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Title : Natural Pesticides. Objective : i. ii. iii. To examine the nutrition contained in the fruits seed.

To create a new product based on the seed of fruit. To differentiate the benefits of seeds from the same texture, size and colour.

Introduction : A seed is a small embryonic enclosed in a covering called the seed coat, usually with some stored food. It is the product of the ripened ovule of gymnosperms and angiosperm plants which occurs after fertilization and some growth within the mother plant. In this project, we have choose 3 types of fruits seed which are seed of soursop, nona and ciku. We are using three types of seeds which are ciku sp, Annona Squamosa, and Annona Muricata. As we can seen, the size and texture of the seed is same and we need to know the major conent that contained in the seeds. For Annona Squamosa L. (sugar-apple), the fruits contain about 20 to 38 seeds per fruit. All of the seed contain alkaloide and annonaine. Alkaloide is very poisonous and does not good for our human health. If pregnant woman eat the seed of this fruit, it will experience abortion. From this type of seed, we can produce a products which is suitable for kill insect or other harmful creatures. Firstly, we want to come out with product that can be eaten. However, since this seed is poisonous, we come out with product that are benefits to farmer to protect their crop from the harmful insects. By using natural pesticide, it will cause the insect to die and does not cause too much pollution as the usage of pesticide will cause air pollution due to its chemical substances release. Materials : i. ii. iii. iv. Ciku, Annona Squamosa, and Annona Muricatas seed. 0.1M hydrochloric acid (HCl) Methanol Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)

Apparatus : i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Stone Beaker Measuring cylinder Dry blender Spraying bottles Filter Parafilm

Method : i. ii. Firstly, the seed of the fruit was collected and dry it under the sunlight for a few days. Next, we have to identify the major nutrients contained in the seeds that are beneficial in order to make a products. List out the nutrients contained. iii. iv. After the seed has dried out, we have to make it become into a fine particles. Therefore, chop it up as fine as possible. We are using a hard stone and crash the seed until it become slightly powdery. v. Next, blender the chopped seed. Let it dry. Dry it in low heat oven. By heating the powder at the 100 degree will cause the good compound in the seed will be destroy. vi. vii. Once it is finely become powdered, put in a big container and cover it with methanol. The, add a few drops of 0.1M hydrochloric acid (HCl) into the solution. Next, add a few drop of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the solution. viii. Then, filtered it and the filtered solution are ready to put in the spraying flask. The alkaloide are finely extracted and ready to be used as a pesticides. ix. x. The pesticides are spray to the ants to test it. Repeat the experiment with the different seed which are ciku and Annona Muricata.

The fuits that we used : i. Annona Squamosa

ii.

Annona Muricata

iii.

Ciku sp.

Observation : Observation 1 : Type of seeds that use in pesticides Annona Squamosa Annona Muricata Ciku sp. The condition of ants after few seconds Died Died Died

Observation 2 : Type of seeds that use in pesticides Annona Squamosa Annona Muricata Ciku sp. The time taken for the ants to die 6 seconds 10 seconds 3 seconds

Result : Type of seeds that use in pesticides Annona Squamosa Annona Muricata Ciku sp. The best and pesticide

The three pesticides from three different seeds :

Discussion : In this projects, our group have created the three different natural pesticides made from three types of fruits seed which are ciku sp., Annona Squamosa and Annona Muricata. The main purpose we use the three types of seeds because it contained high amount of alkaloid which usually harmful to the insects. Alkaloid containing one or more nitrogen atoms. This nitrogen basi is capable of combining with acids to form crystalline salts. Most alkaloids are derived from amino acids while a few are derived from isoprene units. Alkaloids are white and colourless solid inside the the seed that contain oxygen (oxygen free alkaloid and far between and then can only exist as liquids).

