dried tomatoes will be like this :

ctivity 3 : Please help Pak Mat.

Materials : Mahjong Paper
Marker pen
Procedure :
i. Student are given a study case question about Pak Mat as Iollows :

ii. AIter analysing the case study, students must collect inIormation through the internet,
books and other sources.
iii. Then, students must present all oI the inIormation collected on the mahjong paper in Iront
oI the class.

3.0 Conclusion
In a conclusion, through this basic teaching aids, student can be able to understand what is
energy and the transIormation oI energy to another Iorms. Then, student can carry out the
experiments that use the concept oI thermal and can list out the beneIits oI using this methods.
Basic teaching aids can help student to understand more about the topic that have to be
discussed. Lastly, student will enjoy and more atracted to learn more!

Pak Mat needs to pay high cost oI electricity bill each month Ior their home. He uses the
electricity Ior cooking, washing, cleaning and others. He Ieels burden to pay it each month
because he has low month oI salary. As a science student you need to Iind out other
alternative source oI energy to reduce the usage oI electricity. You must consider the
advantages and disadvantages oI using that energy. Choose the best one and present it to
the class. Please help Pak Mat!