Alkaloid ( white colour)

Alkaloids generally have profound physiological impact on the human body and nervous system effect are predominant. In other words, alkaloid have effects on our physiology body system. Most alkaloid are used as as extracted and refined compounds derived from the actual plants or synthesised compounds in pharmaceutical drugs. To extract alkaloid, we used methanol substance. This is due to the suitable characteristics that belongs to the methanol which are high volatility, low boiling point and acts as a good solvent. As we spray the pesticicdes onto the plant, the methanol will easily evaporated due to its high volatility. Other than methanol substances, we also use the dilute hydrochloric acid (HCL) and sodium hydroxide as one of the mixture in our pesticides. HCL and NaOH is used because the product is NaCl (salt), which is of no consequence if it contaminates anything. HCl that be used must be not weaker than 0.1M and the pH must be from the range of 0-2. After soaked the acid with methanol, that is the first step for extraction of alkaloid. Then, we add a few drops of HCl and NaOH, this the last alkaloid extraction.

Extracted alkaloid.

Alkaloid residue

After we completely created our natural pesticides, we tested all the three type of that product to the three different ants. The purpose by doing this activity is to differentiate which one of the our pesticides is the best and effective to kill the insects. We take 3 same species of ant and we spray the pesticides on its body. Let them for a few seconds and take the time for the ants to die. The ants that sprayed with cikus pesticides will gives high impacts to the ants and the ants will die fro a short period which is only 3 seconds compared to another types of pesticides. Cikus seed is larger in size compared to another and therefore, it contain high amount of alkaloid. This is same with Annona Squamosa which has higher amount of alkaloid. In this production of pesticides, we use a little amount of Annona Muricatas seed. Therefore, it only a little effect on the ants. Conclusion In a conclusion, our natural pesticides can have high commercial value because it is natural and environmental friendly because it is made up from seed of fruit. Besides, it will not give effects to others especially plants because the contained salt. Moreover, the ants will die in a short period of time and the sprayed solution does not give a effects because it has methanol which high volatility. Pesticides that made up from ciku give have high effeciency compared to others because it has high amount of alkaloid.

References L. Reti Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1951, p 1767 http://www.lycaeum.org/~sputnik/Extraction/extract1.html http://nepenthes.lycaeum.org/ http://beneforce.com/Constituent/Constituent-pages/isoquinoline-alkaloids.htm

Course : FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION SBK 3023 Report : SEED ANALYSING-NATURAL PESTICIDE Lecturer : DR HASIMAH ALIMON Members :
NAME AZUITA BINTI ZOOLKIFLIE ROSNITAH BINTI YAACOB SITI NOR AMIRA BINTI MOHMAD NOOR MATRIC NO D20091035125 SEMESTER 4 COURSE SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION

D20091035118

D20091035073

HACCP in food industries. Name : Siti Nor Amira bt Mohmad Noor iD : D20091035073

When we produce a product, we must consider about the food safety and security before the product can be commercialize. In order to produce a safety product, we must follows 7 principles in the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP). This analysis must include the biological, chemical and physical hazard are the prevention methods before the finished product undergoes some inspection. (HACCP) is used to identify potential safety hazard, so it can eliminate the risk of the hazards. Firstly, we are planning to produce natural pesticide by using seed of chosen fruits. For the first principle we apply is conduct a hazard analysis, we search and read about the nutrition that contain in the seed of nona, soursop and ciku. The common substance that are found in the three types of seed is alkaloid. Alkaloid is a substance that composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and usually oxygen that derived from plants and fruits. It can be used as a medical usage but sometimes it can be harmful to human and also insect if the amount of alkaloid is higher than the suggested amount.these types of seed have high potential to kill insects especially ants, aphids and others and therefore it can be commercialize, because this product is safety to use and suitable for human consumption. Through principle 2, we must identify critical control point which is a point or method that we used to produce pesticides, we used traditional method during the production of this product. This applied method are very useful because it is safe, simple and easy. However, there are another type of method by using soxhlets and it is pure compared to traditional method. For the principle 3, we must establish critical limits for each critical control point such as we used small amount of methanol because methanol has only one carbon. So it can reduce the amount of carbon release to the environment. Besides, methanol has high volatily and does not give effects on the surface when we are spraying the pesticides due to the high evaporation rate. For principle 4, we must establish critical control point monitoring requirement such as we used HCl and NaOH as our side substance in the pesticide. After the HCl and NaOH is mixed

up, it will produce salt which does not contaminate things. Remember, we must monitor the method that we used. For the principle 5 we also must established correction action, for example, the final step or method that we used it is we filter the mixture of seed, methanol and HCl several times so that the alkaloid residue in the seed does not left in the pesticides because it is high toxicity and therfore it does not irritate others. After that, we apply the principle 6 to establish record keeping procedures we collect all data that related to our product. We also must record and documenting the benefit of our product and how to handle it through used correct way. For the last principle, we must established procedures for ensuring HACCP system that valid to used. Our product is successful to ensuring the product is a safe product. Our product is safe to be used and environmental friendly. Besides, it is easy to produce and sometime can be made at home. Therefore, our product is following the HACCP methods and it can be commercialize.

HACCP in food industries. Name : Azuita bt Zoolkiflie Id : D20091035125

HACCP is stand for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point and it is one of the systematic preventive approach that major on food safety or pharmaceutical products safety that includes the physical, chemical and biological. HACCP always been applied to food processing but here, we are focusing on the production of herbal pesticides. Not only in food production, but pesticides also can apply the HACCP procedures in order to ensure the safety product production as pesticide will used onto the crops and plantation. We have to ensure the safety of the product as it will not harmful to our skin and to crops and plants. For the step is the first principle which we have to identify the potential hazards materials during the process of the products. Pesticides that we are going to produce is made up from a seed of annona squamosas fruit and we have to extract the alkaloid contained in the seed. The potential hazard material such as microbes will be eliminated by doing the process in a sterile condition. During the production of this pesticides, we chopped the pesticides by using stones, so, the chopped seed will be contaminated with dust and microbes. We chopped the seed of the fruits by using hard stones, so the probability of the bacteria, soil and microbes to contaminate is higher. By using the second principle, we have to identify the best procedure in order to get rid of the hazardous things that contaminated our products. In this process, we have blending out the chopped seed and dry it under the sunlight for a few hours so that there will be no microbes in dry condition. Then, the beaker that we used to keep the dry seed is clean and sterile with acetone or ethanol. Besides, when we mixed up the fine seed powder and the solvent, make sure the measurement of the sol ent is correct. The mixed up of the HCl and the NaOH will formed NaCl (Salt) which are not harmful to the plants and also human. The next principle is the established of the critical limit to which all the physical, chemical and biological hazards can be eliminated, get rid of and prevent to an postive level. In this production of pesticide, the seed of the fruits must be filtered severely to filter all the dust

and particles that are in the seeds. Then, we soaked them in the methanol for a few days to get the real and pure alkaloid. The alkaloid is harmful to pesticides because it contained toxic and can kill the insects or others creatures. As I said earlier, the process must be keep on eye to control the safety procedure. The HCl and the NaOH must be mixed up togeteher at the accurate amount so that it cannot be neither too acidic nor too alkaline. This may reduce the harmness of the product. For the principle 5 we also must established correction action, for example, the final step or method that we used it is we filter the mixture of seed, methanol and HCl several times so that the alkaloid residue in the seed does not left in the pesticides because it is high toxicity and therefore it does not irritate others. After that, we apply the principle 6 to establish record keeping procedures we collect all data that related to our product. We also must record and documenting the benefit of our product and how to handle it through used correct way. For the last principle, we must established procedures for ensuring HACCP system that valid to used. Our product is successful to ensuring the product is a safe product. Our product is safe to be used and environmental friendly. Besides, it is easy to produce and sometime can be made at home. Therefore, our product is following the HACCP methods and it can be commercialize.